WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian cnen

  1. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  2. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  3. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  4. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous

  5. Management report 2007 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2007 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2007, involving the CNEN role in the public policy execution, the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  6. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  7. Management report 2004 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2004 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2004, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  8. Management report 2006 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2006 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  9. Management report 2005 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2005 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    This document reports the results of the activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2005, involving the Brazilian program of nuclear activities in the areas of nuclear safety, research and development, radiopharmaceutical production, institutional management, teaching, administration in general and miscellaneous.

  10. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous

  11. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Management report 2003 CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Relatorio de gestao 2003 CNEN - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    This document reports the general activity management of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN - Brazil during the year of 2003, involving the government programs in the areas of nuclear safety, medicine application, technological development, administration and miscellaneous.

  13. Proceedings of the 2. SIPEN: Integration week from IPEN - Brazilian Institute for Energy and Nuclear Researches, CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical-scientific activities of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), Brazilian CNEN, has been presented in these proceedings. It includes the following topics: management and logistics, infra-structure and support, application of nuclear techniques, fuel cycle, materials, reactor research, development of products and services, radiation protection and monitoring. Nuclear medicine and application of radiation in biological assays are studied. Environmental impacts and management of radioactive wastes are also presented

  14. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Guimaraes, Regia Ruth Ramirez; Perry, Katia da Silva Peixoto, E-mail: pereira@cdtn.br, E-mail: rrrg@cdtn.br, E-mail: kspp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teruya, Dirceu Yoshikazu, E-mail: teruya@inpi.gov.br [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  15. Portfolio of patents after the Brazilian Innovation Act: the case of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN (Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of technological development is due to the need to promote a solution to a particular problem of agents, compete with products and/or processes on the international market and to promote scientific advancement. Thus, the patent system is a repository of knowledge for protection, for promotion of diffusion through licensing agreements and an indicator of technological development. In 2004, the Brazilian Government enacted the Brazilian Innovation Act and the mechanisms were improved for cooperation between firms and public education, science and technology organisations and also promoted the commercialisation of technology produced by public education, science and technology organisations and the mandatory establishment of Technology Transfer Offices. The Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is a federal agency responsible for basic and applied research in the field of nuclear technology and has used the patent system since the 1980s to protect its knowledge. With the advent of the Innovation Act in 2004, there was a significant boost in requests for patents in CNEN which also established an internal set of normative acts and created a System of Innovation Management and Technology Innovation Offices in its research institutes to support management and dissemination of knowledge. The aim of this case study is to present the profile of the requests for patents by CNEN before and after the enactment of the Brazilian Innovation Act covering the period of time between 1980 and 2010. (author)

  16. Review of Brazilian activities related to the thorium fuel cycle and production of thorium compounds at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian's interest in the nuclear utilization of thorium has started in the 50's as a consequence of the abundant occurrence of monazite sands. Since the sixties, IPEN-CNEN/SP has performed some developments related to the thorium fuel cycle. The production and purification of thorium compounds was carried out at IPEN for about 18 years and the main product was the thorium nitrate with high purity, having been produced over 170 metric tons of this material in the period, obtained through solvent extraction. The thorium nitrate was supplied to the domestic industry and used for gas portable lamps (Welsbach mantle). Although the thorium compounds produced have not been employed in the nuclear area, several studies were conducted. Therefore, those activities and the accumulated experience are of strategic importance, on one hand due to huge Brazilian thorium reserves, on the other hand by the resurgence of the interest of thorium for the Generation IV Advanced Reactors. This paper presents a review of the Brazilian research and development activities related to thorium technology. (author)

  17. Considerations about the impact of the Convention on Nuclear Safety on the regulatory action of the CNEN in Brazilian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary discussion is conducted about the impact of the terms of the Convention on Nuclear safety, adopted by Diplomatic Conference in September 1994 in the International Atomic Energy Agency, on the regulatory action of Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Body - CNEN. Following the Convention articles structure, the paper emphasizes technical aspects of the nuclear safety standards adopted in the licensing process of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. The recent experience in the issuance of Angra-1 NPP Permanent Operation Authorization is used to demonstrate that current safety standards in Brazil are in compliance with the international compromises and in agreement with what is expected by the so called Safety Culture. (author). 9 refs

  18. Brazilian Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN-RJ): Report 2000-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and has eight chapters: 1) history; 2) main designations and attributions; 3) metrology and assays; 4) conformity evaluation; 5) assistance to radiological and nuclear emergencies; 6) capacity and training; 7) infrastructure of information technology and 8) operational indicators

  19. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN; Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of radiological safety in industrial gammagraphy services during the construction of Bolivia-Brazil gas transmission lines (GASBOL), by regulatory inspections from brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief description of the Brazilian Regulatory Authority's (National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN) action about safety control on industrial radioactive installations. It shows some specific radiation safety inspections that were done during the construction of the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Transmission Line (GASBOL). In this GASBOL work, it was used industrial radiography sources for weld quality control. During two years were done thirty regulatory safety inspections in these movable installations that use gamma radiography devices. As final result, it was noticed that the national system of inspection to control the safe use of radioactive sources in industrial activities is really efficient because none overexposure was detect and every CNEN's recommendations were applied by the operators. Some result about the gamma devices and violations are also showed. (author)

  1. Neutron spectrum survey around the cyclotron of IEN/Brazilian CNEN: calibration of neutron personnel dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The albedo neutron dosimeter is calibrated directly at the work place due to its high energy dependence. This thesis deals with the study, analysis and application of neutron measurement techniques in order to obtain information about the neutron spectrum and neutron dose equivalent at several representative working places of the cyclotron laboratory of the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN). These data are employed mainly in the calibration of the brazilian albedo neutron dosimeter. Bonner spheres and foil activation were used in neutron spectra measurements and the neutron dose equivalents were measured with the single sphere albedo technique. BF3 and 3He proportional detectors and 6LiI scintillation detector were also used in these measurements. The single sphere technique turned out to be more appropriate for neutron dosimetry for calibrating the albedo dosimeter in the varying fields of the cyclotron. Calibration the albedo dosimeter in the varying fields of the cyclotron. Calibration factors were found for routine applications, when the workers are protected by shielding and for radiological accident applications, in the case that a worker is exposed inside the cyclotron room. In all situations the performance of the brazilian albedo dosimeter is compared with that of the german albedo dosimeters. (author)

  2. I.R.D. annual report - 1988. Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the activities developed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry -IRD/CNEN-Brazil, in the year of 1988. It is composed by the individual reports of its several divisions, describing the main activities and personnel: DEPRO - Occupational and Radiological Protection Dept.; DEPRA - Environmental and Radiological Protection Dept.; DEMET - Metrology Dept.; DEPAT - Technical Support Dept.; DETAC - Scientific Support and Training Dept.; DEPAD -Administrative Support Dept. (J.A.M.M.)

  3. The neutron tomography facility of IPEN-CNEN/SP and its potential to investigate ceramic objects from the Brazilian cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron tomography (NT) facility was installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP. According to the determined operational characteristics, the time spent to obtain a complete tomography is 4000 s at a neutron flux of 1×106 n cm−2 s−1 and the best achievable spatial resolution in the image is 347 μm. The main objectives of this paper are to describe the facility as well as to demonstrate its potential to investigate ceramic objects from the Brazilian cultural heritage left by Indians. - Highlights: ► A neutron tomography facility was installed at a 5 MW nuclear research reactor. ► Tomography is obtained in 4000 s with a spatial resolution of 347 μm. ► A restored ceramic object was imaged and cracks and discontinuities could be seen. ► The facility will be employed to study objects left by the Brazilian Indians

  4. The implementation of CP1 computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer in Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of the CP1 computer code in the Honeywell Bull computer in Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission is presented. CP1 is a computer code used to solve the equations of punctual kinetic with Doppler feed back from the system temperature variation based on the Newton refrigeration equation (E.G.)

  5. Personnel dosimetry of extremities by using Harshaw rings XD-100 at Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN, Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data concerning calibration and type tests of an extremity system based on XD100 rings (Harshaw) are presented. Dosemeter used is a thermoluminescent chip inserted in a sealed pouch and was read out using a Harshaw 6600 reader. The dosimetric system complied with all ISO/DIS 12794-1 draft report suggested tests, in which this work was based on. This work obtained results point to the applicability of those recommendations to Brazilian institutes and suggest its adoption by the national regulatory commission. (author)

  6. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  7. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN); Um modelo de monitoramento ambiental (environmental scanning) orientado para o planejamento estrategico da CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    1997-07-01

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  8. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.)

  9. Control and instrumentation area at CNEN: perspective and actual period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Atomic Energy Commission (CNEN) has recently inaugurated it's new Instrumentation and Control Laboratory, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, and with this event gave an important step towards the development of know-how in this area. This paper makes an historic review of the situation in Brazil, describes actual and planned projects, and discuss the transference of this technology to the Brazilian Industry. (Author)

  10. Implementation of the automated potentiometric titration method for total U at the CNEN Safeguard Laboratory, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian nuclear facilities, in accordance with the regulation CNEN-NN-2.02, must have available measurement systems which allow to determine their nuclear material inventories. For the evaluation and the follow up the performance of the involved laboratories in those measurement systems, the accomplishment of interlaboratory comparison programmes becomes fundamental. Therefore, the implementation of the potentiometric titration viewing the characterization of uranium samples, represents an reference element for the Brazilian programs

  11. Thermal reactor safety CNEN research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of CNEN (National Committee for Nuclear Energy, Italy) programs in the field of thermal reactor safety research is given. The ASCOT program (research program on safety aspects of thermal reactor cores) is briefly described. ASCOT is a program aiming at studying fuel behavior under accident conditions; it is mainly focused on development and experimental testing of analytical models and computer codes relevant to thermohydraulic and mechanical behavior of fuel under transient conditions. The program, fully financed by CNEN, is carried out in CNEN laboratories, in CISE laboratories (particularly for thermohydraulic experiments) and in JRC Ispra Centre (in pile experiments, by ESSOR reactor). Other CNEN research programs in the field of water reactor safety are also described; they concern thermohydraulics and mechanics problems (model development and experimental tests on pressure suppression, ECCS, etc.) and are performed both in CNEN laboratories and in other Italian organizations, under CNEN sponsorship. A short description of some facilities used for ASCOT and other CNEN programs is given: SARA loop (a loop of ESSOR reactor, basically conceived for safety tests, including operation with failed fuel rods); CIRCE and IETI loops (CISE, large-scale facilities for thermohydraulic experiments on blow-down, ECCS, etc.); ADI (a CNEN, large-scale loop where pressure suppression experiments are performed), and so on. Finally, the report describes interesting safety researches on various types of reactors: researches on external events (seismology, etc.), radioactive effluent control (e.g., filtration, effects to environment); these researches also are carried out directly in CNEN laboratories or in other Italian organizations, under CNEN sponsorship. Information is given on a national seismological network and on other installations for these experimental researches

  12. Implementation of the automated potentiometric titration method for total U at the CNEN Safeguard Laboratory, Brazil; Implementacao do metodo de titulacao potenciometrica automatizado para U total no Laboratorio de Salvaguardas da CNEN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, Barbara F.G.; Delgado, Jose U.; Araujo, Radier M.S. de; Silva, Jose W.S. da; Barros, Pedro D. de, E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazilian nuclear facilities, in accordance with the regulation CNEN-NN-2.02, must have available measurement systems which allow to determine their nuclear material inventories. For the evaluation and the follow up the performance of the involved laboratories in those measurement systems, the accomplishment of interlaboratory comparison programmes becomes fundamental. Therefore, the implementation of the potentiometric titration viewing the characterization of uranium samples, represents an reference element for the Brazilian programs

  13. Replacing nuclear staff: The proactive work at IPEN/CNEN-SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to bring out the actual situation of Nuclear Education and Training in Brazil. Accordingly, this paper overviews the situation of educational matters in Latin America, especially in Brazil, in terms of efficiency and effectiveness of its superior education system. Mainly, this paper points out the replacing of nuclear staff and the proactive work of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). (author)

  14. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type ...

  15. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  16. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  17. Evaluation of the dosimetric pens calibration performed at the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, IRD/CNEN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article compares the behavior of measurements performed by using dosimetric pens from different models and manufacturers, submitted to calibration at the Metrology Brazilian National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiations, IRD/CNEN, during the period of 2000-2002. The considered parameters were the accuracy, the response linearity and the measurement uncertainty evaluated. The results demonstrate that among the analysed models there are behaviour variations

  18. The implementation and application of the WASP-III at CNEN/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main dificulties faced in the implementation of the WASP-III on the Honeywell Bull DPS 6/64 computer at CNEN, are discribed. After the implementation, tests making use of input data provided by International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA were performed and comparative results from accomplishment peiods of time are presented with the basic characteristics of the computer employed and the modifications carried out to adapt the programm. The WASP-III was applied to middle-sized electric system based upon the Brazilian North/Northeast System. (Author)

  19. The protection and the preservation of the environment the Brazilian nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of Brazilian rules governing the protection and the preservation of the environment in relation to nuclear activities is presented. The role of CNEN, as an institution that defends the environment is also mentioned. (A.L.)

  20. Implementation of the CNEN's safeguards laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Safeguards Agreements between Brazil and others countries has been concluded with the participation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA), and involve the Physical Protection and Control of Nuclear Material activities, which set up the National Safeguards System. The Safeguards Laboratory was constructed to the implementation and maintenance of this National Safeguards System, under responsability of CNEN's Safeguards Division, in order to carry out measurements of nuclear materials under safeguards. Technical requirements applied to the construction, setting up and operation of the laboratory are showed. The first results refer to the implementation of safeguards methods and techniques, as well as its participation within international scientific and technical co-operation programs in the safeguards area, through of them we wait its credencement by the AIEA as Regional Safeguards Laboratory for every countries of the Latin America. (Author)

  1. Investigation of radiological emergencies by the IPEN-CNEN/SP during the years 2001 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission maintain, in each of its unities, a technical team for investigation and initial response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations which can occur outside of its installations. At the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, that task is accomplished by the Radioprotection Management (GRP) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil. This paper shows the results obtained by the GRP, analysing which entities action the system, the nature of the event, the involved type of radiation source and the geographical distribution of occurrences in the state. During the period between 2001 and 2010, the GRP attended to 98 notifications, and the entity which the most action the system was the Fire Department. The radionuclide of most incidence was the Am-241, mainly because of radioactive lightning-arrester, followed of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine such as Mo-99/Tc-99m and I-131

  2. Implementation of the Service for Radiological Emergency Response of CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE, Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, it was created in the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE) - the Brazilian regional center of nuclear sciences -, Recife, PE, Brazil, the Service for Radiological Emergency Response with the objective of providing the population of Pernambuco and neighboring States a team of professionals specialized in emergency situations and radiological protection. This action has the purpose of decentralization of actions of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), an agency responsible for licensing and safety of radioactive sources in Brazil. With this study we can conclude that the settlement of SAER/CRCN came to meet initial expectations, having in the last years provided assistance in situations with suspected radioactive material and participated actively: with radioactive load simulation; of the Exercicio de Emergencia Aeronautica Completo (EXEAC) - an emergency simulated training in airports- from the Guararapes-Gilberto Freire Airport; trained, every two years, the services of emergency for accidents and participated in events of the area

  3. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations; Atualizacao das normas nucleares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia; Soares, Abner Duarte; Nogueira, Tindyua de Moraes; Monteiro, Iara Arraes; Pitta, Maria Adelia Rocha; Bruno, Natanael Carvalho; Pereira, Enneite Souza; Pinto, Marvio dos S.; Lidington, Regina Marcia Rocha; Rocha, Marco Aurelio Toledo, E-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: tnogueira@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: iara@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mpitta@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: nbruno@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: espereira@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: marvio@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: , E-mail: rmliding@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mtoledo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Normas

    2011-10-26

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  4. Technology for manufacturing dispersion nuclear fuel at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN/CNEN-SP has been working for increasing radioisotope production in order to supply the expanding demand for radiopharmaceutical medicines requested by the Brazilian welfare. To reach this objective, the IPEN's IEA-R1 research reactor power capacity has been continuously increased starting from 2 MW aiming to reach 5 MW. In addition, another research reactor with power substantially greater than that of the IEA-R1 will be constructed in Brazil, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. Since 1988, IPEN has been manufacturing its own fuel element, initially based on U3O8-Al dispersion fuel plates with 2.3 g U/cm3. To support the reactor power increase and the new research reactor, higher uranium density into the fuel had to be achieved for better irradiation flux and also to minimize the irradiated fuel elements to be stored. Uranium silicide was the first chosen option. The U-Mo alloy is considered for future use. This paper describes the results of this program and the current status of silicide fuel fabrication and qualification, as well as the status of U Mo-Al dispersion fuel development. (author)

  5. The new IPEN-CNEN/SP neutron powder diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new IPEN-CNEN/SP neutron powder diffractometer is under construction at the 2 MW thermal IEA-R1m research reactor. It is an upgrading of the old IPEN-CNEN/SP multipurpose neutron diffractometer. The main modifications introduced in the old instrument are listed. The position sensitive detector (PSD) is formed by eleven linear PSD elements, clamped together at each end to form a rigid plane. Twenty two preamplifiers, two for each counter, complete the detector. A linear PSD element is a proportional counter manufactured by Reuter-Stokes Inc. The detector is inside a shield supported by two arms fixed in a large 29 in. dia. rotary table. The table provides the instrument with the 2θ angular movement. A smaller rotary table, placed underneath and concentric with the larger one, provides the ω(θ) movement. Both tables are driven by a computer controlled geared mechanism. The computer also makes the data acquisition. The assembly formed by rotary tables and mechanism is the same that had been used in the old diffractometer. A rotating oscillating collimator (ROC), placed at the entrance to the detector shield, eliminates parasitic scattering from furnace or cryorefrigerator heat shields in the vicinity of the sample, while only reducing the scattered intensity by ca. 10%. The collimator also makes the PSD less sensitive to ambient background leaking in through the shielding entrance. Placed at a distance of 1600 mm from sample, the PSD spans an angular range of 20 deg. of a diffraction pattern at once. Depending on the desired extension for the experimental pattern, a complete pattern can be obtained by a 2θ angular scanning performed with only a few steps (maximum 2θ range ca. 110 deg.). In order to increase the neutron beam flux at the sample position, both open collimators (without plates) and a focusing Si monochromator will be installed in the instrument. At 84 deg. take-off angle the following reflections/wavelengths (A) can be attained using such

  6. Safeguard system of IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history, requirements, organization, and operation of the State System of Accounting and Control from the institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) are described. The implementation system at the institution take into consideration the national and international safeguards requirements. It has started by the nuclear material (U, Pu and Th) physical inventory taking, including their provenance and transformation. The earlier computerized accounting system used for control has been replaced by a new one developed by the National Authority (CNEN/SESAL). The optimized system has more flexibility, giving a more effective answer to any occurred change on Material Balance Area. The actual system make use of an effective methodology. (author)

  7. CNEN, IAEA and ISO normative requirements for measurement management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International standard ISO 10012:2003 establishes requirements for measurement management systems, including requirements for measurement processes and measuring equipment. ISO 9001:2008 presents requirements for quality management systems, including requirements for the control of monitoring and measuring equipment. ISO 17025:2005 presents general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. In the nuclear field the requirements for measurement management are established by standards published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and in Brazil, by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The present paper presents and discusses the normative requirements for measurement management, considering requirements established by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). (author)

  8. Review of CNEN activities in the field of sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems related to sodium fires have received increased attention at CNEN in recent years. Sodium fires have been reported in several countries with a rate that is. relatively high if compared to the number of plants in operation. The consequences of fires have been usually quite limited but it appears that more adequate precautions could often be applied to minimize risk of more serious consequences. Many alternatives exist for fire prevention and for fire extinction, but the fact that many alternatives have not been sufficiently tested make choices rather difficult. CNEN has been facing the problem of sodium fire prevention and extinction in relation to: design of PEC reactor; design of experimental loops in its own centres (Casaccia and Brasimone); safe operation of the same loops and analysis of accidents and potential accident situations; design of facilities for sodium fire experiments; operation of sodium fire facilities; operation of sodium disposal facilities. It is worth mentioning that sodium is also utilized by italian concerns, where it is processed mostly as an intermediate product in the manufacture of tetraethyl lead. A recent accident in a TEL production plant in Italy (Trento in July 1978) has recently once more raised the question if provisions for sodium fire extinction were adequate. Small scale fires for training purposes have been performed by several experimenters at CNEN since 1965. A more systematic approach, initiated in 1973 at Brasimone Centre, has been interrupted after 1976 when studies for the construction of a larger experimental facility (SUPERSATANA) have been abandoned. In 1976 it was proposed a CNEN participation to the French Program ESMERALDA. An accord to run the ESMERALDA Project as a French-Italian common program has recently been taken. Experimental results are presented in this paper

  9. Review of LMFBR dynamic behaviour studies at CNEN, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics studies on LMFBR cores are carried out at CNEN in two different frameworks: the design of the core of PEC, a 400 liter, 120 MWth Fast Fuel Element Test Reactor commissioned by CNEN to the Italian company NIRA; the research and development cooperation agreement on Fast Reactors, signed in 1974 with the CEA (France). The transients of the driver and test regions of PEC are calculated routinely and submitted to the Italian Regulatory Commission (DISP) as a part of the documentation required for licensing. It is not surprising to see that obsolete versions of SAS and CAPRI codes are still in use for these calculations. In fact, most core characteristics(in particular, subassembly geometry and mechanical constraints) were defined at an early stage of the PEC project, and were not subjected to substantial modifications in the following years. A notable exception is represented by a key design feature: the fuel composition and enrichment, which has evolved rather dramatically in recent years.Actually, three solutions have been studied (one with enriched uranium and two with mixed U/Pu oxides); a detailed analysis has been made of the effects of the neutron parameters pertinent to these solutions on the transient behaviour of the fuel elements of the driver region. As far as the cooperation with CEA is concerned, it must be remembered that CNEN is not directly involved in the design of SUPERPHENIX 1, but collaborates in the studies for the development of advanced concepts (radially heterogeneous cores). In this field, however, emphasis has been placed so far on steady state performance intercomparisons between. homogeneous and heterogeneous cores, without analysing dynamic implications in any significant details. In a recent CEA/CNEN optimisation study, the sensitivities of some basic quantities like fuel inventory doubling time and average burnup of discharged subassemblies, to design parameter variations in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems have been

  10. Evaluation of the dosimetric pens calibration performed at the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, IRD/CNEN, Brazil; Avaliacao dos resultados de calibracao de canetas dosimetricas realizada no Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Ramos, M.M.O.; Cabral, T.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dansq@ird.gov.br

    2005-03-15

    This article compares the behavior of measurements performed by using dosimetric pens from different models and manufacturers, submitted to calibration at the Metrology Brazilian National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiations, IRD/CNEN, during the period of 2000-2002. The considered parameters were the accuracy, the response linearity and the measurement uncertainty evaluated. The results demonstrate that among the analysed models there are behaviour variations.

  11. Results of the technical evaluation of dentistry X-ray equipment of a faculty of Dentistry of Rio Grande do Sul State, based on Regulation 453 of Health Ministry and IRD/CNEN-BR recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the technical evaluation of odontology X-ray equipment installed in a local school of odontology with regard to the fulfillment of requirements of Regulation No. 453, issued by Brazilian Ministry of Health and the recommendations of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, IRD/CNEN. Fifteen intra-oral odontology X-ray equipment were evaluated and their conformities and non-conformities were identified, followed by recommendations to be adopted by the school. (author)

  12. Investigation of radiological emergencies by the IPEN-CNEN/SP during the years 2001 to 2010; Averiguacoes de emergencias radiologicas pelo IPEN-CNEN/SP nos anos de 2001 a 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fabio Fumio; Mitake, Malvina Boni, E-mail: ffsuzuki@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission maintain, in each of its unities, a technical team for investigation and initial response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations which can occur outside of its installations. At the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, that task is accomplished by the Radioprotection Management (GRP) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil. This paper shows the results obtained by the GRP, analysing which entities action the system, the nature of the event, the involved type of radiation source and the geographical distribution of occurrences in the state. During the period between 2001 and 2010, the GRP attended to 98 notifications, and the entity which the most action the system was the Fire Department. The radionuclide of most incidence was the Am-241, mainly because of radioactive lightning-arrester, followed of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine such as Mo-99/Tc-99m and I-131

  13. Results of the technical evaluation of dentistry X-ray equipment of a faculty of Dentistry of Rio Grande do Sul State, based on Regulation 453 of Health Ministry and IRD/CNEN-BR recommendations; Resultados das analises tecnicas realizadas nos equipamentos de raios-X odontologicos de uma faculdade de Odontologia do Rio Grande do Sul, segundo Portaria 453 do Ministerio da Saude e recomendacoes do IRD/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Jahn, T.R.; Barbieri, D.X.; Mas, C.R Dal; Sbaraini, P.; Saba, J.C.P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas. Div. de Engenharia Biomedica]. E-mail: staevie@pucrs.br

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the technical evaluation of odontology X-ray equipment installed in a local school of odontology with regard to the fulfillment of requirements of Regulation No. 453, issued by Brazilian Ministry of Health and the recommendations of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, IRD/CNEN. Fifteen intra-oral odontology X-ray equipment were evaluated and their conformities and non-conformities were identified, followed by recommendations to be adopted by the school. (author)

  14. Safeguards Options for Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities ? A Collaborative Effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia [ORNL; Begovich, John M [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed on a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of an NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. The study, completed in early 2007, identified potential safeguards measures and evaluated their effectiveness and impacts on operations. In addition, advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was framed by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Before this policy, only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and, therefore, subject to AEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, and the IAEA. This paper highlights the findings of this joint collaborative effort and identifies technical measures to strengthen international safeguards in NUCPs.

