Marlise Pompeo Claus
Full Text Available Cutaneous papillomatosis is a pathological condition commonly found in cattle and is characterized by the presence of benign proliferative tumors caused by bovine papillomavirus (BPV infection. While multiple infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are common in healthy and immunodeficient humans, studies with the aim of identifying mixed infections are still sporadic in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of multiple BPV infections in cattle affected by cutaneous papillomatosis. Fifteen skin warts were collected from at least two diverse anatomical regions of six bovines with papillomatosis belonging to three cattle herds from the Paraná state in Brazil. The BPV types present in the skin wart samples were determined by a PCR assay performed with the FAP primer pair for partial L1 gene amplification followed by direct sequencing or by cloning and sequencing of the inserts. Sequence analysis of the obtained amplicons allowed the identification of four characterized BPV types (BPV-1, -2, -6, and -8 and three previously described putative new BPV types (BPV/BR-UEL3, BPV/BR-UEL4, and BPV/BR-UEL5. Double infections were identified in four (A, B, D, and E of the six animals included in this study. In this work, the strategy adopted to evaluate skin warts from diverse anatomical sites of the same animal allowed the identification of multiple infections with two or three different BPV types. The analysis of four animals belonging to a single cattle herd also showed the presence of six different viral types. These results clearly suggest that both multiple papillomaviral infection and a high viral diversity can be as frequent in cattle as in human beings.A papilomatose cutânea é comumente observada nos rebanhos bovinos e caracterizada pela presença de tumores proliferativos benignos causados pela infecção pelo papilomavírus bovino (BPV. Enquanto a infecção múltipla pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV é um
a composite multibreed beef cattle herd using multitrait analysis. A REML procedure ... complex, CD and AFC (because of its high heritability) may be considered as selection criteria for ..... Marshall, D.M., Minqiang, W. & Freking, B.A., 1990.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from herds not known to be... BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.9 Cattle from herds not known to be affected. Male cattle which are not test eligible and are from herds not known to...
The aim of this thesis was to analyze milk yield and fertility in dairy cattle herds ? combined (Czech Pied cattle) and dojného utility type (Holstein cattle ) in the same breeding system. Further culling was evaluated, the cost of feeding a day and milk production. Observations were carried out in the company Podhoran Černíkov, as in the time sequence of zootechnical 2 years (1st 10th 2009 - 30 9th 2011). By tracking a total of 310 cows of which 47 cows of Czech Pied cattle C1 (C 100 %), bre...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A procedure to measure connectedness among herds was applied to a beef cattle population bred by natural service. It consists of two steps: (a computing coefficients of determination (CDs of comparisons among herds; and (b building sets of connected herds. Methods The CDs of comparisons among herds were calculated using a sampling-based method that estimates empirical variances of true and predicted breeding values from a simulated n-sample. Once the CD matrix was estimated, a clustering method that can handle a large number of comparisons was applied to build compact clusters of connected herds of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle. Since in this breed, natural service is predominant and there are almost no links with reference sires, to estimate CDs, an animal model was used taking into consideration all pedigree information and, especially, the connections with dams. A sensitivity analysis was performed to contrast single-trait sire and animal model evaluations with different heritabilities, multiple-trait animal model evaluations with different degrees of genetic correlations and models with maternal effects. Results Using a sire model, the percentage of connected herds was very low even for highly heritable traits whereas with an animal model, most of the herds of the breed were well connected and high CD values were obtained among them, especially for highly heritable traits (the mean of average CD per herd was 0.535 for a simulated heritability of 0.40. For the lowly heritable traits, the average CD increased from 0.310 in the single-trait evaluation to 0.319 and 0.354 in the multi-trait evaluation with moderate and high genetic correlations, respectively. In models with maternal effects, the average CD per herd for the direct effects was similar to that from single-trait evaluations. For the maternal effects, the average CD per herd increased if the maternal effects had a high genetic correlation with the direct
Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael
Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent.
Luciana G. Brito
Full Text Available The adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%, followed by SP + organophosphate (OP associations (68.91–81.47% and amidine (51.35–100%. For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, the milbemycin (94.84–100% was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100% and the avermectins (81.34–100%. The phenylpyrazole (PZ group had similar efficacy (99.90% to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed.
Cláudio E. F. Cruz
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.
Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J
A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.
Rösler, U; Hensel, A
Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in dairy cows caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. Since P. zopfii is highly resistant to all known chemotherapeutics, infected cows must be removed from the herd. Eradication measures are difficult since many chronically infected cows may become intermittent shedders. Therefore, cultural methods are insufficient for control measures. In order to eradicate Prototheca zopfii-mastitis in dairy cattle herds, two isotype specific indirect ELISA for detection of IgA and IgG1 in whey were used in a dairy herd highly affected with protothecal mastitis. All cows (n = 313) were tested four times in intervals of six months. Milk specimens were examined in parallel by cultivation and serologically using two indirect ELISA systems for specific IgA and IgG1 in whey. Cows tested Prototheca positive were consequently separated from the herd and slaughtered. At the first examination, 15.6% of the animals were found positive by culture, and 23.3% were positive in at least one of the ELISA systems. Within two years, protothecal prevalence and incidence decreased to zero indicating that the eradication strategy used was successful. In summary, serological identification of P. zopfii-infected lactating cows is an useful tool to eradicate protothecal bovine mastitis in infected herds.
Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.
Bovine herpesvirus 5 detection by virus isolation in cell culture and multiplex-PCR in central nervous system from cattle with neurological disease in Brazilian herds Detecção do herpesvírus bovino 5 por isolamento viral e multiplex-PCR em SNC de bovinos com doença neurológica em rebanhos brasileiros
Marlise Pompeo Claus
Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is an important cause of meningoencephalitis in young and adult cattle. The multiple etiology of neurological disturbances in cattle makes the quick and conclusive diagnosis of BoHV-5 infection important for animal and public health, mainly because of herbivore rabies that is endemic in Brazilian cattle herds. The objective of this retrospective study was to use a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (multiplex-PCR for BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 glycoprotein C gene detection from stored central nervous system (CNS tissue fragments of cattle with neurological clinical signs. Forty-seven frozen CNS samples of young and adult cattle from 31 herds in three Brazilian geographical regions (South, Southeast, and Center-west were evaluated. Eighteen (38.3% of these CNS samples were BoHV-positive by virus isolation in cell culture. By multiplex-PCR 30 (63.8% CNS samples were BoHV-5 positive. All 18 positive samples by virus isolation were confirmed as BoHV-5 by the multiplex-PCR, that provided a increase of 25.5% (12/47 in the BoHV-5 diagnosis rate. BoHV-1 was not detected in any CNS sample. This retrospective study demonstrated the wide regional distribution of BoHV-5 infection in Brazilian cattle herds since positive results were obtained in CNS samples of cattle with neurological disease from Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul States.O herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 é um importante agente etiológico de meningoencefalite em bovinos jovens e adultos. A etiologia múltipla dos distúrbios neurológicos em bovinos torna o diagnóstico conclusivo do BoHV-5 importante tanto em termos de sanidade animal quanto de saúde pública, principalmente pela característica endêmica da raiva dos herbívoros nos rebanhos bovinos brasileiros. O objetivo desse estudo retrospectivo foi utilizar a reação em cadeia da polimerase (multiplex-PCR para a detecção do gene da glicoproteína C do BoHV-5 e do BoHV-1 em
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bell, M.M.
The IgG seroreaction of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen (SEF14) was compared with that against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sera from 23 dairy herds (n = 205) from an island with no occurrence of salmonellosis, four herds (n = 303) with recent outbreaks of S...
Roeder, P L; Taylor, W P
The design of effective programmes for emergency response to incursion of epizootic diseases of cattle, for exclusion of such diseases and for implementation of progressive control in enzootic situations leading to eventual virus elimination, is currently largely empirical. This needs to be remedied to provide more cost-effective use of vaccines and more effective control. At population level, protective effects of immunisation can extend well beyond the individual, influencing the dynamics of viral propagation within the whole population, non-vaccinated as well as vaccinated. This concept of herd immunity and application of the resulting epidemiological principles, combined with experience gained from disease control programmes such as the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme has much to offer in designing effective science-based control programmes. This paper explores practical exploitation of the herd immunity principle by considering some of the factors which militate against mass vaccination achieving effective levels of herd immunity and, with these in mind, suggesting ways to optimise the efficiency of mass vaccination programmes.
Hummel, R; Meene, G
A site-linked hominis variety of Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a cattle herd. The find coincided with accumulated occurrence of clinical mastitis in cows and the affliction of one milker with a nose furuncle. The origin of the strain was not elucidated. The same strain had been isolated throughout three years of observation from clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as from chronic udder affection of cows, but no extraordinary accumulation of clinically manifest mastitis had been observed. The hominis site variety was quite rare among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from other cow herds. Enterotoxin formation was recorded from strains of the hominis site variety and from strains which could not be coordinated with any other of the known site varieties and fell under crystal-violet Type A. No enterotoxin formation was recordable from the strains of the bovis variety. The same applied to the group of staphylococci of crystal-violet Type C which could not be coordinated either with any known site variety and which is assumed to have originated from the hominis site variety. The above findings do not support any conclusion as to whether the cows had been infected by the milker or vice versa.
Graat, E A; de Jong, M C; Frankena, K; Franken, P
For the eradication of an infectious agent, like bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), surveillance and certification can be used to reduce the transmission between herds. The goal of surveillance is that a certified herd that becomes infected is detected timely so that infection of several other certified herds is prevented. What counts is whether the reproduction ratio R, i.e. the average number of certified herds infected by one infected certified herd can be kept below 1. To support policy makers in making decisions about the minimal demands for a surveillance programme in an eradication campaign of BHV-1 in cattle, two mathematical models were investigated. With these models, the basic reproduction ratio between herds was calculated. The surveillance programmes were characterised with sample size, sampling frequency, test sensitivity, herd size, vaccination status, and contacts between herds. When R between herds is below 1, then the surveillance programme is sufficiently good to prevent spread of infection, provided that R is estimated well. In the model based on bulk milk testing sample size was replaced by a threshold at which bulk milk can be found positive. The R between herds was mainly influenced by the vaccination status, sampling frequency, and contacts between herds. Herd size moderately affected the outcome. Test sensitivity and sample size, however, were of minor importance. If herds of 50 cows became free of BHV-1 without vaccination, then spread of infection between herds might be prevented when animals within herds are sampled once a year (milk or blood samples). This frequency needs to be intensified, being twice a year, for larger herds and/or herds with extensive contacts with other herds. When bulk milk is sampled instead, sampling should be done at least every 5 months and more intensively, being each month, with larger herd sizes and more contacts between herds.
Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Dahl, J; Clausen, D M; Graumann, A M; Alban, L
Bovine cysticercosis (BC) is a zoonotic, parasitic infection in cattle. Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcass from all bovines above 6 weeks of age is examined for BC. This method is costly and makes more sense in countries with higher number of BC-infected animals than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case herds were more than five times more likely than control herds to allow their animals access to risky water sources with sewage treatment plant effluent in proximity. Case herds were also more likely to share machinery or hire contractors than control herds. The risk decreased with increasing herd size probably because the larger herds generally tend to keep cattle indoors in Denmark. The results are useful to guide future data recording that can be supplied by the farmer as food chain information and then be used for differentiated meat inspection in low- and high-risk groups, enabling development of risk-based meat inspection systems.
Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;
a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...
Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E
Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.
Juliana Xavier Serapio da Silva
Full Text Available Purpose: This work aims to verify the herd behavior in both liquid stocks of Brazilian stock exchange, i.e. Petrobras and Vale.Methodology: This work uses the methods of Christie and Huang (1995 and price pressure with high frequency data to detect the herd behavior between 2010 and 2014.Findings: The first method suggest that there are no signs of herd behavior using 30 minutes intervals data. However, there is evidence of price pressure for the sample with all intraday data.Originality: Herd behavior studies usually focus on mutual funds. This work analyses the herd behavior based on individual stock prices.
Almeida Sabrina E. Matos
Full Text Available Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs, DNA markers relatively abundant in the genome, have a high degree of polymorphism and therefore great potential for characterizing populations. The present study estimates genetic variability in a set of four microsatellites (BMS3013, BMS3004, HEL10 and TGLA122 in a Brazilian hybrid bovine breed (5/8 Aberdeen Angus x 3/8 Nelore. The objectives were to determine the effect of crossbreeding and selection in these animals' genetic diversity as well as to discover the herd's genetic relationship with that of other breeds. Low diversity was verified in BMS3013 and high diversity was detected in BMS3004, HEL10 and TGLA122. Two alleles in TGLA122 are described here for the first time (TGLA122*155 and TGLA122*163. These genes are possibly characteristics of Zebu animals since they have not been found in other taurine samples so far investigated. Low interpopulational diversity was observed among taurine cattle populations, and clusters obtained on TGLA122 phylogenetic trees agreed with the bovine herd's geographic origin. Therefore, despite TGLA122's high polymorphism and high levels of intrapopulational diversity, the system engenders consistent bovine phylogenies. We detected an intriguingly high similarity between Brangus Ibagé and Red Angus since the former is a hybrid having 3/8 of Nelore genes. Either these animals' environment or genetic selective practices applied to the breed probably favor the Angus genotype.
Kowalczyk, Sławomir J; Czopowicz, Michał; Weber, Corinna N; Müller, Elisabeth; Witkowski, Lucjan; Kaba, Jarosław
A serosurvey was carried out to estimate the herd-level seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in cattle in central and northeastern Poland. Ninety seven dairy cattle herds from 2 provinces of Poland (Podlaskie, 47 herds and Łodzkie, 50 herds) were randomly enrolled in the study using two-stage cluster method. A simple random selection was applied within each herd to select a sample of adult cows (≥18 month-old). A total number of 734 cows were enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with a commercial competitive ELISA (Bio-X Diagnostics, Belgium). To calculate true herd-level seroprevalence test sensitivity and specificity were adjusted from an individual- to a herd-level using FreeCalc method. The true overall herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection was 56.7% (95% CI: 47.5%, 65.9%). The true herd-level seroprevalence in Podlaskie was 63.3% (95% CI: 43.0%, 83.6%) and 50.5% (95% CI: 32.8%, 68.2%) in Łodzkie province and these figures did not differ significantly between the two provinces (chi2 test p = 0.238). One hundred forty three of 734 cows (19.5%) were seropositive which gave the true overall individual-level seroprevalence of 20.1% (95% CI: 17.4%, 23.2%). Percentage of seropositive cows in each herd varied from 6% to 80%. This study is the first epidemiological investigation of herd-level seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in Polish dairy cattle population. In conclusion, the result of the study confirmed previous data that N. caninum infection is widespread in the Polish cattle population and thus should be considered as a potential cause of spontaneous abortions.
Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.
Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of rout
Gates, M C
National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.
Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;
Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility...... within and between groups, and in some groups we found a bimodal distribution of MES. Dairy herds generally showed higher MES than non-dairy herds. Dairy herds in a control programme for paratuberculosis showed a MES similar to all other dairy herds from which animals >2.0 years were tested (both groups...
Full Text Available Aim: Monitoring was performed in order to determine the Selenium (Se status of cattle herds in different agricultural areas in Wallonia (Belgium. Materials and Methods: The study included 114 heifers and 184 cows (82 dairy and 102 beef cows from 66 cattle farms situated in Wallonia. The Se status was assessed by measuring the glutathion peroxydase in red cells and converting it to the equivalent Se blood content. Results: The average blood concentrations of Se were very low. The Ardennes region was an area where the lowest Se status was recorded. The highest levels of Se in dairy cows and beef cows were recorded respectively in the limoneuse region and Famenne areas. The Se content in beef herds was lower compared with that of dairy herds (35 vs. 56 μg/L, p<0.01. Conclusion: On average over all the regions, 87% of animals were classified as deficient and only 13% of the animals were classified as adequate. The heifers from both dairy and beef herds in Wallonia exhibited a deficiency in Se classified as moderate to severe. The beef herds showed larger deficiencies compared with the dairy herds. Selenium deficiency can be prevented by ensuring adequate supplementation of deficient animals in Se deficient regions. An increased consumption of vitamin-mineral supplements, the use of Se-enriched fertilizers and ingredients containing high levels of Se can help to reduce or correct deficiencies recorded in cattle herds in Wallonia.
White, Paul W; Martin, S Wayne; De Jong, Mart C M; O'Keeffe, James J; More, Simon J; Frankena, Klaas
Local persistence of infection is a key feature of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of 'neighbourhood', specifically farm-to-farm spread and spread from wildlife, in the persistence of bTB by investigating herds having a bTB episode in 2006. A case-control study was conducted on the association between the occurrence of a bTB episode in 2006 and the occurrence of bTB in previous years among neighbouring herd(s) within 1 km, while controlling for each herd's bTB history and other risk factors. Neighbouring herds were grouped into three zones, based on distance, and bTB incidence measures summarised within each zone and by calendar year (2001-2005). The incidence of bTB was associated with an increased animal incidence in two subsets of neighbouring herds: (i) herds directly contiguous during the previous 2 years (attributable fraction=0.20), and (ii) herds at a distance of >25 m in the previous year (attributable fraction=0.19). Other predictors of bTB in a herd in 2006 included the occurrence of a bTB episode within that herd in any of the previous 5 years, herd size, and the number of animals purchased at age greater than 12 months. An infected wildlife source best explains the existence of a "neighbouring herd risk" for bTB at distances greater than 25 m. Further studies will be necessary to determine to what extent neighbouring herd risk within 25 m may be confounded by the same wildlife (badger) source.
de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M
Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a
Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta
Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies.
Identification of the recently described new type of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-8 in a Brazilian beef cattle herd Identificação do novo tipo de papilomavírus bovino (BPV-8 recentemente descrito num rebanho bovino no Brasil
Marlise P. Claus
Full Text Available Bovine papillomavirus type 8 (BPV-8 was first detected and described in teat warts as well as in healthy teat skin from cattle raised in Japan. The entire viral genome was sequenced in 2007. Additionally, a variant of BPV-8, BPV-8-EB, was also identified from papillomatous lesions of a European bison in Slovakia. In Brazil, despite the relatively common occurrence of BPV infections, the identification and determination of viral types present in cattle is still sporadic. The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of the recently described BPV-8 in Brazil. The virus was identified in a skin warts obtained from a beef cattle herd located in Parana state, southern Brazil. The papilloma had a macular, non-verrucous gross aspect and was located on the dorsal thorax of a cow. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using generic primers for partial amplification of L1 gene. The obtained amplicon (480bp was cloned and two selected clones were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence was compared to existing papillomaviral genomic sequences, identifying the virus as BPV type 8. This study represents the first report of BPV-8 occurrence in Brazil, what suggests its presence among Brazilian cattle.A primeira descrição do papilomavírus bovino tipo 8 (BPV-8 foi realizada em amostras de papilomas de teto e de pele saudável de tetos de bovinos no Japão. Em 2007, a seqüência genômica completa do BPV-8 foi determinada. Ainda em 2007, uma variante do BPV-8 (BPV-8-EB foi identificada em lesões papilomatosas de um bisão europeu na Eslováquia. No Brasil, apesar da infecção pelo BPV ser comumente observada em bovinos, a determinação dos tipos virais associados com a infecção ainda é esporádica. Este estudo tem o objetivo de relatar a ocorrência do BPV-8 no país. A amostra clínica foi obtida em um rebanho de corte do estado do Paraná, região sul do Brasil. O papiloma cutâneo, de aspecto macular e não-verrucoso, estava localizado na regi
White, P.W.; Martin, S.W.; Jong, de M.C.M.; O'Keeffe, J.J.; More, S.J.; Frankena, K.
Local persistence of infection is a key feature of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among cattle herds in the Republic of Ireland. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of ‘neighbourhood’, specifically farm-to-farm spread and spread from wildlife, in the persistence of bTB by
Nagy, Abdou; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun;
Scandinavian countries have successfully pursued bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) eradication without the use of vaccines. In Denmark, control and eradication of BVDV were achieved during the last two decades, but occasionally new BVDV infections are detected in some Danish cattle herds. The aim...
Hasunuma, H.; Takagi, M.; Kawamura, O.; Taniguchi, C.; Chuma, T.; Uno, S.; Kokushi, E.; Matsumoto, D.; Tshering, C.; Deguchi, E.; Fink-Gremmels, J.
The present study was conducted to 1) identify the natural source of feed contamination by zearalenone (ZEN), which was suspected to have caused persistently increased urinary ZEN concentrations in one of our experimental cattle herds, and 2) evaluate the effects of intervention against this source
Yeruham, I; Shlosberg, A; Hanji, V; Bellaiche, M; Marcus, M; Liberboim, M
Four cases of rarely reported nitrate toxicosis due to contamination of drinking water or whey were recorded in 2 beef and 2 dairy cattle herds. In the cases associated with water contamination, water containing ammonium nitrate as a fertilizer for irrigating orchards accidentally entered drinking water troughs for cattle through malfunctioning 1-way valves. The whey contamination in 1 instance was caused by transportation in containers which contained traces of concentrated ammonium nitrate; the 2nd case was induced by whey derived from the production of a specialty cheese produced by the incorporation of nitrate. Mortality occurred in 2 herds and abortions in the 2 other herds. Affected cows responded well to treatment, but some animals remained in a deteriorated physical condition for several months.
M. M. Hossain
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.
Nusinovici, S; Hoch, T; Brahim, M L; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F
There is a consensus that wind plays a key role in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, between ruminants and from ruminants to humans. However, no observational study so far has focused on the mechanisms associated with this airborne transmission. This study applied a mechanistic epidemiological approach to investigate the processes underlying the wind effect and to assess its influence on the risk for a dairy herd to become C. burnetii infected. Ninety-five dairy cattle herds located in the Finistère department (western France) were subjected to samplings of bulk tank milk and indoor dust every 4 months over a 1-year period to determine their C. burnetii status using PCR tests. A total of 27 incident herd-periods (negative-tested on both PCR tests and becoming positive-tested at least once at the subsequent sampling time) and 71 negative herd-periods were retained for analysis. Using logistic regression, we assessed the effect of (i) the cumulated number of bacteria in herds located under the main wind direction and (ii) the mean wind speed in this area, on a given herd's risk of becoming incident. Compared to herds in areas with low wind speed (≤5.5 m/s), the risk was significantly higher (OR = 3.7) in herds in areas with high wind speed (>5.5 m/s) and high bacterial load (>10), whereas it was not significantly different from unity in other situations. In agreement with our assumptions, C. burnetii transmission to a previously infection-free herd occurs only when (i) the wind transporting from infected sources and (ii) the load in the contaminated particles/aerosols generated are high enough to act jointly. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis
Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce
Boes, J.; Nersting, L.; Nielsen, Eva;
The prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter jejuni was investigated in pig herds on farms with and without cattle or poultry production. A bacteriological screening of pig cecal samples from 247 finisher herds was carried out at the slaughterhouse. Subsequently, a follow-up study was conducted ...
Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan
Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.
Singh, Shoor Vir; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Brajesh; Srivastav, Abhishek; Yadav, Sharad; Dhama, Kuldeep
'Indigenous vaccine' prepared from 'Indian Bison Type' a native bio-type of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strain 'S5' of goat origin (goat based) was evaluated in indigenous cattle herds located in gaushalas (cow shelters), endemic for Bovine Johne's disease. Cows (893) were randomly divided into vaccinated (702 = 626 adults + 76 calves) and control (191 = 173 adults + 18 calves) groups. Response to vaccination was evaluated on the basis of health (mortality, morbidity), productivity (growth rate, reproductive performance, total milk yield), immunological parameters (LTT, ELISA titer), survivability of animals naturally infected with MAP, bacterimia (by specific blood PCR), seroconversion (by indigenous ELISA) and status of shedding of MAP in feces (by microscopy) in the two groups before and after vaccination. Reduction in MAP shedding [to the extent of 100% in Herd A; and from 82.1% (0 DPV) to 10.7% (270 DPV) in Herd C] was the major finding in vaccinated cows. Whereas, the control group cows have shown no improvement. As the first indicator of vaccine efficacy, MAP bacilli disappeared from the blood circulation as early as 15 days post vaccination, however, peak titers were achieved around 90 DPV. Peak titers initially declined slightly but were maintained later throughout the study period. Control animals did not show any pattern in antibody titers. Mortality was low in vaccinated as compared to the control groups. Vaccination of endemically infected native cattle herds with inactivated whole-cell bacterin of novel 'Indian Bison Type' bio-type of goat origin strain 'S5' effectively restored health and productivity and reduced clinical BJD. Application of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' for therapeutic management of BJD in native cattle herds (gaushalas) is the first of its kind.
Ramirez-Villaescusa Ana M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle that presents with a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. A seroepidemiological study of BHV-1 antibodies was conducted in England from 2002 – 2004: 29,782 blood samples were taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds which were visited on up to three occasions. Antibody concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA. Farm management information was collected using an interview questionnaire, and herd size and cattle movements were obtained from the cattle tuberculosis testing database and the British Cattle Movement Service. Hierarchical statistical models were used to investigate associations between cattle and herd variables and the continuous outcome percentage positive (PP values from the ELISA test in unvaccinated herds. Results There were 7 vaccinated herds, all with at least one seropositive bovine. In unvaccinated herds 83.2% had at least one BHV-1 seropositive bovine, and the mean cattle and herd BHV-1 seroprevalence were 42.5% and 43.1% respectively. There were positive associations between PP value, age, herd size, presence of dairy cattle. Adult cattle in herds with grower cattle had lower PP values than those in herds without grower cattle. Purchased cattle had significantly lower PP values than homebred cattle, whereas cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic in 2001 had significantly higher PP values than those in continuously stocked herds. Samples taken in spring and summer had significantly lower PP values than those taken in winter, whereas those taken in autumn had significantly higher PP values than those taken in winter. The risks estimated from a logistic regression model with a binary outcome (seropositive yes/no were similar. Conclusion The prevalence of BHV-1 seropositivity in cattle and herds has increased since
Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;
BACKGROUND: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for F. hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds.\
Maillard, R.; Grimard, B; Chastant-Maillard, S; Chomel, B.; Delcroix, T.; Gandoin, C.; Bouillin, C.; Halos, L.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Boulouis, H.-J.
Bartonella spp. are small hemotropic bacteria infecting mammals. Four Bartonella species have been recently described in cattle and wild ruminants. To date, the biology and possible pathogenic role of Bartonella species isolated from ruminants are poorly understood. Therefore, a dairy herd of 448 cows and heifers was surveyed in order to establish the prevalence of Bartonella bovis and B. chomelii infections, the level of bacteremia, and the relationship between bacteremia and age or pregnanc...
Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.
Kaswan, R L; Collins, L G; Blue, J L; Martin, C L
A Brahman x Santa Gertrudis herd of cows bred to a Hereford bull was evaluated because of a 3-year history of several calves born with congenital blindness. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in 2 calves included microphthalmos, microcornea, microcoria, heterochromia iridis, microlentia, cataracts, retinal dysplasia, retinal detachment, anterior segment dysgenesis, acorea, and proliferation of the anterior neuroectoderm. On the basis of the lack of environmental factors and persistence of an intermittent problem when breeding to a single bull, a genetic defect was diagnosed as the probable cause. Dominant inheritance with varied expressivity may have best explained the lack of obvious signs in the bull, with emergence of various anterior and posterior segment defects in offspring from unrelated cows.
Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos
Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.
Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van
Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of
Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.
Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the causes for culling in dairy herds with different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status and to compare these causes with those observed over the general dairy cattle population. During 2009, causes for culling were registered in two different groups of farms: (1 farms with seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 but where Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has not been isolated from any of the fecal samples collected and (2 farms with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis seropositive cows for three consecutive years (2007-2009 and where the bacteria has been isolated from at least one fecal sample. Causes for animal loss were compared between both groups and between them and the general dairy cattle population by means of regression analysis. The distribution of culling reasons was different between infected herds (both bacteriologically positive and negative and the general population. The percentage of losses seemed to be higher in infected herds from the first parity on. The most remarkable difference among groups was observed in losses due to "death/urgent slaughter".
Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N
Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with
Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo
Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.
Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela
Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.
Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B
Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.
García-Vázquez, Z; Cruz-Vázquez, C; Medina-Espinoza, L; García-Tapia, D; Chavarria-Martinez, B
A serological survey for antibody activity to Neospora caninum was carried out in Aguascalientes, a state in the central part of Mexico. One-hundred and eighty-seven serum samples from 13 dairy herds were tested by the ELISA test. The herd prevalence was 100% and the overall prevalence was 59% (n=110). Seventy-six of 97 seropositive cows had previous records of abortion. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (P<0.05). However, the odds ratio was 1.4, suggesting an association between abortion and seropositivity. Neosporosis in dairy cattle appears to be widespread in Mexico, warranting more epidemiological studies to determine the distribution of the causative protozoan.
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is one of the most serious economic animal health problems affecting the cattle industry in Great Britain (GB, with incidence in cattle herds increasing since the mid-1980s. The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT test is the primary screening test in the bTB surveillance and control programme in GB and Ireland. The sensitivity (ability to detect infected cattle of this test is central to the efficacy of the current testing regime, but most previous studies that have estimated test sensitivity (relative to the number of slaughtered cattle with visible lesions [VL] and/or positive culture results lacked post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle. The slaughter of entire herds ("whole herd slaughters" or "depopulations" that are infected by bTB are occasionally conducted in GB as a last-resort control measure to resolve intractable bTB herd breakdowns. These provide additional post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle, allowing a rare opportunity to calculate the animal-level sensitivity of the test relative to the total number of SICCT test-positive and negative VL animals identified post-mortem (rSe. In this study, data were analysed from 16 whole herd slaughters (748 SICCT test-positive and 1031 SICCT test-negative cattle conducted in GB between 1988 and 2010, using a bayesian hierarchical model. The overall rSe estimate of the SICCT test at the severe interpretation was 85% (95% credible interval [CI]: 78-91%, and at standard interpretation was 81% (95% CI: 70-89%. These estimates are more robust than those previously reported in GB due to inclusion of post-mortem data from SICCT test-negative cattle.
Roberto G. de Almeida
Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.
Roberto G. de Almeida
Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.
Full Text Available In November 2008, a total of 19,910 bulk tank milk (BTM samples were obtained from dairy farms from all over Germany, corresponding to about 20% of all German dairy herds, and analysed for antibodies against the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus by use of the recombinant MSP-ELISA. A total number of 3,397 (17.1%; n = 19,910 BTM samples tested seropositive. The prevalences in individual German federal states varied between 0.0% and 31.2% positive herds. A geospatial map was drawn to show the distribution of seropositive and seronegative herds per postal code area. ELISA results were further analysed for associations with land-use and climate data. Bivariate statistical analysis was used to identify potential spatial risk factors for dictyocaulosis. Statistically significant positive associations were found between lungworm seropositive herds and the proportion of water bodies and grassed area per postal code area. Variables that showed a statistically significant association with a positive BTM test were included in a logistic regression model, which was further refined by controlled stepwise selection of variables. The low Pseudo R(2 values (0.08 for the full model and 0.06 for the final model and further evaluation of the model by ROC analysis indicate that additional, unrecorded factors (e.g. management factors or random effects may substantially contribute to lungworm infections in dairy cows. Veterinarians should include lungworms in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in dairy cattle, particularly those at pasture. Monitoring of herds through BTM screening for antibodies can help farmers and veterinarians plan and implement appropriate control measures.
Full Text Available Dermatosparaxis is a heritable collagen dysplasia causing skin extensibility and fragility. In Belgian Blue cattle this mutation has been described as a 3 base pair (bp change followed by a 17 bp deletion in the gene coding for procollagen 1 N-Proteinase (pNPI. An outbreak in a commercial Drakensberger herd in South Africa followed the introduction in late 2000 of a 3-year-old bull that developed skin lesions in 2001 and was culled in 2002. Some of his offspring were similarly affected, 1 of which was kept as a breeding bull after his sire's death. Two affected calves were referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital in October 2005. Detailed examination revealed only skin abnormalities limited to the lateral extremities of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis, viz. either acute lacerations of varying sizes, slow healing defects or thin scars in chronic cases. During a subsequent farm visit, 13 animals with similar wounds were seen in the herd of 146 animals. Electron microscopic examination of skin biopsies revealed haphazard arrangement and loose packing of dermal collagen fibrils within collagen fibres. The fibrils showed size variation and slightly irregular outlines on cross-section, consistent with mild dermatosparaxis. DNA samples of affected calves were analysed using primers designed to amplify the region of the pNPI gene that contained the mutation described in Belgian Blue cattle, but this mutation could not be demonstrated in any of the animals tested. It is concluded that a form of dermatosparaxis with a different gene mutation from that described in Belgian Blue cattle exists in Drakensberger cattle in South Africa. This possibly also explains the milder and more delayed clinical signs and the milder dermal collagen ultrastructural abnormalities.
Guilherme Amorim Franchi
Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.
Stadtmann, Georg; Fritsche, Ulrich; Pierdzioch, Christian
Using forecasts of exchange rates of the Brazilian real and the Mexican peso against the US dollar, we analyze the symmetry of the loss function of exchange-rate forecasters and the rationality of their forecasts. Symmetry of the loss function can be rejected for some forecasters but not all. Even...... when allowing for asymmetric loss functions, the predictions of some forecasters do not fit the traditional definition of rational forecasts. We interpret our results in terms of recent research on forecaster (anti-)herding....
Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah
Full Text Available Forty adult Friesian cows were presented to the University Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia with primary complain of lameness. Upon physical examination of the cows, open wounds were found at the distal limbs, dorsal hoof, knee joint, metacarpal region, and udder. Based on history, clinical observation and physical examination, the cause of the lameness was diagnosed as of non-infectious origin; the cattle were affected with chemical burn originated from exposure to lime. The affected cattle were treated similarly to that of the line of open wound treatment; the wound was cleaned with topical application of the mixture of dermapred-iodine-benacillin. Flunixin meglumine dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt and Oxytetracycline dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt were given intramuscularly as anti-inflammatory and prophylactic antibiotic, respectively. This case report describes diagnosis of the cause of lameness, and its management in cattle herd caused by lime toxicity for the first time in Malaysia.
Mai Hassan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%. Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5% had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538. Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1% and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9% n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3% n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7% n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2% than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5% (P P P 7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P Conclusion This is the first large study to assess the prevalence of bovine brucellosis over a wide geographic area of northern Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national
de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; Dijkstra, T; van Schaik, G; de Boer, I J M
As farm animal welfare is high on the political and societal agendas of many countries, considerable pressure exists to establish audit programs in which farm animal welfare is routinely monitored. On-farm assessment of animal welfare, however, is time-consuming and costly. A promising strategy to monitor animal welfare more efficiently is to first estimate the level of animal welfare on a farm based on routine herd data that are available in national databases. It is not currently known which variables of routine herd data (VRHD) are associated with dairy cattle welfare indicators (WI). Our aim was to identify VRHD that are associated with WI in a literature review. The 27 VRHD used in this review included the main types of data that are currently collected in national herd databases of developed countries, and related to identification and registration, management, milk production, and reproduction of dairy herds. The 34 WI used in this review were based on the Welfare Quality Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The search yielded associations in 146 studies. Twenty-three VRHD were associated with 16 WI. The VRHD that related to milk yield, culling, and reproduction were associated with the largest number of WI. Few associations were found for WI that referred to behavioral aspects of animal welfare, nonspecific disease symptoms, or resources-based indicators. For 18 WI, associations with VRHD were not significant (n=5 WI) or no studies were found that investigated associations with VRHD (n=13 WI). It was concluded that many VRHD have potential to estimate the level of animal welfare on dairy farms. As strengths of associations were not considered in this review, however, the true value of these VRHD should be further explored. Moreover, associations found at the animal level and in an experimental setting might not appear at the farm level and in common practice and should be investigated. Cross-sectional studies using integrated welfare scores at the farm level are
H. E. Nnabuife
present study revealed that helminthes of cattle are common in KGR; hence there is a need for regular faecalexamination and routine treatment of the herds instead of treating the individual cases.
Poskin, A; Méroc, E; Behaeghel, I; Riocreux, F; Couche, M; Van Loo, H; Bertels, G; Delooz, L; Quinet, C; Dispas, M; Van der Stede, Y
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged during summer 2011. SBV induced an unspecific syndrome in cattle and congenital signs (abortions, stillbirths and malformations) in domestic ruminants. To study the impact of SBV in Belgium, a phone survey was conducted upon September 2012. Hereto two groups of cattle farmers (A and B) and two groups of sheep farmers (C and D) were randomly selected. Farms from groups A (n = 53) and C (n = 42) received SBV-positive result at RT-PCR in the Belgian National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Farms from groups B (n = 29) and D (n = 44) never sent suspected samples to NRL for SBV analysis but were however presumed seropositive for SBV after the survey. Questionnaires related to reproduction parameters and clinical signs observed in newborn and adult animals were designed and addressed to farmers. As calculated on a basis of farmers' observations, 4% of calves in group A and 0.5% in group B were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. The impact as observed by sheep farmers was substantially higher with 19% of lambs in group C and 11% in group D that were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Interestingly, abortions or stillbirths were not clear consequences of SBV outbreak in cattle farms, and the birth of a deformed animal was an essential condition to suspect SBV presence in cattle and sheep farms. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the impact of the SBV epidemic. The results suggest that SBV impacted Belgian herds mostly by the birth of deformed calves, stillborn lambs and deformed lambs. This work also demonstrates that the birth of a deformed calf or lamb was a trigger for the farmer to suspect the presence of SBV and send samples to NRL for further analyses.
Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas
Full Text Available Considerando-se o número efetivo de animais e a taxa de abate do rebanho bovino brasileiro no período de 1983 a 2000, estimou-se o crescimento dessa população utilizando-se o modelo de Richards, ajustado pela técnica de verossimilhança profile. O modelo se mostrou adequado para descrever o crescimento da população brasileira de bovinos, pois as superestimavas e ou subestimavas dos valores se situaram entre 1 e 2,5%. A partir da modelagem por cadeia de Markov, foram calculados a probabilidade de o rebanho atingir 200 milhões de animais até o ano de 2015, em função da taxa de abate, e o tempo esperado para se atingir este tamanho populacional, em função da taxa de abate. A probabilidade de o rebanho atingir 200 milhões de animais até o ano de 2015, a uma taxa de abate de aproximadamente 17%, é 0,7. Com taxa de abate anual de 16%, o rebanho atingirá esse tamanho no período de 11 anos e, com taxa de abate de 18%, em 20 anos.The growth of the Brazilian bovine cattle population was evaluated using the effective number of animals and the annual slaughter rate from 1983 to 2000. The Richards model was fitted with the profile likelihood technique. Two population parameters were calculated by Markov chain modeling: a the probability of the cattle population to reach 200 million of animals in 2015 as a function of the slaughter rate; b the time to reach this size, considering different annual slaughter rates. The Richards model was adequate to estimate the Brazilian cattle population growth since overestimated and/or underestimated values ranged between one and 2.5%. The probability of the Brazilian herd to reach 200 millions animals in 2015 for an annual slaughter rate of approximately 17% is 0.7 and the expected time to reach 200 million animals for annual slaughter rates of 16% and 18% was 11 and 20 years respectively.
Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Frankena, K.; Olsen, A.;
and the factors related to its occurrence and distribution are scarce in Denmark. A retrospective study was performed using liver inspection data of approximately 1.5 million cattle for the period 2011 to 2013. Spatial analysis was carried out to explore whether the data on F. hepatica infection was clustered...... in space as this could help understand whether or not the infection was driven by local environmental factors. Both global and local spatial autocorrelation techniques were used. Herd level and environmental risk factors were evaluated for their association with prevalence of F. hepatica infection using......Liver fluke infection, also known as fasciolosis, is a world-wide prevalent zoonotic parasitic disease infecting a wide range of host species and is caused by Fasciola hepatica. Despite of the substantial economic and animal welfare effects of the disease, knowledge on its prevalence...
Sørensen, Morten Kargo; Andersen, Jakob Voergaard; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl
with 100 cows each. Each year 50 young bulls (YB), 10 active sires and 215 BD were selected on best linear unbiased prediction estimated breeding values by truncation selection across the simulated population, and the YB were tested within the population. Use of sexed semen alone gave a positive increase......Using stochastic simulation, the effect of using sexed semen to cow dams (CD) in a dairy cattle breeding scheme, with or without use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) to bull dams (BD), on annual genetic gain at the population level was examined. Three levels of sexed semen were...... combined with three levels of MOET: no sexed semen, sexed semen to the best CD and sexed semen to all heifers, combined with no MOET, MOET on all BD and MOET randomly on 20% of the BD. In total, nine scenarios were compared. The simulated population was monitored for 30 years and included 450 herds...
Fabiana Alves Demeu
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracted and purified from the plasma and urine samples and concentrated on diatoms in the presence of guanidine thiocyanate (GuSCN. PCR products were detected and identified as Leptospira by ilumination of the expected size of DNA bands after staining of the agarose gel with ethidium bromide gels. PCR products were purified and sequenced.Results: The results showed that 28% of urine samples and 23% of plasma samples were contaminated. The major serotypes were Icterohaemorrhagiae (50% and Pomona (37.5%. The urine samples of 17 cows were positive for Leptospira without positive plasma samples. This indicated that these cows are reservoirs in dairy herds of Shahrekord and dangerous for human health. The plasma samples of twelve cows were positive for Leptospira without positive urine samples.Conclusions: Leptospira serotypes can be maintained in relatively dry regions and must be considered when dealing with leptospirosis in dairy farms of Shahrekord and human health.
In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, being cross breed .... objective of this dairy system is to sale milk as a means of additional cash income. ... and herd characteristics (such as dairy herd management system, herd size, keeping of ...
Watanabe, Urara; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Tshering, Chenga; Okamoto, Koji
The study aims were (1) to confirm the effects of nutritional improvement in prepartal and postpartal periods, monitored using the serum metabolic profile test (MPT) and reproductive performance, and (2) to clarify regional characteristics of the MPT results within our jurisdiction by using our MPT database. Experiment 1: Among 42 breeding cattle herds in our jurisdiction mainly fed home-pasture roughage, 3 experimental herds showing subnormal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were selected and compared with 1 representative excellent herd. Dietary remedial measures were implemented from feed analysis in each herd. BUN concentration in all 3 herds increased significantly, and open days postpartum in 2 of the herds were significantly reduced, compared with values before dietary supplementation. Experiment 2: Thirty-seven herds within our jurisdiction were grouped into 3 categories (Area 1, 2 and 3) by location and soil condition of the herd pastureland. The MPT and reproductive performance in cows whose blood samples were collected at both prepartum (60-20 days before calving) and postpartum (30-90 days after calving) were compared among the 3 areas. Significant regional differences were found in prepartal albumin, total cholesterol, BUN, and glucose and postpartal BUN, glucose and open days (P<0.05). Overall, the MPT (especially BUN) might be useful for determining the metabolic nutritional status of breeding cattle herds, particularly those fed home-pasture roughage. Additionally, poor/unsatisfactory reproductive performance of beef breeding cattle herds probably reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet, possibly arising from regional pastureland differences.
Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio
Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.
Full Text Available Mycobacterium was verified in animals from a Brazilian dairy herd, a total of 42 samples from 30 cows were submitted to culture and the isolated strains were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the first specific for species belonging to the Mycobacterium complex (MTBC and the other for differentiating M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Twenty seven samples (64.3% from 18 animals (60% were positive for mycobacteria by culture, including samples from 15 retrofaryngeal lymphnodes (55.5%, 9 prescapular lymphnodes (33.3%, 2 lungs (7.4%, and 1 liver (3.7%. All isolated colonies were confirmed by PCR to contain MTBC organisms, and were identified as M. bovis by the same methodology.
Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W
The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures
Full Text Available Antemortem tests for bovine tuberculosis (bTB currently used in the US measure cell-mediated immune responses against Mycobacterium bovis. Postmortem tests for bTB rely on observation of gross and histologic lesions of bTB, followed by bacterial isolation or molecular diagnostics. Cumulative data from the state of Michigan indicates that 98 to 99% of cattle that react positively in antemortem tests are not confirmed positive for bTB at postmortem examination. Understanding the fundamental differences in gene regulation between antemortem test-false positive cattle and cattle that have bTB may allow identification of molecular markers that can be exploited to better separate infected from noninfected cattle. An immunospecific cDNA microarray was used to identify altered gene expression (≤0.01 of 122 gene features between antemortem test-false positive cattle and bTB-infected cattle following a 4-hour stimulation of whole blood with tuberculin. Further analysis using quantitative real-time PCR assays validated altered expression of 8 genes that had differential power (adj ≤0.05 to segregate cattle confirmed positive for bovine tuberculosis from antemortem tuberculosis test-false positive cattle originating from herds free of bovine tuberculosis.
Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Naser Shahabi-Nejad
Objective: To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibody positive randomly selected dairy herds in southeast Iran (Kerman). Methods: Bulk tank milk samples were collected randomly from 44 sufficiently large commercial dairy herds, included near 12 000 dairy cattle, in Kerman (The largest province of Iran), southeast Iran. The samples were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using the commercial CHEKIT® Q fever antibody ELISA Test Kit (Idexx, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland). Results: The prevalence of positive, negative and intermediate herds were 45.4%, 43.2% and 11.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The result supports the hypothesis of high prevalence and endemic pattern of Q fever in Iran. This investigation highlights the importance of further studies on Q fever in Iran.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.
Vanessa Y Hashimoto
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and the risk factors for Leptospira spp. infection in breeding cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state. It was based on the statistic delineation/serological samples and information regarding the selected farms employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Paraná state in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. A total of 1.880 females aged >24 months from 274 non vaccinated herds were studied. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. using microscopic agglutination test (MAT with 22 Leptospira serovars. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred eighty one of 274 herds were positive for Leptospira spp./presenting prevalence of positive herds of 66.06% (IC95%=60.12-71,65%. Presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.120; IC=1.418-6.867/animal purchase (OR=2.010; IC=1.154-3.500/rent of pastures (OR=2.925; IC=1.060-8.068 and presence of maternity paddock (OR=1.981; IC=1,068-3,676 were identified as risk factors for leptospirosis due to any serovar in the multivariate logistic regression. Risk factors for leptospirosis due to serovar Hardjo were presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.622; IC=1.512-8,677/animal purchase (OR=3.143; IC=1.557-6.342/rent of pastures (OR=4.070; IC=1.370-12.087 and presence of horses (OR=2.981; IC=1.321-6.726. These results indicate that Leptospira spp. infection is widespread in the south central region of Paraná state and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.
Miyasaka, Taku; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Ishibashi, Kazuki; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Aida, Yoko
In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for bovine diseases and immunological traits. In this study, we sequenced alleles of the BoLA class II loci, BoLA-DRB3 and BoLA-DQA1, from 650 Japanese cattle from six herds [three herds (507 animals) of Japanese Black cattle and three herds (143 animals) of Holstein cattle] using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) methods. We identified 26 previously reported distinct DRB3 alleles in the two populations: 22 in Japanese Black and 17 in Holstein. The number of DRB3 alleles detected in each herd ranged from 9 to 20. Next, we identified 15 previously reported distinct DQA1 alleles: 13 in Japanese Black and 10 in Holstein. The number of alleles in each herd ranged from 6 to 10. Thus, allelic divergence is significantly greater for DRB3 than for DQA1. A population tree on the basis of the frequencies of the DRB3 and DQA1 alleles showed that, although the genetic distance differed significantly between the two cattle breeds, it was closely related within the three herds of each breed. In addition, Wu-Kabat variability analysis indicated that the DRB3 gene was more polymorphic than the DQA1 gene in both breeds and in all herds, and that the majority of the hypervariable positions within both loci corresponded to pocket-forming residues. The DRB3 and DQA1 heterozygosity for both breeds within each herd were calculated based on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only one Japanese Black herd showed a significant difference between the expected and observed heterozygosity at both loci. This is the first report presenting a detailed study of the allelic distribution of BoLA-DRB3 and -DQA1 genes in Japanese Black and Holstein cattle from different farms in Japan. These results may help to develop improved livestock breeding strategies in the future.
Albuquerque Maria do Socorro Maués
Full Text Available Records of Gyr cows selected for milk production were obtained from the National Gyr Dairy Cattle Breeding Program (Embrapa/CNPGL and analyzed, in order to estimate genetic parameters for the first three lactations and to verify the effects of some environmental factors on milk production from 1979 to 1994. Genetic parameters were estimated by REML with an animal model and a group of fixed effects that included classes of herd, year, season and age at calving. Milk production means and standard deviations were 2,183 kg, 707 kg; 2,682 kg, 762 kg and 2,638 kg, 851 kg, for first, second, and third lactations, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.20, 0.12, and 0.19 for first, second, and third lactations, respectively, and repeatability was 0.44. Genetic correlation estimates were: 0.68 between first and second lactations, 0.84 between first and third lactations and 1.0 between second and third lactations. Results confirm other research for specialized dairy breeds and firmly suggest that even in breeds of Indian origin the best time to make selection decisions is during the first lactation.
Aly, N M; Shehab, G G; Abd el-Rahim, I H A
This study reported field outbreaks of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection, either alone or mixed with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) and/or parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V) in Egypt during 2000. In Lower Egypt, young calves in three cattle herds in El-Minufiya Province, El-Fayoum Province and in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province, showed symptoms of enteritis, either alone or accompanied by respiratory manifestations. The affected herds were visited and the diseased animals were clinically examined. Many epidemiological aspects, such as morbidities, mortalities and case fatalities, as well as the abortive rate, were calculated. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-blood samples, sterile nasal swabs and serum samples were obtained for virological and serological diagnosis. The laboratory investigations revealed that the main cause of calf mortalities in the three herds was infection with BVDV, either alone, as on the El-Minufiya farm, or mixed with PI-3V, as on the El-Fayoum farm, or mixed with both BHV-1 and PI-3V, as in the herd in governmental quarantine in El-Behira Province. A total of nine dead calves from the three herds were submitted for thorough post-mortem examination. Tissue samples from recently dead calves were obtained for immunohistochemical and histopathological studies. The most prominent histopathological findings were massive degeneration, necrosis and erosions of the lining epithelium of the alimentary tract. Most of the lymphoreticular organs were depleted of lymphocytes. In pneumonic cases, bronchopneumonia and atypical interstitial pneumonia were evident. The present study suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of BVDV had predisposed the animals to secondary infection with BHV-1 and PI-3V. This study concluded that concurrent infection with BVDV, BHV-1 and PI-3V should be considered as one of the infectious causes of pneumoenteritis and, subsequently, the high morbidities and mortalities among young calves in Egypt
Saa, Luis Rodrigo; Perea, Anselmo; Jara, Diego Vinicio; Arenas, Antonio José; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Borge, Carmen; Carbonero, Alfonso
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds from Ecuador. A total of 2,367 serum samples from 346 herds were collected from June 2008 to February 2009. A questionnaire, which included variables related to cattle, health, management measures, and the environment, was filled out in each herd. Presence of antibodies against BRSV was analyzed using a commercial indirect ELISA test. A logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors associated with BRSV at herd level. The individual seroprevalence against BRSV in non-vaccinated herds in Ecuador was 80.48% [1,905/2,367; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 78.9-82.1]. The herd prevalence was 91.3% (316/346; 95% CI = 88.3-94.3), and the intra-herd prevalence ranged between 25% and 100% (mean, 90.47%). The logistic regression model showed that the existence of bordering cattle farms, the dual-purpose farms, and the altitude of the farm (more than 2,338 m above sea level) were risk factors associated with BRSV infection. This is the first study about BRSV prevalence in Ecuador. It shows the wide spread of the BRSV infection in the country. The risk factors found will help to design effective control strategies.
Wernike, Kerstin; Holsteg, Mark; Sasserath, Michael; Beer, Martin
In late 2011, the novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Central Europe. Since that year, a dairy cattle herd kept in the German region in which the virus was initially detected was continuously monitored. In order to evaluate the development of the within-herd seroprevalence, but also to assess the long-term persistence of antibodies against SBV in individual animals, blood samples of all cows older than 24 months were taken yearly after the respective vector season and serologically analyzed. In December 2011, in 74% of the tested animals SBV-specific antibodies were detectable. Additional scattered seroconversions were observed between the 2011 and 2012 vector seasons, thereafter all seronegative animals remained negative. Until December 2014, the intra-herd seroprevalence decreased to 58%. A total of 122 cows infected presumable in autumn 2011 were sampled every year, 9 of them became seronegative until December 2014. Consequently, though SBV-specific antibodies were detected in about 90% of the monitored animals for more than three years, a lifelong antibody-based immunity is not expected in every animal. The loss of anti-SBV antibodies in individual animals combined with the missing infection of young stock results in a declining herd seroprevalence and increases the risk of a renewed virus circulation to a greater extent within the next years.
Henry, M K; Tongue, S C; Evans, J; Webster, C; McKENDRICK, I J; Morgan, M; Willett, A; Reeves, A; Humphry, R W; Gally, D L; Gunn, G J; Chase-Topping, M E
Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166-0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156-0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.
Norby, Bo; Bartlett, Paul C; Grooms, Daniel L; Kaneene, John B; Bruning-Fann, Colleen S
To estimate herd-level sensitivity (HSe), specificity (HSp), and predictive values for a positive (HPVP) and negative (HPVN) test result for several testing scenarios for detection of tuberculosis in cattle by use of simulation modeling. Empirical distributions of all herds (15,468) and herds in a 10-county area (1,016) in Michigan. 5 test scenarios were simulated: scenario 1, serial interpretation of the caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) test and comparative cervical test (CCT); scenario 2, serial interpretation of the CFT test and CCT, microbial culture for mycobacteria, and polymerase chain reaction assay; scenario 3, same as scenario 2 but specificity was fixed at 1.0; and scenario 4, sensitivity was 0.9 (scenario 4a) or 0.95 (scenario 4b), and specificity was fixed at 1.0. Estimates for HSe were reasonably high, ranging between 0.712 and 0.840. Estimates for HSp were low when specificity was not fixed at 1.0. Estimates of HPVP were low for scenarios 1 and 2 (0.042 and 0.143, respectively) but increased to 1.0 when specificity was fixed at 1.0. The HPVN remained high for all 5 scenarios, ranging between 0.995 and 0.997. As herd size increased, HSe increased and HSp and HPVP decreased. However, fixing specificity at 1.0 had only minor effects on HSp and HPVN, but HSe was low when the herd size was small. Tests used for detecting cattle herds infected with tuberculosis work well on a herd basis. Herds with < approximately 100 cattle should be tested more frequently or for a longer duration than larger herds to ensure that these small herds are free of tuberculosis.
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Bitsch, V.
A total of 2585 serum samples from 62 dairy herds located in four different regions of Denmark were tested in an O-antigen (0:1,4,5,12)-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium. Ten closed herds from an island with no reported occurrence of salmonellosis for seve......A total of 2585 serum samples from 62 dairy herds located in four different regions of Denmark were tested in an O-antigen (0:1,4,5,12)-based ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhimurium. Ten closed herds from an island with no reported occurrence of salmonellosis...... the salmonellosis-free island were ELISA-negative, and all but one of the 12 S typhimurium-infected herds were ELISA-positive, which resulted in a herd test sensitivity of 0.92 and herd test specificity of 1.0. Eleven of the 12 S typhimurium-infected herds were negative in a blocking ELISA based on a monoclonal...
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise
potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined...... with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used...
Eisler Mark C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human brucellosis has been found to be prevalent in the urban areas of Kampala, the capital city of Uganda. A cross-sectional study was designed to generate precise information on the prevalence of brucellosis in cattle and risk factors for the disease in its urban and peri-urban dairy farming systems. Results The adjusted herd prevalence of brucellosis was 6.5% (11/177, 95% CI: 3.6%-10.0% and the adjusted individual animal prevalence was 5.0% (21/423, 95% CI: 2.7% - 9.3% based on diagnosis using commercial kits of the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA for Brucella abortus antibodies. Mean within-herd prevalence was found to be 25.9% (95% CI: 9.7% - 53.1% and brucellosis prevalence in an infected herd ranged from 9.1% to 50%. A risk factor could not be identified at the animal level but two risk factors were identified at the herd level: large herd size and history of abortion. The mean number of milking cows in a free-grazing herd (5.0 was significantly larger than a herd with a movement restricted (1.7, p Conclusions Vaccination should be targeted at commercial large-scale farms with free-grazing farming to control brucellosis in cattle in and around Kampala city.
Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord
The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.