  15. Radioactive concrete sources for calibration of uranium exploration and environmental field instruments constructed at IRD/CNEN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiometric calibration system constructed at the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to be used by geophysicists interested in uranium exploration and scientists working with natural radioactivity and environment is described. The system consists of 8 radioactive concrete sources. The sources are of cylindrical shape with 3m diameter and 0,5m thickness weighting approximately 7.5 tonnes. Uranium, thorium and potassium ores were added to the concrete under conditions to achieve perfect homogenization. One hundred four samples were collected and analysed by eight laboratories. In addition, in-situ radiometric grade determination were performed with calibrated instruments. U, Th and K reference values were then assigned to each source. The system also has a 4m diameter water pond for cosmic-ray and instrument noise corrections. (Author)

  16. Bromide as chemical tracer to measure the liquid effluent flow at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Douglas B.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: dbsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to recent changes in CONAMA Resolution 357, which occurred through the publication of Resolution 430, on May 13, 2011 that now set standards about the effluent release, IPEN-CNEN/SP initiated several actions to improve the Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA-Q) of stable chemical compounds. Besides various parameters (physical and chemical) established by CONAMA, the submission of an annual pollution inventory report became necessary. The liquid effluent flow measurement is required to implement this inventory. Thereby, this paper describes a study that uses bromide as a chemical tracer. This paper presents the results of 6 tracer releases in IPEN wastewater collection network between 2011 and 2012. Two tracer releases designs were performed: single pulse and continuous releases performed with 1 to 6 hours duration, done by using one single piston pump manufactured by DIONEX. After the release, one fraction of the effluent was collected every 15 minutes at IPEN effluent monitoring station. The tracer concentration in the effluent was analyzed by ion chromatography and flow was calculated considering the dilution in the system and pump flow set up for the release. The flow values were measured in 6 events were determined and evaluated as per Brazilian regulation requirements. Experimental designs to be implemented during 2013 monitoring were also discussed in this paper, contributing to legal compliance and to improve IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). (author)

  17. IPR-RI TRIGA MARK I reactor and the neutron activation analysis at CDTN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor started up in 1960. It is located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Centre) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN. Join to the reactor, the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis has been developing its activities since 1960. The activities of the Laboratory comprise the delayed fission neutron activation analysis, instrumental (comparative and parametric methods) and radiochemical / chemical methods. These methods are responsible for relevant percentage of CDTN's analysis demand, meeting the clients' analytical needs and researches developed by the Laboratory, by CDTN and by other institutions. Over the years the work has been linked to the goals of the country and the institutions. Nowadays several elements - Ag, Al, Au, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, Ho, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr - are determined in several matrices and range of concentrations. In Brazil, CDTN is the only Institute that fully masters the instrumental neutron activation analysis k0-method determining short, medium and long half-life radionuclides using its own nuclear reactor. The good performance of the reactor is pointed out in a table with experimental and certified values for Certified Reference Materials. (authors)

  18. Metrology in CNEN NN 3.05/13 standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear medicine exams are widely used tools in health services for a reliable clinical and functional diagnosis of a disease. In Brazil, the National Nuclear Energy Commission, through the norm CNEN-NN 3:05/13, provides for the requirements of safety and radiological protection in nuclear medicine services. The objective of this review article was to emphasize the importance of metrology in compliance with this norm. We observed that metrology plays a vital role as it ensures the quality, accuracy, reproducibility and consistency of the measurements in the field of nuclear medicine. (author)

  19. Transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport plays an important role in the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record of nuclear transport across the world is excellent. This is due to well-grounded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professional ability of those in the industry. This paper presents an overview of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP. In particular, the applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described.(author)

  20. Replacing nuclear staff: The proactive work at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, young people do not learn nuclear science, nuclear engineering and related fields at College or Universities, because Brazilian Universities offer such specialized courses only as extension classes to normal curriculum. Another important aspect to be considered is that there are eight Brazilian Universities or Research Institute that offers MSc and PhD degree offered on only four State/Region of Brazil, e.g.: in the State of Sao Paulo/SP, Region Southeast of Brazil, there is only one programme, at Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN, in association with the University of Sao Paulo - USP; in the State of Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Region Southeast of Brazil, there are four programmes: the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, the Army Engineering Institute - IME, the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN, the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD; in the State of Minas Gerais, Region Southeast of Brazil, there are the Center of Nuclear Technology Development - CDTN and the Federal University of Minas Gerais - UFMG; in the State of Pernambuco, Region Northeast of Brazil, there is Federal University of Pernambuco - UFPE. Those four institutes: IPEN, IEN, IRD and CDTN are institutes belonging to the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN. The situation of those nuclear programmes (mentioned above), their level of post graduation and the grade attributed by Capes - the Higher Education Coordinating Office of the Federal Ministry of Education, done three-annually on all Brazilian Courses, undergraduate and postgraduate is presented. This evaluation varies on a scale from 1 to 5, universities are allowed to conduct their programme only with grade up to 3, if not the course is disregarded. The acquirement of evaluation up to 5, i.e. 6 and 7 is given only to programme that has high academic level recognized internationally for expertise. IPEN it is a traditional research and educational institution, recognized internationally for the

  1. New IPEN-CNEN/SP Neutron Powder Diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new IPEN-CNEN/SP neutron powder diffractometer is under construction at the 2 MW thermal IEA-R1 research reactor. It is an upgrading of the old IPEN-CNEN/ SP multipurpose neutron diffractometer. The old diffractometer was a single detector instrument with a boron trifluoride (BF3) detector and a flat copper mosaic single crystal monochromator. The main modifications introduced in the old instrument are installation of a position sensitive detector (PSD) and a bent perfect single crystal monochromator. A rotating oscillating collimator, placed at the entrance to the detector shielding, eliminates parasitic scattering from furnace or cryo-refrigerator heat shields in the vicinity of the sample, while only reducing the scattered intensity by about 10%. The collimator also makes the PSD less sensitive to ambient background leaking in through the shielding entrance. Placed at a distance of 1600 mm from the sample, the PSD spans an angular range of 20o of a diffraction pattern, resulting in quite a good resolution for the instrument. An extended powder diffraction pattern can be obtained by moving the detector and collecting the data in segments. In order to increase the neutron beam flux at the sample position, a focusing Si monochromator will be installed in the instrument. With a take-off angle of 84o, the monochromator can be positioned to produce four different wavelengths, namely 1.111, 1.399, 1.667 and 2.191 A. A beam shutter will protect the operator during sample manipulation or installation of any device in the monochromatic beam. In comparison with the former instrument, the new diffractometer will have better resolution and will be about 600 times faster in data acquisition. (author)

  2. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Lainetti, Paulo E.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, e-mail: lainetti@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  3. Implementation of the GED/WF system at CGMI/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Coordination of Medical and Industrial Facilities (CGMI) of National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) attends about 1.000 solicitations per month. For each of them, a great number of documents in different formats can be attached: plants, photos, e-mails, etc. These documents have to be archived for later consultation. Considering that all the process of analysis and distribution of these documents through the involved areas and stakeholders are performed in paper, the CGMI activities achieved a level where it is not possible to increase its productivity and guarantee the quality of its services. For this main reason, several efforts were made in order to find a solution for this problem and, as result of these studies, it was concluded that the best alternative is to automate most routine tasks of CGMI workflow, through the implementation of the GED/WF (Electronic Document Management and Workflow) at CGMI. The GED/WF system is being implemented at CGMI since December/ 2006 and the expectation is that it will be fully implemented until January/2008. Considering that the range of CGMI activities involves several kinds of stakeholders, this work tries to identify their expectations and to evaluate the possible impact of implementation of the GED/WF solution over these different stakeholders, as well as, to evaluate its impact of the GED/WF over the Brazilian licensing process of medical and industrial facilities. It was also made a comparative study with other nuclear regulatory organizations around the world that had implemented GED/WF. (author)

  4. Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning activities at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN's fuel cycle activities were accomplished in laboratory and pilot plant scale and most facilities were built in the 70-80 years. Nevertheless, radical changes of the Brazilian nuclear policy in the beginning of 90's determined the interruption of several fuel cycle activities and facilities shutdown. Since then, IPEN has faced the problem of the pilot plants decommissioning considering that there was no experience/expertise in this field at all. In spite of this, some laboratory and pilot plant decommissioning activities have been performed in IPEN in the last years, even without previous experience and training support. One of the first decommissioning activities accomplished in IPEN involved the Hot Chemistry Laboratory. This facility was built in the beginning of the 80's with the proposal of supporting research and development in the nuclear chemistry area. It was decided to settle a new laboratory in the place where the Hot Chemistry Laboratory was installed, being necessary its total releasing from the radioactive contamination point of view. The previous work in the laboratory involved the manipulation of samples of irradiated nuclear fuel, besides plutonium-239 and uranium-233 standard solutions. There were 5 glove-boxes in the facility but only 3 were used with radioactive material. The glove-boxes contained several devices and materials, besides the radioactive compounds, such as: electric and electronic equipment, metallic and plastic pieces, chemical reagents, liquid and solid radioactive wastes, etc. The laboratory's decommissioning process was divided in 12 steps. This paper describes the procedures, problems faced and results related to the Hot Chemistry Laboratory decommissioning operations and its reintegration as a new laboratory of the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center (CQMA) - IPEN-CNEN/SP. (author)

  5. Methodology of ABNT ISO/IEC GUIA 25 implantation in the laboratories of radionuclides analysis in environmental samples of the Analysis Division/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISO/EEC Guide 25: 1993 Standard General requirements for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories. Is published in Brazil by Brazilian Association for Technical Standards (ABNT) as ABNT ISO/DEC GUIA 25 and establishes general requirements a laboratory must demonstrate to meet, in order to be recognized as having technical competence (accreditation) to carry out specifics calibration or testing. Therefore, the accredited laboratory starts, respectively, taking part from the Brazilian Calibration Network (RBC) or from the Brazilian Testing Laboratories Network (RBLE) . The Environmental Radioanalysis Division (DIAMB) from Environmental Radiological Protection Department (DEPRA) from Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) from Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is a laboratory responsible for analyzing radionuclides deriving for the samples from DEPRA's Surveillance Program, research and servings, due to an eventual radionuclide contamination in environment, foods and others raw materials for human consumption; including for importation and exportation products certification purposes. For all these reasons, DIAMB needs its formal recognition for carrying out radionuclides analysis in environmental samples. This work aims to provide a methodology in order to guide a laboratory which has the intention to implement a accreditation process. It also describes policies to meet the requirements related to the Standard, guidance needed to specification of some steps and also comments some points from the Standard in order to become easier all the accreditation process comprehension. (author)

  6. Activity report 1991 from IPEN - Brazilian Institute of Energy and Nuclear Researches, CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main events achieved at IPEN in 1991: actions related to international cooperation, developed administrative activities as well as the matched results in the areas of Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Reactors, Application of Nuclear Techniques, Radiation Protection and Logistic Support

  7. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  8. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  9. Neutron activation analysis at CDTN/CNEN using the IPR-R1 Triga Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes in summary the activities developed by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis since the starting up of the IPR-R1 TRIGA Mark I research reactor in 1960. This Laboratory is located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Centre) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN. The activities of the Laboratory comprise the delayed fission neutron activation analysis, instrumental (comparative and parametric methods) and radiochemical / chemical methods. These methods are responsible for significant percentage of CDTN's analytical demand, meeting the clients' analytical needs and researches developed by the Laboratory, by CDTN and by other institutions. Over the years the work has been linked to the goals of the country and the institutions. Nowadays the neutron activation analysis is responsible for 70% of the analytical demand and the k0- Instrumental method for 80% of this demand answering clients' request and researches. In Brazil, CDTN is the only Institute that fully masters the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis k0-method using its own nuclear reactor. (author)

  10. Production of microspheres labeled with holmium-166 for liver cancer therapy: the preliminary experience at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microspheres labeled with therapeutic radionuclides for malignancies of liver are widely used in many countries. The internal radionuclide therapy uses a permanently implanted device, such as TherasphereR or SIR-SpheresR, or a biodegradable device that provides structural support for the radionuclide of choice and causes the tumor reduction. Three different types of material supports have been investigated, i.e., biodegradable polymer-based, glass-based and resin-based microspheres. Nowadays there is a project concerning the labeling of these 3 materials with 166Ho being developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP and coordinated by the Radiopharmacy Directory. 166Ho(t1/2=26.8 h) is a beta minus emitter (Emax=1.84 MeV), with right properties for radiotherapy and can be produced with the low power Brazilian Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1m. The aim of this work is to describe the stage of development of this project. The initial experience used resin-based microspheres, a cation exchange resin labeled with 166Ho, it showed the essential characteristics for liver therapy. Preliminary results of the preparation of glass-based microspheres labeled with 165Ho showed that 5% of Ho2O3 was incorporated in an aluminosilicate glass, through the process of spheronization by flame, which produced spherical microspheres with 20-40μm particle size. The preparation of biodegradable material, polymer-based microspheres, is in its initial stage and the objective is to prepare and label with 165Ho different polymer-based microspheres. These combined efforts have been done to offer a national radiotherapeutic product for the the Brazilian nuclear medicine community at fair value and also to offer a viable possibility of treatment for patients affected by liver malignancies. (author)

  11. Production of microspheres labeled with holmium-166 for liver cancer therapy: the preliminary experience at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata F.; Azevedo, Mariangela B.M.; Nascimento, Nanci; Sene, Frank F.; Martinelli, Jose R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: renatafcosta@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Microspheres labeled with therapeutic radionuclides for malignancies of liver are widely used in many countries. The internal radionuclide therapy uses a permanently implanted device, such as Therasphere{sup R} or SIR-Spheres{sup R}, or a biodegradable device that provides structural support for the radionuclide of choice and causes the tumor reduction. Three different types of material supports have been investigated, i.e., biodegradable polymer-based, glass-based and resin-based microspheres. Nowadays there is a project concerning the labeling of these 3 materials with {sup 166}Ho being developed at IPEN-CNEN/SP and coordinated by the Radiopharmacy Directory. {sup 166}Ho(t{sub 1/2}=26.8 h) is a beta minus emitter (E{sub max}=1.84 MeV), with right properties for radiotherapy and can be produced with the low power Brazilian Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1m. The aim of this work is to describe the stage of development of this project. The initial experience used resin-based microspheres, a cation exchange resin labeled with {sup 166}Ho, it showed the essential characteristics for liver therapy. Preliminary results of the preparation of glass-based microspheres labeled with {sup 165}Ho showed that 5% of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} was incorporated in an aluminosilicate glass, through the process of spheronization by flame, which produced spherical microspheres with 20-40mum particle size. The preparation of biodegradable material, polymer-based microspheres, is in its initial stage and the objective is to prepare and label with {sup 165}Ho different polymer-based microspheres. These combined efforts have been done to offer a national radiotherapeutic product for the the Brazilian nuclear medicine community at fair value and also to offer a viable possibility of treatment for patients affected by liver malignancies. (author)

  12. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  13. Organization and development of the Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program: its development until the present stage, as well as the organizations and the distribution of responsibilities involved in its execution at the present time. The nuclear power policy is established at the Presidency of the Republic and is planned, executed and controlled through the Ministry of Mines and Energy. Directly subject to the Ministry is the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), which has regulatory, standardization, licensing, planning and surveillance functions. The nuclear fundamental research and manpower formation are also under CNEN responsibility. Also subject to the Ministry are two companies responsible for the execution of the Programme: the Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. - ELETROBRAS, which advises on the granting of permits for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and the Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. - NUCLEBRAS, which holds the monopoly of the nuclear fuel cycle in the country, designs and builds nuclear power plants and provides assistance to the electric utilities as well as promotes the participation of the Brazilian industry in the nuclear field. Besides describing the new distribution of regulatory functions given by law to the CNEN, this paper gives special emphasis to the large industrial complex which is in the process of being established with the setting-up of the many NUCLEBRAS subsidiaries in joint-venture with German firms in the nuclear field, as a consequence of the Industrial Cooperation between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany in the Field of the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy signed between the two countries on June 27, 1975. The programs for these subsidiaries are presented and their participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Programme is discussed. The technology transfer aspects of the industrial activities are also discussed, based on the Government's policy on the subject

  14. Performance of IPEN/CNEN-SP Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory for microelement determinations in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of Neutron Activation Laboratory, IPEN - CNEN/SP, was evaluated for the Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Na and Zn determinations in animal feed samples for ruminants through a proficiency test (PT) program. This PT program is organized by EMBRAPA Cattle Southeast to evaluate laboratories that analyze animal feed samples. Considering the fractions of satisfactory z-scores (%) of evaluated analytes to determine the laboratories performance, the general performance indicator obtained by IPEN - CNEN/SP ranged from 90 to 95% of the satisfactory results during the period of participation in the evaluation, four years. (author)

  15. CNEN-NN 6.04 standard adaptation in Brazil for industrial radiographic work in occupied areas or public roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial radiographic work that uses mobile equipment in Brazil must be in compliance with the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) Regulation CNEN-NN 6.04. It states that every works that employs radiographic equipment in occupied areas or public roads requires a specific radiation protection procedure. This procedure must be approved by the CNEN at least fifteen days before starting the job. It is not always possible to the users to get their licensing work at time, because the industrial radiography jobs need immediate actions. Furthermore, the CNEN-NN 6.04 Regulation does not specify what type of information the procedures should involve, so that some important information had been often missed, causing a delaying in the licensing procedures. The corrective and preventive actions taken by the CNEN to optimize this kind of jobs and to overcome bureaucratic difficulties are described. A standard radiation protection procedure is also presented. (authors). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  16. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission and the health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program of Health Section / Brazilian Cnen, which was elaborated to promote the use of ionizing radiations (nuclear and x-ray techniques) in benefit of Brazilian health, with safety assurance of patients, personnels, population and environment, is presented. The Ministry of Health, industries, Medical and Physicist Associations, Universities and Research Centers are participants of this program. The activities involved in the program are: production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals; radiation detectors and nuclear instrumentation; radiation protection and dosimetry; education and training of human resources; applied research and new technologies. The guiding and actions that the section will adopt to attend the growing necessities of Brazilian society, considering technological powers, management, available substructure and associated difficulties are defined. (M.C.K.)

  17. Genesis of the Brazilian nuclear power plants program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genesis of the Brazilian Nuclear Power Program is described by the authors - who participated in the events - from the beginning of the sixties, until the definition and the start of the implementation in 1975 of the Reference Nuclear Power Program. A description is made of the main events, studies and decisions that contributed to the evolution of the Program: the GTRP (Nuclear Power Plant Working Group); the Thorium Group; the Lane Group; the decision about Angra 1; CNEN's analyses about the reactor line and, finally, the creation of CBTN (Nuclear Technology Brazilian Company), which elaborated the studies that resulted in the final definition of the Program and led to the Brazilian German Agreement and the establishment of NUCLEBRAS. (author)

  18. Applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems in ANGRA-I emergency preparedness - The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes a system to follow a nuclear accident and points the areas where the presence of artificial intelligence could be necessary: diagnostics systems, emergency classification, accident management strategies and protective actions. Logical rules could be combined with deterministic equations to provide an expert system prototype to manage a nuclear emergency preparedness for nuclear reactors (fast or thermal) in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy National Commission. (CNEN). (author)

  19. Political dynamics of the creation of the Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy, 1956-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Lopes dos Santos; Ana Maria Ribeiro de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the political dynamics of the process that founded the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), concluded in October 1956, during Juscelino Kubitschek's government. It argues that the President Kubitschek yielded to military interests, especially from the Army and Navy, ignoring the bill on the same matter that was in discussion at Brazil's House of Representatives. This strategy helped to reduce the disagreement between the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (CNP...

  20. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  1. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  2. Implantation of licensing norm for industrial radiography installations - Norm CNEN-NE-604 Rev.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of audits carried out by DIN/CNEN (Department of Nuclear Installations) in firms of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Brazil, that use industrial radiography for implantation of the norm of installation licensing, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  3. The experience of CDTN/CNEN, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear: A medium size nuclear research centre in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first a university research centre, then a captive research centre of the state owned company in charge of establishing a nuclear industry in Brazil, then a research centre of CNEN (the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Authority), nearing its 50th anniversary, CDTN has a rich experience. even keeping the project portfolio around a number of traditional nuclear energy areas such as nuclear reactors, materials, environment, process engineering, waste management, radiological protection, the institution experienced an evolution in the substance of the proposed projects. This evolution represents the different institutional insertions, but the major changes occurred at a time when, due to a lesser demand from the nuclear sector and other factors, the explicit idea of producing outputs for the benefit of society received a large acceptance from the employees. The challenges to the institution at this time are commented upon. Retirements, coupled to the lack of job openings, work together for the decrease in the staff number, one major challenge. Up to a certain point, private companies have been hired to fill some of the organisational needs, but it is felt that a limit to this policy is being reached. It is argued that, even in the absence of a strong demand from the energy generation sector, a number of opportunities are still available to a NRC in a developing country. Maturity of nuclear energy and applications of radiation tend to transfer the focus of the activities from the fundamentals of nuclear science and technology to quality related issues, a requirement of the modern times. quality systems cannot substitute for the in depth knowledge of the fundamentals. (author)

  4. Act No. 1240 of 15 December 1971. Regulations concerning the restructuring of the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act which annuls the preceding Act of 1960 with the exception of Sections 12 to 16, confirms the CNEN's responsibilities. As opposed to the previous Act this Act contains provisions concerning the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN). (NEA)

  5. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  6. Control system and nuclear materials inventory at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history, requirements, organization, and operation of the State System of Accounting and Control from the Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) are described. The implementation system at the institution take into consideration the national and international safeguards requirements. It has started by the nuclear material (U, Pu and Th) physical inventory taking, including their provenance and transformation. The earlier computerized accounting system used for control has been replaced by a new one developed by the National Authority (CNEN/CSG). The optimized system has more flexibility, giving a more effective answer to any occurred change on Material Balance Area. The present system make use of an effective methodology. (author)

  7. Management of disused sealed sources received by the Brazilian Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - CDTN, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radioactive sources in Brazil brought as a consequence the increased number of disused sources because, after the withdrawal of the service, the sources are discarded by users of radioisotopes. These sources have been forwarded to the research institutes of the CNEN, among them CDTN - Brazilian Center for Development of Nuclear Technology -, who have received a significant amount of them, including more intense activity sources, such as from the teletherapy. For effective control of the sources, the compliance of the CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - and the recommendations of IAEA -International Atomic Energy Agency - implemented a management system that enables the monitoring of the entire process, from the initial contact to the delivery of supplies to its appropriate packaging. This paper describes the progress that has been made

  8. The insulin radioimmunoassay kit prepared by IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification and methodological aspects of the insulin radioimmunoassay kit produced by IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil are described. The limitations taking care and the following quality control parameters or procedures are discussed: specific radioactivity, comparison between two insulin - 125I purification procedures, affinity constant 'K' of the antigen - antibody reaction, minimal detectable dose (MDD), kinetics degradation of the radioinsulin, radioassay imprecision profile, radioassay performance temperature dependence and normal values histogram. (Author)

  9. The Brazilian calibration network for radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination of the Brazilian Calibration Network for the radiodiagnostic dosimetry and quality control is the responsibility of the National Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory (LNMRI) of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute (IRD). The LNMRI/IRD is the Institute working in metrology, dosimetry and radioprotection at the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The IRD is designated by the Brazilian Government through the National Institute for Metrology (INMETRO) to maintain and disseminate the national ionizing radiation dosimetry standards and quantities related to the ionizing radiation. The idea for that network is to establish partnership in the implementation of health improvement programmes - the primary goal of the Brazilian Government. Some of these programmes are related to the medical applications of the ionizing radiation and it is so important that it is part of the main strategic planning of the following institutions involved in this subject: - National Sanitary Inspection Agency (ANVISA); - National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN); - Health Ministry (MS). The Health Ministry of Brazil established the regulation named Portaria MS 453 in order to regulate the quality control and inspection in hospitals and clinics that use X ray for medical diagnostics. The National Sanitary Inspection Agency, in adherence to this regulation, is implementing at each State body the sanitary inspection compliance control. In parallel, there is a great demand for equipment acquisition and staff training all over Brazil. Many universities are implementing graduation and post graduate courses in order to cover the lack of specialized personnel at ANVISA, hospitals and service companies for running this programme The LNMRI/IRD provides traceable standards in radiation therapy, diagnostic radiology and radiation protection and coordinates this Brazilian metrology network to develop all Brazilian diagnostic metrology centres, take care of the implementation of

  10. External individual monitoring for workers from Radiopharmacy center of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN , CNEN-SP, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is based on the record of individual doses of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, of IPEN - Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research -, SP, Brazil, of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), RJ, maintained by the radiation protection service during the period from 2000 to 2004. The registry is a centralized system that contains information relating to doses of all workers of IPEN. Each group of supervision of radiation protection at the same time maintains the registry of workers that are under its supervision. In this work, a statistical treatment of the data in the form of tables, describing and analyzing the main characteristics involving the dose record, necessary to the interpretation of the statistics. The data are divided into two groups that include a statistic of the total doses to workers of IPEN and another statistic of doses to workers crowded in Radiopharmacy Center of IPEN. All doses are presented in units of the international system and are represented by calendar year

  11. Principal design criteria of nuclear power plants. The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 and general design criteria from US NRC, BMI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Rabello, Sidney Luiz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: bayout@cnen.gov.br; sidney@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 'Licensing of Nuclear Facilities' establishes that an applicant of a Construction License of a nuclear power plant should present, among other information, the design bases and the demonstration that these design bases are in accordance with the Principal Design Criteria, as described in the Preliminary Report of Safety Analysis (PSAR). The definition of Principal Design Criteria is related to design requirements for the manufacturing, construction, test and performance of structures, systems and components that are important for the safety. These requirements will guarantee that the plant can operate without undue risk to the workers, public and environment. On the other hand, General Design Criteria establish the minimum requirements, with the same objective of the Principal Design Criteria, applicable to a specific plant type, for instance, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In this article, the authors discuss the Brazilian experience of licensing in which three groups of General Design Criteria from different origins were used: the North American (US NRC), the German (BMI) and the international (IAEA). They also present a comparative study, showing the implication of their differences in the design bases, as well as the impact in the nuclear safety. (author)

  12. Principal design criteria of nuclear power plants. The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 and general design criteria from US NRC, BMI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The norm CNEN-NE-1.04 'Licensing of Nuclear Facilities' establishes that an applicant of a Construction License of a nuclear power plant should present, among other information, the design bases and the demonstration that these design bases are in accordance with the Principal Design Criteria, as described in the Preliminary Report of Safety Analysis (PSAR). The definition of Principal Design Criteria is related to design requirements for the manufacturing, construction, test and performance of structures, systems and components that are important for the safety. These requirements will guarantee that the plant can operate without undue risk to the workers, public and environment. On the other hand, General Design Criteria establish the minimum requirements, with the same objective of the Principal Design Criteria, applicable to a specific plant type, for instance, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In this article, the authors discuss the Brazilian experience of licensing in which three groups of General Design Criteria from different origins were used: the North American (US NRC), the German (BMI) and the international (IAEA). They also present a comparative study, showing the implication of their differences in the design bases, as well as the impact in the nuclear safety. (author)

  13. Evaluation of uncertainties in X radiation metrologic chain in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory/IRD-Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment to measure ionizing radiation used in medicine needs appropriate technical qualifications to comply with their purposes and regular calibrations to assure the correct evaluation of associated quantities. By legal requirements, the annual calibration of users' dosemeters is to be done in a Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), andthe SSDL'S standard dosemeters are refered to a Primary Standard Dosimetry (PSDL), establishing a rigourous metrological network. The SSDL network. The SSDL needs to maintain, regularly, a quality control program for short and Long term stability of standard dosemeters. The purpose of the work was to determine the uncertainties associated to technical procedures of X-rays calibration at the SSDL/IRD/IRD. To evaluate the influence of the nine main parameters that can give origin to uncertainties, specific procedures and methods are established, according to international requirements and recomendations. The methods are based on the comparison of the behaviour of the users' dosemeters, with a standard dosemeter in the many measuring conditions set up for the secondary standard used as a reference. The total uncertainty obtained was 1,81% usig a conservative procedure, to protect the users and patients. When needed to transfer the calibration factor and their uncertainty, the procedure used was to determine the uncertainty under the worsst possible operating conditions of the equipment, to obtain a superestimated value. This represents an excellent result for an SDDL of IAEA Network. (autor)

  14. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k0-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  15. Multielemental hair composition of Brazilian Indian populational groups by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental composition of hair samples of Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Reservation, in the Brazilian Amazonic region has been determined for the first time, by INAA. Irradiations were carried out at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (Delft, The Netherlands) and, using a combination of different irradiation and decay times, about 40 elements could be determined in the hair. Previous analysis made at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission) of hair samples of a Brazilian control population allowed the determination of 20 elements, also by INAA. Comparison of the data obtained for the Indian populations and the controls showed very significant differences in elemental compositions for some elements, like Hg, Mn and Al while for others, like Cu and Zn, the concentrations were similar. A discussion of the differences found for other elements also is made. (author)

  16. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  17. Exposure of individuals from the general public due to realizing radioactive liquid effluents originated from IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPEN/CNEN-SP are released after monitoring into the aquatic system, following Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) 1985 adopted limits. The resulting dose rate due to the identified exposure channels, was calculated applying models of dispersion and transfer suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 1982 for more exposed population groups, in each case. This report presents IPEN's environmental characteristics and shows the dose rate for the more exposed population groups. (B.C.A.). 09 refs, 02 figs, 01 tab

  18. Status of the implementation of Brazilian National Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes is increasing and it already justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. The Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is legally responsible for designing and constructing intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes generated in all Country, in accordance to Federal Law No. 10308. Additionally, the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA) lately is imposing to the implementation of new nuclear installations (e.g. Angra 3 NPP and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) that the National Repository should be in construction, before the start-up of those ones. In November 2009, the RBMN Project Charter was signed. The RBMN Project aims at the implantation of a National Repository to dispose the radioactive wastes of low- and intermediate-level. Some aspects about the Repository construction are very challenging, mainly due to the licensing process, which will be made for two different regulatory bodies, nuclear and environmental. The main achievements obtained till now are the establishment of the current Brazilian radioactive waste inventory, the conceptual design and the selection of candidate sites for the repository. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  19. Status of the implementation of Brazilian National Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes is increasing and it already justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. The Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is legally responsible for designing and constructing intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes generated in all Country, in accordance to Federal Law No. 10308. Additionally, the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA) lately is imposing to the implementation of new nuclear installations (e.g. Angra 3 NPP and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) that the National Repository should be in construction, before the start-up of those ones. In November 2009, the RBMN Project Charter was signed. The RBMN Project aims at the implantation of a National Repository to dispose the radioactive wastes of low- and intermediate-level. Some aspects about the Repository construction are very challenging, mainly due to the licensing process, which will be made for two different regulatory bodies, nuclear and environmental. The main achievements obtained till now are the establishment of the current Brazilian radioactive waste inventory, the conceptual design and the selection of candidate sites for the repository. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  20. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  1. Control and reception of out of use radioactive sources at the CDTN/CNEN, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Controle e recebimento de fontes radioativas fora de uso no CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Luiz C.A.; Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Cuccia, Valeria, E-mail: reislca@cdtn.b, E-mail: mfrg@cdtn.b, E-mail: seless@cdtn.b, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    For reception of the received sources and for accomplish with CNEN regulations and IAEA recommendations, the CDTN have implanted a system for receiving those sources and all the procedures for effective control and recovering of information. The CDTN posses a source deposit, a data bank for the inventory and also a Laboratory for Treatment of Sealed Sources

  2. Analysis of scientific and technical production of IPEN-CNEN/SP in the period of 1984 to 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of scientific and technical production of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP in the period of 1984 to 1988 is presented. It includes articles, dissertation, thesis, books, reports and papers presented in scientific meetings or published in the Publicacao IPEN series. (C.M.)

  3. Qualification of dispersion fuels based on U3 O8-Al fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN/CNEN-SP produces for its IEA-R1m Research Reactor, MTR fuel assemblies based on U3 O8-Al dispersion fuel plates. Since 1988 a qualification program for this fuel has been performed. This paper describes the experience and results achieved by this fuel under irradiation at IEA R1m research Reactor. (author)

  4. Introducing the Brazilian program of technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency - Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an active Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Brazil has applied substantial resources in order to maintain the best possible cooperation with the Agency, aiming at a continuous improvement of the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards system. Over the last decades a number of projects, involving the participation of high-level Brazilian professionals in the nuclear area, have already been jointly completed. To continue providing this voluntary support to the IAEA Department of Safeguards for research, development and implementation, in 2006 Brazil decided to accept the IAEA's invitation to participate in the IAEA Member States Support Programmes initiative, which currently includes 21 Member States. The Research and Development (R and D) Programme for Nuclear Verification is the IAEA reference in this regard, establishing the high priority needs and describing each recognized departmental project. The Programme is issued every two years. The 'Brazilian Support Programme (BRZ SP)' was established on the basis of a set of administrative procedures titled 'Cooperation Arrangements and Guidelines', agreed between the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the IAEA - Department of Safeguards. The scope of the BRZ SP includes: the participation in field tests and the evaluation of state-of-the-art technologies as requested by the IAEA for its safeguards applications; the training of safeguards personnel involved with safeguards implementation at both facility and State levels; laboratorial support in the area of destructive and nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials; the analysis of safeguards issues; information acquisition, analysis and evaluation; and the provision of human resources, such as experts and consultants to work directly with the IAEA Secretariat. The activities agreed under the BRZ SP are not restricted to CNEN staff members. Professionals from other Brazilian organizations may also be involved

  5. The IRIS reactor design - An international co-operative project and the Brazilian participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRIS, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure, is an Integrated Primary System Reactor (IPSR) with innovative features that can meet most of the requirements for the next generation of nuclear energy systems. The IRIS project is being conducted as an international development program in a collaborative approach and management openness. This initiative has found a very positive response around the world and the IRIS team grew from the initial four members from two countries to the present number of 22 organizations from nine countries. By the end of 2001, the Brazilian Nuclear Commission, CNEN, signed a collective agreement with Westinghouse Electric Company to officially participate in the development of IRIS. The IPSR concept of IRIS is characterized by the inclusion of the entire primary system within a single pressure vessel, including the steam generators and pressurizer. The CNEN team is responsible for the internal pressurizer design and for the review of RELAP5 input file. The design tasks for the pressurizer have included steam-water volume sizing, pressurizer to vessel physical separation by an internal thermal insulation, surge connections dimensioning and transient analyses. This paper presents a very brief description of IRIS, and a summary of CNEN activities in this project. (author)

  6. Brazilian gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  7. External beam monitoring of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing demand for cyclotron radioisotopes and the high cost of equipment and materials involved in the process, it becomes evident the importance of external beam monitoring of the cyclotron. In this way, the beam of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/S P was characterized throughout the evaluation of its current intensity, profile (position, focus and geometry), alignment and homogeneity, by measuring currents, temperatures and pressures of irradiation systems. For this purpose, techniques and conventional devices, thermocouples and pressure sensors associated to electronic of instrumentation, and technology and flexibility of micro controllers allowed observing the beam behavior during irradiations in real time. The ion beam energy was also evaluated using activation analysis technique of monitor reactions in natCu. The beam monitoring systems have been contributing to prevent material damages and they have already been used in routine irradiations, bringing important advantages in the process of beam optimization of the Cyclone 30. (author)

  8. Radiological impact from the transport of radiopharmaceuticals of the IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a package is shipped, people who work, live or travel in the route used for transportation of radioactive materials are irradiated, as well as those who are inside vehicles that travel in the same or opposite directions. Therefore, the proposed work has as main objective to estimate the radiological impact of the transportation of radiopharmaceuticals of IPEN/CNEN-SP to some predefined destinations. The doses in individuals who are in the public streets and in vehicles that travel close to the means of transportation, along the route traveled by packages, during the transport of radiopharmaceuticals were estimated. The doses were also estimated for drivers, from both the operation of driving the vehicle, and the loading and unloading of packages, because these tasks are performed by the drivers. (author)

  9. Activities of the neutron activation analysis laboratory of the radiochemistry division of IPEN - CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is one of the relevant applications of nuclear research reactors. Due to the high neutron fluxes available in these reactors, an excellent sensitivity of analysis is attained for many elements. NAA is one of the most sensitive, precise and accurate analytical methods for trace element determination. NAA has been one of the main activities of the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN, since the beginning of the operation of the nuclear reactor IEA-R1. Most of the effort was devoted to research work, aimed to improvements in the method as well as to its applications to several kinds of matrixes (geological, biological, metallic, environmental, forensic). Besides, analytical services were also offered, to the CNEN, to industries, universities, mining companies and research institutes. In the present paper, a review is made of the research work being developed presently at the Radiochesmitry Division of IPEN. A discussion is also made of the planned expansion of the analytical services offered

  10. Incineration facility for combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes in IPEN-CNEN - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for incinerating the combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes was developed in order to achieve higher mass and volume reduction of the wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP or received from other institutions. The radioactive wastes for incineration are: animal carcasses, ion-exchange resins, contaminated lubricant oils, cellulosic materials, plastics, etc. The optimization of the process was achieved by considering the following factors: selection of better construction and insulating material; dimensions; modular design of combustion chambers to increase burning capacity in future; applicability for various types of wastes; choise of gas cleaning system. The off-gas system utilizes dry treatment. The operation is designed to function with a negative pressure. (Author)

  11. Process availability studies for 99 Mo production plant at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical availability to set up an 80-100 Ci/week 99 Mo production at IPEN-CNEN/SP was verified. Based on Sameh Ali's work done at KFK the full process was produced in lab-scale by IPEN'S staff. Natural U Alx fuels were used in all steps including alkaline dissolution, ion-exchange separation and purification and a final sublimation of the 99 Mo product. Some 99 Mo tracer solutions were employed to provide better results and to make easier the analytical work. It wasn't possible to check up all parameters required for project which could only be achieved via a mock-up installation, but the results were reliable enough to conclude that IPEN has technical experience to build-up a production facility. (author)

  12. Thorium nitrates transportation to companies placed externally of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to show the adopted measures during the transportation of packs containing Th(NO3)4 + 4H20, made by the Experimental Plant of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), that was moved away from the IPEN to a external company, during the year of 2001. The purpose is certify that the radioprotection basic standards were followed. The recommendations described in the standard 'Transporte de Materiais Radioativos' - CNEN-NE 5.01 - was observed, in order to certify safe levels of eventual exposition of radiation in people, goods and environment, relative to each allowed transportation. The radioprotection standards describes the work procedures in the packs to be lately irradiated by others companies, surface contamination and evaluation the transportation indexes to final liberation of the vehicle, according to the proper standards. (author)

  13. Cold neutron irradiation facility for the Brazilian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron irradiation in research reactors and accelerators can be realized at appropriated neutron guides or beam holes shared around a cold neutron source (CNS) with neutron of variable intensity and energy. An irradiation facility for multiple applications including an intense CNS was calculated for the three Brazilian research reactors and can be utilized as a first concept for the new research reactor to be designed, the Brazilian multiple purpose research reactor (RMB). A study about coolant and moderators properties, and simulations with neutron physics and thermal codes, may be important for the definition of the type of the CNS to be utilized. Some earlier results of MCNP simulations and a discussion about the different factors involved in the definition of its installation in the Brazilian research reactors are here presented. One suggests an international cooperation for the design development of this system and posterior construction of a prototype in the Argonauta reactor at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ). It is also being considered the inclusion of other devices as a neutron fiber to guide the neutron beams away of the gamma radiation and fast neutron background. The cold neutron facility increases the intensity of cold neutrons, without the need of additional fuel burn up. (author)

  14. Development of indigenous technology at CNEN in the fields of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of the program developed at CNEN in the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear technique are described. (E.G.)

  15. Development of 99Mo-99mTc gel type generators at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The production of 99Mo is one of the steps towards the nationalization of the radioisotope production at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The chosen reaction was the neutron capture on 98Mo due to IPEN's IEA-R1m Reactor characteristics and process simplicity. The gel generator technology was studied where 99Mo is strongly bonded and 99mTc can be easily eluted with saline solution. This paper describes the technological stages of this project. Materials and Methods: The following steps are being performed: 1- Choice of target: metallic Mo and MoO3; 2- Irradiation device; 3- Measurement of the specific activity of 99Mo; 4- Types of gel: zirconium molybdate (MoZr) and titanium molybdate (MoTi); 5- Preparation route: Mo irradiation and gel preparation (post-formed) and gel preparation and irradiation (pre-formed); 6- Optimization of the gel chemical reaction variables; 7- Gel characterization; 8- Gel generator preparation: dry and wet techniques; 9- Quality control of the 99mTc eluted; 10- Gel preparation at laboratory level; 11- Assembling of the hot processing cell; 12- Routine production. Results: The main results are: 1- The chosen target was MoO3 on a molten form; 2- The best condition for irradiation was inside a Be irradiator assembled at the reactor core; 3- The specific activity of 99Mo was 3.7X1010 Bq / g Mo irradiated at 5 MW for 120 hours; 4- Most of the work was done with Zr, and good preliminary results were obtained with MoTi gel; 5- The route that gives 99mTc with the best quality is the post-formed, with a higher elution yield and less radionuclidic impurities; 6- A basic procedure was developed in order to optimize the reaction variables for MoZr gel preparation; 7- In house techniques were developed for gel characterization; 8- The dry technique delivered the most uniform generators, with an elution yield higher than 80% in 10-12 mL of saline solution; 9- The quality control tests showed the good quality of 99mTc eluted from MoZr gel generators; 10- A gel (Mo

  16. Utilization of plastic detector for pool water radioactivity control of IEA-R1 reactor. Examination of fuel element irradiation behaviour fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the examination of fuel element irradiation behavior that were fabricated at IPEN/CNEN/SP Metalurgical Departament, it was provided a detection system for pool water radioactivity measurements. This system uses a plastic scintillator detector produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP Health Physics Department, with dimensions and shape apropriated for such work. The detection system shows a sensibility of 4.125x10-2 dps/cm3 and 20% of efficiency for 131 I radiations. (author)

  17. Qualification under irradiation of the U3 O8-Al MTR fuels fabricated at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specifications of U3 O8 cermet fuel, utilized in the Research Reactor IEA-R1, and fabricated by IPEN/CNEN-SP, are presented. The history of the specification development is followed through descriptions of the world experience in research and material test reactor fuel utilization and post-irradiation examination in hot cells. An inspection program has been carried out for fuel qualification. (author)

  18. Brazilian experience on qualification of radiation protection officers for industry installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a brief description of the process used by the brazilian regulatory authority . National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) . to qualify radiation protection officers especially to work at industry practices. A Committee for Certification of Qualification was created in order to be responsible for the elaboration and organization of the rules for the examinations. From 1999 to 2002 more than 400 radiation protection officers were qualified according to this process. The main industrial practices involved were industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, industrial accelerators, well logging petroleum and nuclear gauge. An overview is also given about the national regulatory infrastructure responsible for radiation safety controls, including the Brazilian regulation infrastructure and the national inventory of industrial installations. (author)

  19. The Brazilian experience in licensing Angra 2, a 'delayed' nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian nuclear power programme comprises two nuclear power plants in operation from different supplier countries. Furthermore, the second plant, Angra 2, had its construction started in 1976 and only recently in 2000 has achieved full power operation. This paper presents the experience of the Brazilian Regulatory Body in licensing this utility with all the complications arising from the different technologies, and safety philosophy, and the changes in safety standards, owners, suppliers, contractors and operators during the 25 years of construction. The paper presents first a history of the construction and commissioning of Angra 2, and then highlights some of the problems encountered in the licensing process. Some of the difficulties faced by CNEN due to several reorganizations and loss of personnel are also discussed. (author)

  20. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  1. Brazilian nuclear power plants decommissioning plan for a multiple reactor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually, Brazil has two operating Nuclear Power Plants and a third one under construction, all at Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA. To comply with regulatory aspects the power plants operator, Eletronuclear, must present to Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, CNEN, a decommissioning plan. Brazilian experience with decommissioning is limited because none of any nuclear reactor at the country was decommissioned. In literature, decommissioning process is well described despite few nuclear power reactors have been decommissioned around the world. Some different approach is desirable for multiple reactors sites, case of CNAAA site. During the decommissioning, a great amount of wastes will be produced and have to be properly managed. Particularly, the construction of Auxiliary Services on the site could be a good choice due to the possibility of reducing costs. The present work intends to present to the Eletronuclear some aspects of the decommissioning concept and decommissioning management, storage and disposal de wastes, based on the available literature, regulatory standards of CNEN and international experience as well as to suggest some solutions to be implemented at CNAAA site before starts the decommissioning project in order to maximize the benefits. (author)

  2. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  3. Radiochemical quality control of kits labelled with Tc-99m produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with Tc-99m are routinely used in Nuclear Medicine Laboratories. A large number of these employ tin (II) reagents to reduce Tc (pertechnetate-VII) to a lower valence state thereby making it more able to complex forming reactions. The miniaturized chromatography system of Tc-99m labelled compounds using Whatman 3MM (8 x 1 cm) as a support and 30% NaC1: 0,9% 'NaC1: 85% MeOH and acetone as a solvent permits to assay the radiochemical purity in a few minutes after preparation. In addition this method introduced in routine work not only determines Tc-99m (pertechnetate) but also determines reduced Tc - 99m unbound to the radiopharmaceuticals (hydrolyzed reduced Tc-99m). The lyophilized kits for labelling with Tc-99m produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP are: MDP, DTPA, HSA, GHA, HIDA, Pyro, MAA, MIAA, Sulfur Colloid, Dextran-500, Sn.Cit. and Phytate. Radiochemical quality control of these kits were performed at the first day of preparation and during 12 months for determining' their validity for use. All preparation showed high yield of labelling (95-99%) during this period of time. (author)

  4. Activity report 1991 from IPEN - Brazilian Institute of Energy and Nuclear Researches, CNEN/SP; Relatorio de Atividades 1991 IPEN - Institutos de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the main events achieved at IPEN in 1991: actions related to international cooperation, developed administrative activities as well as the matched results in the areas of Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Reactors, Application of Nuclear Techniques, Radiation Protection and Logistic Support.