White, P; Frankena, K; O'Keeffe, J; More, S J; Martin, S W
Movement of animals between farms represents a potential risk of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and other disease transmission. The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify risk factors associated with the first between-herd movement of animals (denoted as risk move). A random sample of 1 percent of Irish calf births registered for 2002 (20,182 animals) was selected. Descriptive and survival analysis on movement over the period 2002-2005 was performed. A total of 12,119 (60%) of animals experienced a risk move over the 4-year study period. Among those that moved, 57% did so within the first 12 months of age. For animals in dairy herds, an early peak in risk move events was observed within the first 12 weeks of age; whereas in animals from suckler herds, a later risk move peak was observed between 21 and 36 weeks of age. The survival models identified a number of risk factors: two that appeared most important in predicting a risk move were gender and enterprise type. Males had a hazard ratio of 2.6 times that of females. The hazards for enterprise type, varied over time, thus a time-varying covariate (ent_type×ln(time)) was included in the Cox model. At 7 days of age, females in suckler herds were at 0.14 times the hazard of females in dairy herds for risk move, and over time, the hazards converged, equalised by day 140, and then diverged, so that by 4 years of age, females in suckler herds were at 4.64 times the hazard of females in dairy herds. Herds with a history of selling animals in previous years maintained that record during the study period with increased hazard of risk move. Enterprise type interacted with gender so that relative to females, males from dairy herds were at greater hazard of risk move than males from suckler herds. Hazard of risk move was also a function of ln (herd area), so that each doubling of farm area was accompanied by a 30.6% decrease in the hazards. The main conclusion was that risk of movement related disease transmission
Romero, J J; Perez, E; Dolz, G; Frankena, K
Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary Automated Management and Production Control Programme) as management-information system. Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and crosses between them were the most-frequent breeds in these herds. The number of females per farm varied from 41 to 296. Our cross-sectional study had two phases. In the first phase, we determined the presence or absence of seropositivity at herd level. For the second phase, all females in 20 seropositive farms were bled. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire with factors mentioned in the literature was administered to the farmers. Logistic regression (LR with herd as random effect) was used to assess the relationships of the serostatus at the individual level with characteristics of the cows and environmental factors. In the first phase all herds had >20% seropositive females; therefore, all herds were eligible for the second phase. In the second phase, the overall prevalence was 39.7% (1191/3002), and within-herd prevalences were between 25.0 and 70.5%. Age 3-6 years, parity < or =2 of the dam of the cow, Jersey breed and lack of purposive sampling to diagnose abortive infectious disease were associated with positive serostatus; other management and environmental factors did not show significant associations. The lack of association between management and environmental factors with serostatus might be because all farms were exposed to a considerable number of potential factors. That all herds of this study were seropositive for neosporosis and the within-herd prevalence was considerable raises questions about how far the infection is spread in other dairy
Hüe, T; Graille, M; Mortelecque, A; Desoutter, D; Delathière, J M; Marchal, C; Teurlai, M; Barré, N
In December 2007, Babesia bovis was introduced to New Caledonia through the importation of cattle vaccinated with a live tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine. Medical measures, acaricide and antiprotozoal treatments, and quarantine restrictions were implemented with success on all the farms involved, but the disease spread to one of the neighbouring properties where feral cattle were present. To circumscribe and eliminate this outbreak, the authorities decided to slaughter all animals on the neighbouring property. To monitor the spread of babesiosis in naïve cattle and to compare the usefulness of PCR, ELISA and brain smear for disease detection in monitoring this outbreak. Blood and brain samples of slaughtered animals were analysed over time throughout the eradication campaign using serology, PCR and brain smears. In addition, field numbers of Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae were assessed and Babesia infection of the larvae analysed using PCR. This study showed the natural spread of babesiosis in a naïve herd without pharmacological control measures. Prevalence reached 80% within a year of introduction. ELISA and PCR tests performed similarly in detecting disease in cattle and both were superior to brain smears. Nevertheless, specific tests or combinations of tests may be preferable, depending on the specific requirements of any future disease situation. In cattle, ELISA and PCR appear to be suitable tools for monitoring the evolution of a babesiosis outbreak, with brain smears as a useful adjunct. PCR was not suitable for detecting infection in tick larvae. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.
Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy
The objective of the study was to determine the herd demography and reproductive efficiency of the Nguni cattle in village-owned and group-owned enterprises under low-input communal production systems. Data on husbandry practices, reason of cattle entry/exist, herd structure, bulling rates, breeding females, age at first calving and calving interval were obtained from 22 village-owned and 19 group-owned enterprises in a cross-sectional survey of an ecologically controlled low-input cattle production system. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests of association were computed on enterprise ownership patterns, husbandry practices and herd demography. An AN(C)OVA was used to determine significant factors affecting herd structure, mortality, age at first calving and calving interval in the enterprises. Village-owned enterprises had higher (p 0.05). Significant differences were observed on the calving interval (p bulling rate was higher in village-owned enterprises, while the proportion of breeding females was higher in group-owned enterprises. Farmers with a college education had Nguni animals with the shortest calving interval. It was concluded that group-owned enterprises had significantly better calving intervals, mortality rates and overall herd structure than village-owned enterprises.
To increase public understanding on cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the present review describes the effect of calf death loss on an SCNT cattle herd. The incidence of death loss in SCNT cattle surviving more than 200 days reached the same level as that in conventionally bred cattle. This process could be considered as removal of SCNT cattle with congenital defects caused by calf death loss. As a result of comparative studies of SCNT cattle and conventionally bred cattle, the substantial equivalences in animal health status, milk and meat productive performance have been confirmed. Both sexes of SCNT cattle surviving to adulthood were fertile and their reproductive performance, including efficiency of progeny production, was the same as that in conventionally bred cattle. The presence of substantial equivalence between their progeny and conventionally bred cattle also existed. Despite these scientific findings, the commercial use of food products derived from SCNT cattle and their progeny has not been allowed by governments for reasons including the lack of public acceptance of these products and the low efficiency of animal SCNT. To overcome this situation, communication of the low risk of SCNT technology and research to improve SCNT efficiency are required.
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice
understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and analysed for evidence of FMDV infection. In total, 37 (15 %) of 247...
Objective: To isolate an anti-Salmonella bacterium that may control pathogen load in persistently-infected cattle herds. Animals: 24 Holstein calves. Procedures: An Escherchia coli (designated as P8E5) that possesses anti-Salmonella activity was isolated from Salmonella negative bovine feces ob...
Foddai, Alessandro; Rosenbaum Nielsen, Liza; Willeberg, Preben
TB and was parametrized with inputs according to the newest available information. The PFree was updated on an annual basis for each of 42 years oftest-negative surveillance data (1995–2037), while assuming a low (annual probability of introduction of bTB into Danish cattle herds. The most important reasons...... to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were...... of bTB into the cattle population. For Denmark, the probability of introduction of bTB should be kept annual basis to sustain the high confidence in freedom over time. The results could be considered when deciding if the CMI can be replaced by VOI in cattle abattoirs of countries for which b...
Viott, A M; Lage, A P; Cruz, E C C; Guedes, R M C
Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.
Full Text Available Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp., PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp. and eggs counts (T. suis. The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%. B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.
Carmen M.C. Britto
Full Text Available "Pé-duro" (hard foot is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 "pé-duro" bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa herd in the Brazilian State of Piauí. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus in a cattle that has been considered closest to its European origin (B. t. taurus. The presence of both submetacentric and acrocentric Y chromosomes, typical of B. t. taurus and B. t. indicus, respectively, and the larger preputial sheath in bulls with an acrocentric Y chromosome indicated racial contamination of the "pé-duro" herd with Zebu cattle. Phenotypic parameters involving horn, dewlap, ear, chamfer, and coat color characteristics, indicative of apparent racial contamination, were not associated with acrocentric Y chromosome.Um plantel de touros "pé-duro", consistindo de 75 animais do núcleo da Embrapa envolvido com a preservação desse gado no Estado do Piauí, foi examinado quanto à morfologia do seu cromossomo Y, bem como em relação a elementos da genitália externa e outras características fenotípicas dos machos. O objetivo era investigar a contaminação racial por animais zebuínos (Bos taurus indicus num gado bovino que tem sido considerado mais próximo de sua origem européia (Bos taurus taurus. Tanto a forma submetacêntrica quanto a forma acrocêntrica do cromossomo Y, típicas das sub-espécies B. t. taurus e B. t. indicus, respectivamente, bem como maior bainha prepucial nos espécimes portadores do cromossomo Y acrocêntrico, indicativa de contaminação racial por gado zebuíno, foram detectadas no rebanho "pé-duro" mantido no núcleo da Embrapa. Outras características fenotípicas analisadas que podem informar sobre a contaminação racial aparente n
Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H
An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.
Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H
An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar
Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual...
Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.
Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong
Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.
Coignard, M; Guatteo, R; Veissier, I; de Boyer des Roches, A; Mounier, L; Lehébel, A; Bareille, N
Extensive information is available in the literature on the specific risk factors of the main health disorders afflicting dairy cattle herds. However, it remains difficult to manage a herd's overall health because measures to control one risk factor can exacerbate the risk of another disease. To achieve and maintain good overall herd health, livestock systems and management practices need to simultaneously take into account all of the main health disorders. We aimed to identify the characteristics of systems and practices conducive to good herd health using the Welfare Quality(®) assessment protocol for cattle. This protocol allows an assessment of the level of health and welfare at the herd level according to the opinion of a selected group of 13 experts from animal sciences. Our objectives were to (i) describe the distribution of dairy herds' health scores in a representative sample of French dairy cattle herds, and (ii) to investigate systems (housing system, milking system, herd size, breed, farm location) and management practices associated with variations of the overall health score of dairy herds. This protocol was carried out on 130 farms between December 2010 and March 2011. A multivariable analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the factors of variation of the overall health score at the herd level. The overall health scores of the farms in the sample were classified as moderate for the vast majority of farms (95.4%) (mainly due to subclinical mastitis, dystocia and pain induced by disbudding/dehorning) and varied little between farms. Some livestock systems were associated with a higher overall health score: straw yards and milking parlors (P<0.0001), highland vs. lowland locations (P=0.013), Montbeliarde rather than Holstein breeds (P=0.006). Some management practices also were associated with a higher level of health: medium herd average parity (P=0.03), low proportion of dirty cows (P=0.002) and low proportion of cows with abnormal
Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J
A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).
Full Text Available Abstract Since 1998, there has been a steady decline in herd restrictions and de-populations in Ireland due to bovine brucellosis. There is concern that the interpretation of laboratory results may become increasingly problematic, as brucellosis prevalence falls in Ireland. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the infection status of Irish herds and animals with inconclusive serological evidence of bovine brucellosis. During 12 months from September 1, 2004, laboratory and observational epidemiological data were collected from all Irish herds where animal testing identified at least one animal with a complement fixation test (CFT reading greater than zero and/or a positive result to the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Due to the observational nature of the study, we have robust estimates of the relative, but not the absolute, performance of the CFT, iELISA and brucellin skin test (BST. Herds were divided into three categories (Group A, B or C on the basis of test results at initial assessment. A total of 639 herds were enrolled into the study, and observed for at least two years following enrolment. A rising CFT titre, with a CFT reading of 111 International CFT Units (IU or greater at the subsequent blood test, was generally associated with herds where other evidence of infection was also available. Knowledge of the CFT reading at the initial and a subsequent blood test proved useful in distinguishing false-positive and true-positive brucellosis results. There was poor correlation between the CFT and iELISA results, and between the CFT and BST results. As a result of this study, national policy has been modified to include re-sampling of all animals with CFT readings of 20 IU or greater. This project has also led to a reduction in the number of herds restricted, as well as restriction duration. It has also contributed to a reduction in the number of herds listed for contiguous tests, and therefore the
Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R
Calving success (CS), days to calving (DC), birth weight (BW) and calving ease (CE) were studied in a mixed breed (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford and Simmental × Hereford) beef cattle herd. DC was not normally distributed and a number of transformations failed in normalising it. Repeatabilities were estimated by analysis of variance. Inclusion (or exclusion) of non calvers and the transformations studied had little effect on the repeatability of DC, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The repeatabilities for CS, BW and CE were 0.08, 0.26 and 0.03, respectively. The residual correlations of CS with DC and functions of DC were high (-0.68 or greater), whereas the correlations among DC and functions of DC were close to one. The correlations of DC with BW and CE varied little with the transformation applied to DC, ranging from 0.26 to 0.28 and 0.10 to 0.12, respectively. The correlation between BW and CE was 0.06. The study points to a number of problems associated with the use of DC as a reproductive variable in beef cattle. It is concluded that although DC is currently a useful field reproductive variable, the search for appropriate female reproductive traits should continue. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Reproduktions- und Perinatal-Variable in einer gemischtrassigen Fleisch-Rinderherde Abkalbeerfolg (CS), Tage bis Abkalbung (DC), Geburtsgewicht (BW) und Kalbeleichtigkeit (CE) wurden in einer gemischtrassigen (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford und Simmental × Hereford) Mutterkuhherde untersucht. DC waren nicht normalverteilt und konnte auch durch eine Reihe von Transformationen nicht normalisiert werden. Wiederholbarkeiten wurden mit Varianzanalyse geschätzt. Berücksichtigung (oder Nichtberücksichtigung) von Nichtkalbungen und die Transformationen hatten wenig Wirkung auf Wiederholbarkeit von DC, die zwischen 0,10 und 0,12 war. Wiederholbarkeiten für CS, BW und CE waren 0,08, 0,26 und 0,03. Die Restkorrelation von CS mit DC und Funktionen von DC waren hoch (- 0,68 oder stärker), w
Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
by use of an IL-12 potentiated IFN-g protocol. Following calving, milk samples were collected and analysed for MAP specific antibodies by ELISA and faecal samples were cultured. The relationship between the variables IFN-g and FC and the outcome of ELISA was assessed using generalised additive models......Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study...... was to evaluate if early cell-mediated immunity could predict the antibody results of milk samples in cattle with different faecal culture (FC) status. A group of 975 cows from 18 Danish MAP infected dairy herds was studied during a 3-year period. Cell-mediated immunity was measured in blood samples from heifers...
Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Lowery, C.J.
In November 1997, Cryptosporidium andersoni, for the first time, was isolated from a Danish heifer. The isolate was characterised morphologically, molecularly, and furthermore inoculated into mice and one calf. Data on the distribution of cryptosporidia in the herd of origin were obtained at two ...
Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.
One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Bitsch, V.
dublin (0:1,9,12)-ELISA described previously appeared to be more serogroup D-specific. Thus, the 0:1,4,5,12-ELISA appears to be useful for detecting herd infections with S typhimurium, and positive reactions may be further discriminated by the serogroup D-specific ELISA....
Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.
One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…
Darío Cedeño Q.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Neospora caninum in non-vaccinated dairy cattle against infectious agents of reproductive syndrome in the municipality of Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods. Farms over 2527 meters over sea level were selected, a total of 238 serum samples of Holstein cows were collected and analyzed using the indirect ELISA test to determine N. caninum seropositivity. An epidemiological survey was realized in each herd which included variables related to health and management measures of cattle. A multivariate analysis of binary logistic regression was used with a confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05 using SPSS19® program. Results. The estimated prevalence of N. caninum was 76.9%. The risk factors associated to neosporosis infection in the analyzed farms are as follows: residues of abortions generally left outdoors and not buried (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.5 - 9.6; dogs fed with leftovers (OR 15.44 IC 95% 1.94-123.22 and bulls allowed to mate with cows (OR 19.68, 95% CI 2.34 - 165.52. Conclusions. The high prevalence of N. caninum and the low abortion rate in dairy herds of the municipality of Pasto corroborated no existence of the disease in all animals serologically positive, but it did suggest that at some point in their lives they were exposed to N. caninum. From the identified risk factors in this study, recommendations can be provided for an effective control of reproductive diseases like Neosporosis present in this region.
Schley, D; Paton, D J; Cox, S J; Parida, S; Gubbins, S
The importance of carrier animals (those in whom virus persists after recovery from disease or acute infection) and their potential role in the spread of disease remain open questions within foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. Using simple probabilistic models we attempt to quantify the effect of emergency vaccination--and especially the time of application--on the likely number of such animals, using data from challenge experiments on both cattle and sheep to determine the probability of persistence in diseased and subclinically infected animals. We show that the number of persistently infected animals in a group is predominantly determined by the number of animals initially infected on premises--the high variability of which ultimately limits the accuracy of any predictions of carrier numbers based upon transmission models. Furthermore, results suggest that, within a cattle herd, carrier numbers may be increased if challenge occurs shortly after vaccination. We show that the quality of inspection is the principal factor influencing whether or not carrier herds occur and that, by reducing clinical signs, the application of vaccination in regularly checked stock also results in an increase in undetected persistently infected animals. Where clinical detection would be poor regardless of the use of vaccination (i.e. particularly in sheep), vaccination will result in a reduction in the probability of a group containing undetected carriers: otherwise there is a benefit only if vaccination is applied sufficiently far in advance of any challenge. The implications of the results for serosurveillance are discussed, including the requisite test sensitivity and practices for successful implementation.
Fanke, Jane; Charlier, Johannes; Steppin, Torsten; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Vercruysse, Jozef; Demeler, Janina
The aim of the current study was to estimate economic costs of Ostertagia ostertagi and Fasciola hepatica infections in dairy cattle herds in Germany using the online calculation programme Paracalc(®). Following a questionnaire, survey data were available from 464 farms in 14 federal states. On those farms bulk tank milk (BTM) samples and additionally up to six serum samples collected from first season grazing calves were analysed, using a commercially available ELISA (Boehringer Ingelheim SVANOVA Biotech AB, Uppsala, Sweden), an in-house ELISA (F. hepatica) and an in-house serum pepsinogen test. In total, samples obtained from 344 farms were included in the analysis since those were the only farms with complete questionnaires. Median costs per farm and year were estimated for gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections (€721.38) and F. hepatica infection (€565.61). Decreases in milk yield in multiparous cows were the major reason for annual production losses due to GI nematodes (€13.33 per cow) and F. hepatica infections (€7.95 per cow), which was followed by annual costs for anthelmintic treatment against GI nematode infections in adult cows (€10.00 per cow) and F. hepatica infection associated annual costs due to repeated artificial insemination (€10.13 per cow) and prolonged calving intervals (€9.40 per cow). The study demonstrated that if all required information is provided, the Paracalc(®) tool can assist to identify productions losses in dairy cattle herds due to helminth infections and to optimise farm economics in Germany. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de'Besi, Giacomo; Thieme, Olaf
In traditional cattle systems in the tropics, the milk produced is generally shared between the calf and the cattle keeper. This literature review evaluates the socio-economic aspects related to milk production and milk use in traditional cattle systems and identifies the best strategies of milk allocation in order to improve food security and maximise income. The available literature indicates that milk, in terms of economic, social and subsistence value, is more valuable than meat. Thus, under the conditions that characterise traditional cattle systems in the tropics, it is appropriate to have a higher milk offtake at the expense of calf growth. This review also found that certain management practices, such as restricted suckling, can be useful to minimise mortality of calves, while improving milk offtake for human consumption.
L. Cerqueira, Joaquim; Araújo, José P P; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel
We studied the relationship between behavior during milking with milking parlor management, measuring the occurrence of steps and kicks, and cow-related factors. We also investigated the link between stepping and kicking during milking and udder health. A total of 2,903 direct observations...... of milking behavior were collected in 44 dairy herds in the north of Portugal. The results showed great variability in the occurrence of stepping and kicking among herds during milking. Mixed linear and logistic regression models for factors associated with stepping and kicking were developed. Cows in tandem...... of the visit also showed a trend toward higher kicking frequency. The results suggest that animal welfare measures, like kicking and stepping, are suitable for epidemiologic studies. Significant interactions were observed when animals were affected by challenging health and welfare situations....
Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía
The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Willeberg, Preben; Alban, Lis
We compared two published studies based on different output-based surveillance models, which were used for evaluating the performance of two meat inspection systems in cattle and to substantiate freedom from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Denmark. The systems were the current meat inspection methods (CMI) vs. the visual-only inspection (VOI). In one study, the surveillance system sensitivity (SSe) was estimated to substantiate the bTB free status. The other study used SSe in the estimation of the probability of freedom (PFree), based on the epidemiological concept of negative predictive value to substantiate the bTB free status. Both studies found that changing from CMI to VOI would markedly decrease the SSe. However, the two studies reported diverging conclusions regarding the effect on the substantiation of Denmark as a bTB free country, if VOI were to be introduced. The objectives of this work were: (a) to investigate the reasons why conclusions based on the two models differed, and (b) to create a hybrid model based on elements from both studies to evaluate the impact of a change from CMI to VOI. The hybrid model was based on the PFree approach to substantiate freedom from bTB and was parametrized with inputs according to the newest available information. The PFree was updated on an annual basis for each of 42 years of test-negative surveillance data (1995-2037), while assuming a low (cattle herds. The most important reasons for the difference between the study conclusions were: the approach chosen to substantiate the bTB free status (SSe vs. PFree) and the number of years of surveillance data considered. With the hybrid model, the PFree reached a level >95% after the first year of surveillance and remained ≥96% with both the CMI and VOI systems until the end of the analyzed period. It is appropriate to use the PFree of the surveillance system to substantiate confidence in bTB free status, when test-negative surveillance results can be documented over an
Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidelis Junior, Otavio Luiz; Marques, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; André, Marcos Rogério; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio
Trypanosoma vivax is a hemoprotozoon that causes disease in cattle and is difficult to diagnose. The host-parasite relationship in cattle that are infected by T. vivax has only been poorly studied. In the present study, a total of 429 serum proteinograms were produced from naturally infected animals (NIF) and were compared with 50 samples from control animals (C). The total protein, IgA band, complement C3 β chain band, albumin band, antitrypsin band, IgG band, haptoglobin band, complement C3c α chain band and protein HP-20 band presented higher levels in the serum proteinograms of the NIF group. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, α2-macroglobulin, complement C6, ceruloplasmin, transferrin band and apolipoprotein A1 band presented lower levels in this group. There was no significant difference (pNIF and C groups. Acute phase proteins may be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the antitrypsin band was only present in the NIF group. This can be used as an indicator for infection in cattle that are naturally infected by T. vivax.
Alfredo José Ferreira Melo
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive indices of different cattle herds submitted to a fixed-time artificial insemination program (FTAI in the region of Piracicaba, SP. Twenty herds composed of 10 to 80 crossbred dairy cows were selected to participate in a breeding program through FTAI. First, a survey was conducted to determine the incidence of reproductive system diseases in the herds. For this purpose, blood samples were collected randomly from each herd for the serological diagnosis of brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD, enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL, and neosporosis. The laboratory tests were conducted according to the methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. All herds had at least one animal that tested positive for one or more reproductive system diseases. Brucellosis was detected in 3/20 (15% herds, IBR and BVD in 19/20 (95%, EBL in 20/20 (100%, neosporosis in 13/20 (65%, and tuberculosis in 8/8 (100%. Six months later, cows (n=203 of the different herds were submitted to hormone treatment consisting of estradiol-progesterone and PGF2α for heat synchronization and ovulation and subsequent FTAI. The data were analyzed by logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rates at 30 and 60 days after FTAI were 55.7% and 48.3%, respectively. These rates were not influenced by herd, inseminator, body score, post-calving days, or number of lactations. The calving rate (42.4% differed from the pregnancy rate at 30 (P=0.01, but not at 60 (P=0.27 days after FTAI. The gestation loss until calving was 23.2% (26/112, but no exact cause of this event was identified. Despite the presence (seroreactivity of reproductive diseases, cattle herds owned by small-scale producers exhibit acceptable pregnancy rates after FTAI. However, additional prophylactic measures such as vaccination and improvement of livestock management should be adopted.
McArthur, M J; Reinemeyer, C R
Contemporary management of nematode parasitism in cattle relies heavily on a single class of drugs, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs). The potency and convenience of the MLs, along with the low cost of generic formulations, have largely supplanted the need for critical thinking about parasite control, and rote treatment has become the default 'strategy'. This approach to parasite control has exerted substantial pressure to select populations of nematodes that can survive recommended dosages of ML products. Although macrocyclic lactones have been available for over 30 years, putative ML resistance in U.S. cattle was not reported until fairly recently. This pattern begs the question, "Is this a new, emergent problem, or an old issue that is finally commanding some attention?" The implications of bovine anthelmintic resistance should stimulate a paradigm shift for U.S. cattle producers and their advisors. However, there are significant obstacles to changes in current thinking. It is anticipated that cattle producers will be extremely reluctant to abandon historical practices unless they can be convinced of the value of alternatives that are communicated through targeted education, practical demonstrations, economic analyses, and scientific evidence. Historically, the management advice of practitioners has not relied strongly on parasite epidemiology, and practitioners may not have the knowledge to implement evidence-based recommendations. Pharmaceutical companies could play a significant role in helping to shape and shift the thinking about sustainable use of anthelmintics. However, their primary responsibility is to stockholders, and they have strong economic incentives for maintaining the status quo. It is complicated and difficult to change attitudes and practices, and it will take more than logic or fear to shift the parasite control paradigm in the U.S. cattle industry. Achieving that goal will require collaboration among stakeholders, a consistent, straightforward
To estimate time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis 1 New Jersey virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle in southern Mexico, ninety-two sentinel cattle in four free-ranging dairy herds at high- (=500 mts) and low-elevation (<500 mts) locations in southern Mexico were studied. A prospective cohort s...
Full Text Available The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea-pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
Evershed, Richard P; Payne, Sebastian; Sherratt, Andrew G; Copley, Mark S; Coolidge, Jennifer; Urem-Kotsu, Duska; Kotsakis, Kostas; Ozdoğan, Mehmet; Ozdoğan, Aslý E; Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier; Akkermans, Peter M M G; Bailey, Douglass; Andeescu, Radian-Romus; Campbell, Stuart; Farid, Shahina; Hodder, Ian; Yalman, Nurcan; Ozbaşaran, Mihriban; Biçakci, Erhan; Garfinkel, Yossef; Levy, Thomas; Burton, Margie M
The domestication of cattle, sheep and goats had already taken place in the Near East by the eighth millennium bc. Although there would have been considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from living animals-that is, traction and wool-the first clear evidence for these appears much later, from the late fifth and fourth millennia bc. Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first practised remain unknown. Organic residues preserved in archaeological pottery have provided direct evidence for the use of milk in the fourth millennium in Britain, and in the sixth millennium in eastern Europe, based on the delta(13)C values of the major fatty acids of milk fat. Here we apply this approach to more than 2,200 pottery vessels from sites in the Near East and southeastern Europe dating from the fifth to the seventh millennia bc. We show that milk was in use by the seventh millennium; this is the earliest direct evidence to date. Milking was particularly important in northwestern Anatolia, pointing to regional differences linked with conditions more favourable to cattle compared to other regions, where sheep and goats were relatively common and milk use less important. The latter is supported by correlations between the fat type and animal bone evidence.
Kalantari, A S; Cabrera, V E
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on dairy cattle herd value. Herd value was defined as the herd's average retention payoff (RPO). Individual cow RPO is the expected profit from keeping the cow compared with immediate replacement. First, a daily dynamic programming model was developed to calculate the RPO of all cow states in a herd. Second, a daily Markov chain model was applied to estimate the herd demographics. Finally, the herd value was calculated by aggregating the RPO of all cows in the herd. Cow states were described by 5 milk yield classes (76, 88, 100, 112, and 124% with respect to the average), 9 lactations, 750 d in milk, and 282 d in pregnancy. Five different reproductive programs were studied (RP1 to RP5). Reproductive program 1 used 100% timed artificial insemination (TAI; 42% conception rate for first TAI and 30% for second and later services) and the other programs combined TAI with estrus detection. The proportion of cows receiving artificial insemination after estrus detection ranged from 30 to 80%, and conception rate ranged from 25 to 35%. These 5 reproductive programs were categorized according to their 21-d pregnancy rate (21-d PR), which is an indication of the rate that eligible cows become pregnant every 21 d. The 21-d PR was 17% for RP1, 14% for RP2, 16% for RP3, 18% for RP4, and 20% for RP5. Results showed a positive relationship between 21-d PR and herd value. The most extreme herd value difference between 2 reproductive programs was $77/cow per yr for average milk yield (RP5 - RP2), $13/cow per yr for lowest milk yield (RP5 - RP1), and $160/cow per yr for highest milk yield (RP5 - RP2). Reproductive programs were ranked based on their calculated herd value. With the exception of the best reproductive program (RP5), all other programs showed some level of ranking change according to milk yield. The most dramatic ranking change was observed in RP1, which moved from being the worst ranked
Stevens, M; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Dewulf, J; De Vliegher, S
The main objective of this study was to quantify the (compound-specific) antimicrobial consumption (AMC) in adult cattle in a convenience sample of Flemish dairy herds. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained between 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidence (ATI), with the unit of the ATI being the number of defined daily doses animal (DDDA) used per 1,000 cow-days. Herds were stratified by DDDA into low-, medium-, and high-consuming herds to study the AMC per route of administration, and associations with parameters reflecting udder health, milk quality, and production performances were examined. The average ATI in adult dairy cattle for all compounds was 20.78 DDDA (per 1,000 cow-days). Large variation existed between herds (ranging from 8.68 to 41.62 DDDA). Fourth-generation cephalosporins were used most (4.99 DDDA), followed by penicillins (3.70 DDDA) and third-generation cephalosporins (2.95 DDDA). The average ATI of the critically important antimicrobials for human health (i.e., third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones according to the World Organisation for Animal Health classification) was somewhat lower than the average ATI of the other antimicrobials (8.59 and 12.18 DDDA, respectively). The average ATI for intramammary treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis, for dry-cow therapy, and for systemically administered antimicrobials was 6.30, 6.89, and 7.44 DDDA, respectively. In low-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used for dry-cow therapy, whereas in high-consuming herds, most antimicrobials were being used as injectable or intramammary mastitis therapy. The incidence rate of treated mastitis was positively associated with ATI. Herds that applied blanket dry-cow therapy tended to have a higher ATI than herds in which cows were selectively dried off with long-acting antimicrobials. The ATI decreased with an increasing prevalence of primiparous cows.
Leriche, F; Fayolle, K
Freshly drawn raw milk from 37 single herds on farms manufacturing raw cow cheese under the Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) label were sampled over 13 mo for pseudomonad counts. Coliforms, somatic cells, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were counted and total fat and protein contents measured. For pseudomonad counts, the overall mean value was 3.60×10(3) cfu/mL. We observed very high variation between different producers and within the same producers (average standard deviation 1.30×10(4) cfu/mL), but we did not detect a seasonal effect. The only statistical correlation with other milk quality parameters was with coliforms. A survey of milking practices and milking machine sanitation together with environmental and milk sampling for pseudomonad counts in 7 cheese workshops showed that no real negligence or error could be imputed to producers. The main problems were the presence of non-aeruginosa pseudomonads in potable water and a few isolated failures during the cleaning and rinsing phases of sanitation.
Babiuk, Shawn; Horseman, Benjamin; Zhang, Chenhong; Bickis, Mik; Kusalik, Anthony; Schook, Lawrence B; Abrahamsen, Mitchell S; Pontarollo, Reno
Major histocompatibility complex class I genes are among the most polymorphic genes characterized. The high level of polymorphism is essential for generating host immune responses. In humans, three distinct genomic loci encode human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes, allowing individuals to express up to six different HLA class I molecules. In cattle, the number of distinct genomic loci are currently at least six, and the number of different bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) class I molecules that are expressed in individual animals are variable. The extent of allele variation within the cattle population is unknown. In this study, the number and variety of BoLA class I sequences expressed by 36 individuals were determined from full-length BoLA class I cDNA clones. Twenty distinct BoLA class I alleles were identified, with only four being previously reported. The number of expressed BoLA class I alleles in individual animals ranged between one and four, with none of the animals having an identical complement of BoLA class I molecules. Variation existed in the number of BoLA class I alleles expressed as well as the composition of expressed alleles, however, several BoLA class I alleles were found in multiple individual animals. Polymorphic amino acid sites were analyzed for positive and negative selection using the ADAPTSITE program. In the antigen recognition sites (ARS), there were eight positions that were predicted to be under positive selection and three positions that were predicted to be under negative selection from 62 positions. In contrast, for non-antigen recognition sites (non-ARS), there were three positions that were predicted to be under positive selection and 20 that were predicted to be under negative selection from 278, indicating that positive selection of amino acids occurs at a greater frequency within the antigen recognition sites.
Gonzalez-Garcia, M. A.; Arenas-Casas, A.; Carbonero-Martinez, A.; Borge-Rodriguez, C.; Garcia-Bocanegra, I.; Maldonado, J. L.; Gomez-Pacheco, J. M.; Perea-Remujo, J. A.
An epidemiological and serological survey of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV1) infection was conducted in Andalusia from January to April of 2000. A total of 4,035 blood samples were collected from 164 herds. A questionnaire, which included variables potentially associated with infection, was filled out for each herd. Serum samples were obtained to identify specific BHV1 antibodies and were tested using a blocking ELISA test. The observed crude odds ratio (OR) (estimate of the chance of a particular event occurring in an exposed group in relation to its rate of occurrence in a nonexposed group) for vaccination is 9.8 (95 % confidence interval: 8.3-11.7). The vaccinated group comprised large dairy farms. This study can only be considered as representative of unvaccinated, small to medium size dairy farms and beef farms in Andalusia. True sero prevalence of the BHV1 virus in non vaccinated bovine populations in Andalusia reached 45.7% of individuals and 70.4% of herds. Risk factors for BHV1 infection in bovine Andalusian non vaccinated herds are nonexistence of specific cattle infrastructure (OR: 3.07), beef crossbreeding (OR: 7.90), affiliation with Livestock Health Defence Associations (OR: 2.57), a history of reproductive disorders (OR: 8.39), external replacement (OR: 2.74), proximity to an urban area (OR: 6.11) and herd size (41.98). To control for confounding effects, a binomial logistic regression model was developed. From this regression, BHV1 infections are concentrated in large herds, with external replacement, located close to urban areas. This is the first published report on BHV1 prevalence in the South of Spain. (Author) 14 refs.
Full Text Available Estimates of the repeatability and heritability of 19 measures of performance in Jersey cows were obtained using an animal model with a relationship matrix and a derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood algorithm. The data consisted of 935 records for 374 cows by 69 sires over the period 1969-1987. The estimates were similar to those obtained by ordinary least squares methods reported for the same data set and in other studies, but had smaller error variances. A likelihood ratio test showed agreement between these heritability estimates and those in the literature. The heritability estimates of milk, fat, protein, lactose-mineral, solids-not-fat, and total solids yields were about 0.25; for the corresponding percentages, and for the protein to fat and solids-not-fat to fat ratios, the estimates were 0.50. Heritability estimates were 0.10 or less for the time from parturition to first breeding and for three measures of somatic cell counts. These estimates of heritability in a dairy cattle population in a subtropical environment were not different from those of populations in temperate climates.
Randall, L V; Green, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Green, L E; Huxley, J N
Lameness in dairy cows is a multifactorial and progressive disease with complex interactions between risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Detailed records were obtained from one United Kingdom dairy herd over an 8-yr period. Weekly locomotion scores were used to classify cows as not lame (score 1 to 2), mildly lame (score 3) and severely lame (score 4 to 5). These outcomes were used to investigate the hypothesis that low body condition score (BCS) is associated with an increased risk of lameness in dairy cows. Mixed effect multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between prior BCS and repeat lameness events during the longitudinal period of the study. Discrete time survival models were used to explore the relationship between prior BCS and first lifetime lameness events. In total, 79,565 cow weeks at risk were obtained for 724 cows. The number of lameness events was 17,114, of which 8,799 were categorized as mildly lame and 8,315 as severely lame. The median BCS was 2.25 (range, 0.75 to 4.25) and the mean body weight (BW) and age at first calving were 619.5 kg (range, 355.6 to 956.4 kg) and 25.8 mo (range, 20.5 to 37.8 mo), respectively. Subsets of the data were used in the discrete time survival models: 333 mild and 211 severe first lifetime lameness events in heifers (first lactation cows), and 81 mild and 49 severe first lifetime lameness events in cows second lactation or greater. Low BCS 3 wk before a repeated lameness event was associated with a significantly increased risk of lameness. Cows with BCS<2 were at greatest risk of mild or severe lameness, and an increased BCS above 2 was associated with a reduced risk of mild or severe lameness. Low BCS 16 or 8 wk before a first mild or severe lifetime lameness event, respectively, also had a positive association with risk of lameness in cows second lactation or greater. This provides evidence to support targeting management toward maintaining BCS to minimize the
Lunardi, Michele; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Teat papillomatosis affects dairy cows worldwide. Milking can become difficult due to teat warts, and maintaining affected cows in the herds may diminish economic profit in the dairy industry. Currently, 13 bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types have been fully characterized, and numerous putative BPV types have been identified through partial L1 gene PCR. In order to identify the viral types present in warts on the udders of dairy cows, 40 teat lesions from 24 cows from 13 cattle farms in three States of Brazil were evaluated by PV L1 gene PCR. The warts that were evaluated contained sequences from BPVs 6-10, the putative BPV types BAPV9 and BAPV4, and two unreported putative papillomavirus (PV) types, named BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7. In addition, mixed infections and coinfections were identified, since more than one lesion was observed on the udders of 13 cows. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BPV/BR-UEL6 is closely related to BPVs belonging to the genus Xipapillomavirus, while BPV/BR-UEL7 clustered with the previously reported strains Cervus timorensis and Pudu puda PVs, which represent a putative new PV type, and it was only distantly related to xi-, epsilon-, delta- and dyoxi-PVs. These results provide information that will assist in the understanding of the association of BPVs 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, as well as putative BPV types BAPV4 and BAPV9, with mammary papillomatosis. This is the first characterization of putative novel PV types BPV/BR-UEL6 and BPV/BR-UEL7 in teat warts of dairy cows, highlighting the high genetic diversity of BPVs associated with teat papillomatosis.
Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D
The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.
Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions.
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.; Lind, P.
Herds with recent clinical outbreaks of Salmonella dublin (7 herds) and S. typhimurium (4 herds) infections were followed serologically in O-antigen ELISAs over about one year, divided in four equal sampling phases. Animals found to be persistent high-reactors or seronegative at the end of the st...... in the S. dublin ELISA, alone. In conclusion, although serology based on the O-antigens appears to be useful to identify salmonella-infected herds, it seems to be insufficient for identification of persistently infected animals....