  5. Modernization of the physical protection system of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The plans of physical protection of nuclear facilities must be reviewed and updated every two years. A general study of the physical protection system was carried out in order to review and to update the plan of physical protection of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Important alterations accomplished at the institute were considered in the study, as the installation of a cyclotron 30 MeV and the new operation conditions for the nuclear research reactor IEA-RI, that include the increase of its operation power from two to five megawatts and the establishment of the continuous operation by 72 hours weekly. The area of IPEN-CNEN/SP is 478,000 m2 (101,850 m2 built area of 107 constructions). The group responsible for the study investigated the performance of the physical protection system and detected some points that could be reinforced at inner and protected areas. The initial step was the evaluation, in loco, of the constructions and physical barriers of inner and protected areas. The performance of the security force personnel on the conventional procedures, as access control to the facilities, control of material flow, area monitoring and patrol, as well as its response for special situation procedures in the case of a physical protection emergency, were evaluated too. The study also focused the communication means used by the security force, as the extension phone lines that are located in each entrance area and in the huts, and the portable VHP radios that are used by the guards. In order to elaborate a programme of modernization of the physical protection system, using the results of the study as basis, an internal committee composed of specialists in physical protection, nuclear safety, operation of reactors and engineering areas was created. The programme elaborated by the committee strengthens the physical protection system by applying the defense in depth concept. At the same time, it attempts to propitiate a balanced protection to minimize the consequences for the

  6. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  7. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  8. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN; Condicionantes do potencial de exploracao comercial da patente: a implantacao de um sistema de oferta publica de tecnologia na CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archila, Daniela Lima Cerqueira

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  9. Conditions of the potential for commercialization of the patent: the implementation of a technology public offering system technology at CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation identifies the main factors which represent the conditions for the potential commercialization of patents aiming at the implementation of a system for technology public offering at CNEN as a strategy for creating licensing opportunities to the industrial sector. The method applied refers to an exploratory case study of a patented technology selected from a sample of CNEN's patent portfolio in the biopharmaceutical sector. The case study comprehends a field research of interviews conducted with two specialists in technology and innovation management, one researcher from CNEN and a biopharmaceutical company. The results show that among the nineteen main factors - related to technology, market, business and Science and Technology Organization (STO) - the market dynamics, the potential applications of the technology and an abstract of its main benefits compared to existing technologies are the major relevant information for each technology to be included in the public offering system. Other results indicate that the evaluation of such factors may be conducted by competent professionals to bring less uncertainty and risk to the early-stage of the innovation process, as well as enhance the potential interest of a company in the technology. On the other hand, the latter requires innovation capabilities to move the technology forward – additional R&D, scale-up, manufacturing and marketing - whilst the STO needs a entrepreneurial culture that mitigates its obstacles, creates more positive solutions for its routines and processes and gives sustainability to its Technology Transfer Office (TTO) through valuing its personnel in the long term. Finally, emphasis on technological partnerships with companies can be a motivating feature for directing the STO's patent strategy to the creation of proprietary technological platforms that reflect problems experienced by the commercial environment, as well as the development of this strategic patent

  10. Social, economic and environmental assessment of energy and water desalination options for the Brazilian polygon of drought using the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discuss a project conceived to perform a social, economic and environmental assessment of the use of IRIS Reactor for electricity generation and water desalination in the most dry region of Brazil, the Polygon of Drought. The project is financed by the Fund of Energy of the Brazilian Council on Research and Development (CNPq) of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), and it will be performed by the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPe) and the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The project will provide comparisons between nuclear and gas options. The final objective of the project is to offer effective evaluations considering the total costs (direct and externalisation) of the different energy options and also the social and environmental aspects associated with them.(author)

  11. Research activities on the hydrogen behaviour inside BWR containment after LOCA developed under the CNEN-AMN agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo Meccanico Nucleare and CNEN begun in 1975 a research program on the impact of hydrogen on BWR safety, in order to increase the knowledge of hydrogen behaviour, concentration distribution inside the containment atmosphere, concentration measurement and concentration control. This report presents the research already completed with particular references to the hydrogen diffusion studies and to the hydrogen concentration measurement, also giving a general description of the experimental facilities erected in order to perform the required tests on hydrogen sensors. A short description of the research under development and of the future programs is also presented

  12. Implication of Amendment 49 in Brazilian radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    order to clarify these, numerous guidelines have been published: 11 quality guidelines; 10 biotechnology guidelines, 7 pharmacotoxicology guidelines, 10 clinical guidelines (General), 12 clinical guidelines (Therapeutics) and 3 information on medical products. Post-amendment Period: In Brazil, the first steps had started to be taken from this year. The first one of them, was the creation of the radiopharmacy subcommission, of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, responsible national agency for establishing the quality requirements that the medicines/drugs must obligatorily obey. These requirements include all the components used in the manufacture of medicines/drugs. Another action that deserves prominence, was the accomplishment of the ''I Workshop on Radiofarmacos'', carried through Anvisa/CNEN (National Health Surveillance Agency/Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), in an attempt of free-cooperation in search of parameters. Beside this others initiatives are being taken and the PUCRS (Pontifical University Catholic of the Rio Grande Do Sul) in partnership with the CRCN-NE (Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences of Northeast) and Brazilian Pharmacopoeia is in advanced period of training to promote the I Course of Specialization in Radioparmacy. However, Brazil still very behind in technician-legislative terms, and does not have any regulation for radiopharmaceuticals production yet. Prospective: An extremely important point in regards to radiopharmaceuticals is the education in radiopharmacy. As the production was always private of the CNEN the formation was always incubency of the same one, however, with the opening of the monopoly in addition of the market, the demand will be increasing. Besides, there is no course in Brazil that's teach radiopharmacy themes, even in the universities. As well an absolute lack of qualified professors, generates a preoccupying reality and that must be reviewed. However, nothing of concrete until the present moment really exists. Conclusion: For

  13. Dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labeled with therapeutic radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, G.; Dias, C.R.B.R.; Osso Junior, J.A., E-mail: gracielabarrio@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) makes use of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) labeled with alpha/beta radionuclides for therapeutical purposes, leading to tumor irradiation and destruction, preserving the normal organs on the radiation excess. The therapeutic activity to be injected in a specific patient is based on information obtained in dosimetric studies. Beta emitting radionuclides such as {sup 131}I, {sup 188}Re, {sup 90}Y, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 166}Ho are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Anti-CD20 (Rituximab) is a chimeric MAb directed against antigen surface CD20 on B-lymphocytes, used in non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (NHL). The association with beta radionuclides have shown greater therapeutic efficacy. Currently, two radiopharmaceuticals with Anti-CD20 for radioimmunotherapy have FDA approval for NHL treatment: {sup 131}I-AntiCD20 (Bexar) and {sup 90}Y-AntiCD20 (Zevalin). Techniques for the radiolabeling of {sup 188}Re-antiCD20 have been recently developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP in order to evaluate the clinical use of this radionuclide in particular. The use of {sup 188}Re (T{sub 1/2} 17h) produced by the decay of {sup 188}W (T{sub 1/2} 69d), from an {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator system, has represented an alternative to RIT. Beyond high energy beta emission for therapy, {sup 188}Re also emits gamma rays (155keV) suitable for image. The aim of this new project is to compare the labeling of anti-CD20 with {sup 188}Re with the same MAb labeled with {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y and even {sup 99m}Tc. The first step in this project is the review of the published data available concerning the labeling of this MAb with different radionuclides, along with data obtained at IPEN, taking into account labeling procedures, labeling yields, reaction time, level and kind of impurities and biodistribution studies. The pharmacokinetic code will be developed in Visual Studio.NET platform through VB.NET and C{sup ++} for biodistribution and dosimetric

  14. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  15. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  16. The Brazilian experience in the implementation of nuclear security activities for the 2007 Pan-American Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actions taken by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) related to nuclear and radiological security for the Pan-American Games and for the Para Pan- American Games, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2007, are presented. This was part of a multi-institutional plan for the security of the games, coordinated by the National Secretary of Public Security of the Ministry of Justice (SENASP/MJ). The support provided by the IAEA under a cooperation arrangement with the Brazilian authorities was a key factor for the success of the whole operation. The organization and concept of operations adopted are described, and the results of the survey of venues before the start of the games and of the access control are presented. (author)

  17. Storage pool water condition of multipurpose compact 60Co irradiator of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type compact gamma irradiator was developed and installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, it is classified as category IV irradiator according to International Atomic Energy Agency-IAEA. The originality of its design remains on the rotating concrete door, which integrates the shielding system with the product handling system, permitting the input and output of the products in a continuous way, without the necessity to lower the sources and open the irradiator chamber to change the batch. The licensed capacity of this irradiator is 37 P Bq (1 MCi) and the water pool liner, manufactured in stainless steel, has 7.0 m deep and 2.7 m diameter. A sealed radiation source may be defined as a quantity of radioactive material sealed within non-radioactive material, which the confining barrier is intended to prevent leakage or escape of the radioactive material under normal handling conditions and also under foreseeable mishaps. The use of cobalt-60 radiation sources in a wet storage environment requires care in the control of that environment to avoid the potential for deterioration of the stainless steel. In the literature, the tests performed demonstrated that stainless steel had excellent performance under controlled environment conditions. The inspection includes assessing the condition of storage pool water and measuring the pool water conductivity. The demineralized water normally used in storage pools is usually an effective and secure medium in which to store stainless steel. However, there are certain constituents and contaminants in the water which can affect this behaviour. For instance, the pH has a small but definite effect on the tendency for pitting corrosion. Nevertheless, there is also evidence that both strongly alkaline and strongly acid environments can encourage pitting corrosion. In general, an around neutral pH is recommended. The conductivity is used as a measure of the extent to which ionic species are present in the pool water. International recommendations

  18. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  19. Implantation of radiodiagnostic reference radiations at the CDTN/CNEN for dosemeter calibration;Implantacao das radiacoes de referencia de radiodiagnostico no CDTN/CNEN para calibracao de dosimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista Neto, A.T. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Ferreira, F.C.B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Pereira, J.V. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais; Pinheiro, L.J.S. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Novo Rumo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Radiologia; Silva, T.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A reliable dosimetry in diagnostic radiology is based on the traceability of calibrated and type-tested dosimeters in reference radiations that were established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Metrology laboratories are expected to implement the reference radiations by reproducing the x-ray beam parameters within standard limits. This work shows the results of the implementation in the CDTN/CNEN-MG of the reference radiations for diagnostic radiology. The half value-layers and the homogeneity coefficients were determined for the primary (RQR), attenuated (RQA) and computerized tomography (RQT) x-ray beams. Results complied with the IEC limits which it means that the CDTN and the IEC reference radiations are similar and they can be used for calibration and type-testing of dosimeters to be used in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  20. Monitoring of the radioactive liquid effluents discharged from IPEN-CNEN/SP. Optimization of the procedures adopted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of a radioactive liquid effluents monitoring of a nuclear installation is to determine the amount of radioactivity discharged to the environment, as well as, to verify if this activity is below the authorized discharge limits established by the competent authority. Although this control has been established on a routine basis since the beginning of operation of the nuclear installations available at IPEN, the growing of such facilities in the last years has implied in an increase in the number of samples to be analyzed. The aim of this work is, therefore, to optimize the procedures adopted in the Environmental Monitoring Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP for the activity measurement of the liquid effluents discharged to the environment. Since these effluents are discharged to Pinheiros river, which presents a high dilution factor, a study is also carried out in order to verify if the activity present can be measured by the equipment available. (author)

  1. A dosimetric survey of the DC1500/25/04 electron beam plant installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we describe a dosimetric survey of the DC1500/25/04 electron beam accelerator installed in the Intense Sources of Radiation Laboratory at IPEN/CNEN-SP. As this accelerator has been used for innumerable applications in radiation processing, product surface and internal doses must be targeted and controlled via operational qualification such as beam energy, beam current, scan width and conveyor speed. The qualification of the accelerator was carried out in order to observe the current performances of the irradiation plant using Alanine (ESR) and CTA (UV Spectrophotometry) dosimeters. Energy (Electron penetration in material) calculations, scanning width/length, homogeneity and irradiation uniformity were evaluated according to ISO/ASTM 51649 and ISO11137-3, as well as process uncertainty establishment. (author)

  2. Biomass conversion through radiation immobilization of enzymes and microorganisms and pre-irradiation techniques at IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for alternative renewable sources of energy is receiving increasing attention in developed and less developed countries. At the IPEN-CNEN/SP several interconnected radiation technology applications in the field of biomass conversion have been developed, which included: 1) wood powdering of pre-irradiated wood chips for fuel production; 2) saccharification of lignocellulosic materials by combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other physical and chemical pre-treatments; 3) radiation immobilization of enzymes and microorganisms (yeasts) used in the saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and ethanol production processes; 4) production of complementary cattle feed by NH3 and NaOH impregnation of pre-irradiated sugarcane bagasse; 5) study of radiosensitivity of yeast cells and yeast ethanol production system; 6) initial tests of bioreactivity of radiation-induced polymers. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Participation of the radioanalytical laboratories of CDTN/CNEN in the national intercomparison program for radionuclide analysis in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the performance of the radioanalytical laboratories of Analytical Techniques Service - SERTA/CDTN/CNEN achieved in the National Intercomparison Program - PNI conducted by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD. The program comprehends the distribution of synthetic water samples for some (approximately 25) national laboratories in order to promote analytical credibility and to ensure the reliability of the analytical results based on radiochemical methodologies. In this program water samples are artificially contaminated at environmental level with known amounts of important radionuclides for radiological protection. The parameters and analytes evaluated are, 60Co, 65Zn, 106Ru, 133Ba, 134Cs, 137Cs, 3H, 90Sr, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, Unat, 232Th and gross alpha and beta measurements. In the last 13 years our performance was considered 'good' and 'acceptable' in over 90% of the rounds accomplished. (author)

  4. A dosimetric survey of the DC1500/25/04 electron beam plant installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Florent, E-mail: florent.kuntz@aerial-crt.com [Aerial, Centre de Ressources Technologiques, Parc d' Innovation, Illkirch (France); Somessari, Elizabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos G.da; Bueno, Carmen C.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Napolitano, Celia M.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Somessari, Samir L., E-mail: esomessar@ipen.br, E-mail: cgsilvei@ipen.br, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br, E-mail: cmnapoli@ipen.br, E-mail: josemary@ipen.br, E-mail: somessar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this work we describe a dosimetric survey of the DC1500/25/04 electron beam accelerator installed in the Intense Sources of Radiation Laboratory at IPEN/CNEN-SP. As this accelerator has been used for innumerable applications in radiation processing, product surface and internal doses must be targeted and controlled via operational qualification such as beam energy, beam current, scan width and conveyor speed. The qualification of the accelerator was carried out in order to observe the current performances of the irradiation plant using Alanine (ESR) and CTA (UV Spectrophotometry) dosimeters. Energy (Electron penetration in material) calculations, scanning width/length, homogeneity and irradiation uniformity were evaluated according to ISO/ASTM 51649 and ISO11137-3, as well as process uncertainty establishment. (author)

  5. The new facility for neutron tomography of IPEN-CNEN/SP and its potential to investigate hydrogenous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new facility for neutron tomography has been installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. A tomography can be obtained in 400 s and the spatial resolution in the image is 263 μm. The neutron dose per tomography, in the video camera used for image capture, is only 21 μSv, assures very few damages in its CCD sensor. Some selected objects were investigated and the obtained 3D images demonstrate the capability of the facility to investigate hydrogenous substances. - Highlights: • A new neutron tomography facility was installed at a 5 MW nuclear research reactor. • A tomography is obtained in 400 s with a spatial resolution of 263 μm. • The neutron dose at the camera is only 21 μSv per tomography. • The 3D images were enough to evaluate important aspects of some hydrogenous substances

  6. Brazilian system for NPP personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    part of the maintenance training center. Computers and audio-visual aids are available. There are two categories of nuclear power plant personnel which are regulated by CNEN: Licensed personnel (Senior Reactor Operators - SRO and Reactor Operators - RO) and Health Physics Supervisors. For these two categories, CNEN sets up rules and regulations which require approval of training programs and certificate them through independent written and oral examinations. All training activities related to these personnel are reviewed by CNEN. Licensed operators are required biannual retraining courses and their licenses are renewed every two years, after the applied programs are evaluated and approved by CNEN . Their requalification training programs, with utilization of full-scope simulators, however, are performed every year, at training centers located in the U.S. and Spain. ELETRONUCLEAR continuously exchanges information with international organizations such as IAEA, INPO, WANO and VGB, in areas of operational experience and guidelines related to training activities. raining Department provides an average of 24.000 mht (man-hour trained) per month, for the several departments of ELETRONUCLEAR and external organizations. It means 8% of total work force dedicated permanently to training programmes. Presently, there are some important issues influencing planning of training activities. During the last two years, production of electrical energy in Brazil could not follow its increasing consumption. Due to this problem, the Federal Government has decided to incentive an expansion of thermal energy production system, which is based mostly on large availability of natural gas in South America. This emerging market has recruited an expressive number of nuclear Personnel, Vienna (AT) salaries usually are higher in comparison with the nuclear market. Additionally, nuclear workers can retire after 25 years of work, following Brazilian legislation. These two aspects cause a expressive

  7. Comparison of activity measurements of the 67Ga and 123I at Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1998, the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI), of Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, belonging to the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), is conducting a comparison program for the measurements of radiopharmaceutical activities applied to to patients at the nuclear medicine sector, viewing to assessment the quality of that measurements. This work presents the results of three comparison rounds using the 67Ga and 123I, establishing the metrological tracking of the calibrators used by the participants. The results were analysed under the the viewpoint of the conformal with the regulatory authority and show that those comparisons are necessary to improve the quality of radiopharmaceutical measurement activities, identify failures on the equipment and technical procedures used by the nuclear medicine services all over the country

  8. Annual report of the Brazilian Directory of R and D - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Directory of Research and Development of the Brazilian CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission) presents the report for 1995. The publication describes and cover activities carried out in the following areas: nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, control and instrumentation, application of nuclear techniques, radioisotope production, materials of nuclear interest, radioactive wastes and irradiated materials. Three institutes accomplish Directory's Programme: Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/MG); Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/RJ); and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/SP). It is important to mention that the Institutes carry out a numberless of activities in cooperation with others institutions such as: universities, industries, private and government organizations. This cooperation is administrated through research contracts and agreements. 28 figs., 11 tabs

  9. PRODUÇÃO E COMPARTILHAMENTO DO CONHECIMENTO NUCLEAR: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NO IEN/CNEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina de Barros Cianconi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo procurou identificar ações que possam contribuir para a produção e compartilhamento de conhecimentos e informações na Divisão de Radiofármacos do Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN. A motivação para a pesquisa foi o risco, identificado em relatórios da área nuclear, de perda de conhecimento nessa área nos últimos anos. A gestão do conhecimento foi escolhida como ferramenta para o estudo do problema apontado, por possuir metodologias que visam estimular o processo de produção e compartilhamento de conhecimentos e informações, em empresas privadas e também em instituições públicas, como é o caso do IEN/CNEN. A gestão do conhecimento é uma disciplina relativamente nova, que mesmo não tendo nascido na Ciência da Informação, nela vem buscando sustentação teórica e legitimidade. A pesquisa identifica fatores que influenciam no compartilhamento de informação e conhecimento, tais como: redes sociais, comunidades de prática, ambientes facilitadores de colaboração, cultura organizacional, aprendizagem para formação de competências, e narrativas (storytelling. A revisão da literatura e analise dos dados obtidos, diversas práticas foram identificadas, e foram feitas algumas sugestões. Conclui-se que o estímulo institucional à colaboração e à troca de conhecimentos pode influenciar em resultados positivos em relação a um incremento na produção de novos conhecimentos.

  10. Evaluation of the radiological impact in the aquatic system in the surrounding of IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to control the discharges of radioactive material in the aquatic system (Jaguare stream and Pinheiros river) in the vicinity of IPEN-CNEN/SP an effluent monitoring program was established on a routine basis. This control is carried out by measuring the activity of the radionuclides present in the liquid effluents (source term) using gamma spectrometry and/or spectrophotometry. The results obtained are then compared with the discharge limits adopted by CNEN when a decision is made upon the discharge of the effluent under consideration. In 1988 the total activity discharged by the nuclear installations available was 1997, 9x106Bq in a total volume of 2421,4 m3. The next step was to evaluate the effective equivalent dose in the general public by using the results of the source term and the information available concerning the environment. It was assumed that the only critical pathway is the external gamma irradiation of the people that work in the nearby of the discharge points in Pinheiros river. The effective equivalent dose obtained was 39,4η Sv and the most relevant radionuclides that should be considered 60Co, 137Cs, 131I and 226Ra. This result is less than 1/10 of the maximum admissible dose limit adopted by the Radiological Protection Standards which is 10-3 Sv/year. In order to measure the level of radioactivity in the environment, samples of ground water, water and sediments of Pinheiros river were collected and analyzed by using gamma spectrometry and fluorimetry. The radionuclides found were 226Ra, 22228Ra, UNat, 40K and 7Be with activities corresponding to the background levels. The analysis of these results and the evaluation of the equivalent dose show that the radiological impact in the aquatic systems considered is insignificant. (author)

  11. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  12. Brazilian Strategies to Overcome Molybdenum Crisis: Present and Future Perspectives of the Multipurpose Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine applications in Brazil have been widely growing in the past few decades, following the world trends. Procedures in oncology and cardiology can be highlighted among its major contributions. Nowadays more than 80% of diagnosis procedures are performed with 99mTc, readily available from the elution of 99Mo-99mTc generators. The Brazilian demand, attended solely by IPEN-CNEN/SP, reaches out more than 320 generators per week with a total activity of about 16.7 TBq (450 Ci), which corresponds to 4% of the overall 99Mo global demand at an importation cost of US$20 million/year, most of it from Canada. The recent 99Mo supply crisis deeply affected the distribution of generators in Brazil. A short term solution was achieved with the purchase of 99Mo from Argentine and more recently from South Africa and also the distribution of generators produced by IBA and Israel. Mid term and long term projects are under way aiming the nationalization of the production of 99Mo. Both solutions will use the recently approved new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) that will be built near Sao Paulo city and will have a 30 MW power. The mid term project consists on the production of (n,γ) 99Mo and distribution of 99mTc and monodoses of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 99mTc to hospitals near Sao Paulo. The long term project deals with the production of 99Mo through the fission of 235U using LEU targets. This work describes the efforts taken by IPEN-CNEN/SP to overcome the recent 99Mo supply crisis and an up-to-date on the projects aiming the nationalization of the 99Mo production. (author)

  13. Temporal comportment assessment of metals in groundwater on the campus at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustino, Mainara G.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Soares, Sabrina M.V.; Silva, Tatiane B.S.C.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Marques, Joyce R.; Pires, Maria A.F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B., E-mail: mainarag@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Since 2006, Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) performs yearly the Environmental Monitoring Program of Stable Chemical Compounds (PMA-Q).Among other parameters, metals and semi metals in groundwater, collected at IPEN’s facility, are evaluated. The monitoring is conducted in nine wells, in attendance to the current Brazilian environmental legislation, which requires the monitoring of metals and semi metals in groundwater, in accordance with CETESB and CONAMA’s resolutions. CETESB is the Sao Paulo State environmental regulatory agency and CONAMA is the Environmental National Council, both agencies that regulate environmental standards in Brazil and regulate IPEN’s environmental activities. Besides these two environmental regulators, IPEN have to follow the request of the Term for the Adjustment of Conduct (TAC) from (IBAMA), in order to support programs to prevent and control pollution resulting from activities of IPEN’s facilities. In the current PMA-Q, Aluminum (Al) Antimony (Sb), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg) and Nickel (Ni) are analyzed by using sensitive analytical techniques as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). These elements results are in this paper evaluated. Both internal and external quality controls that uses data from interlaboratory programs are discussed here. It was possible to conclude that IPEN’s groundwater attends national standards and IPEN’s monitoring system operates under controlled quality conditions. (author)

  14. Thorium compounds processing at IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil and recent research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has a long tradition in the thorium technology, from mining of monazite until the obtainment of high purity thorium compounds and IPEN has accumulated since the 60's a wide experience in the purification of thorium, obtained primarily from the monazite processing. Brazil has one of the biggest world nuclear resources (uranium and thorium), being the sixth natural uranium resource in the world (309,000 t U3O8), one of the first world thorium natural resource. The reasonably assured reserves and the estimated additional resources can reach 1.3 million metric tons of ThO2. Unfortunately, Brazil has not a thorium program and there never was a national program, lasting for a period sufficient to produce practical results of effective use of thorium in the Brazilian reactors. Worse, the specific research activities on different topics of the thorium cycle have declined over time, due to the lack of interest and support. An autonomous nuclear program was carried out in the country in the 80's. However, major political changes occurred in the program in the early 90's. These changes contributed to the further reduction of interest in alternative nuclear fuel cycles. Unfortunately, contrarily to what is happening in some countries in recent years, nowadays Brazil is paying little attention to the thorium, even less than in the past, despite its huge reserves. There are only limited and localized initiatives from some researchers. Some proposals would be an excellent opportunity to keep the existent capabilities in the institution that will be strategically important for the country in the future

  15. Development of a quality management system for Brazilian nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a proposal for developing a quality management system for Brazilian nuclear installations, based on applicable standards. The standard ISO 9001:2000 [4] establishes general requirements for the implementation of a quality management system in all kinds of organizations. The standard IAEA 50-C/SG-Q [1] establishes general requirements for the implementation of a quality assurance system in nuclear installations. The standard CNEN-NN- 1.16 [5] establishes the regulating requirements for the quality assurance systems and programs of nuclear installations, for licensing and authorization for operation of these installations in Brazil. The revision of standard IAEA 50-C/SG-Q [1], to be replaced by IAEA DS 338 [2] and IAEA DPP 349 [3], introduces the concept of 'Integrated Management System' for the nuclear area, in preference to the concept of 'Quality Assurance'. This approach is incorporated with the current tendency, because it guides the system to manage, in an integrated way, the requirements of quality, safety, health, environment, security and economics of the installation. The results of the characterization of the quality management systems established in the applicable standards are presented, with the determination of the common and conflicting points among them. Referring data to quality assurance program/quality management system in some nuclear installations of IAEA Member States are also presented. (author)

  16. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd2O3-Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 105 neutrons thermic/cm2.s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  17. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  18. Dental x-ray qualities for test and calibration purposes at CRCN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental X-ray examinations represent around 30% of the total radiological procedures involving the exposure to ionizing radiation derived from medical practices in Brazil. There are approximately 75,000 intra-oral dental X-ray units and the great majority of them are single-phase x-ray units with 50 to 70 kVp tube potentials. Despite the great number of these devices sold in Brazil, there is no regulatory or standard requirements and each manufacturer produces the x-ray units according to their own design. In spite of this lack of regulation, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA-MS) establishes some criteria which must be met for quality assurance in dental practices. In order to contribute for the quality assurances programs, a single-phase dental unit with adjustable kVp and mA was developed at CRCN, aiming to define dental X-ray beam qualities for tests and calibrations purposes. With this equipment it is possible to have continuous X-ray production during a few minutes, thanks to the size of X-ray tube head, which permits a better cooling, and the low tube current (0.2 to 1.0 mA range). Due to its characteristics, the unit can also be utilized for X-ray spectrometry purposes. Measurements of the inherent filtration and half-value layers were carried out. The radiation field size and uniformity, radiation leakage through tube shielding, and other parameters were also evaluated on the basis of ANVISA quality criteria. The X-ray spectra at 50, 60 and 70 kVp were obtained by using an Amptek CdTe detector with pinhole collimators, alignment devices and associated software. These spectra were compared with those obtained for commercial dental X-ray units. The results show that the behavior of this test equipment is similar to the one for commercial units. The X-ray qualities obtained in this work are the first step to establish X-ray beam standards for dental radiology in Brazil. (author)

  19. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  20. Brazilian librarians and Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil leads the world in social networks. This essay focuses on the results of a two-year experience of Brazilian librarians using Twitter in their work field. Two types of presence on Twitter are identified. A new approach is proposed to answers the critical questions librarians are facing regarding service provision based on Twitter.

  1. Annual report of the Brazilian Directory of R and D - 1995; Relatorio anual da Diretoria de P e D 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Directory of Research and Development of the Brazilian CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission) presents the report for 1995. The publication describes and cover activities carried out in the following areas: nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, control and instrumentation, application of nuclear techniques, radioisotope production, materials of nuclear interest, radioactive wastes and irradiated materials. Three institutes accomplish Directory`s Programme: Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/MG); Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/RJ); and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/SP). It is important to mention that the Institutes carry out a numberless of activities in cooperation with others institutions such as: universities, industries, private and government organizations. This cooperation is administrated through research contracts and agreements. 28 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Total alpha and beta determination by liquid scintillation counting in water samples from a Brazilian intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes CNEN/LAPOC's participation in the Brazilian Intercomparison Exercise (PNI) for simultaneous determination of total radioactivity in water samples, which took place in August and December 2008. The Proficiency Test (PT) also involved a short description of the nuclear analytical technique employed, emphasizing sources of uncertainty. A Liquid Scintillation System (Packard TRICARB 2700) was used with appropriate corrections applied to final results, expressed as Bq L-1. Participation and PT data provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PT is also an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Lab practices. (author)

  3. Homogeneity study of enriched uranium dioxide to be used in intercomparison programs in the brazilian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian nuclear facilities must dispose of measurement systems that allow the determination of their nuclear material inventories. The main goal of this work is the characterization of enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) pellets to use as test sample to evaluate and verify these systems through the participation of the involved laboratories in interlaboratorial comparison programs. The programs are formed by a network of specialized laboratories in determining materials of the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, before being sent to laboratories, the materials must have their homogeneity confirmed. The homogeneity study of the UO2 pellets has being carried out in the Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) through Destructives Analysis technique. The technique used was Davies and Gray/NBL titrimetric method. For this purpose, 25 pellets of enriched uranium dioxide from two different batches were randomly chosen. The model for homogeneity study between-unit variation (between-bottle homogeneity study) and minimum sample intake (within-bottle homogeneity study) adopted is a one-way ANOVA. No statistical significant differences were observed in the results of total uranium concentration for both batches. Thus, the UO2 pellets are considered homogeneous and can be used in a Brazilian measurement systems evaluation program.(author)

  4. Analysis of normative requirements for the development and implementation of a quality management system in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work identifies, characterizes and analyses the normative requirements for the development and implementation of quality management systems in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities. The requirements established in standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1, IAEA DS 349, NBR ISO 9001:2000 e CNEN-NN-1.16 are critically analyzed. A correlation matrix of the applicable standards is presented and the related topics among them are identified. The standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1 and IAEA DS 349 define general requirements for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving an integrated management system in nuclear installations and activities, in IAEA member countries. The standard NBR ISO 9001:2000 establishes general requirements for the implementation of a quality management system in all kinds of organizations. The standard CNEN NN-1.16 establishes the regulating requirements for the quality assurance systems and programs of nuclear installations, for licensing and authorization for operation of these installations in Brazil. The standard IAEA GS-R-3 that replaces the code IAEA 50-C-Q introduces the concept of 'Integrated Management System' for the nuclear area, in preference to the concepts of 'Quality Assurance' and 'Quality Management'. This new approach is aligned with the current tendency incorporating requirements of quality, safety, health, environment, security, economics and other in a unique management system. Examples of quality management systems implemented by Brazilian nuclear organizations and by nuclear organizations outside Brazil are analyzed and considered in the discussion of results. (author)

  5. Nuclear knowledge portal to support licensing and control nuclear activities in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    importance of keeping the intellectual capital in the organizations that is to work with the knowledge from the collaborators. In Brazil still have many authors that discusses this concept and we adopt for this paper the definition form Cavalcanti where is the concept 'intellectual capital' refers either to the capacity, ability or experience, as well as to the formal education that the collaborators members have and add to the Organization. The 'intellectual capital' is an intangible asset, which belongs to the individual himself, thus it might be utilized by the organizations in order to generate value. The development and preservation of this intellectual capital is made through the implementation of forums of discussion, workshops or knowledge portals where the organization's collaborators share their experiences. Nevertheless, to assimilate and to develop the 'intellectual capital' does not add value to the organization: It is necessary to keep it. And one way to do so is to create desirable and encouraging work environments, to promote a sharing management and to offer programs of profits sharing. The objective of this paper is to describe how Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN has been developing a nuclear knowledge portal, focused in the Radiation and Safety Nuclear area. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is a federal autarchy created in October 10 of 1956, as a superior agency of planning, guiding, supervision and inspection in nuclear area being also the body entitled to establish standards and regulations on radiological protection, to issue licenses (permissions) and to survey and control the nuclear activities in Brazil. CNEN also develops researches related to the use of nuclear techniques in benefit of the society. The Radiation and Safety Nuclear directorate of CNEN acts, mainly, in the licensing of nuclear and radioactive installations. The people who work at this area recognize the importance of management and sharing the accumulated

  6. The development of some standards for X- and β-radiation at the ionizing radiation metrology laboratory (LMRI) of CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionometric standards for X and beta radiation have recently been developed at CNEN to service the calibration needs in radioprotection and radiotherapy in Italy. For the absolute measurement of medium energy X-ray exposure, a free-air chamber is being employed. The chamber design, due to F.H. Attix, is based on a subtraction method in which the difference of two readings of the ionization is used for the absolute determination of exposure. In particular, this chamber has no need for field shaping electrodes since the effect of electric field distortion is eliminated. Therefore an important source of error typical for conventional free-air chambers is avoided. The details of the chamber are reported as well as the preliminary results of the exposure measurements with X-rays in the 100-150 kV range. With regard to beta radiation, an extrapolation chamber has been recently realized at LMRI. Using this standard, the absorbed dose to tissue is determined at a fixed depth of about 2 mg.cm-2. The collecting electrode, made of a nearly tissue-equivalent material, is easily interchangeable, allowing different collecting areas between about 0.05 cm2 and 10 cm2 to be used. The chamber depth can be varied between 0.5 mm and 30 mm in steps of 0.01 mm. Particular care has been taken to reduce the leakage current to below 5 x 10-16 A in all chamber configurations. The characteristics of construction and the results of measurements using 90Sr beta radiation are also described for this standard. It has been foreseen that both standards will undergo intercomparisons against other analogous national standards for X and beta radiations in some European laboratories. (author)

  7. Study of socio environmental actions of Energy and Nuclear Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years the evolution of environmental concept comes solidifying increasingly through programs, conferences and various activities taking place in Brazil and worldwide. As a result of this development, sustainability and social responsibility began to be seen as something present in day to day business and institutions. In particular, the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), state authority associated with University of Sao Paulo (USP) and managed by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), subordinate the Ministry of Science and Technology, which is the focus of this work, has the mission the commitment to society as regards: improving the quality of life of the population, producing scientific knowledge, developing technologies, generating products and services and training human resources in nuclear and related. Based on the mission of IPEN and in the lack of assessment tools of social actions, this paper aims to propose an instrument for assessing social responsibility and serve as a methodological option, strongly committed to the pursuit of improvements of IPEN. Through indicators and dimensions, built up a methodology that seeks to assess social responsibility and identify strengths, to be encouraged and weaknesses, which can be studied and improved. This methodology was applied to IPEN and the results that are presented in this work identified positives regarding their actions to their domestic audience and points to be improved in relation to their external audience. As an initial evaluation, the results were satisfactory; however, this work will continue in order to suggest the implementation of social and environmental actions feasible to be applied in IPEN. (author)

  8. Improvement of the WBC calibration of the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of the CDTN/CNEN using MCNPX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Heeren de O, A. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Melo, B. M.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.; Ferreira F, T. C., E-mail: tcff01@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Programa de Pos Graduacao / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The Plan of Radiological Protection licensed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN in Brazil includes the risks of assessment of internal and external exposure by implementing a program of individual monitoring which is responsible of controlling exposures and ensuring the maintenance of radiation safety. The Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology - LID/CDTN is responsible for routine monitoring of internal contamination of the Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOEs). These are, the IOEs involved in handling {sup 18}F produced by the Unit for Research and Production of Radiopharmaceuticals sources; as well a monitoring of the entire body of workers from the Research Reactor TRIGA IPR-R1/CDTN or whenever there is any risk of accidental incorporation. The determination of photon emitting radionuclides from the human body requires calibration techniques of the counting geometries, in order to obtain a curve of efficiency. The calibration process normally makes use of physical phantoms containing certified activities of the radionuclides of interest. The objective of this project is the calibration of the WBC facility of the LID/CDTN using the BOMAB physical phantom and Monte Carlo simulations. Three steps were needed to complete the calibration process. First, the BOMAB was filled with a KCl solution and several measurements of the gamma ray energy (1.46 MeV) emitted by {sup 40}K were done. Second, simulations using MCNPX code were performed to calculate the counting efficiency (Ce) for the BOMAB model phantom and compared with the measurements Ce results. Third and last step, the modeled BOMAB phantom was used to calculate the Ce covering the energy range of interest. The results showed a good agreement and are within the expected ratio between the measured and simulated results. (Author)

  9. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  10. Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for a Brazilian national laboratory for synchrotron radiation is presented. The first design study led to a system consisting of a LINAC, an injection ring and a low emittance storage ring. The main ring is designed to be upgraded to 3GeV with an emittance of 4 x 10-8 rad.m. The design study also indicated the possibility of using the injection ring as a soft x-Rays/VUV source

  11. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  12. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Adequacao das normas brasileiras de radioprotecao aos principios fundamentais de seguranca da International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities.

  13. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.b, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2011-10-26

    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  14. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a 60Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  16. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  17. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  18. Prospection of implementation of distance learning at IPEN/CNEN-SP for the course on fundamentals of nuclear physics using infrastructure of free software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present work is to prospect the implementation of the methods and techniques of distance learning to the course of Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics,which is obligatory for all students of the graduate course of IPEN/CNEN-SP (USP - Area of Nuclear Technology). It was chosen the free software MOODLE (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment), created in 2001, which allows the collaborative educational work by means of internet navigation. The first part of the present work was to prepare a pilot project for the implantation of distance learning for the course on Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics at the graduate course of IPEN/CNEN-SP, by inserting in the platform all the lecture presentations prepared by the teacher responsible for the course, as well as papers related to the subject, videos, exercises and tests. A total of 118 students at MSc and PhD levels of IPEN participated of the research, as well as 16 professors responsible for several courses at IPEN. The data collection comprised the following phases: questionnaires about the profile of the students, utilization of the course inserted in the Moodle platform, opinion of the students about the use of the platform and opinion of the professors about distance learning. (author)

  19. Prospection of implementation of distance learning at IPEN/CNEN-SP for the course on fundamentals of nuclear physics using infrastructure of free software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondin, Jose Egidio M.; Menezes, Mario O. de; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of the present work is to prospect the implementation of the methods and techniques of distance learning to the course of Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics,which is obligatory for all students of the graduate course of IPEN/CNEN-SP (USP - Area of Nuclear Technology). It was chosen the free software MOODLE (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment), created in 2001, which allows the collaborative educational work by means of internet navigation. The first part of the present work was to prepare a pilot project for the implantation of distance learning for the course on Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics at the graduate course of IPEN/CNEN-SP, by inserting in the platform all the lecture presentations prepared by the teacher responsible for the course, as well as papers related to the subject, videos, exercises and tests. A total of 118 students at MSc and PhD levels of IPEN participated of the research, as well as 16 professors responsible for several courses at IPEN. The data collection comprised the following phases: questionnaires about the profile of the students, utilization of the course inserted in the Moodle platform, opinion of the students about the use of the platform and opinion of the professors about distance learning. (author)

  20. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  1. Implementation of the Brazilian primary standard for x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of ionizing radiation metrology, a primary standard of a given physical quantity is essentially an experimental set-up which allows one to attribute a numerical value to a particular sample of that quantity in terms of a unit given by an abstract definition. The absolute measurement of the radiation quantity air kerma, is performed with a free-air ionization chamber. A great deal of research to determine the absolute measurement resulted in different designs for primary standard free-air ionization chambers such as cilindrics or plane parallel chambers. The implementation of primary standard dosimetry with free-air ionization chambers is limited to the National Metrology Institutes - NMIs. Since 1975, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures - BIPM has been conducting comparisons of NMIs primary free-air standard chambers in the medium energy x-rays range. These comparisons are carried out indirectly through the calibration at both the BIPM and at the NMI of one or more transfer ionization chambers at a series of four reference radiation qualities. The scientific work programme of the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology - LNMRI of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD, which belongs to the National Commission of Nuclear Energy - CNEN, includes the establishment of a primary standard for x-rays of medium energy x-ray range. This activity is justified by the demand to calibrate periodically Brazilian network of the secondary standards without losing quality of the measurement. The LNMRI decided to implement four reference radiation qualities establishing the use of a transfer chamber calibrated at BIPM. The LNMRI decided to implement the primary standard dosimetry using a free-air ionization chamber with variable volume, made by Victoreen, model 480. Parameters related to the measurement of the quantity air kerma were evaluated, such as: air absorption, scattering inside the ionization chamber, saturation, beam

  2. Technology for manufacturing dispersion nuclear fuel at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil; A tecnologia de fabricacao do combustivel nuclear a base de dispersao no Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazzo, M.; Carvalho, E.F. Urano de; Saliba-Silva, A.M.; Souza, J.A.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Combustivel Nuclear; Riella, H.G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    IPEN has been working for increasing radioisotope production in order to supply the expanding demand for radiopharmaceutical medicines requested by the Brazilian welfare. To reach this objective, the IEA-R1 research reactor power capacity was recently increased from 2 MW to 3.5 MW. Since 1988 IPEN has been manufacturing its own fuel element, initially based on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion fuel plates with 2.3 g U/cm{sup 3}. To support the reactor power increase, higher uranium density had to be achieved for better irradiation flux and also to minimize the irradiated fuel elements to be stored. Uranium silicide was the chosen option. This paper describes the results of this program and the current status of silicide fuel fabrication and qualification. (author)

  3. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  4. Comparison of low enriched uranium (UAlx-Al and U-Ni) targets with different geometries for the production of molybdenum-99 in the RMB (Brazilian multipurpose reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception design phase, is being designed in Brazil to attend the demand of radiopharmaceuticals in the country and conduct researches in various areas. The new reactor, planned for 30 MW, will replace the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Low enriched uranium (235U) UAlx dispersed in Al (plate geometry) and metallic uranium foil targets (plate and cylinder geometries) are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 (99Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed to compare the production of 99Mo for these targets in the RMB. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes Hammer-Technion, Citation and Scale and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations were utilized the computer code MTRCR-IEAR1 and ANSYS CFX. (author)

  5. Technology for manufacturing dispersion nuclear fuel at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN has been working for increasing radioisotope production in order to supply the expanding demand for radiopharmaceutical medicines requested by the Brazilian welfare. To reach this objective, the IEA-R1 research reactor power capacity was recently increased from 2 MW to 3.5 MW. Since 1988 IPEN has been manufacturing its own fuel element, initially based on U3O8-Al dispersion fuel plates with 2.3 g U/cm3. To support the reactor power increase, higher uranium density had to be achieved for better irradiation flux and also to minimize the irradiated fuel elements to be stored. Uranium silicide was the chosen option. This paper describes the results of this program and the current status of silicide fuel fabrication and qualification. (author)

  6. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  7. The new Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 15, 1990, when Fernando Collor's Government was inaugurated, the Brazilian President has been pursuing a nuclear policy aimed at ensuring compliance with the constitutional principles and rules that determine the utilization of nuclear energy solely for peaceful uses and purposes. The development of Brazilian nuclear policy has followed several stages, which are reported in this paper from a legal and institutional point of view. (author)

  8. Radioprotection planned operation to deactivate an old fabrication plant of UO2 pellets in IPEN - CNEN/SP to perform decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the steps adopted in the operation planned for the deactivation and decommissioning of the previous plant (building 24), to manufacture the tablets of dioxide of Uranium of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP are shown, with decommissioning aims. This operation involved the planning, training the operators of the installation, radiometric analysis of the workstations and surveys for monitoring external radiation, contaminated surfaces and air contamination. The training involved the procedures for the manipulation of radioactive materials, decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for monitoring the individual surface body contamination, footwear and clothes. Procedures for the transport of radioactive materials had also been established, relative to the internal rules of the installation; provisory confinement of wastes; effluent, riddance of materials and finding areas free of contamination. (author)

  9. Radioprotection planned operation to deactivate an old fabrication plant of UO2 pellets in IPEN - CNEN/SP to perform decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the steps adopted in the operation planned for the deactivation and decommissioning of the previous plant (building 24), to manufacture the tablets of dioxide of Uranium of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP are shown, with decomissioning aims. This operation involved the planning, training the operators of the installation, radiometric analysis of the workstations and surveys for monitoring external radiation, contaminated surfaces and air contamination. The training involved the procedures for the manipulation of radioactive materials, decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for monitoring the individual surface body contamination, footwear and clothes. Procedures for the transport of radioactive materials had also been established, relative to the internal rules of the installation; provisory confinement of wastes; effluent, riddance of materials and finding areas free of contamination. (author)

  10. Study of social responsibility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP); Estudo da responsabilidade social do Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares de Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia

    2014-07-01

    Over the years, the socio-environmental concept has grown through programs, conferences and several activities that have been held in Brazil and worldwide. Sustainability and social responsibility are now an integral part of everyday life of organizations The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which is the focus of this research, is committed to the improvement of Brazilian quality of life. Based on IPEN's mission, and due to the lack of tools for assessing socio-environmental actions, this research aims to propose an assessment tool for social responsibility, which may also be a methodological resource committed to the improvement of the Institute. Through indicators and dimensions, a methodology to assess social responsibility and identify both strengths and weaknesses was designed. The methodology was administered to IPEN, and the results demonstrated positive aspects regarding actions towards the internal publics and negative aspects towards the external publics that require improvement. The results obtained were satisfactory. Nevertheless, as the subject of this study is a broad theme, further studies are suggested. IPEN's board may use the results of this research as a tool to help them identify feasible socio-environmental actions to be implemented in the institute. (author)

  11. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  12. Intercomparison of 67 Ga activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1998 the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), with delegation of the National Institute of Metrology and Industrial Quality (INMETRO), is conducting an intercomparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals applied to the patients in the field of Nuclear Medicine with the purpose of quality control. This intercomparison program has been carrying out measurements of 123 I, 131 I and 99m Tc throughout the country and, recently, initiated the first intercomparison run with 67 Ga with the participation of 27 hospitals of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The results had been analyzed under the point of view of conformity with the norms of the Regulatory Authority and the accuracy of the measurements in relation to the reference value of the LNMRI which is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST/USA). The results showed that these intercomparisons are necessary to improve the quality of the activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals, to identify fails in the equipment and in the technical procedures used by the Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services. (author)

  13. Program for in-pile qualification of high density silicide dispersion fuel at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of high density nuclear fuel (U3Si2-Al) with 4,8 gU/cm3 is on going at IPEN, at this time. This fuel has been considered to be utilized at the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned to be constructed up to 2014. As Brazil does not have hot-cell facilities available for post-irradiation analysis, an alternative qualifying program for this fuel is proposed based on the same procedures used at IPEN since 1988 for qualifying its own U3O8-Al (1,9 and 2,3 gU/cm3) and U3Si2-Al (3,0 gU/cm3) dispersion fuels. The fuel miniplates and full-size fuel elements irradiations should be tested at IEA-R1 core. The fuel characterization along the irradiation time should be made by means of non-destructive methods, including periodical visual inspections with an underwater video camera system, sipping tests for fuel elements suspected of leakage, and underwater dimensional measurements for swelling evaluation, performed inside the reactor pool. This work presents the program description for the qualification of the high density nuclear fuel (U3Si2-Al) with 4,8 gU/cm3, and describes the IPEN fuel fabrication infrastructure and some basic features of the available systems for non-destructive tests at IEA-R1 research reactor. (author)

  14. Study of social responsibility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute of Sao Paulo (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, the socio-environmental concept has grown through programs, conferences and several activities that have been held in Brazil and worldwide. Sustainability and social responsibility are now an integral part of everyday life of organizations The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which is the focus of this research, is committed to the improvement of Brazilian quality of life. Based on IPEN's mission, and due to the lack of tools for assessing socio-environmental actions, this research aims to propose an assessment tool for social responsibility, which may also be a methodological resource committed to the improvement of the Institute. Through indicators and dimensions, a methodology to assess social responsibility and identify both strengths and weaknesses was designed. The methodology was administered to IPEN, and the results demonstrated positive aspects regarding actions towards the internal publics and negative aspects towards the external publics that require improvement. The results obtained were satisfactory. Nevertheless, as the subject of this study is a broad theme, further studies are suggested. IPEN's board may use the results of this research as a tool to help them identify feasible socio-environmental actions to be implemented in the institute. (author)

  15. Results of two Albedo systems in a Brazilian neutron individual monitoring comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everton R.; Martins, Marcelo M.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Freitas, Bruno M., E-mail: everton@ird.gov.br, E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.br, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: brunofreitas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Dosimetria

    2013-07-01

    In 2012, the Brazilian National Metrology Laboratory sponsored the First Brazilian National Comparison of Measurements with Neutron Individual Monitors. The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry IRD/CNEN-RJ participated in it with its two albedo systems: one-component and two-component albedo monitors. The one component is composed by two capsules in a belt and each capsule has a pair of TLD for albedo neutron detection. The two-component consists of one capsule in a belt with two pairs of TLD: one pair for the measurement of the incident neutrons and the other for albedo neutrons. This paper presents the results of both systems in that comparison. The irradiation of the monitors was performed in four different values of H{sub p}(10,0 deg) in a traceable {sup 241}Am-Be ISO standard reference neutron field. For both systems, it was observed that the evaluated dose values are very close to the reference dose values which each monitor has been undergone. Considering the mean values, the two-component albedo monitor has performance a little bit better than the one-component one but the results of both systems are statistically equal. For both systems, the responses are close to 1 and inside the trumpet curves. Thus, the results of two systems confirm their good accuracy and reproducibility in the tested neutron field and indicate that are able to evaluate the occupational neutron doses. This work confirms the importance of the inter-laboratory comparison programs to verification of the reliability of individual monitoring systems. (author)

  16. Results of two Albedo systems in a Brazilian neutron individual monitoring comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, the Brazilian National Metrology Laboratory sponsored the First Brazilian National Comparison of Measurements with Neutron Individual Monitors. The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry IRD/CNEN-RJ participated in it with its two albedo systems: one-component and two-component albedo monitors. The one component is composed by two capsules in a belt and each capsule has a pair of TLD for albedo neutron detection. The two-component consists of one capsule in a belt with two pairs of TLD: one pair for the measurement of the incident neutrons and the other for albedo neutrons. This paper presents the results of both systems in that comparison. The irradiation of the monitors was performed in four different values of Hp(10,0 deg) in a traceable 241Am-Be ISO standard reference neutron field. For both systems, it was observed that the evaluated dose values are very close to the reference dose values which each monitor has been undergone. Considering the mean values, the two-component albedo monitor has performance a little bit better than the one-component one but the results of both systems are statistically equal. For both systems, the responses are close to 1 and inside the trumpet curves. Thus, the results of two systems confirm their good accuracy and reproducibility in the tested neutron field and indicate that are able to evaluate the occupational neutron doses. This work confirms the importance of the inter-laboratory comparison programs to verification of the reliability of individual monitoring systems. (author)

  17. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  18. Regulatory quality control in the metal and semi metal environmental monitoring program at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustino, Mainara G.; Silva, Doulgas Batista; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Dantas, Elizabeth S.K.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The CONAMA's Resolution 430 recently published in May 13{sup th} of 2011, that completes and modifies the Resolution 357/2005, defined new quality standards to perform liquid effluent monitoring essays in order to allow the release in the public sewer system. This Resolution has established that the essay laboratories must be certified by Brazilian National Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality Institute - INMETRO and also count with an implemented quality control system. Thereby this publication affected directly IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program of Stables Chemical Compound (PMA-Q), performed since 2007. In this program, 20 parameters related to the metallic and non-metallic chemical elements content are monitored by using sensitive analytical techniques such as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF-AAS or inductively coupled plasma spectrometry - ICP-OES. Therefore this paper presents improvements to determine the laboratory individual performance performed by GF-AAS and ICP-OES. To achieve the legislation compliance for these parameters, the following actions were implemented: the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the participation of the laboratory in interlaboratory proficiency tests (external quality control). These actions are presented and discussed with the results of elements such as Arsenic and Lead that are analyzed through GF-AAS as well as Chromium, Cooper, Zinc, Iron and Nickel, that are analyzed through ICP-OES. These actions of quality control allowed the continuous monitoring of laboratory performance, the identification and resolution of analytic problems and interlaboratory differences, provide additional confidence to monitoring program. (author)

  19. Making Heritage in Brazilian Quilombos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lorena Kenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Palmares Cultural Foundation has recognized 1,624 communities as remanescentes de quilombos, or remnants, of traditional Black settlements. Since 1988, the constitution has guaranteed these groups collective land titles, generating heated debate and conflict concerning authenticity, assimilation, and land rights. Heritage has become an important vehicle for legitimizing identity and securing territory rights. I examine quilombola heritage in the sertão, an area not popularly acknowledged as having a history of slavery or Afro Brazilian cultural traditions.