Raidan, Fernanda S S; Santos, Dalinne C C; Moraes, Mariana M; Araújo, Andresa E M; Ventura, Henrique T; Bergmann, José A G; Turra, Eduardo M; Toral, Fabio L B
Central testing is used to select young bulls which are likely to contribute to increased net income of the commercial beef cattle herd. We present genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits on performance-tested young bulls and commercial animals that are raised on pasture and in feedlots. Records on young bulls and heifers in performance tests or commercial herds were used. Genetic parameters for growth and reproductive traits were estimated. Correlated responses for commercial animals when selection was applied on performance-tested young bulls were computed. The 90% highest posterior density (HPD90) intervals for heritabilities of final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG) and scrotal circumference (SC) ranged from 0.41 to 0.49, 0.23 to 0.30 and 0.47 to 0.57, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, from 0.45 to 0.60, 0.20 to 0.32 and 0.56 to 0.70, respectively, for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots, from 0.29 to 0.33, 0.14 to 0.18 and 0.35 to 0.45, respectively, for commercial animals on pasture, and from 0.24 to 0.44, 0.13 to 0.24 and 0.35 to 0.57 respectively, for commercial animals in feedlots. The HPD90 intervals for genetic correlations of FW, ADG and SC in performance-tested young bulls on pasture (feedlots) with FW, ADG and SC in commercial animals on pasture (feedlots) ranged from 0.86 to 0.96 (0.83 to 0.94), 0.78 to 0.90 (0.40 to 0.79) and from 0.92 to 0.97 (0.50 to 0.83), respectively. Age at first calving was genetically related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.48 to -0.06) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.41 to -0.05) for performance-tested young bulls on pasture, however it was not related to ADG (HPD90 interval = -0.29 to 0.10) and SC (HPD90 interval = -0.35 to 0.13) for performance-tested young bulls in feedlots. Heritabilities for growth and SC are higher for performance-tested young bulls than for commercial animals. Evaluating and selecting for increased growth and SC on performance-tested young bulls is
Rafael Romero Nicolino
Full Text Available Neosporosis in cattle herds is associated with large economic losses, with abortion being the only clinical sign perceptible to the producer. Losses are estimated at over one billion dollars worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the abortion risk difference in seropositive animals using specific data for dairy herds in Brazil. Differences in the risk of abortion between seropositive and seronegative animals were calculated through a meta-analysis of previous data from several Brazilian states, and an increase of 10.04% (0.091 to 0.118 in the specific risk was identified. This finding indicates that more than 474,000 abortions caused by neosporosis may be occurring only in dairy cattle herds in Brazil, causing a major economic loss in the milk production chain. The use of this specific measure for Brazilian herds opens the possibility of developing cost-benefit analysis for neosporosis in Brazil using data that are more reliable
Marcos Aurelio Lopes
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.
Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.
Tomkins, N W; Charmley, E
Methane (CH4) emissions associated with beef production systems in northern Australia are yet to be quantified. Methodologies are available to measure emissions, but application in extensive grazing environments is challenging. A micrometeorological methodology for estimating herd-scale emissions using an indirect open-path spectroscopic technique and an atmospheric dispersion model is described. The methodology was deployed on five cattle properties across Queensland and Northern Territory, with measurements conducted during two occasions at one site. On each deployment, data were collected every 10 min for up to 7 h a day over 4 to 16 days. To increase the atmospheric concentration of CH4 to measurable levels, cattle were confined to a known area around water points from ~0800 to 1600 h, during which time measurements of wind statistics and line-averaged CH4 concentration were taken. Filtering to remove erroneous data accounted for 35% of total observations. For five of the six deployments CH4 emissions were within the expected range of 0.4 to 0.6 g/kg BW. At one site, emissions were ~2 times expected values. There was small but consistent variation with time of day, although for some deployments measurements taken early in the day tended to be higher than at the other times. There was a weak linear relationship (R 2=0.47) between animal BW and CH4 emission per kg BW. Where it was possible to compare emissions in the early and late dry season at one site, it was speculated that higher emissions at the late dry season may have been attributed to poorer diet quality. It is concluded that the micrometeorological methodology using open-path lasers can be successfully deployed in extensive grazing conditions to directly measure CH4 emissions from cattle at a herd scale.
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Martínez-López, B; Barasona, J A; Gortázar, C; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Vicente, J
Eradication of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle is a priority in the EU. However, and despite the resources invested, TB eradication is still a goal yet to be accomplished. As a consequence, the identification of risk factors contributing to TB transmission and persistence is key to a better understand and, ultimately, more cost-effectively control and eradicate this complex zoonotic disease worldwide. This study aimed to identify the factors contributing to the TB occurrence, new infection, and persistence in one of the most TB-prevalent regions in the South-Central part of Spain (SCS), Ciudad Real (CR), and for which high quality and detailed information on cattle and wild ungulate demographics, management, and sanitary status was available for up to 5 years (2007-2011). Multilevel logistic modeling was used for this purpose. Results of this study revealed that the risk for TB (occurrence, new infection, and/or persistence) in cattle herds from CR is related to TB-persistence on farm in previous years, extensive production systems (beef and bullfighting being more risky that dairy) and large farm in terms of cattle number. Also, the presence and proximity of fenced hunting estates (which are usually intensively managed) significantly contributed to the risk of TB occurrence and persistence in CR. This association suggests that wild ungulates may play a role as TB-reservoirs and transmit TB to cattle in the CR, a region where TB is endemic and is associated with extensive farming of beef cattle. To the best of author's knowledge this is the first study to (i) evaluate the wild ungulate-domestic interface at a farm level using detailed information over an extensive region and period of time (2007-2011) and (ii) to identify a direct association between TB in cattle and the proximity and management practices of wild ungulates. Methods and results presented here may support policies to better prevent and control TB in the SCS and in other regions/countries with similar
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.
Arendonk, van J.A.M.
Profit equations or functions that reflect the realized profitability of cows have been used in the literature to determine the relative importance of different variables such as milk yield and herd life. In all profit equations, the opportunity cost of postponed replacement, which reflects the prof
Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.
Introduction. Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. Gumilev (2000) developed a theory relating the rise, development and fall of human cultures (ethnos) to the changing environment. This theory improved our understanding of human history as the natural interactions the biosphere and sociosphere. We test the hypothesis that climate change altered the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and forced them to choose agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow located at the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Methods. Three different methods (the Montane Bioclimatic Model; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) were employed to reconstruct vegetation from the fossil pollen of sediment cores of two mountain lakes in the study area at eleven time slices relating to successive human cultures back to the midHolocene. Our bioclimatic model was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. Climate-based regression models were developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Results. Our pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe lands dominating up to 85% of the area and four wetter periods with forests dominating up to 60% of the area since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased one order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space likely suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields dropped during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields could increase twofold and support more fixed human settlements centered around farming and herding cattle. Thus, the dry periods
Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.
Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods.
Sogstad Åse M
Full Text Available Abstract Claw disorders cause problems in dairy cattle all over the world. Nutrition, feeding, environment, claw trimming routines, hormonal changes related to calving and genetics are among the factors which influence the pathogenesis. The colour of the claw horn (pigmentation has been suggested to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate if there were any associations between the colour of the sole horn and claw disorders detected at claw trimming. Altogether, 2607 cows on 112 farms were claw trimmed once and the colour (dark, mixed or light of the right lateral hind claw and hind claw disorders were recorded by 13 trained claw trimmers. The data were analysed using logistic regression models with logit link function, binomial distribution and herd and claw trimmer as repeated effects, with herd nested within claw trimmer. Haemorrhages of the sole (HS and white line (HWL were more frequently found in light than in dark claws (OR = 2.61 and 2.34, respectively. Both HS (OR = 1.43 and corkscrewed claws (OR = 1.84 were slightly more prevalent among cows which had claws with mixed colour versus dark claws. There were no significant associations of other claw disorders with claw horn colour.
Full Text Available The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2% were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5% animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9% seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.
Full Text Available This review presents and discusses the nutritional and physiological aspects of cattle production under grazing in the tropics. The critical evaluations were based on Brazilian experimental results as well as on basic literature concerning ruminant nutrition. Several associations between the characteristics of the grazed forage, the composition of the supplements and animal and microbial requirements were established. The adopted approach was divided according to two different climatic seasons observed in the tropics: dry and rainy seasons. During the dry season, the main nutritional constraints on animal performance are associated with inherent requirements of the rumen fibrolytic microorganisms. An overall deficiency of nitrogenous compounds is observed in the forage, which compromises forage intake and digestibility. Supplementation with nitrogenous compounds must be a priority in this season to increase forage intake and energy extraction from forage fiber. However, during the rainy season, no constraints on microbial growth are observed. The usual pasture composition presents an unbalanced and high ratio of energy to protein when compared to animal requirements. In such cases, protein supplementation is needed to equilibrate the basal diet and improve the utilization of metabolizable energy and protein.
Ahmed I. Youssef
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SEinfections of diarrheic calves in bovine dairy herds and their farm workers. Antimicrobial drug resistance profile of the isolates was determinedby standard disc diffusion assay. Fecal swabs were collected from diarrheic calves aged from one week to three months (Median age 33.5 days;from three farms representing cattle, native breed buffalo and cross-breed buffalo farms. Each farm was visited every three months for one year,from March 2011 to February 2012. Collected Swabs were examined by conventional bacterial culture and serotyped by multiplex PCR. Resultsshowed that Salmonella was isolated from 42/255 (18.66% diarrheic calves and 27/35 (77.14% calves died from diarrhea. Incidence of STwas significantly higher in calves died from diarrhea than diarrheic calves (P>0.001. On farm level, isolation rate of Salmonella was significantlyhigher in dead calves in cross-breed buffalo farm than native breed buffalo and cattle farms (P>0.001. On other hand, the incidence ofSalmonella among stool swabs of farm workers caring the calves was 8.13%; with isolation rate of (2.32% ST, (1.16% SE and (4.65% otherSalmonella serovas. Isolates showed a high percentage of multi-drug resistant profile (63.88%. All isolates were completely resistant to oxytetracycline,danofloxacin and oxacillin. Enrofloxacin was the drug of choice. In conclusion, a high incidence of mutli-drug resistant Salmonella infections was detected in cattle and buffalo calves that might be associated with high mortality rate in calves and zoonotic potential to the farmworkers. Adequate hygienic measures, proper immunization programs and regular training to the labor should be applied.
Charaya, Gaurav; Rakha, N. K.; Maan, Sushila; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Tarun; Jhambh, Ricky
Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06%) were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48%) samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs. PMID:27733810
Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to develop and to standardize a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay that will diagnose clinical as well as carrier state of the disease and to compare the results with conventional microscopy technique. Materials and Methods: A herd of crossbred cattle with the previous history of theileriosis in village Lahli, district Rohtak, Haryana, was selected for this study. A total of 29 blood samples were collected randomly from cows including five clinically ill cattle. Blood smears from all animals and lymph node biopsy smears from animal with swollen lymph nodes were examined microscopically after conventional Giemsa staining. Phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method was used for extracting DNA from blood. Previously published primers targeting cytochrome b gene sequence of Theileria annulata were used in the PCR assay that was standardized to use in the laboratory. Results: Out of 29 samples tested,18 (62.06% were found positive for theileriosis by PCR assay, whereas only 10 (34.48% samples were detected positive by conventional microscopic technique using Giemsa staining method. Conclusions: On the basis results of comparative studies, it can be concluded that PCR assay is a more sensitive than microscopic examination for detection of theileriosis. This can be attributed to the ability of PCR assay to detect small amounts of genomic DNA of T. annulata or low parasitemia in cows. Therefore, PCR assay can serve as a more sensitive tool to detect Theileria for detection of theileriosis even in asymptomatic carrier cattle which is important for the implementation of successful control programs.
Erin E Driscoll
Full Text Available Associations between specific host genes and susceptibility to Mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis have been reported in several species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB impacts greatly the UK cattle industry, yet genetic predispositions have yet to be identified. We therefore used a candidate gene approach to study 384 cattle of which 160 had reacted positively to an antigenic skin test ('reactors'. Our approach was unusual in that it used microsatellite markers, embraced high breed diversity and focused particularly on detecting genes showing heterozygote advantage, a mode of action often overlooked in SNP-based studies. A panel of neutral markers was used to control for population substructure and using a general linear model-based approach we were also able to control for age. We found that substructure was surprisingly weak and identified two genomic regions that were strongly associated with reactor status, identified by markers INRA111 and BMS2753. In general the strength of association detected tended to vary depending on whether age was included in the model. At INRA111 a single genotype appears strongly protective with an overall odds ratio of 2.2, the effect being consistent across nine diverse breeds. Our results suggest that breeding strategies could be devised that would appreciably increase genetic resistance of cattle to bTB (strictly, reduce the frequency of incidence of reactors with implications for the current debate concerning badger-culling.
Alegría-López, M A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Rosado-Aguilar, J A
The objective of the present study was to determine simultaneously the status of resistance against ivermectin (IVM) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) ticks in 12 cattle farms where IVM was used for the control of GIN in the Mexican tropics. Six farms had frequent use of IVM (≥ 4 times per year) and six farms had low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year). The fecal egg count reduction test and the larval immersion test were used to determine the resistant status of GIN and R. microplus against IVM, respectively. The results indicated that 100% of the surveyed farms had IVM-resistant GIN (reduction % from 0 to 67%). The genera involved were Haemonchus, Cooperia, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Oesophagostomum. Although the IVM was never used for the control of ticks, 50% of the surveyed farms presented GIN and R. microplus simultaneously resistant to IVM. Furthermore, two R. microplus populations showed high resistance ratio (RR) to IVM (farm TAT: RR50% = 7 and RR99% = 40.1; and farm SLS: RR50% = 2.4; RR99% = 11.0). A high frequency of IVM use (≥ 4 times per year) seemed to promote IVM resistance amongst R. microplus ticks compared with the farms with low frequency of IVM use (1-2 times per year; 66.6 vs. 25.0%, respectively). However, the number of surveyed farms was insufficient to show clear statistical inferences (odds ratio = 6.00; 95% CI = 0.341-105.5). The use of IVM for the control of GIN promoted simultaneously the development of IVM resistance in the GIN and R. microplus populations of the cattle herds surveyed.
The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...
Langvad, B.; Skov, M.N.; Rattenborg, E.;
Aims: Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 is generally assumed to be spread by contact between live animals, e.g. by trading. The aim of the present study was to assess the importance of other routes of transmission in the dissemination of this bacterium. Methods and Results: An outbreak among 14 cattle...... electrophoresis (PFGE) and the plasmid profiles of isolates obtained by continuous sampling over a period of almost 3 years. Conclusions: The study indicated that other routes might play an important role, than the trading of live animals, in the spread of S. Typhimurium DT 104 among livestock. Significance...
Paulo Fernando Machado
Full Text Available No banco de dados do Laboratório de Fisiologia da Lactação da ESALQ - USP, Piracicaba, SP, foi realizado um levantamento da contagem de células somáticas (CCS de amostras de leite de tanques coletadas entre dezembro de 1996 a julho de 1998, com o objetivo de se caracterizar a situação atual da sanidade da glândula mamária dos rebanhos. Os 7941 dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva. A média de CCS foi 641 mil cél. mL-1, sendo 767 mil cél. mL-1 o desvio padrão. Os dados de CCS foram transformados para log2 CCS e reanalizados. A nova média foi de 307 mil cél. mL-1, sendo que este valor representa melhor a média de CCS dos rebanhos, devido à característica exponencial da população de dados obtida. Os rebanhos foram distribuídos em classes de CCS. Foram encontradas as seguintes porcentagens da população: 26, 53, 71, 83, 89 e 93% com CCS abaixo de 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 e 1500 mil cél. mL-1 respectivamente. Os quartis das amostras analisada foram 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, 99 e 100% apresentando 244, 468, 815, 1302, 1797, 4099, 9223 mil cél. mL-1 respectivamente.A survey of data of the Lactation Physiology Laboratory of ESALQ - USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil was performed to characterize the somatic cell count (SCC of herds. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze results of 7941 records collected between December 1996 and July 1998. The SCC mean was 641 thousand cells mL-1, standart deviation 767 thousand cells mL-1. The log2 transformation was also applied to SCC values, a new mean was calculated and then again transformed into SCC (307 thousand cells mL-1. This was the best way to present the real SCC values of the herds. The population of herds are distributed according to SCC count, considering the SCC limits of 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 e 1500 thousand cells mL-1, in the following percentages: 26, 53, 71, 83, 89, 93%. The quartiles of the samples were 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, 99 e 100% showing 244, 468, 815
Pelayo, R; Solé, M; Sánchez, M J; Molina, A; Valera, M
Docility is very important for cattle production, and many behavioural tests to measure this trait have been developed. However, very few objective behavioural tests to measure the opposite approach 'aggressive behaviour' have been described. Therefore, the aim of this work was to validate in the Lidia cattle breed a behavioural linear standardized scoring system that measure the aggressiveness and enable genetic analysis of behavioural traits expressing fearless and fighting ability. Reproducibility and repeatability measures were calculated for the 12 linear traits of this scoring system to assess its accuracy, and ranged from 85.3 and 94.2%, and from 66.7 to 97.9%, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model with a Bayesian approach. A total of 1202 behavioural records were used. The pedigree matrix contained 5001 individuals. Heritability values (with standard deviations) ranged between 0.13 (0.04) (Falls of the bull) and 0.41 (0.08) (Speed of approach to horse). Genetic correlations varied from 0.01 (0.07) to 0.90 (0.13). Finally, an exploratory factor analysis using the genetic correlation matrix was calculated. Three main factors were retained to describe the traditional genetic indexes aggressiveness, strength and mobility.
Weller, Richard E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skrypnyk, Artem [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zavgorodniy, Andriy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stegniy, Borys [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gerilovych, Anton [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kutsan, Oleksandr [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pozmogova, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sapko, Svitlana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced ‘Chornobyl’ in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low-dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low-dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
Full Text Available One hundred and ninety two raw milk samples were collected from lactating cows identified in Fulani herds and small scale dairy farms within Sokoto metropolis in order to investigate the presence and determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in the milk. Selective culture and identification method was employed for the bacterial isolation and Kirby-Bauer technique was used for the antibiotic susceptibility test. Seventy six samples (39.58% were positive for Listeria species, which upon biochemical characterization 39(51.3% were Listeria innocua, 14(18.4% Listeria ivanovii, 17(22.4% Listeria monocytogenes, 4(5.3% Listeria welshimeri and 2(2.6% Listeria seeligeri. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates revealed high resistance to ampicillin (100%, and streptomycin (80%, followed by ampiclox (70%, tetracycline (30%, then gentamycin (20% while, there was no resistance to ciprofloxacin and chloranphenicol. The findings of this study necessitate the need for extension personnel to educate the Fulani herdsmen, milk handlers and other livestock producers on the significance of hygiene especially during milking and the effect of indiscriminate use of drugs particularly antibiotics. There is also need for the agencies concerned such as the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC to regulate the sales and use of both human and veterinary drugs by drug hawkers and other non-professional veterinary practitioners.
Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P
Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season.
de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M
The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down
Azevedo, Carla; Pacheco, Diana; Soares, Luísa; Romão, Ricardo; Moitoso, Mónica; Maldonado, Jaime; Guix, Roger; Simões, João
This study aimed to assess the degree of contamination of bulk tank milk (BTM) by Staphylococcus spp. and coliform bacteria and to identify major milking practices that help perpetuate them in dairy cattle herds in São Miguel Island. In July 2014, BTM was sampled and a survey concerning local milking practices was conducted on 100 herds. Semi quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected coagulase-negative staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other coliform bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens) in 100, 75, 59, and 35 % of BTM, respectively. According to multivariable univariate models, on herds not using hot water for cleaning the milking machine and teat liners, there was at least 3.4 more odds (P < 0.01) to have S. aureus or coliform bacteria contamination in BTM. The likelihood of finding S. aureus in BTM was higher (P < 0.001) on herds without high hygiene during milking, when milking mastitic cows at the end, on abrupt cessation of milking at dry-off, and official milk control implementation. The glove use also favored (odds ratio (OR) 5.8; P < 0.01) the detection of coliform bacteria in BTM. Poor milking practices identified in this study should be avoided in order to decrease S. aureus and coliform bacteria contamination of BTM. Other factors associated with milk quality in São Miguel Island also should be further investigated.
Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J
Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.
Hage, J.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Schols, H.; Maris-Veldhuis, M.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Klaassen, C.H.L.
Transmission of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) within and between herds was studied on the island of Ameland, The Netherlands. There were 50 herds with 3300 head of cattle on the island. Herds were divided into three groups: (1) only containing seronegative cattle, (2) containing seronegative cattle an
Carlos Souza do Nascimento
Full Text Available The effect of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA locus on animal health may be due to a direct action of its alleles on immune functions, whereas its indirect effect on production traits might be explained by the better general health conditions of more productive animals. In the present study, the BoLA-DRB3 gene was investigated in 1058 cows belonging to seven Brazilian Gyr Dairy herds (Bos indicus, Zebu cattle. A total of 37 alleles were identified, 15 of them described for the first time in a Zebu breed. A highly significant association (p < 0.02 was observed between allele *54 and a decrease (-26.1 kg in milk protein yield and there was a significant association (p < 0.05 between this allele and lower (-26.07 kg milk fat yield. There was also a significant association (p < 0.05 between allele *6 and decreased (-12.47 kg milk protein and allele *7 and increased (12.72 kg milk protein. There were also indications of association (p < 0.10 between somatic cell score (SCS and alleles *3 (SCS increased by 0.54 units and *31 (SCS increased by 0.46 units. The highly significant association of allele *54 with lower protein yield suggests the possible use of this allele in marker-assisted selection programs.
Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Botreau, R.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.
The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to de
Mudadu, Maurício A; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Mokry, Fabiana B; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Tullio, Rymer R; Nassu, Renata T; Niciura, Simone C M; Tholon, Patrícia; Alencar, Maurício M; Higa, Roberto H; Rosa, Antônio N; Feijó, Gélson L D; Ferraz, André L J; Silva, Luiz O C; Medeiros, Sérgio R; Lanna, Dante P; Nascimento, Michele L; Chaves, Amália S; Souza, Andrea R D L; Packer, Irineu U; Torres, Roberto A A; Siqueira, Fabiane; Mourão, Gerson B; Coutinho, Luiz L; Reverter, Antonio; Regitano, Luciana C A
Nelore is the major beef cattle breed in Brazil with more than 130 million heads. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often used to associate markers and genomic regions to growth and meat quality traits that can be used to assist selection programs. An alternative methodology to traditional GWAS that involves the construction of gene network interactions, derived from results of several GWAS is the AWM (Association Weight Matrices)/PCIT (Partial Correlation and Information Theory). With the aim of evaluating the genetic architecture of Brazilian Nelore cattle, we used high-density SNP genotyping data (~770,000 SNP) from 780 Nelore animals comprising 34 half-sibling families derived from highly disseminated and unrelated sires from across Brazil. The AWM/PCIT methodology was employed to evaluate the genes that participate in a series of eight phenotypes related to growth and meat quality obtained from this Nelore sample. Our results indicate a lack of structuring between the individuals studied since principal component analyses were not able to differentiate families by its sires or by its ancestral lineages. The application of the AWM/PCIT methodology revealed a trio of transcription factors (comprising VDR, LHX9 and ZEB1) which in combination connected 66 genes through 359 edges and whose biological functions were inspected, some revealing to participate in biological growth processes in literature searches. The diversity of the Nelore sample studied is not high enough to differentiate among families neither by sires nor by using the available ancestral lineage information. The gene networks constructed from the AWM/PCIT methodology were a useful alternative in characterizing genes and gene networks that were allegedly influential in growth and meat quality traits in Nelore cattle.
Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is a known cause of winter dysentery (WD in adult cattle. The morbidity of the disease is high, that results in a significant decrease in milk production and consequently, economic losses. In the present study, we report on a classical outbreak of WD that affected a high-production Holstein dairy herd raised in a tropical country. The lactating batch included 154 cows, and 138 (90% presented diarrhea in a short (nine days period of time. Three (2% cows died. The other batches of animals did not become ill. The evolution of the disease in the herd, including the clinical signs and epidemiological features, strongly suggested a WD case. Semi-nested PCR and RFLP confirmed that BCoV was the cause of the infection. Samples tested negative for all other enteric pathogens. This case report highlights the importance of BCoV in WD even in tropical countries such as Brazil.O coronavirus bovino (BCoV pode causar a diarreia de inverno (WD - Winter Dysentery ao infectar bovinos adultos, particularmente em regiões de clima temperado ou frio. A morbidade da doença é alta, resultando em queda na produção de leite e, consequentemente, perdas econômicas. No presente estudo, é descrito um surto clássico de WD acometendo um rebanho de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa PB, de alta produção, proveniente do estado do Paraná. O lote afetado era composto por 154 vacas em lactação, sendo que 138 (90% apresentaram diarreia em um curto (nove dias período de tempo e 3 (2% vacas morreram em consequência da diarreia, desidratação e desequilíbrio eletrolítico. As outras categorias de animais do rebanho (bezerras, novilhas e vacas secas não apresentaram sinal clínico. A evolução da doença clínica, assim como a epidemiologia da infecção sugeriu um quadro clássico de WD. O diagnóstico foi realizado por meio da identificação do BCoV, pela técnica de semi-nested PCR e confirmação por RFLP, em amostra fecal de uma vaca
Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A
Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which ris
Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.
Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.
Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.
Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.
Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S
A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region
Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C
Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions.
Kaufmann, J; Komma, A; Pfister, K
The densities of infective nematode larvae (L3/m2) in the night holding places (locally called "correos") of 2 traditionally kept N'Dama herds were estimated at weekly intervals throughout an entire rainy season. Herd 1 moved correos every 3 weeks whereas herd 2 remained in the same area for most of the rainy season. Removal to a new correo was invariably accompanied by a drastic drop of L3/m2. Conversely, L3/m2 increased rapidly up to values of more than 1,000 when the herds used the same night holding place for more than 3 weeks. Calves kept in herds with frequent changes of the correo showed significantly lower nematode egg counts and higher growth rates during the rainy season, combined with a reduced weight loss during the following dry season. The results of this study indicate that a regular frequent change of the correo is an effective method of reducing nematode infection risk and increasing calf growth and that this might be a sustainable part of an integrated strategic programme to control gastrointestinal nematode infections wherever correos are used.
Oliveira, C S F; Hogeveen, H; Botelho, A M; Maia, P V; Coelho, S G; Haddad, J P A
Information related to mastitis risk factors is useful for the design and implementation of clinical mastitis (CM) control programs. The first objective of our study was to model the risk of CM under Brazilian conditions, using cow-specific risk factors. Our second objective was to explore which risk factors were associated with the occurrence of the most common pathogens involved in Brazilian CM infections. The analyses were based on 65 months of data from 9,789 dairy cows and 12,464 CM cases. Cow-specific risk factors that could easily be measured in standard Brazilian dairy farms were used in the statistical analyses, which included logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression. The first month of lactation, high somatic cell count, rainy season and history of clinical mastitis cases were factors associated with CM for both primiparous and multiparous cows. In addition, parity and breed were also associated risk factors for multiparous cows. Of all CM cases, 54% showed positive bacteriological culturing results from which 57% were classified as environmental pathogens, with a large percentage of coliforms (35%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus agalactiae (7%) and other Streptococci (9%) were also common pathogens. Among the pathogens analyzed, the association of cow-specific risk factors, such as Zebu breed (OR=5.84, 95%CI 3.77-10.77) and accumulated history of SCC (1.76, 95%CI 1.37-2.27), was different for CM caused by Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and S. agalactiae in comparison to CM caused by coliforms. Our results suggest that CM control programs in Brazil should specially consider the recent history of clinical mastitis cases and the beginning of the lactations, mainly during the rainy season as important risk factor for mastitis.
Full Text Available Types C and D strains of Clostridium botulinum are commonly related to avian and mammalian botulism. Although there are numerous vaccine recommendations, little research has been conducted to indicate the real effectiveness of vaccine timing or the ideal immunization protocol for young beef calves. Four commercially available vaccines, two bivalent (Clostridium botulinum types C and D; vaccines 1 and 2 and two polyvalent (all Clostridium spp. including Clostridium botulinum types C and D; vaccines 3 and 4, that are currently used in Brazilian herds, were tested in order to verify the maternal immune response. One hundred cows, divided into four vaccinated groups and one unvaccinated group, were given a two-dose subcutaneous immunization, at day zero, followed by a second dose given at 42 days post-vaccination, which corresponded to 40 days before birth. Serum samples (n = 75 were collected only from healthy neonatal calves at 0, 7, 45 and 90 days post-calving (DPC and subjected to indirect ELISA using the purified C and D holotoxins as capture antigens. The serological profile showed that all vaccines were able to induce a satisfactory neonatal immune response to both holotoxins at 7 DPC. However, at 45 and 90 DPC, a significant reduction (p < 0.05 was observed in the antibody level against C and D holotoxins in all tested vaccines. Neonatal immunization in calves is compromised by significant levels of maternal antibodies so that the necessity of planning a calf vaccination program involves assessment of disease risks at the production site. Finally, our findings represent the first demonstration of maternal immunity transferred to neonatal beef calves, including immunity levels after vaccination against Clostridium botulinum toxoids C and D.
Donnelly, C A; Bento, A I; Goodchild, A V; Downs, S H
In the UK, badgers (Meles meles) are a well-known reservoir of infection, and there has been lively debate about whether badger culling should play a role within the British Government's strategy to control and eventually eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. The key source of information on the potential for badger culling to reduce cattle TB in high-cattle-TB-incidence areas remains the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT). In late 2013, two pilot areas were subjected to industry-led badger culls. These culls differed importantly from RBCT culling in that free-ranging as well as cage-trapped badgers were shot, and culling took place over a longer time period. Their impacts will be harder to evaluate because culling was not randomised between comparable areas for subsequent comparisons of culling versus no culling. However, the authors present calculations that explore the power of routine surveillance data to assess the impacts of industry-led badger culling on cattle TB incidence. The rollout of industry-led culling as a component of a national cattle TB control policy would be controversial. The best possible estimates of the effects of such culling on confirmed cattle TB incidence should be made available to inform all stakeholders and policy-makers.
Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Duffy, Sergio; Leon, Emilio; Seki, Cristina; Torres, Adriana; Mattion, Nora
A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. The absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase ELISA (lpELISA), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. A straight line was obtained by linear regression analysis (r>0.90) in the titer range of 1.40-2.40. The reliability of the antibody titers was confirmed by the simultaneous titration of 60 cattle sera by slpELISA and lpELISA, which showed an acceptable correlation (R(2)>0.87) for viral strains A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial. Titers obtained by both methods were not significantly different (p>0.05), thus confirming that slpELISA could be used successfully to replace the conventional serial dilution ELISA for the assessment of protection status of cattle in epidemiological studies. In addition, this quantitative slpELISA provides an adequate method for monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and is also suitable for the assessment of seroconversion of naive animals during early stages of infection.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.
Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia
Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62
Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Houe, H.
According to the current literature BVDV-infected neighbours probably impose a high risk of infection of susceptible cattle herds. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the risk of a dairy herd changing infection status (from not having persistently infected (PI) animals to having PI-animals...
... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...
da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica
Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (PDairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study.
DiGiacomo, R F; Hopkins, S G; Darlington, R L; Evermann, J F
Following the demonstration that bovine leukosis virus was transmitted in calves by gouge dehorning, electrical dehorning at a younger age was implemented in a commercial Holstein herd. Subsequently, annual testing of the herd revealed a decline in the prevalence of bovine leukosis virus antibodies as older cattle dehorned by the former method were replaced by younger cattle dehorned by the latter method.
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for FMDV. To better...... serum samples had detectable antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSPs) using a pan-serotypic assay. Within these 37 sera, antibody titres ≥ 80 against the structural proteins of serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were detected by ELISA in 5, 7, 4 and 3 samples, respectively, while...... neutralizing antibodies were only detected against serotype O in 3 samples. Two FMDV isolates, with identical VP1 coding sequences, were obtained from probang samples from clinically healthy calves from the same herd and are serotype SAT 1 (topotype IV (EA-I)). Based on the VP1 coding sequences, these viruses...
Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z
The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (pmastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.
Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C
Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd
Broeders, D.; Chen, D.; Minderhoud, P.; Schudel, W.
This paper uses unique and detailed transaction data to analyse herding behavior among pension funds. We distinguish between weak, semi strong and strong herding behaviour. Weak herding occurs if pension funds have similar rebalancing strategies. Semi strong herding arises when pension funds react s
Da Mota, A F; Martinez, M L; Coutinho, L L
BoLA-DRB3 is a gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in cattle. The product of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is a beta chain of an MHC class II molecule, a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes to peptides are dependent on the presentation of peptide ligands bound to class II molecules on APCs. Genotyping of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is relatively complex due to the extensive polymorphism of this locus. Current techniques for assignment of genotypes are polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), direct sequencing of PCR products, cloning-sequencing, polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP), and denaturant-gradient gel electrophoresis. These techniques are time-consuming, do not discriminate all possible alleles, or are not readily reproducible. The objective of this study was to genotype BoLA-DRB3 using temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) to separate alleles before sequencing. PCRs using 28 DNA samples from Gir Dairy cattle (a Brazilian breed of Bos indicus) were submitted to TGGE. New PCR products were generated from separated alleles, purified, and sequenced. Allele separation was possible in 21 out of 26 heterozygote samples (81%). Results indicate that two sequence reads (forward and reverse) were sufficient for accurate genotyping of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Separation of alleles by TGGE provides high-throughput, reliable typing of BoLA-DRB3, which is critical in disease association studies in cattle.
张佳兰; 茹彩霞; 王建华
[Objective] The research aimed to analyze the incidence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle so as to provide scientific basis for the control of subclinical mastitis. [ Method] According to the number of somatic cells in the DHI report of three dairy farms in 2009, the incidence of subclinical mastitis in three dairy farms, at different lactation periods and parities was studied. [ Result] The incidence of subclinical mastitis was different on different dairy farms, the lactating cattle on farm 1 had low incidence of subclinical mastitis than on other two farms (P 0.05). [Conclusion] The incidence of subclinical mastitis was influenced by the lactation periods and parity as well as the breeding and management of the cattle farms. Each farm should take measures to control the incidence of subclinical mastitis according to their own conditions and DHI results.%[目的]分析奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生情况,为隐性乳房炎的控制提供科学依据.[方法]以3个牛场2009年DHI报告的体细胞数大小来分析隐性乳房炎在不同牛场、泌乳阶段和胎次的发生情况.[结果]不同牛场隐性乳房炎发生率存在差异,牛场1泌乳牛隐性乳房炎的发生率显著低于另外2个场(P＜0.05).随着泌乳时间的增加,奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率呈增加的趋势,牛场3在第6、7、8和第12泌乳月隐性乳房炎的发生率显著高于其他泌乳月.随着胎次的增加,奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率呈增加趋势,牛场1在4胎以后奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率显著增加且与其他2个场差异不显著(P＞0.05).[结论]奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生率与泌乳阶段和胎次有关,与牛场自身的饲养管理有关.各个牛场应根据自身条件及DHI结果采取相应的措施控制奶牛隐性乳房炎的发生.
Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.
positive (herd specificity, 0.9 and herd sensitivity, 1.0). A sig nificant correlation (P serum and milk samples from cows in the herds with a history of salmonellosis. It was concluded that ELISA testing of individual milk sam ples can be used for surveillance......We investigated the ability of an antibody-specific, O antigen-based ELISA to document Salmonella typhimurium herd infections by screening of milk samples. Three cattle populations, 20 herds with no history of salmonellosis, 8 herds with history of S typhimurium epsiodes within the previous 7...... of herds for S typhimurium infections, but further modifications are needed to test bulk tank milk samples....
Ronald J. Erskine
Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988, P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.
Dustin H Ranglack
Full Text Available Wild American plains bison (Bison bison populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range.
Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health using producer-recorded data is feasible. Estimates of heritability are low, indicating that genetic progress will be slow. Improvement of health traits may also be possible with the incorporation of environmental and managerial aspects into herd health pro...
Full Text Available O gado de origem japonesa Wagyu é uma alternativa para aumentar a competitividade, frente a um mercado com margens cada vez mais reduzida. Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade de um rebanho puro da raça Wagyu, em ciclo completo, entre os períodos de 2009 a 2013. A análise baseou-se nos indicadores econômicos: custo operacional total, receita bruta, margem bruta e margem líquida. A receita foi constituída pela venda de material genético, animais e carne. A média final da margem líquida foi positiva no valor de R$10.245,88 para o período. Porém, para o rebanho puro de Wagyu quando comparado por animal não mostrou-se vantajoso, pois o resultado foi menor devido aos altos investimentos em dois momentos, em 2009 e 2012. Contudo a comparação na comercialização, em R$/@, foi de 7,8 vezes superior a outros estudos. Estes ganhos evidenciam que se for feito ajustes para diminuir o custo ou aumentar a escala, os resultados futuros poderão ser muito promissores. A atividade apresentou viabilidade econômica no período estudado, pois a média final da margem liquída - ML foi positiva. O pioneirismo na produção e comercialização de um produto pecuário diferenciado para um nicho de mercado evidenciou a diversificação dos negócios no Brasil bem como o fortalecimento da marca no mercado. = The Brazilian livestock shows remarkable results in the growth of agribusiness. The enhancement of the rural environment provides professional achievements of world markets increasingly competitive and demanding. The Wagyu cattle from Japan would be an alternative for increasing competitiveness because their meat is recognized worldwide for high quality and economic value. Aimed to examine the viability of a pure herd of Wagyu full cycle on the Farm Yakult in Bragança Paulista SP, in the period 2009-2013, by economic indicators: Total Operating Cost, Gross Revenue, Gross Margin and Net Margin. The Wagyu presents one of the business segments of the
Johnston, Howard; Beasley, Laura; MacPherson, Neil
Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of monitoring herd copper status regularly. Also the poor correlation between liver and serum copper concentrations in the three herds sampled demonstrates the importance of using liver copper concentration to assess herd copper status.