  20. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  1. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  2. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  3. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  4. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  5. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  6. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  7. Comparison of low enriched uranium (UAl{sub x}-Al and U-Ni) targets with different geometries for the production of molybdenum-99 in the RMB (Brazilian multipurpose reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Silva, Jose Eduardo R. da; Angelo, Gabriel; Fedorenko, Giuliana G., E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nishiyama, Pedro J.B. de O., E-mail: pedro.julio@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception design phase, is being designed in Brazil to attend the demand of radiopharmaceuticals in the country and conduct researches in various areas. The new reactor, planned for 30 MW, will replace the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Low enriched uranium (<20% {sup 235}U) UAl{sub x} dispersed in Al (plate geometry) and metallic uranium foil targets (plate and cylinder geometries) are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed to compare the production of {sup 99}Mo for these targets in the RMB. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes Hammer-Technion, Citation and Scale and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations were utilized the computer code MTRCR-IEAR1 and ANSYS CFX. (author)

  8. Comparison of activity measurements of the {sup 67}Ga and {sup 123}I at Brazilian nuclear medicine services; Comparacao das medicoes de atividade do {sup 67}Ga e {sup 123}I em servicos de medicina nuclear brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A. dos; Silva, M.A.L. da; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)], e-mail: joyra@ird.gov.br, e-mail: leobino@ird.gov.br, e-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Iwahara, A.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)], e-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br, e-mail: aedu@ird.gov.br, e-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.br

    2003-07-01

    Since 1998, the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI), of Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, belonging to the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), is conducting a comparison program for the measurements of radiopharmaceutical activities applied to to patients at the nuclear medicine sector, viewing to assessment the quality of that measurements. This work presents the results of three comparison rounds using the {sup 67}Ga and {sup 123}I, establishing the metrological tracking of the calibrators used by the participants. The results were analysed under the the viewpoint of the conformal with the regulatory authority and show that those comparisons are necessary to improve the quality of radiopharmaceutical measurement activities, identify failures on the equipment and technical procedures used by the nuclear medicine services all over the country.

  9. Immunoradiometric assay for the determination of E. coli proteins in recombinant dna derived human growth hormone produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the determination of multiple antigens was set up in order to quantify E. coli (ECP) in lots of purified recombinant human growth hormone (rec-hGH). SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting techniques were carried out, in parallel, to confirm the results obtained by IRMA and to provide more information about the contaminants. Anti-ECP antibodies were obtained by rabbit immunization with ECP, which were submitted to the same purification process utilized for rec-hGH with the exception of the last step. A strain-process-specific assay was thus set up. The antiserum obtained was purified through an affinity column prepared with the same ECP used for immunization, this provided an highly sensitive assay (0,03 ng ECP/mL). This IRMA was shown to be specific, not presenting any cross reaction with hGH and studies carried out on precision, accuracy and linearity of response with dilution confirmed its validity as one of the fundamental purity tests for rec-hGH produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP, whose principles can be easily extended to the analysis of other similar products. These studies have also shown that the utilization of an affinity column, prepared with the described anti-ECP antiserum was very effective, providing rec-hGH lots with less then 10 parts per million (0,001%) of contaminating proteins. (author). 45 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Evaluation of the minimum detectable activity of whole body and thyroid counters at in vivo monitoring laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance in whole-body measurement includes quality control with procedure descriptions, detector calibrations, instrument control and evaluation internally or by outside persons. The In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) provides an estimate of activity, in the body, by direct measure of whole body or thyroid content in occupationally exposed workers. LMIV has two NaI(Tl) detectors of 8x4'' and 2x2'' respectively, to carry out the whole-body and thyroid monitoring, respectively. The system calibration was carried out with 152Eu, 241Am and 60Co sources positioned within Alderson Research Labs., anthropomorphic phantom. Minimum detectable activity and critical level values for nuclides of interest were determined, since these values are an indication of the sensitivity of the detection system. The background measures were obtained from the first monitoring of some workers, blank measures. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. (author)

  11. O Processo de Avaliação de Estagiários da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN: focalizando seu instrumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Márcia Rocha Lidington

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo avaliativo e os resultados da avaliação do instrumento utilizado para a avaliação de estagiários da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, denominado Avaliação do Estágio pelo Supervisor. A avaliação se concentrou na definição dos cinco Conceitos utilizados para avaliar os nove Aspectos que compõem o instrumento, buscando estabelecer Padrões capazes de minimizar o efeito das interferências subjetivas capazes de comprometer a avaliação do estagiário. Foram utilizadas as abordagens Centrada nos Consumidores, Centrada em Especialistas e Responsiva. Participaram do processo avaliativo os três públicos interessados: Ex-estagiários, Orientadores/Supervisores de Estágio e profissionais da área de Recursos Humanos que atuam no gerenciamento do Programa de Estágios, na Instituição. Os resultados do estudo englobam sugestões de ordem quantitativa e qualitativa para cada um dos Padrões propostos no instrumento.

  12. Evaluation of the minimum detectable activity of whole-body and thyroid counters of the in vivo monitoring laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance in whole-body measurement includes quality control with procedure descriptions, detector calibrations, instrument control and evaluation internally or by outside persons. The In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP (LMIV) provides a direct way activity measure of internally incorporated radionuclides in occupationally exposed workers. LMIV has two NaI(Tl) of 8x4'' and 2x2'' to perform the monitoring of whole-body and thyroid, respectively. The acquisition and analysis software was Genie2000 3.2, Canberra. The system calibration was carried out with Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 sources positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. Minimum detectable activity (MDA) and critical level (Lc) values for nuclides of interest were determined, since these values are an indication of the sensitivity of the detection system. The background counts were obtained from the first monitoring of some workers, blank measurements. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. (author)

  13. Two-faces stationary irradiation method and dosimetric considerations for radiation processing at the multipurpose gamma irradiation facility / IPEN-CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Over the last ten years, the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN located inside the Sao Paulo University campus has been providing services on radiation processing, especially for sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well as support to research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Placed at the same campus operates an extremely important radiopharmaceutical production facility when almost all disposable supplies used to produce medical products as the technetium-99m are continuously sterilized by gamma radiation. Many university biomedical research laboratories specially those working with equipment for cell cultures and vaccine production also make use of the gamma sterilization. Animal feed and shavings used by certified bioteries are routinely disinfected. Alternative underwater irradiation methods were developed to meet the demand of gemstone color enhancement. Human tissues including bone, skin, amniotic membranes, tendons, and cartilage belonging to National Banks are usually irradiated too. Different kind of polymers, hydrogels, foods as well native fruits, have been irradiated in this facility. Cultural heritage objects as books, paintings and furniture are disinfected routinely by gamma radiation. The success of the implementation of radiation processing in this facility is due to research and development of irradiation and dosimetry methods suitable for each condition. In this work are presented some considerations about the distribution dose and the two-faces stationary irradiation method developed and validated for this facility. (author)

  14. Two-faces stationary irradiation method and dosimetric considerations for radiation processing at the multipurpose gamma irradiation facility / IPEN-CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last ten years, the Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN located inside the Sao Paulo University campus has been providing services on radiation processing, especially for sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well as support to research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Placed at the same campus operates an extremely important radiopharmaceutical production facility when almost all disposable supplies used to produce medical products as the technetium-99m are continuously sterilized by gamma radiation. Many university biomedical research laboratories specially those working with equipment for cell cultures and vaccine production also make use of the gamma sterilization. Animal feed and shavings used by certified bioteries are routinely disinfected. Alternative underwater irradiation methods were developed to meet the demand of gemstone color enhancement. Human tissues including bone, skin, amniotic membranes, tendons, and cartilage belonging to National Banks are usually irradiated too. Different kind of polymers, hydrogels, foods as well native fruits, have been irradiated in this facility. Cultural heritage objects as books, paintings and furniture are disinfected routinely by gamma radiation. The success of the implementation of radiation processing in this facility is due to research and development of irradiation and dosimetry methods suitable for each condition. In this work are presented some considerations about the distribution dose and the two-faces stationary irradiation method developed and validated for this facility. (author)

  15. Use of the MCNPX to calculate the neutron spectra around the GE-PETtrace 8 cyclotron of the CDTN/CNEN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to calculate the neutron spectra in 4 points around the targets of the CDTN/CNEN cyclotron, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, during the production of the 18FDG. Simulated data were compared with experimental data obtained with a Bonner multisphere spectrometry system (BSS) using TLD-600 and TLD-700 and the unfolding codes BUNKIUT, BUMS and NSDUAZ. In general, simulated spectra disagreed with those obtained by experimental means by a factor as high as 14. Measurements performed with a doserate meter in other 3 more shielded points, showed also an overestimation of the ambient dose equivalent rate by a factor as high as 20 in comparison with simulated results. Results are not conclusive and a more refined study is necessary. However, neutron emission rate of the source-term of radiation must be investigated and an special caution must be taken in the experimental measurements, by discriminating of the target selected for the irradiations and utilizing a matrix response suitable for the passive detectors (e.g. TLD) utilized in the experiments, instead of a matrix response (e.g. UTA4) developed for scintillation detectors

  16. Optimization of radiation protection for an electron accelerator used in paint cure in films approved by Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Otimizacao da radioprotecao para um acelerador de eletrons usado em cura de tinta em filmes aprovado pela CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Denise A. da S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A., E-mail: denise@inovafi.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the radiological protection system in an installation where there is a self-shielded accelerator Category I, used for paint curing in polymer films, in order to optimize it in situations in which it is appropriate. For this a radiometric survey was conducted in the designated areas to check rate doses at different distances from the radiation focus, in which there is a possibility of presence or persons which can reliably detect any abnormality in the accelerator operation. The comparison of the obtained values related to the accelerator operating current with the natural background radiation showed that they are compatible, signaling that the principle of optimization is already being followed.

  17. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  18. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  19. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  20. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  1. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  2. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  3. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron; Desenvolvimento de uma tela cintiladora nacional conversora de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Andre Luis Nunes

    2008-03-15

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 10{sup 5} neutrons thermic/cm{sup 2}.s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  4. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  5. Quality control studies of {sup 99}Mo used in {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, Daphne S.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: daphnesaid@usp.br, E-mail: taniabrambilla@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: mmatsuda@ipen.br, E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators are produced exclusively by the Center of Radiopharmacy at IPEN-CNEN/SP, by importing {sup 99}Mo from different suppliers. {sup 99}Mo (t{sub 1/2} = 66 h) is a fission product of {sup 235}U, therefore, it can be accompanied by several radioisotopes that are highly prejudicial for human health, demanding a strict quality control of this product for generators safe use. The European Pharmacopoeia established some parameters and limits that evaluate the quality of the solution of sodium [{sup 99}Mo]molybdate, that is used as raw material for generator's production. The European Pharmacopoeia also recommends some analytical methods to perform these evaluations, however, it has been observed difficulties on the implementation of these methods by the generator's producers. These difficulties are probably related to the lack of practicability of the proposed methods and the extensive list of utilized reagents. In this work some procedures of the European Pharmacopoeia's quality control method for {sup 99}Mo were evaluated. Different types of solid phase exchanger cartridges were tested for retention of {sup 99}Mo in 3 different conditions. Cartridges that presented percentages of retention higher than 90% were also tested for separation of {sup 99}Mo from possible contaminants (Ru e Te). The results shown that solid phase exchanger cartridges that presented percentages of retention of Mo higher than 90% also presented significant percentages of retention of Ru and Te. An alternative method for separation of {sup 99}Mo from {sup 131}I (other contaminant) are also proposed. (author)

  6. Quality control studies of 99Mo used in 99Mo/99mTc generators produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc is the most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. In Brazil, the 99Mo/99mTc generators are produced exclusively by the Center of Radiopharmacy at IPEN-CNEN/SP, by importing 99Mo from different suppliers. 99Mo (t1/2 = 66 h) is a fission product of 235U, therefore, it can be accompanied by several radioisotopes that are highly prejudicial for human health, demanding a strict quality control of this product for generators safe use. The European Pharmacopoeia established some parameters and limits that evaluate the quality of the solution of sodium [99Mo]molybdate, that is used as raw material for generator's production. The European Pharmacopoeia also recommends some analytical methods to perform these evaluations, however, it has been observed difficulties on the implementation of these methods by the generator's producers. These difficulties are probably related to the lack of practicability of the proposed methods and the extensive list of utilized reagents. In this work some procedures of the European Pharmacopoeia's quality control method for 99Mo were evaluated. Different types of solid phase exchanger cartridges were tested for retention of 99Mo in 3 different conditions. Cartridges that presented percentages of retention higher than 90% were also tested for separation of 99Mo from possible contaminants (Ru e Te). The results shown that solid phase exchanger cartridges that presented percentages of retention of Mo higher than 90% also presented significant percentages of retention of Ru and Te. An alternative method for separation of 99Mo from 131I (other contaminant) are also proposed. (author)

  7. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  8. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  9. The Brazilian nuclear industries - INB - in the field of the rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Nuclear Industries - INB is responsible for the execution of part of the cycle of uranium as nuclear reactor fuel for alternative energy generation. Soon INB shall increase the participation in this cycle, through the implantation of the line of powder and pastille. INB is also the successor of the monazite processing industries. The last one was NUCLEMON that was incorporated by INB. The connection of INB with this area is due to the presence of the strategic elements uranium and thorium in the monazite. The know-how was and continues to be developed by a chemical team of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) with the collaboration of the technical team of INB. The ever wider applications of the individual Rare Earth in the most different fields of the electrical, electronics, communication, optical, metallurgical, catalysis and other industries, as well as INB incessant inquire for the economical workability, brought INB to appraise the position regarding to the industrial production of the Rare Earth. The choice is bringing to the separation and commercialization of the individual elements and/or in groups containing a reduced number of Rare Earth, instead of the production and commercialization of the mixture of monazitic Rare Earth. This paper illustrates through quantitative information some aspects regarding to reserves, mining and physical separations of the monazite, as well as projections about INB resuming its industrial activities with insertion of technical improvements in both, the chemical treatment of the monazite and the Rare Earth separation. In this field, there will be presented in this paper the qualitative and quantitative results recently reached in a large dimension pilot plant. These results add to the technical conquest reached in the late years by the foregoers of INB, and that will be also presented. The paper contains also some appreciations regarding to the perspectives of INB's ingression in the field of

  10. Methodology for radiological safety assessment in a Brazilian Norm/tenorm installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handling, storage or any other operations involving materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides always causes some excess exposure to the worker and to the environment. C.N.E.N. is the regulatory authority to assess the magnitude of the potential environmental and occupational exposure. In the last year year the draft of the standard to establish safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the exposure of workers and environmental in the T.E.N.O.R.M. industries was published. The extent of exposure varies considerably in different operations, depending on the concentration of the radioactive material, chemical and physical processing, occupation times, dusting conditions etc... Exposure cannot, therefore, be assessed solely on basis of material activity concentrations. In order to determine the different ways by which the radionuclides can contaminate the environment, wastes and streams, a mass balance at the entire installation has been performed and main ways of workers exposition were characterized. During the last years the Brazilian Regulatory Body has been performing the characterization, monitoring and inspection of this kind of installation, and a methodology of work was implemented, including mass balance, radiological survey, area dust control, personal dust monitoring and internal contamination evaluation. This paper presents the methodology, including the description of a mass balance, typical results for the radiological survey, dust measurement (area and personal) and internal contamination in a typical N.O.R.M./T.E.N.O.R.M. installation. It is described, in detail, the dust monitoring related to excreta collection; the results for the radionuclide concentration in dust. The internal contamination evaluation will be reported in terms of radioactive contamination of the workers. (author)

  11. Law 5.877 of May 11, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authorize the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to pay up partially the subscribed authorized social capital of the Companhia Brasileira de Tecnologia Nuclear (CBTN) - Brazilian Nuclear Technology Company

  12. Law 5.740 of December 1, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authorizes the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create the joint stock company Companhia Brasileira de Tecnologia Nuclear (CBTN) - Brazilian Nuclear Technology Company -, and makes additional providence

  13. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  15. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão C. Gamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to internationalize the existing Brazilian journals. With regard to the latter possibility, a metric analysis of scientometrics databases suggests that the reasons for the low impact of articles published in Brazilian journals are manifold, but the low performance is mainly explained by the scarce employment of the lingua franca-English language-in the articles. This article discusses the role that SciELO, a Brazilian scientific publisher, has played in indexing and assisting the best Brazilian psychology journals in raising their horizons, in terms of internationalizing their output, while at the same time serving as an instrument of promotion for national studies of psychology within the country of Brazil.

  16. Determination of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni in spent ion-exchange resins from the IEA-R1 reactor (IPEN-CNEN/SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Vicente, Roberto; Marumo, Julio T.; Terremoto, Luis A. Albiac, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Iron and nickel are used in a wide range of metallic alloys employed in reactor core structures and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low-level wastes and effluents. Both {sup 63} Ni and {sup 55} Fe are neutron activation products. {sup 63} Ni is produced by a neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 62} Ni and by a neutron-proton reaction of-{sup 63}Cu. Iron-55 is produced by neutron activation of two major stable iron isotopes: neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 54} Fe and neutron-to-neutron reaction of {sup 56}Fe. Nickel-63 is a pure beta emitter with maximum energy of 66.95 keV and half-life of 100.1 years, and {sup 55}Fe, with a half life of 2.7 years, decays via electron capture to stable {sup 55}Mn with the emission of Auger electrons and 5.89 keV X-rays. {sup 63} Ni is an important radionuclide in safety analysis of nuclear waste repositories and {sup 55} Fe is an important contributor to the radioactivity of nuclear waste in the first few years of storage. In this work, liquid scintillation counting was used for the determination of both radionuclides in spent ion-exchange resins taken from the water retreatment system of the IEA-R1 reactor and stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Since nuclear waste usually contains many beta emitters, such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs, a highly efficient chemical separation method is required to isolate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from all other radionuclides. Hydroxide precipitation was used to separate {sup 55} Fe and {sup 63}Ni from the waste matrix and ion exchange chromatography was used to separate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from each other as well as from interfering radionuclides. The chemical yield was above 90% for {sup 63}Ni and above 60% for {sup 55}Fe. The results of activity measurements correlated well with the concentration of {sup 60}Co in this waste

  17. Methodological study for management of the generated effluents during MTR-type fuel elements fabrication at IPEN/CNEN-SP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCN/IPEN-CNEN more efficiency concerning financial and environmental aspects. This work will surely contribute to the sustainability of our enterprise, assuring the growth of CCN in economically viable, socially fair and environmental responsible way. (author)

  18. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  19. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  20. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  1. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  2. Studies on mercury contamination in the Brazilian Amazonic region using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Intensive gold exploration activities started in Brazil in the 1980's, in the Amazonic region. Ever since, awareness of the general public and of the authorities has been growing, as to the dangers of environmental contamination by disposal of metallic mercury used for extraction of gold by amalgamation. It is estimated by Malm et al that around 2000 tonnes of mercury have been released in the Amazon in the last 20 years as a consequence of these activities. In the framework of a Project developed at the Radiochemistry Division of IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission ) and with support from the IAEA first as a part of a Coordinated Research Programme and then as a Technical Cooperation Project a nuclear analytical technique, instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA ,was applied to the study of mercury contamination in Brazilian Indian populations living in the Xingu Park Indian reservation, located in the Amazonic region. Hair samples from the Indians and from a control population were analysed for total mercury and very high concentrations of mercury were found in the Indians, with means up to about 20 times that of the control population. Following this work on analysis of hair samples of the Brazilian Indians, where the application of a nuclear technique allowed the analysis of mercury in about 400 samples, it is necessary to make a more complete study on this area, analyzing samples of fish and other foodstuffs consumed by the Indians, as well as soils and sediments of the region, in order to assess the sources of contamination. The hair samples of the Indians have been also analysed in this Project for methylmercury, a very toxic compound of mercury, which is able to surpass biological barriers like the placenta and cause severe damage to the nervous system of the fetus. With the collaboration of the Jozef Stefan Institute, of Ljubljana, Slovenia, methylmercury was analysed in many of the hair samples of the Indians, using another

  3. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  4. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  5. Analysis of normative requirements for the development and implementation of a quality management system in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities; Analise de requisitos normativos para o desenvolvimento e a implementacao de um sistema de gestao da qualidade em instalacoes e atividades nucleares brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo

    2008-07-01

    The present work identifies, characterizes and analyses the normative requirements for the development and implementation of quality management systems in Brazilian nuclear installations and activities. The requirements established in standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1, IAEA DS 349, NBR ISO 9001:2000 e CNEN-NN-1.16 are critically analyzed. A correlation matrix of the applicable standards is presented and the related topics among them are identified. The standards IAEA GS-R-3, IAEA GS-G-3.1 and IAEA DS 349 define general requirements for establishing, implementing, assessing and continually improving an integrated management system in nuclear installations and activities, in IAEA member countries. The standard NBR ISO 9001:2000 establishes general requirements for the implementation of a quality management system in all kinds of organizations. The standard CNEN NN-1.16 establishes the regulating requirements for the quality assurance systems and programs of nuclear installations, for licensing and authorization for operation of these installations in Brazil. The standard IAEA GS-R-3 that replaces the code IAEA 50-C-Q introduces the concept of 'Integrated Management System' for the nuclear area, in preference to the concepts of 'Quality Assurance' and 'Quality Management'. This new approach is aligned with the current tendency incorporating requirements of quality, safety, health, environment, security, economics and other in a unique management system. Examples of quality management systems implemented by Brazilian nuclear organizations and by nuclear organizations outside Brazil are analyzed and considered in the discussion of results. (author)

  6. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  7. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  8. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  9. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  10. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  11. Production of 57Co, 109Cd, 111In and 117mSn using CV-28 Cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the production of 57Co, 109Cd, 111In and 117mSn, very important radioisotopes applied in several areas, using the CV-28 Cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP. 57Co (t1/2 = 271.3 d) and 109Cd (t1/2 = 462.6 d) were obtained through the reactions natNi(p,xn)57Co and 109Ag(p,n)109Cd. The mean thick target yields for 57Co were 346.69kBq/μA.h (9.37μCi/μA.h), for the direct production and 150.59kBq/μA.h (4.07μCi/μA.h), through the decay of 57Ni (11.31 days after EOB - End of Bombardment). A flood source was filled with 222MBq (6mCi) of 57Co prepared by a chemical separation method with a separation yield of 93%. A composite target of Ni and Ag was prepared and a chemical separation method proposed to allow the separation between the targets and 57Co and 109Cd. The yields of the composite target were: 947.94kBq/μA.h (25.62μCi/μA.h) of 57Co - direct reaction, 259.00kBq/μA.h (7μCi/μA.h) of 57Co - indirect reaction and 71.41kBq/μA.h (1.93μCi/μA.h) of 109Cd. The chemical separation yield was 80% for 57Co and 109Cd. 111In (t1/2 = 67.5 h) was produced by the 112Cd(p,2n)111In reaction. The Cd targets were prepared by electroplating of CdSO4 solution in copper and copper/nickel backings. After being irradiated, a chemical separation was performed by an acetic acid extraction method, with an overall recovery yield for 111In higher than 95%. The level of the chemical impurities Cd, Ni and Cu were bellow than the permissible values. 117mSn (t1/2 = 14 d) was prepared by the nuclear reactions natSn(p,xn)117Sb →117mSn. The production thick target yield of 117mSn was 784.4kBq/μA.h (21.20μCi/μA.h) and with the proper decay time of its precursor, 117Sb, no radionuclidic impurities appeared in the final product. A chemical separation method was developed to separate first 117Sb from the irradiated Tin and then 117mSn from Sb with a good chemical yield. The quality control procedures showed the good quality of the 117mSn. (author)

  12. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  13. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  14. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  15. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  16. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  17. Surface decontamination in the old storage shed number 99 of the General Plan of IPEN/CNEN-SP, containing production equipment of natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6), aiming at its decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the steps adopted in the operation planned for the decontamination of surfaces in the old storage shed number 99 the general layout of the Energy Research and Nuclear IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil, and contained various types of equipment originating from production hexafluoride natural uranium (UF6). This operation involved the planning, training of operators of the facility, analysis of workplaces and radiometric surveys for monitoring of external radiation and surface contamination. The training involved the procedures for decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for individual monitoring of contamination outside of the body. Were also established rules for the transport of radioactive materials in the internal and external facility and release of material and sites already decontaminated

  18. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  19. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  20. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  1. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  2. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  3. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  4. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  5. Surface decontamination in the old storage shed number 99 of the General Plan of IPEN/CNEN-SP, containing production equipment of natural uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), aiming at its decommissioning; Descontaminacao de superficies no antigo galpao de estocagem numero 99 da planta geral do IPEN/CNEN-SP, contendo equipamentos da producao de hexafluoreto de uranio natural, (UF{sub 6}), visando seu descomissionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Claudio C. de; Cambises, Paulo B.S.; Paiva, Julio E. de; Paiva, Julio E. de; Silva, Teresina M.; Rodrigues, Demerval L., E-mail: calmeida@ipen.br, E-mail: cambises@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the steps adopted in the operation planned for the decontamination of surfaces in the old storage shed number 99 the general layout of the Energy Research and Nuclear IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil, and contained various types of equipment originating from production hexafluoride natural uranium (UF6). This operation involved the planning, training of operators of the facility, analysis of workplaces and radiometric surveys for monitoring of external radiation and surface contamination. The training involved the procedures for decontamination of surfaces, segregation of materials and practical procedures for individual monitoring of contamination outside of the body. Were also established rules for the transport of radioactive materials in the internal and external facility and release of material and sites already decontaminated.

  6. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  7. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro-Machado R.; de Oliveira P.L.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a gre...

  8. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  9. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  10. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  11. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  12. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  13. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individual variability of brain function with both biological and cultural origins. Based on this approach, Brazilian studies on aphasic children and illiterate aphasic persons were disseminated internationally. In the 1970s, cognitive neuropsychology began in England, highlighting dysfunctions in reading and writing processes. The characteristics of writing systems within each language became relevant for the manifestations of acquired dyslexia. Brazilian studies showed deficits in Portuguese and Japanese writing caused by brain lesions. During this scientific journey, scientific societies and postgraduate programs in Brazil were created to facilitate exchanges and communication among young researchers. By the end of the last century and in the early 2000s, the growth of the neuropsychology of aging raised awareness of the complexity of sociocultural factors, not only on language research but also according to the level of education, frequency of reading and writing habits, school type, and interactions among these factors and biological factors, especially between the level of education and age. From this historical standpoint, we outline future directions and perspectives in the field of Brazilian neuropsychology.

  14. Evaluating Legal Compliance in Brazilian Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Lilia da Rocha; And Others

    1980-01-01

    By 1976, compliance of 13 Brazilian teacher education institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo with the Educational Reform Law of 1971 was judged as poor. The law demanded radical institutional change and created a teacher profile which was too comprehensive and complex. (CP)

  15. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  16. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  17. Human Rights and Black Brazilian Health

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2009-01-01

     The purpose of this discussion paper is to explore the relationships between inequity and health in Brazil, particularly to Blacks Brazilians. Health as a human right is the focus to help the comprehension the pathways between inequity, racism and disease.

  18. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA)

  19. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  20. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  1. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  2. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  3. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  4. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  5. The Brazilian investment in science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro-Machado, R; De Oliveira, P L

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997) or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications) to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications). Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development. PMID:11717704

  6. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  7. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.)

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  9. Brazilian cuts put projects in peril

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Lopes, Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    The soap opera surrounding Brazil's participation in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has taken another twist after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation said that the government is still “considering” what to do, even though physicist Sérgio Rezende - a former science minister - was behind the push for Brazilian membership.

  10. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  11. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  12. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  13. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection

  14. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  15. A comparison between two Brazilian calibration systems for diagnostic radiology level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very important step in a quality control program, at calibration laboratories, is the establishment of laboratory intercomparisons. In this work, a comparison between the calibration laboratories of IPEN/CNEN-SP and CDTN/CNEN-MG was carried out, as part of the quality control program in the metrological network established by the project 'National Institutes of Science and Technology - Radiation Metrology in Medicine'. The comparisons were undertaken for direct and attenuated diagnostic radiology quality beams RQR and RQA. The results showed a good agreement between both calibration laboratories. (author)

  16. A comparison between two Brazilian calibration systems for diagnostic radiology level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Santos, William S.; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Margarete C.; Oliveira, Paulo M.C.; Silva, Teogenes A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A very important step in a quality control program, at calibration laboratories, is the establishment of laboratory intercomparisons. In this work, a comparison between the calibration laboratories of IPEN/CNEN-SP and CDTN/CNEN-MG was carried out, as part of the quality control program in the metrological network established by the project 'National Institutes of Science and Technology - Radiation Metrology in Medicine'. The comparisons were undertaken for direct and attenuated diagnostic radiology quality beams RQR and RQA. The results showed a good agreement between both calibration laboratories. (author)

  17. Study of neutron irradiation-induced colors in Brazilian topaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, A. S.; Krambrock, K.; Ribeiro, L. G. M.; Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2007-09-01

    In this work, preliminary results of the investigation of the coloring mechanisms in topaz from different regions of Brazil, irradiated by the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 and BR1 nuclear reactors of the CDTN/CNEN (Brazil) and SCK.CEN(Belgium), respectively, are presented . The samples were analyzed by the k0-NAA method for impurities and total activity. The color and color centers were investigated by optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The total integrated flux dependence of the induced blue colors and color centers is discussed.

  18. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  19. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  20. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  1. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  2. Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Silva de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show funding and grants determined by Brazilian government, as the big question of the wind energy industry marketing, allowing the economic viability of wind energy projects. Further, it appears that the wind energy industry is eager to investments and has great potential for new business, but there are problems within the producing companies which that have to be assessed, such as the competitiveness capability, the high equipment costs, the installation locations limitations and lack of specialized employees with specific skills and capacities.

  3. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  5. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  6. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  7. The Taint of Violence: insurgent voices in Brazilian Black Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    – Ethnology studies report issues related to theatricality and spectacularity both in the scenic and ritual fields. Thus, theatre is one of the supports in ethnoscenological research, and this work focuses on Black Theater. Among the forms of representation of Blacks in Brazilian society, violence is one of the symbolic traits that has been re-signified in Afro-Brazilian texts. This essay aims at portraying some echoes of violence in dramatic/spectacular texts in Brazilian Black Theatre. We i...

  8. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand...

  9. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  10. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres; José Luis Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is...

  11. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  12. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Guion-Almeida M.L.; Kokitsu-Nakata N.M.; Zechi R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicom...

  13. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  14. Brazilian, Japanese, and American Business Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    The determinants of the outcomes of business negotiations in 3 cultures are investigated in a laboratory experiment. The outcomes of negotiations between Japanese businessmen result primarily from situational constraint—the role of the negotiator (buyer or seller). Representational (problem-solving oriented) bargaining strategies, a measure of the process of the interaction, is the most important variable in American negotiations. In negotiations between Brazilian business people, deceptive b...

  15. Unions and the Economic Performanceof Brazilian Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Menezes-Filho; Helio Zylberstajn; Jose Paulo Chahad; Elaine Pazello

    2002-01-01

    Using a pooled sample, this paper indicates that unions seem to affect the economic performance of Brazilian establishments, especially in terms of profitability, employment and productivity. Unions tend to reduce profitability, whereas the relationship between union density and productivity, employment and average wages seems to be concave. These performance indicators first rise with union density up to a certain density level (usually about 50 percent) and then start to decline. These resu...

  16. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira Carla; Werneck Marcos Azeredo; Lucas Simone; Abreu Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the profess...

  17. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalizat...

  18. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  19. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  20. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-01-01

    In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor expl...

  1. Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Silva de Souza; Nilton César Lima; Jamerson Viegas Queiroz; Antonio Sergio Torres Penedo; Jorge Artur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho; Antonio Carlos Silva Costa

    2013-01-01

    Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show ...

  2. Diagnosis of the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has the objective to present the diagnosis of the existing structure in the Brazilian Government to ensure the radioprotection and nuclear safety in the country, being compared the current situation with the conclusions presented in another studies, carried through in last 30 years, with special attention in the existence of the necessary available to support and independence of the national regulatory body for the development of the regulatory inspections activities in the radioprotection and nuclear safety. (author)

  3. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza de Alencar Naas

    2014-01-01

    This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed ...

  4. Brazilian automotive industry in the nineties

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Kerlyng; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; GEOFFREY J.D. HEWINGS; Chokri, Dridi

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of fuzzy clusters in the Brazilian automotive industry to contribute to the analysis of the relative importance of these economic activities in the national productive structure and in their regional contexts. The intention is to assess whether, once they have been established in the structure of a determined region, the economic activities of the industry establish productive relationships similar to other industries to the point of leading an indust...

  5. The current misunderstood Brazilian foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rezende

    2011-01-01

    Instead of taking advantage of increasing Brazilian international projection and involve the country in matters that are relevant for the group of actors in the international system, it seems that the country´s insertion goes confusedly in the opposite direction. Since the beginning of the current decade, Brazil has maintained evident cordiality for the governments of Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia and more recently Iran. As a consequence, Brazil is increasing dialogue with countries and involving ...

  6. Segmentation in the Brazilian Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Botelho; Vladimir Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  7. DEVELOPMENTS IN BRAZILIAN FOOD SAFETY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabete SALAY; Caswell, Julie A.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is an important case study of food safety policies because it is the eighth largest economy in the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product. Analysis of the policy and quality management initiatives of the Brazilian government shows that recent activities are more strongly oriented toward assuring access to international markets than to assuring the safety of food sold in domestic markets. This orientation has important implications for agribusiness firms operating in Brazil. Consumer ...

  8. The growth of Brazilian metrics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Urbizagástegui Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is presented on the growth of the literature on bibliometrics, informetrics, and scientometrics published in Brazil by Brazilian and foreign authors in the form of journal articles, book chapters, and papers presented at conferences. From 1973 to December 2012, close to 2300 documents were published. This literature is growing exponentially at a rate of 24% per year and doubling in size every 3.2 years.

  9. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Oriá Mônica Oliveira B.; Glick Doris F.; Alves Maria Dalva S.

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches...

  10. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  11. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  12. Employment generation in Brazilian coffee regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bliska, Flavia M. M.; Joaquim J. M. Guilhoto; Imori, Denise; Sakon, Fernando M.; Camargo, Fernanda S.; Vegro, Celso L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristics of coffee production on each of the main Brazilian states producers of arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), a better understanding of the structural links between production and industrialization of coffee on those states and the national economy can provide subsides for implementation of public policies, essential to plan the coffee production and increase the sector competitiveness. Therefore, this study analyzed the employment ...

  13. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...

  14. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  15. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.

  16. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Oliveira Cecília Maria Alves de; Ferri Pedro Henrique; Santos Suzana Costa; Oliveira Júnior Juldásio Galdino de; Miranda André Thiago Borges; Lião Luciano Morais; Silva Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  17. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  18. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  20. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  1. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  2. Activities of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission in the field of nuclear power plant licesing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the procedures and the ways of implementation of measures aiming at safety use of nuclear energy are presented. The juridical aspects in the licensing area and the regulatory activities used by CNEN. The description of nuclear power plants and the methodology used in studies of environmental protection and radiation protection are presented

  3. The operational and logistic experience on transportation of Brazilian spent fuel to USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shipment of 127 spent MTR fuel assemblies was made from IEA-R1 Research Reactor located at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Brazil to Savannah River Site Laboratory in the United States. This paper describes the operational and logistic experience on this transportation made by IPEN staff and the Consortium NCS/GNS. (author)

  4. Inspection of the brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the area of radiotherapy. A critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible in Brazil for the activities of licensing and control of radioactive installations in the radiotherapy medical area. The majority of these activities are developed by CNEN Co-ordination of Radioactive Installations (CORAD). One of the necessary stages for the development of licensing and control activities is the inspection of radiotherapy services (clinics and hospitals). Almost all of these inspections are carried out by CNEN Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), through its Service of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (SEFME). This work makes a survey of the main nonconformities found during ten years of inspections in radiotherapy services (1995 - 2004) and analyses the efficiency of these inspections in making the radiotherapy services develop their activities according to the norms in vigour in the country and adopt corrective actions against, at least, the nonconformities evidenced by CNEN inspectors. Additionally, it analyses the possibility of improvement and / or the optimisation of the process, through a procedure able to be unified and controlled, aiming a prompt communication to those involved in the licensing process (SEFME and CORAD) about the attendance by the radiotherapy services to the non-conformity items observed during the inspection. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are presented in these proceedings approaching the following subjects: integration of the energy planning sector, operation and regulation, isolate systems and energy universalization, institutional, regulatory, tributary and legal fees aspects, energy complementary, environment, Brazilian energy matrix, and energy costs

  6. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  7. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  8. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  9. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  10. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000 only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.

  11. [The Brazilian Nursing Congress: sixty years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Joel Rolim; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Amaral, Nilton Vieira do

    2009-01-01

    This study objective is to describe the issues associated to the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and its course between 1947 and 2007; and to discuss the implementation of this strategy by the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). It is a historical survey with documentary research. The documentary analysis allowed reaching the following categories: the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and the congresses as the political nursing arena. We have concluded that the Brazilian Nursing Congresses have reflected the construction of the Brazilian Nursing history, aiming at stimulating the critical consideration on the professional problems and investing in the production of knowledge, addressing the growing complexity and quality of the professional practice. PMID:19597675

  12. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  13. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Andrea Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceed...

  14. Brazilian energy balance 1996: calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  15. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nastri de Luca Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of São Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees & Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia.

  16. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  17. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  18. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  19. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pilar; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.; Kato, Mary Aizawa

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: a) to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65) for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs), and b) to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP), the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. T...

  20. Brazilian energy balance 1998: calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in every sector of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1995. It's divided into nine sections, as follows: summary; energy supply and consumption by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation center balances ;energy resources and reserves; energy and socio economy; regional parameters; and appendices - installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  1. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  2. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  3. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO3), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  4. Brazilian energy balance 1995: calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1979 to 1994; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  5. Brazilian energy balance 1997: calendar year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1981 to 1996; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  6. Brazilian energy balance 1999: calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1998. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1983 to 1998; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  7. Brazilian energy balance 2001: calendar year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  8. Brazilian energy balance 2000: calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 1999. It is divided into nine sections: a summary from 1984 to 1999; energy supply and demand by source; energy consumption by sector; energy foreign trading; transformation centers balances; energy resources and reserves; energy and socio-economy; regional parameters, and appendices including installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances

  9. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  10. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  11. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  12. The Brazilian status on ADS R and D: Preliminary road map to a program on accelerator utilization on basic and applied nuclear physics, products and services and to drive an experimental neutron source sub critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil, still a developing country, has an Industrial Nuclear Program, that although small has already achieved a good standard: two NPPs in operation, i.e., ANGRA I and II with 2 GW installed electric capacity are generating approximately 2% of the total installed electricity, a third unit under construction, a fuel cycle industry, INB, with the capability to provide fuel elements for the NPPs. The Brazilian Navy pursues a nuclear program for nuclear propulsion which includes all the front end of the fuel cycle, including the enrichment by ultracentrifuge that is being transferred also to the industrial sector (INB). Research and development is conducted by the various Research Institutes of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN): IPEN, CDTN, and IEN which have appropriate technical capability and facilities (research reactors and accelerators) to support the industrial nuclear program, provide products and services for the Brazilian society (e.g., radioisotopes), as well as to develop new technologies. It is fair to say, however, that the Brazilian research institutions do need some new challenges, mainly to motivate and to stimulate a new generation of young engineers and scientists to pursue careers in nuclear energy R and D. The Brazilian Nuclear Physics research, being pursued mainly by the Universities, has an outstanding standard. This is documented by the number of publications in international journals, scientific citations, the number and quality of scientists, and by its capability to form human resources (Ph.D. students). However, it is felt that this scientific potential, a few exceptions apart, still needs to transfer the benefits of the scientific knowledge to the Brazilian society. These boundary conditions call for a R and D program which identifies synergies, society needs, is in agreement with the international developments in science and technology, meets sustainability criteria, matches the Brazilian reality, provides an umbrella for

  13. Environemtnal benefits of the Brazilian Ethanol Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After nearly twenty years since it was first launched, the Brazilian Ethanol Programme to data remains the largest commercial application of biomass for energy production and use in the world. It succeeded in demonstrating the technical feasibility of large scale ethanol production from sugar cane and its use to fuel car engines. On social and economic grounds, however, its evaluation is less positive. The purpose of this study is to provide an updated overview of the perspectives for the Ethanol Programme under the light of increasingly important local and global environmental concerns. Major results show that after oil prices supported upon the basis of its contribution to curb the increase of air pollution in Brazilian cities and of the greenhouse effect. It is concluded that the very survival of the Ethanol Programme, depends upon adequate economic compensation considering its global environmental benefits. These are appraised with two scenarios based on the use of a Markal-like model to define the range and costs of curbing greenhouse gases with a policy aiming at extending the Ethanol Programme

  14. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (∼10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein

  15. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  16. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  17. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed by Brazilian small enterprises are characterized by having a lower or equal to R$ 3,600,000 (approximately 1,800,000 dollars gross annual income. To collect information regarding the diagnosis of the degree of knowledge of small entrepreneurs, it was used a structured questionnaire using gradual tracks in identification of the respondent and the firm. It was found that the majority of managers interviewed small enterprises does not use the operations management tools. Is because they do not know such tools or have no need for their use in their companies.

  18. The Brazilian nuclear power manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early stages of decision making, manpower availability has been recognized to be a key factor for the implementation of Brazil's nuclear power programme. Though care has been given to securing an industrial base and financial resources, the consequences of a lack of sufficient qualified manpower could be critical for the success of the whole programme. The broad scope of the Brazilian nuclear power programme which, as a main concept, aimed at establishing in the country a complete fuel cycle industry together with the construction of nuclear power plants, added another burden to the already complex task of providing appropriate human resources when advanced technologies are introduced in a developing country. Thus, not only the work-force required for nuclear power plant operation but also that needed for plant design, component manufacture, fuel cycle plant design and operation, had to be made available in number and qualification in accordance with the standards of the nuclear industry. The feasibility of the Brazilian programme depended on a complete transfer of technology, essentially achieved through personnel training. Again, the process of manpower preparation for an efficient know-how transfer required careful planning, and the great difficulty in its implementation was the lack of reliable experience at the time. (author)

  19. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  20. Brazilian energy balance 2002: calendar year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian Energy Balance 2002, based on 2001 data, contains the information related to the supply and consumption of the primary and secondary energy sources, provided by data and information of responsible sectors. This version presents important differences in relation to the previous editions, new technical concepts were introduced for the treatment of calorific powers of energy sources in the composition and consolidation of data, and also in the structure of its contents. The Balance 2002 was structured in the same way of the last edition, divided in 8 chapters, as follows: summary of the relevant indicators of 2001 and consolidated data of production, consumption and external dependence on energy, and also the sectorial composition of the consumption of the different groups of energy sources - period 1970/2001; energy supply and demand by source - 1986/2001; energy consumption by sector - 1986/2001; energy foreign trading - 1986/2001; transformation centers balances - 1986/2001; energy resources and reserves - 1973/2001; energy and socio-economy - 1986/2001; regional parameters and appendices including: installed capacity, international data, general structure of the balance, information processing, conversion units and consolidated energy balances - 1970/2001,in the 'kcal' unit, calculated in PCI- Inferior Calorific Power. This new model has the intention to approximate the Brazilian Energy Balance to the international methodologies, mainly to the OECD balances

  1. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  2. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  3. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  5. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  6. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  7. Safety culture assessment programme: Statistical analysis of a survey conducted at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The present study describes the statistical analysis of a survey conducted among the employees of IEA-R1 research reactor to evaluate the current status of safety culture in this installation. IEA-R1 is a 5 MW pool type reactor, cooled and moderated by light water, and it uses graphite and beryllium as reflectors. First criticality was achieved on September 16, 1957 and the reactor has been operating regularly and safely for almost 46 years. The reactor building is located within the premises of IPEN/CNEN-SP, one of the Brazilian institutes for energy and nuclear research, inside the campus of the University of Sao Paulo. The operation, maintenance and irradiation services of IEA-R1 reactor are currently being administered by the Research Reactor Center. The safety culture assessment and enhancement programme of IEA-R1 was launched by the reactor management in 2002. An opinion survey was conducted in order to evaluate the employee's perception in relation to the safety culture of the organization. A questionnaire consisting, mainly, of statements about safety culture aspects was prepared. A total number of 34 individuals participated in the survey representing the personnel of the Operation and Maintenance Division, Irradiation Service Division as well as the technicians specialized in Radiation Protection. The statistical analysis of the survey was developed into three principal steps. In the first step, descriptive techniques were used to estimate parameters of the statistical distribution of the answers to each question of the questionnaire. In the second step, the aspects of safety culture to be investigated were defined by grouping these questions into issue areas. The safety culture aspects determined were: Priority to Safety, Top Management Involvement and Commitment to Safety, Employees' Attitude Towards Safety, Employees' Responsibilities and Commitment to Safety, Employees' Evaluation of Safety Culture Level, Conflict 'Absence of Safety x

  8. Estimate of radiation doses to workers in underground mines of coal and fluorite in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina and considerations on the optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentrations of radon in the environment of underground mines above 1000 - 1500 Bq/m3 are internationally considered to require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of the present work were to determine the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consisted in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m3. The inefficiency of the ventilation system and the liberation of radon during the various explosions may have contributed to the high concentrations of radon in these mines since the concentration of radium in the rocks (normal and weathered granites) and in the minerals (green and purple fluorides) that compose the mining environment are not high. The modification of the ventilation system of one of the fluorite mines was sufficient to reduce the radon concentration to levels of the order of 500 Bq/m3. The weathered granite contributes more significantly to the increase of the concentration of Rn-222 in the air than the other rocks here studied, i.e. normal granite as well as green and purple

  9. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  10. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  11. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  12. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  13. The Taint of Violence: insurgent voices in Brazilian Black Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available – Ethnology studies report issues related to theatricality and spectacularity both in the scenic and ritual fields. Thus, theatre is one of the supports in ethnoscenological research, and this work focuses on Black Theater. Among the forms of representation of Blacks in Brazilian society, violence is one of the symbolic traits that has been re-signified in Afro-Brazilian texts. This essay aims at portraying some echoes of violence in dramatic/spectacular texts in Brazilian Black Theatre. We intend to discuss the instances in which violence is scenically represented and how this interferes with the (reconstruction of black identities and subjectivities.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  15. Black swans in the brazilian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Jacob Lovisolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes extreme values in the daily returns of 45 Brazilian stocks between 2 January 1995 and 18 March 2009. The incidence of observations outside the range of three standard deviationsfrom the mean is at least five times greater than under the normal distribution. The occurrence of extreme values in the upper tail is 1.13 times higher than in the lower. The average of the extreme positive returns is higher than that of extreme negative returns. Half percent of the days determined the outcome of the investment. Extreme values are at least ± 7%. Investors should assess whether they will keep their holdings when returns of such magnitude occur. The characteristics of empirical distributions of stock returns favor the passive investor and the use of weight constraints in portfolio allocation models.

  16. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Guion-Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Estudo cromossômico mostrou cariótipo normal, 46,XY. Os achados são compatíveis com a síndrome de Say.

  17. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Chauvet

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.Este artigo utiliza vários métodos para datar e analisar ciclos de negócios e de crescimento no Brasil. Em particular, um modelo de mudanças de Markov é aplicado a dados de produção trimestrais e anuais. As probabilidades suavizadas dos estado markovianos são utilizadas como regras de previsão para definir as diferentes fases de flutuações cíclicas na produção real brasileira. Os resultados são comparados com diferentes regras não-paramétricas. Todos os métodos implementados geram uma cronologia similar e revelam assimetrias nas diferentes fases dos ciclos de negócio e crescimento do Brasil, nos quais os estados de baixo crescimento e recessão são de curta duração e mais

  18. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.)

  19. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  20. Brazilian Decimetric Array (Phase-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Stephany, S.; Cividanes, L. B. T.; Miranda, C. A. I.; Botti, L. C. L.; Boas, J. W. S. V.; Saito, J. H.; Moron, C. E.; Mascarenhas, N. D.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.; Ebenezer, E.; Sankararaman, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    An East West, one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of five parabolic dish antennas has been set up at Cachoeira Paulista (longitude 45°0‧20″ W, latitude 22°41‧19″ S) for observations of the Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-I of the proposed Brazilian Decimetric Array and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2 1.7 GHz. The instrument has been in operation since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolutions at this frequency are ˜3‧ and 100 ms, respectively. Details of the array, analog/digital receiver system, and a preliminary East West one-dimensional solar image at the 1.6 GHz are presented in this paper.

  1. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  2. Screening of Brazilian basidiomycetes for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Luiz Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 103 isolates of basidiomycetes, representing 84 species from different Brazilian ecosystems, were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activity in a panel of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Tissue plugs of the fruiting bodies were cultivated in liquid media and the whole culture extracted with ethyl acetate. Crude extracts from Agaricus cf. nigrecentulus, Agrocybe perfecta, Climacodon pulcherrimus, Gloeoporus thelephoroides, Hexagonia hydnoides, Irpex lacteus, Leucoagaricus cf. cinereus, Marasmius cf. bellus, Marasmius sp., Nothopanus hygrophanus, Oudemansiella canarii, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Phellinus sp., and Tyromyces duracinus presented significant activity against one or more of the target microorganisms. Eight isolates were active only against bacteria while three inhibited exclusively the growth of fungi. Two extracts presented wide antimicrobial spectrum and were active against both fungi and bacteria. Differences in the bioactivity of extracts obtained from isolates from the same species were observed.