Rossi Borges, Joao; Tauer, Loren Willian; Oude Lansink, Alfons
In biome Pampa, Brazil, cattle farmers have managed the natural grasslands using practices that result in overgrazing, low productivity and low farm income. In addition, farmers in the region converted natural grasslands from beef production to more profitable activities, such as cash crops. This
Robin A. Skuce
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is one of the most challenging endemic diseases currently facing government, the veterinary profession, and the farming industry in the United Kingdom and Ireland and in several other countries. The disease has a notoriously complex epidemiology; the scientific evidence supports both cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle transmission routes. To produce more effective ways of reducing such transmission, it is important to understand those risk factors which influence the presence or absence of bovine TB in cattle herds. Here we review the literature on herd-level risk factor studies. Whilst risk factors operate at different scales and may vary across regions, epidemiological studies have identified a number of risk factors associated with bovine TB herd breakdowns, including the purchase of cattle, the occurrence of bovine TB in contiguous herds, and/or the surrounding area as well as herd size. Other factors identified in some studies include farm and herd management practices, such as, the spreading of slurry, the use of certain housing types, farms having multiple premises, and the use of silage clamps. In general, the most consistently identified risk factors are biologically plausible and consistent with known transmission routes involving cattle-cattle and wildlife-cattle pathways.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mentasta caribou herd is located in southeast mainland Alaska and Western Yukonn Territory. This small herd has declined from a high Of approximately 3,100...
Gilson Pereira de Oliveira
Full Text Available A dinâmica parasitária da Haematobia irritans foi estudada em três fazendas com diferentes tipos de manejo de bovinos mestiços na região de São Carlos, SP, as quais não utilizavam nenhum tratamento específico à mosca. O experimento consistuiu na contagem de mosca na região dorso-lombar a cada 14 dias no período de outubro de 1992 a outubro de 1994. Cada fazenda adotava um tratamento: T1 (Fazenda Ribeirão Bonito, verminose tratada com levamizole-Ripercol L injetável, carrapato com piretróide - Ectoplus "pouron" e berne com trichlorphon-Neguvon + óleo queimado, usotópico; T2(Fazenda São Carlos, verminose tratada com levamizole - Ripercol injetável, carrapato tratado com banho de imersão com formamidina - Triatox e berne com fenthion -Tiguvon "pour on" e T3 (Fazenda Santa Eudóxia - sem tratamento. Os dados de contagem da mosca-do-chifre (MC, na escala √(MC + 0,5, foram analisados em um modelo que incluiu além da média, os efeitos de tratamentos, ano, mês, período e as interações duplas, sendo que todos os efeitos diferiram entre si (PHaematobia irritans parasitical dynamics was studied in three farms rearing crossbred beef cattle, under different management systems, in the region of São Carlos, São Paulo State. In the farms was not utilized any specific treatment against horn flies. The experiment consisted in counting fortnightly the number of flies on the dorso-lombar area of the animals, from October, 1992 to October, 1994. Each farm used a different parasite control: T1- Ribeirão Bonito Farm, anthihelminthic treatment, with injectable levamizole (Ripercol L; ticks treated with pour on pyrethroid compound (Ectoplus; and berne, treated with trichlorphon (Neguvon plus used motor oil, applied topically; T2- São Carlos Farm, antihelminthic treatmen with injectable levamizole (Ripercol L; ticks treated with formamidine (Triatox in immersion bath; and berne treated with pour on fenthion (Tiguvon; and T3- Santa Eud
Ediclei Lima do Carmo
Full Text Available Abstract The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%, with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%, 128 in 68 animals (33.5%, 256 in 15 animals (7.4%, 512 in 5 animals (2.5%, and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%. No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05. The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.
It has been observed beef breed herd of Aberdeen Angus cattle in the foothills area of Novohradské mountains in 1992 - 2007. The base of herd was consisted of 117 dams and 814 pieces of calves in total. The parameters of beef production of calves and the reproduction of dams were monitored. For the parameters of growth of calves were found significant effects of the year, the month of birth, sex, the order of calving, the method of reproduction and the sire.
I.R. Bajwa; M. S. Rehman; M Aslam; M.S. Khan; A.U. Hyder
Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey) crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important sour...
Salmonella spp. in cattle are contributing to bacterial foodborne disease for humans. Reduction of Salmonella prevalence in herds is important to prevent human Salmonella infections. Typical control measures are culling of infectious animals, vaccination, and improved hygiene management. Vaccines ha...
Sheila R Wosiacki
Full Text Available The bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 involvement in the aetiology of chronic enzootic haematuria associated to bracken fern ingestion has been suggested for a long time. However, a few reports have shown the presence of the BPV-2 in urinary bladder tumors of cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of the BPV-2 infection in the urinary bladder of cattle with chronic enzootic haematuria in Brazilian cattle herds. Sixty-two urinary bladders were collected from adult cattle in beef herds from the north region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. According to clinical and pathological finds the specimens were distributed in three groups: the group A was constituted by 22 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected at necropsy of cattle with clinical signs of chronic enzootic haematuria; the group B by 30 urinary bladders with macroscopic lesions collected in a slaughterhouse of cows coming from bracken fern-endemic geographical region; and the group C (control by 10 urinary bladders without macroscopic lesions collected from asymptomatic cattle in a bracken fern-free geographical region. By a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay, with an internal control, a fragment of the BPV-2 L1 gene with 386 bp length was amplified in 36 (58% urinary bladder. The rate of BPV-2 positive urinary bladders was 50% (11/22 for group A, 80% (24/30 for group B, and 10% (1/10 for group C (control. The rate of the positive results found in groups A and B that included urinary bladder samples with macroscopic lesions was 67% (35/52 and the detection of the BPV-2 in both groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than in the control group. RFLP with Rsa I and Hae III enzymes evaluated the specificity of the BPV-2 amplicons. The PCR internal control that amplified a 626 bp fragment of the ND5 gene of the bovine mitochondrial genome was amplified in all analyzed samples and excluded false-negatives or invalid results in the semi
Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind;
The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from a questionn...
Ondrak, Jeff D
Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.
Sollero, Bruna P; Junqueira, Vinícius S; Gomes, Cláudia C G; Caetano, Alexandre R; Cardoso, Fernando F
Cattle resistance to ticks is known to be under genetic control with a complex biological mechanism within and among breeds. Our aim was to identify genomic segments and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with tick-resistance in Hereford and Braford cattle. The predictive performance of a very low-density tag SNP panel was estimated and compared with results obtained with a 50 K SNP dataset. BayesB (π = 0.99) was initially applied in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this complex trait by using deregressed estimated breeding values for tick counts and 41,045 SNP genotypes from 3455 animals raised in southern Brazil. To estimate the combined effect of a genomic region that is potentially associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL), 2519 non-overlapping 1-Mb windows that varied in SNP number were defined, with the top 48 windows including 914 SNPs and explaining more than 20% of the estimated genetic variance for tick resistance. Subsequently, the most informative SNPs were selected based on Bayesian parameters (model frequency and t-like statistics), linkage disequilibrium and minor allele frequency to propose a very low-density 58-SNP panel. Some of these tag SNPs mapped close to or within genes and pseudogenes that are functionally related to tick resistance. Prediction ability of this SNP panel was investigated by cross-validation using K-means and random clustering and a BayesA model to predict direct genomic values. Accuracies from these cross-validations were 0.27 ± 0.09 and 0.30 ± 0.09 for the K-means and random clustering groups, respectively, compared to respective values of 0.37 ± 0.08 and 0.43 ± 0.08 when using all 41,045 SNPs and BayesB with π = 0.99, or of 0.28 ± 0.07 and 0.40 ± 0.08 with π = 0.999. Bayesian GWAS model parameters can be used to select tag SNPs for a very low-density panel, which will include SNPs that are potentially linked to functional genes. It can be useful for cost
J. Escarião da Nóbrega Jr
Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. no município de Santa Luzia, semi-árido da Paraíba. Nove bovinos foram colocados numa pastagem com S. halepense em fase de rebrota, com 25-30cm de altura, 15 dias após as primeiras chuvas. Sinais clínicos de dispnéia, ansiedade, tremores musculares e incoordenação apareceram 10-15 minutos após a ingestão. Dois animais morreram em um período aproximado de 3 horas. Na necropsia observaram-se congestão e cianose das mucosas, musculatura escura, pulmão com pontos hemorrágicos e edema, além de folhas da planta no rúmen. A planta foi positiva no teste do papel picrosódico. Mudas de S. halepense coletadas no Município de Currais Novos, Rio Grande do Norte, onde havia históricos de uma intoxicação semelhante, foram plantadas em vasos e realizado o teste de papel picrosódico a cada 15 dias. A planta foi positiva para HCN durante todos os estágios, sendo que nos primeiros 45 dias a reação ocorreu dentro de 1 minuto e, posteriormente, em até 3 minutos. Trinta dias após ter sido plantada, a planta de um dos vasos foi administrada a um caprino causando sinais característicos de intoxicação cianídrica na dose de 11,8g/kg de peso do animal. O caprino se recuperou após tratamento com uma solução de tiossulfato de sódio a 20% na dose de 5mL/10kg. No semi-árido, S. halepense é freqüentemente encontrado como invasora em beiras de açudes e culturas irrigadas, sendo utilizado como forrageira, na época seca, em áreas de vazante.An outbreak of poisoning by Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. in cattle in the Brazilian semiarid is reported. Nine cattle were introduced 15 days after the first rains into a paddock where the plant was sprouting and had 25-30cm high. Clinical signs of dyspnea, anxiety, muscular tremors and incoordination appeared 15 minutes after the animals began to graze. Two of them died within about 3 hours. The others recovered. Cyanotic mucosa, dark
Five cows in a herd of 15 cattle that had just been turned out onto lush pasture after having over-wintered on poor quality hay died suddenly. Biochemical profiles collected from the cadavers revealed reduced serum levels of magnesium, urea, and beta-hydroxybutycate. Classical grass tetany (hypomagnesemia) was diagnosed on postmortem examination.
Sintayehu W Dejene
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies
Sidibe, M.; Boly, H.; Lakouetené, T.; Leroy, P.; Bosma, R.H.
Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled,
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...
Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B
Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.
Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Boer, de Fred
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the
Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and
Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq
surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally...... clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatial dependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herd biosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections....
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a taxa de emissão de metano (CH4 pela técnica do gás traçador, hexafluoreto de enxofre (SF6, em bovinos leiteiros a pasto em condições tropicais brasileiras. As medições foram realizadas na estação das chuvas, com adequada oferta de forragem, em animais da raça Holandesa e Mestiça Leiteira Brasileira em pastagem de capim-tobiatã (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tobiatã adubada, com vacas em lactação, vacas secas e novilhas, e em pastagem de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. não adubada com novilhas. As concentrações de CH4 e SF6 foram determinadas por cromatografia gasosa. A emissão de CH4 pelas vacas em lactação foi de 13,8 a 16,8 g/hora, pelas vacas secas de 11,6 a 12,3 g/hora, pelas novilhas em pastagem adubada de 9,5 g/hora, e pelas novilhas em pastagem sem adubo de 7,6 a 8,3 g/hora ou 66 a 72 kg/animal/ano. A emissão de CH4 por matéria seca digestiva ingerida foi de 42 a 69 g/kg em vacas em lactação, de 46 a 56 g/kg em vacas secas, 45 a 58 g/kg em novilhas ingerindo pasto adubado e 58 a 62 g/kg em novilhas em pastagem sem adubo. A emissão de CH4 por bovinos leiteiros ingerindo gramíneas tropicais é superior à emissão por bovinos ingerindo gramíneas de clima temperado.The objective of this work was to quantify methane (CH4 emission using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique, by dairy cattle on pasture in Brazilian tropical field conditions. Measurements were performed in the rainy season, with Holstein and Holstein x Zebu crossbred, from lactating and dry cows and heifers grazing fertilized Tobiatã grass, and heifers grazing unfertilized Brachiaria grass. Methane and SF6 concentrations were determined by gas chromatograph. Methane emissions by lactating cows varied from 13.8 to 16.8 g/hour, by dry cows from 11.6 to 12.3 g/hour, by heifers grazing fertilized grass was 9.5 g/hour and by heifers grazing unfertilized grass varied from 7.6 to 8.3 g/hour or
Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark
Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.
Hybschmann, G. K.; Ersbøll, A.K.; Vigre, Håkan
quarter per herd. Three potential herd-level risk factors were evaluated: herd size (number of finishers delivered for slaughter); herd health status (herds in the Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) System, conventional herds); and herd type (herds including only finishers, integrated herds). Data were analyzed...... using general linear mixed models with repeated measurements. Smaller herds had a larger AMU per finisher than larger herds. Integrated herds had lower AMU as compared with herds with only finishers. Herds within the SPF System had a larger decrease in AMU with increasing herd size compared...
In pastoral system dominated milk production in Nigeria, it still supplies considerable ... return of sales of dairy products and constraints encountered by dairy cattle .... to improve herd productivity is to cross local cows to the exotic bulls and/or.
Influência da interação touro x rebanho na estimação da correlação entre efeitos genéticos direto e materno em bovinos da raça Nelore Influence of sire x herd interaction on the estimation of correlation between direct and maternal genetic effects in Nellore cattle
Joanir Pereira Eler
Full Text Available A interação touro x rebanho foi avaliada em uma população com 30.789 registros de animais da raça Nelore nascidos entre 1984 e 1994 em doze fazendas localizadas em três Estados do Sudeste e Centro-Oeste brasileiro, com um total de 48.495 animais no pedigree. As características consideradas foram os pesos ao nascer (PESNAS e à desmama (PESDES e o ganho de peso da desmama ao sobreano (GP345. O efeito da interação touro x rebanho foi considerado aleatório em modelos animais uni e bicaraterística, usando MTDFREML. Esse efeito foi importante para PESNAS (6% da variância fenotípica e influenciou os componentes de variância e covariância e, conseqüentemente, os parâmetros genéticos. O efeito foi menor (cerca de 1% da variância fenotípica para PESDES, mas alterou as estimativas dos componentes de variância e covariância. Para GP345, o efeito foi pequeno, embora significativo pelos verossimilhança. As correlações genéticas entre efeitos direto e materno são próximas de zero, ou até mesmo positivas, se a interação touro x rebanho for incluída no modelo, e sempre negativas se ela for omitida.Sire x herd interactions were studied in 30,789 records of birth (BW and weaning weight (WW and weight gain from weaning to 18 months of age (G345 of Nellore cattle born from 1984 to 1994 in twelve farms located in three states of central and southeastern Brazil, with a total of 48.495 animals in pedigree. Sire x herd interaction was considered as a random effect in single trait and two traits animal models using MTDFREML. This effect was important for BW (6% of the phenotypic variance and it both affected variance and covariance components and, consequently, genetic parameters. The effect was smaller for WW (around 1% of the phenotypic variance, but influenced the estimates of (co variance components. For G345, Sire x Herd effect was small. Likelihood tests showed that this effect was significant for all traits. This study showed that
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad; Østergaard, Søren
of the six age-groups; 2) S. Dublin incidence and number of animals in each infection state; and 3) S. Dublin related morbidity and mortality in the acutely infected animals. The effects of introducing one infectious heifer on the risk of spread of S. Dublin within the herd and on the duration of infection...... for the individual animals in each of the six age groups in the herd. The hygiene level was highly influential on the probability that the infection spread within the herd, duration of infection and epidemic size. The herd susceptibility level was also influential, but not likely to provide sufficient prevention...... the probability of extinction. In general, disease and mortality patterns followed epidemic waves in the herds. However, an interesting pattern was seen for acute infections and abortions in adult cattle after the first 2 years of infection in herds with poor hygiene and high susceptibility. Repeated infections...
Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil
The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were...
Ågren, Estelle C C; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Frössling, Jenny
Legislated Salmonella control in Sweden has been in place since the 1960s. The purpose of this study was to investigate presence of Salmonella antibodies in dairy cattle herds and to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control can be improved. Bulk milk samples from all Swedish dairy herds (n=4 683) were analysed with two different ELISAs; one detecting antibodies against Salmonella Dublin (Dublin ELISA), and one detecting antibodies against several of the serotypes causing bovine salmonellosis including S. Dublin (Bovine ELISA). Information about herds, i.e. geographical location, local animal density, number of test positive herds within 5km, animal trade and herd size, was based on register data. The results confirm a very low prevalence of Salmonella in Swedish dairy herds throughout the country with the exception of an island in the southeast. The test positive herds split into two groups; 41 herds (1%) positive in the Dublin ELISA, and 101 herds (2%) positive in the Bovine ELISA but negative in the Dublin ELISA. Geographical location of positive herds, and comparison of the results of the screening with serotypes previously isolated from some of the herds, indicated that the first group represents herds presently or previously infected with S. Dublin while the second group represents herds presently or previously infected with other serotypes. Differences in serological status between herds in different regions, of different size, with different animal purchase patterns et cetera, were tested using logistic regression. Presence of positive herds within 5km was significantly associated to testing positive. For herds testing positive in the Dublin ELISA, significant associations were also seen with herd size. Purchase of animals during the last year was not significantly associated with the outcome in the final models. We conclude that for future surveillance, the Bovine ELISA can be used to help in identifying infected herds, and the Dublin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting. In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7 than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively. Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level.
Arede, Margarida; Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem Uddin;
Mycoplasma bovis is an important pathogen causing severe disease outbreaks in cattle farms. Since 2011, there has been an apparent increase in M. bovis outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds. The dairy cattle industry performed cross-sectional antibody screening for M. bovis on four occasions,...
The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.
Hutber, A M; Kitching, R P; Conway, D A
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious virus infection of sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and other, non-domesticated species of artiodactyls, and causes both clinical and subclinical infection according to the natural or acquired immunity of the host. Within vaccinated dairy herds FMD may appear as an acute, mild or subclinical infection, dependent upon the immune status of the herd, the level of challenge and the efficacy of the vaccine used. In the large dairy herds of Saudi Arabia, sub-clinical FMD was on a number of occasions, found to have spread amongst the cattle before signs of disease were seen. Such undetected transmission resulted in a large incidence on the first day of diagnosis and curtailed the impact of post-outbreak vaccination (PoV). First day incidence (FDI) for these herds was found to correlate with the final cumulative incidence of clinical disease. Since FDI is available at the start of an outbreak it can be used as a predictive tool for the eventual outcome of an FMD outbreak. During the past 11 years 47 % of dairy herds examined in Saudi Arabia have experienced FMD initially as sub-clinical disease. For the remaining 53 %, waning vaccinal protection did not suppress clinical disease in the initially infected animals, and these showed severe rather than mild signs. Hence, in such herds there was a very low initial level of subclinical infection, so PoV was more effective, and the timing of PoV was found to give a good correlation with cumulative herd incidence: an early PoV resulted in low prevalence of clinically infected animals whilst late PoV permitted high prevalence. PoV timing can thereby be used in tandem with FDI as a predictive tool for future outbreaks, estimating the final cumulative incidence (or prevalence) of clinical FMD cases.
Verdugo, Cristobal; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren
included in the analysis, and one annual milk-ELISA test of all lactating cows present in such herds was considered. A Bayesian latent class model was used to obtain HTP and TP posterior distributions for each year. The model adjusts for uncertainty in age-specific test sensitivity and prior prevalence......This study aimed to estimate the between- (HTP) and within- (TP