  3. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  4. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  5. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  6. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  7. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  8. Figures of evil in Brazilian biographical film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Freitas Gutfreind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the evil,subjectively,through the history representation that the film does .From the concept of figure (Lyotard and Dubois, the image is thought by its ontology and by the sensitive. Are view of biographical films of fiction about the Brazilian military dictator ship, specifically, Zuzu Angel(Sergio Resende, 2006, legitimizes the aesthetic choices of this form of representation inked topolitical positions culturally determined, requiring the viewer acritical deconstruction of history.

  9. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  10. Bidding strategies in Brazilian electricity auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double bilateral contract auctions for electric energy purchase and sale occur in Brazil. These auctions present incomplete information and possess some subjectivity in relation to the future scenario of the Brazilian electric system, inserted in the agent's bids. In this work, a model using Bayes' rule and the game theory is proposed to aid the agent in its bid definition. Through the existing relations between the Conditional probabilities of Bayes' Rule, the model transforms beliefs into information. In this way, the absence of information is supplied and the problem is transformed into a game with complete information. The present study has no worries in terms of transmission constraints, since they are not usually considered in the bilateral contract auctions in Brazil. At the end, Nash equilibrium (NE) can be found through the expected payoff matrix of each agent. (author)

  11. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  12. Brazilian quartz purification by leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity quartz powder presents an increasing demand for the production of silica glass, widely used for semiconductor processing, particularly for photo-voltaic solar cells manufacturing. Motivated by the huge natural quartz potential of this country, the present paper studied the cleansing effect of acid leaching on Brazilian quartz powder, investigating the following parameters: type of solvent, temperature and leaching time. Still, aqueous leaching tests with ultrasound activation were also performed in order to verify its efficiency. The ideal conditions found for leaching,with a 74,2% purification degree, were achieved using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid with hydrochloric acid at 100 deg C for 6 hours. A leaching procedure longer than 6 hours is not necessary, since Fe, Ca, K and Mg amounts do not show significant variation after such time. Also, aqueous leaching caused purification rates higher than 30% for most of the impurities tested, proving itself as a effective leaching method (author)

  13. Natural radionuclide distribution in Brazilian commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dimension stones sector in Brazil produces several varieties of granites, marbles, slates and basalts. More than half of this production corresponds to around 200 different commercial types of granites with specific names, geographical and geological origins and mineral compositions. The well-known natural radioactivity present in rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite, can be used to determine their general petrologic features. This subject is important in environmental radiological protection, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental stones. In this paper, it is applied to correlate the petrographic characteristics of commercial granites with their corresponding dose rates for natural radioactivity. Amounts of thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations have been reported in several Brazilian commercial granite samples

  14. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  15. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  16. Safety reviews of the Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a model developed for thermal hydraulic (TH) simulation of the Multipurpose Brazilian Reactor (RMB), whose Brazilian proposal for design, construction and operation was established in 2007. This reactor has as main proposed the production of radioisotopes for use in exams of nuclear medicine, material tests and utilization of neutrons beams. Besides of the TH modeling and safety analysis of the reactor, the application of a methodology to perform coupled calculation thermal-hydraulic/neutron kinetic (TH/NK) is also presented. Initially, the RMB was modeled in the safety analysis RELAP5 code. This code performs the thermal hydraulic calculation using point kinetics. Subsequently, the model was adapted and verified to the RELAP5-3D© code. This code performs the process of internal coupling through the option of nodal neutron kinetics calculation using the NESTLE code which solves the neutron diffusion equation. To generate the neutronic group constants, which are macroscopic cross sections that serve as input data for the neutronic codes, it was used the WIMSD-5B cell calculation code. The neutron analysis code PARCS was also used to model the 3D RMB core in order to compare the results of radial and axial average power distribution with the results generated by RELAP5-3D© code and with the available results of the CITATION neutron kinetic code. The safety analyses demonstrated safe behavior of the reactor through situations of possible transients. The 3D coupled calculations to the steady state operation also showed expected behavior, as well as the RMB neutronic analyzes performed with the codes NESTLE and PARCS.(author)

  17. Stock returns and volatility: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Tabak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between stock returns and volatility over the period of June 1990 to April 2002. We study firm-level relationship between stock returns and volatility for a sample of 25 time series of Brazilian stocks. Using Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (SUR empirical evidence suggests that contemporaneous returns and volatilities are significantly and positively correlated while there is a negative relationship between changes in volatility and stock returns. Finally, the asymmetric volatility effect seems to hold for Brazilian stocks as shown by the results from an AR(1-EGARCH(1,1 estimation.Este artigo examina a relação entre retornos de ações e volatilidade no período de junho de 1990 a abril de 2002. Estudamos a relação entre retornos de ações e volatilidade no nível da firma para uma amostra de 25 séries de ações brasileiras. Usando o método de regressões aparentemente não relacionadas (SUR a evidência empírica sugere que retornos contemporâneos e volatilidades estão positivamente e significativamente relacionados enquanto existe relação negativa entre mudanças de volatilidade e retornos de ações. Finalmente, o efeito de assimetria na volatilidade é consistente com as ações brasileiras como pode ser percebido dos resultados da estimação AR(1-EGARCH(1,1.

  18. Competitive integration. A new strategy for the brazilian industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discussed a new strategy for brazilian industrialization: from importation substitution to structural changes. The strategy of competitive integration, technological progress and the new technologies. (A.C.A.S.)

  19. Experimental sodium loops at brazilian Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal circuits and sodium installations proceeding from Italy to be assembled at brazilian Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) are presented. Also some information are provided on the sodium experimental facilities presently existent. (L.C.J.A.)

  20. Abstracts of the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the short communications of papers presented at the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry, of nuclear interest. The papers are classified in four areas: isotope chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physico-chemical. (E.G.)

  1. Merger Control Under the New Brazilian Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Mario da Silva Pereira Neto; Paulo Leonardo Casagrande

    2011-01-01

    The approved legal framework will certainly open a new era of the Brazilian competition policy. Caio Mário da Silva Pereira Neto & Paulo Leonardo Casagrande (Brasil, Pereira Neto, Galdino, Macedo Advogados)

  2. Decreased prevalence of celiac disease among Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of Brazilian individuals over 60 years of age and compare it with the previously known prevalence in a pediatric group living in the same geographical area.

  3. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  4. [Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study. PMID:21519666

  5. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network. PMID:26312421

  6. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  7. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  8. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  9. Characterize the import players of Brazilian women's swimwear

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Henrique Antonelli Da Veiga; Ana Elizabeth Moiseichyk; Tônia Magali Moraes Brum; Darcila Brum Da Veiga

    2012-01-01

    The extensive Brazilian littoral combined with a culture of its use as a means of entertainment provided to the country the emergence of several companies specializing in the production and marketing of swimwear. However, there is a group of customers looking for imported products, even in this segment. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the import of Brazilian women's swimwear, which is investigating its importance and participation in the international context and the need for knowledge...

  10. Incoherences of Brazilian labour laws face to present radioprotection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian labour legislation establishes, since 1950, some privileges for people working in activities which imply exposure to ionizing radiations. Comparing the present legal framework with technical radioprotection knowledge, one can detect several incoherences covering: classification of such activities; additional payments; reduced labour journey; more vacations; medical surveillance; early retirements; special norms for women. An analysis of these incoherences lead us to propose a new frame of labour rights and radioprotection norms, coupling Brazilian juridical principles and modern radioprotection knowledge. (author)

  11. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira Paulo; Song Elaine Horibe; Ferreira Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conduct...

  12. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  13. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    OpenAIRE

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHO...

  14. CURRENT COGNITION OF ROCK TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING BY BRAZILIAN TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Briševac; Trpimir Kujundžić; Sandi Čajić

    2015-01-01

    Tensile strength in rock mechanics is a characteristic more frequently determined in the indirect rather than direct way. This paper presents a historical review of the development of the indirect method called the Brazilian test, comprising the period from 1943 to the present day. It stresses some aspects which are essential for interpreting the results of the Brazilian test due to the different degrees of stress during the testing and the direct method of determining tensile strength. The e...

  15. Current professional practice in brazilian mental healthcare services

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mental health reform in Brazil presupposes mental health becoming integrated into the Brazilian health system, involving multidisciplinary teams whose professional practice has yet to be defined. The present study forms part of a project aimed at understanding human resources practices in Brazilian mental healthcare services.Methods This was a descriptive, exploratory study using a sample of highly qualified practitioners involved in the Ribeirao Preto/SP public mental health networ...

  16. PANDORA - Survey of Brazilian cardiologists about cholesterol reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raul D.; Spósito Andrei C.; Santos José Ernesto dos; Fonseca Francisco H.; Moriguchi Emílio H; Martinez Tania L. R.; Armaganijam Dikran; Timerman Sérgio; Timerman Ari; Nicolau José C.; Ramires José A. F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report about a group of physicians' understanding of the recommendations of the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, and about the state of the art of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Through the use of a questionnaire on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis prevention, and recommendations for lipid targets established by the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, 746 physicians, 98% cardiologists, were evaluated. RESULTS:Eight...

  17. Null subjects and agreement marks in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Eugênia Lammoglia; Varejão, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the presence of agreement marks and null subjects in contemporary European and Brazilian Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech collected in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. In order to bring additional evidence to support the analysis, we will briefly review the issues involving the Null Subject in Romance Languages and some diachronic and synchronic analyses which distinguish Brazilian and European Portuguese as far as null...

  18. Stakeholder Theory and Value Creation Models in Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Giugni Vidal; Shawn Berman; Harry Van Buren

    2015-01-01

    Objective – The purpose of this study is to understand how top Brazilian firms think about and communicate value creation to their stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach – We use qualitative content analysis methodology to analyze the sustainability or annual integrated reports of the top 25 Brazilian firms by sales revenue. Findings – Based on our analysis, these firms were classified into three main types of stakeholder value creation models: narrow, broad, or transitioning fro...

  19. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 year...

  20. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  1. Study of brazilian franchises internationalization: challenges and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Loffredo da Rocha Leite; Paulo Sergio Miranda Mendonça; Everton José Buzzo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze brazilian franchises internationalization through a case study, in order to identify the factors that influence internationalization, the adaptations of marketing strategies and main barriers and challenges of brazilian franchises internationalization. A qualitative exploratory research was developed through the case study method. The information was colected via observation and semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of international expansion...

  2. Laxative effects and mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Kakino Mamoru; Izuta Hiroshi; Tsuruma Kazuhiro; Araki Yoko; Shimazawa Masamitsu; Ichihara Kenji; Hara Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazilian green propolis is reported to have wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and antioxidant activities. In the digestive system, a protective effect of propolis on gastric ulcer has been reported, but a laxative effect has not yet been reported. We investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis. Methods We examined the laxative effect of propolis ...

  3. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa; Camila Tureck; Gelvani Locateli; Rosane Marina Peralta; Eloá Angélica Koehnlein

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 ...

  4. Chinese business culture as perceived by brazilian expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alves Scherer; Italo Fernando Minello

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze Chinese culture related to business as perceived by Brazilian expatriates in China. For this purpose, literature concerning the expatriate and cultural differences between Brazil and China was reviewed. The qualitative approach was adopted as the study method, carrying out semi-structured interviews with twelve Brazilian expatriate professionals in China. To analyze the data a content analysis technique was used, specifically the categorical analysis, usi...

  5. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  6. Capacity Issues and Efficiency Drivers in Brazilian Bulk Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Fernandes Wanke; Rebecca de Mattos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis of Brazilian bulk terminals built upon the conjoint use of Data Envelopment Analysis and the bootstrapping technique. Confidence intervals and bias corrected central estimates were used as cornerstone tools, not only to test for significant differences on efficiency scores and their reciprocals, but also on returns to scale indicators provided by different DEA models. The results of the study suggest that most Brazilian bulk terminals present increas...

  7. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Moura Souza; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Denise Tavares Giannini; Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira; Marize Melo dos Santos; Vanessa Sá Leal; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calcul...

  8. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  9. World Cup 2014 – Professional Training Program for Brazilian Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvone Alves Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience of implementing a professional training program for the Brazilian hospitality industry in the 12 cities that will be the headquarters of the World Cup in 2014. This project was developed in the context of the program “Welcoming Cup”, of the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism, whose objective is to enable the tourism industry to attain international standards of quality in tourism services.

  10. The nuclear contribution to the solution of Brazilian energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the justifying of Brazilian Nuclear Programme. Due to the demand increasing of electric energy in Brazil, the government decided to an alternative source. Although the brazilian electric power program continue basically hydroelectric, the nuclear power plants began to be constructed. The strategy adopted, the prospection of uranium enrichment, the project and construction of nuclear power plants, the responsibilities of Nuclebras and Nuclen and several stages of this program are described. (C.M.)

  11. Prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro R. Gil-Monte; Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Burnout is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress of an interpersonal and emotional nature. Brazilian law have already contemplated burnout syndrome as a mental and behavioural disorder related to work. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers. Methods: The sample was composed of 714 teachers from 8 schools in Porto Alegre and its metropolitan area (Brazil). The levels of burnout were evaluate...

  12. Georges Canguilhem and the development of Brazilian Public Heatlh field

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres

    2016-01-01

    Historical epistemology has played an important role in the development of modern Brazilian Public Health or “Saúde Coletiva” (Collective Health). Born as an academic search for new conceptual foundations of a social committed field of scientific knowledge, as well as a social political movement against civil-military dictatorship implanted in Brazil in 1964, the so called Brazilian Sanitary Reform Movement found in the French historical epistemology, particularly in the works of Georges Cang...

  13. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which impli...

  14. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  15. Neutron Spectrometry Work at the CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this communication the main features of the triple axis spectrometer recently installed at the Ispra-1 reactor are presented. Preliminary results in the quasi elastic angular distribution of 1.4A neutrons scattered in liquid bromine are shown and briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Brazilian energy statistics - 1993. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. Some aspects about the opening or closing of the oil sector are also analysed, including the petroleum and petroleum products business; oil consumption issue; share of energy sources in world scenarios for the year 2020; reserves; prices and investments and the vulnerability of private companies. 12 figs., 16 tabs

  17. Brazilian energy statistics - 1992. Annual bulletin of the Brazilian National Committee of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin deals with the primary sources that carry most weight in the Brazilian energy balance: hydraulic energy, petroleum, natural gas and coal. It contains data on ethyl alcohol derived from sugar cane since it is of special importance in Brazil's energy scenario. A brief picture of Brazil's electric power status with regard to bordering countries is also presented, giving an idea of the prospects for progress in electric power integration through the implementation of new international electric power interconnection projects. (author). 13 figs., 19 tabs

  18. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  19. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium

  20. Environmental radiological impact of a Brazilian deactivated Uranium Mine along the period 1999-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to assess the environmental radiological impact (ERI) from the release of wastewaters used by the Mining Industrial Complex at Poços de Caldas (CIPC), today called Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG, Brazil, during the period 1999-2009. The effluent waters were analyzed once a week at point 014 (associated with the mine and waste pile 8). Critical radionuclides are 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 228Ra. The 238U and 232Th were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The 226Ra, 210Pb and 228Ra, in turn, were analyzed by radiochemical separation methods and subsequent radiometry. The dose estimates were based on the model proposed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for a hypothetical critical group associated with the point of effluents release into the river Ribeirao das Antas (point 014). The maximum dose rate allowed by CNEN for release is equal to 0.3 mSv·y-1for individuals of the critical group. Our calculations were performed using the average concentration along the ten years period study. The estimated dose value for the individual of the critical group was 0.12 mSv·y-1. It may be concluded that the reference levels established by CNEN were not reached. This indicates that the treatment of effluents generated by the CIPC/UTM was conducted efficiently, ensuring the safety of the population living in the surroundings of the Ore Processing Unit (UTM) at Caldas. (author)

  1. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  2. BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Javert Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382 in exon 20 (four patients, one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient, one transition (IVS17+2T> C in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one patient, and a C> T transition resulting in a stop-codon (Q1135X in exon 11 (one patient. The identification of these mutations which are associated to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers will contribute to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of BRCA1 and to the improvement of genetic counseling for familial breast/ovarian cancer patients in Brazil.

  3. Brazilian Market Reaction to Equity Issue Announcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Ribeiro de Medeiros

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an event study to investigate stock returns associated with the announcement of equity issues by Brazilian firms between 1992 and 2003 in order to determine market reaction before, during, and after the issue announcement. After measuring abnormal returns by OLS, we used ARCH and GARCH models over 70% of the sample. Our results are remarkably consistent with most of the international empirical literature. Some previous empirical findings have turned up abnormal returns before the announcement date, interpreted as signs of insider information. This evidence also appears in our study as we found an average cumulative abnormal return of –0.01 three weeks before the announcement. With respect to the announcement date, the evidence reported in the literature is virtually unanimous in showing negative abnormal returns, meaning that stock issues convey pessimistic information to the market. Our study confirms these findings with an average – 0.03 cumulative abnormal return on the first three days following the announcement. Finally, the empirical literature has also collected evidence of long-term negative abnormal returns after the issues, which we alsoconfirm, with an abnormal return of –0.28 after one year following the announcement. The results also show that ARCH/GARCH estimation of abnormal returns is superior to OLS estimation.

  4. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  5. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  6. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  7. Brazilian biodiversity for ornamental use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exuberance of Brazilian flora has caused admiration since the arrival of the first navigators. Fifteen to twenty percent of plant species estimated for the planet are found in this country. Plant genetic resources are part of biodiversity with potential for use by human populations, and are linked to the culture of the people, establishing the traditional use or enabling an innovative use. In Brazil, the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx was a pioneer in collecting, using, valuing and preserving native species that have been admired since the 16th century, although they were neglected in the following centuries due to the valuation of ornamental plants from Europe. Between 1930 and 1960, he carried out landscaping projects that became emblematic for the development of landscaping in the 20th century. The analysis of the trajectory of the landscape architect, the 22 projects he carried out during that period, as well as the genebank structured by him, reveal significant numbers in terms of conservation.

  8. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  9. The protection system to Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sistema de Protecao ao Programa Nuclear Brasileiro-SIPRON (Protection System to Brazilian Nuclear Program) was established in 1980. It is intended to accomplish in only one system, all the actions related to security and protection for Nuclear Facilities in Brazil. The author presents in detail the protection system SIPRON, describing the system structure and organization, the functions and obligations of the system involved main organizations, as well as, the system operation and behaviour during an postulated occurrence of a nuclear emergency. It is also described an Exercise that happened in June of 1997 at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Angra I, after two simulated tests in December of 1996 and April of 1997. The NPP Angra I Emergency Plan Exercise was a good opportunity to test the SIPRON structure and preparedness program. It was verified, included by International Atomic Energy Agency observers, the system involved organizations effectiveness and the procedures efficacy to protect the public and the environmental. Finally, it is shown the SIPRON activities of routine, the system obstacles and the expected future performances. (author)

  10. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  11. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  12. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  13. The territorial logic in brazilian health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Lopes Brevilheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the territorial dimension has been addressed in the current Brazilian health policy. Provides an initial approximation of the theoretical discussion about the category territory and its implications for social policy. Then we analyze how this category was included in the principles and guidelines of the National Health System, deployed in key programs and normative instruments of health policy from 1990. It is concluded that: the territorial dimension was present from conception through SUS guideline regionalization of activities and services. In the main programs implemented in the 1990s, the territorial dimension had a character cutouts geographical and normative instruments gave centrality to the process of decentralization. However, from the 2000s, the regionalization strategy, pointing to the territorial perspective, gains greater significance. However, we still need to overcome the logic purely political-administrative and act so as to identify the real needs of the people, their potential, diversity and particularities, towards "used territory" referred to Milton Santos.

  14. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  15. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  16. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  17. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  18. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  19. Sleep habits in native brazilian bororo children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep behavior patterns in childhood are influenced by familial, cultural and environmental factors. In understanding sleep in Native Brazilian Bororo children, one should consider the influence of their culture on the child's sleep. This research analyzes sleep habits of Native Bororo children from the Meruri village, located in an Indian Reservation in the state of Mato Grosso. Fourty four children ( 24 M; 20 F were evaluated; ages ranged from one month to 10 years, with a mean age of 4.9 years. Sleep characteristics were assessed by means of a standard questionnaire applied to the mothers. Cosleeping - sleeping together with family members - was a remarkable finding, in every child 0-2 year old and in 81.5% in the 2-10 years group. The second characteristic was sleeping with many people in the same room. There was an average of 5.1 people per room in the younger group and 3.9 people in the older group

  20. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  1. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  2. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  3. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  4. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  5. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.

  6. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  7. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  8. Cited Brazilian papers in general surgery between 1970 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the most cited articles in general surgery published by Brazilian authors. INTRODUCTION: There are several ways for the international community to recognize the quality of a scientific article. Although controversial, the most widely used and reliable methodology to identify the importance of an article is citation analysis. METHODS: A search using the Institute for Scientific Information citation database (Science Citation Index Expanded was performed to identify highly cited Brazilian papers published in twenty-six highly cited general surgery journals, selected based on their elevated impact factors, from 1970 to 2009. Further analysis was done on the 65 most-cited papers. RESULTS: We identified 1,713 Brazilian articles, from which nine papers emerged as classics (more than 100 citations received. For the Brazilian contributions, a total increase of about 21-fold was evident between 1970 and 2009. Although several topics were covered, articles covering trauma, oncology and organ transplantation were the most cited. The majority of classic studies were done with international cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the most influential Brazilian articles published in internationally renowned general surgery journals.

  9. Economic Loss to the Brazilian Regions Due to the Doha Round Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Matheus Wemerson Gomes; Teixeira, Erly Cardoso; Gurgel, Angelo Costa

    2009-01-01

    We build a database and model to develop general equilibrium analysis of the Brazilian economy at the level of the five macro regions. The model is multiregional at global level as also at the Brazilian level. The project is coupled to the GTAP model through disaggregation of the original Brazilian input-output matrix and trade flows and follows the GTAPinGAMS structure and syntax to generate the General Equilibrium Analysis Project for the Brazilian Economy (PAEG). The regional database is t...

  10. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICE OF BRAZILIAN FOOTWEAR-EXPORTING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Flavia Luciane; Gomes, Clandia Maffini; Crespam, Cristina Ceribola

    2010-01-01

    The present study aims to analyze social and environmental management practices adopted by Brazilian footwear-exporting companies. To that end, we reviewed the literature on the Brazilian footwear industry and its socio-environmental management, which serves to frame our empirical survey of Brazilian footwear manufacturers having international operations, according to the Brazilian Footwear Association [ABICALÇADOS]. We undertook a descriptive study by using the survey method as a data collec...

  11. Brazilian normative data for the Short Form 36 questionnaire, version 2

    OpenAIRE

    Josué Laguardia; Mônica Rodrigues Campos; Claudia Travassos; Alberto Lopes Najar; Luiz Antonio dos Anjos; Miguel Murat Vasconcellos

    2013-01-01

    METHODS: The study Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD) (Social Dimensions of Inequalities) involves 12,423 randomly selected Brazilian men and women aged 18 years old or more from urban and rural areas of the five Brazilian regions, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age and gender-adjusted normative data for the Brazilian population. RESULTS: Brazilian men scored substa...

  12. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  13. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little research available on the…

  14. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  15. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  16. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys-carried out by different groups across the country-and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m-3) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geo-genic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment. (authors)

  17. Occupational health profile of Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Roche, Andrea Gouveia

    2013-01-01

    The occupational health and safety conditions of a sample of Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts are examined in this article. We administered a main survey to a convenience sample of 626 Brazilian immigrant workers of all trades and a supplemental survey to 163 Brazilian housecleaners in Massachusetts in 2005 and 2006. Survey questions addressed housecleaner demographics, socioeconomic status, working conditions, and hazards of housecleaning work. Housecleaners are exposed to a variety of ergonomic, chemical, and biological hazards. Professional housecleaners' work is fast-paced, requires awkward postures, and involves repetitive movements, use of force, and heavy lifting. The most common symptoms reported include back pain, and pain in the muscles, arms, legs, neck, shoulder, hands, fingers, and feet. To reduce exposures to occupational hazards, we propose the substitution of green cleaners for toxic chemical cleaning products, the use of ergonomic equipment, the use of personal protective equipment, and changes in work organization. PMID:24401486

  18. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  19. Study for correction of neutron scattering in the calibration of the albedo individual monitor from the Neutron Laboratory (LN), IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil; Estudo da correcao do espalhamento de neutrons na calibracao do monitor individual de albedo no LN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, B.M.; Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: bfreitas@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mauricio, C.L.P.; Martins, M.M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) runs a neutron individual monitoring service with albedo type monitor and thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Moreover the largest number of workers exposed to neutrons in Brazil is exposed to {sup 241}Am-Be fields. Therefore a study of the response of albedo dosemeter due to neutron scattering from {sup 241}Am-Be source is important for a proper calibration. In this work, it has been evaluated the influence of the scattering correction in two distances at the Low Scattering Laboratory of the Neutron Laboratory of the Brazilian National Laboratory (Lab. Nacional de Metrologia Brasileira de Radiacoes Ionizantes) in the calibration of that albedo dosemeter for a {sup 241}Am-Be source. (author)

  20. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids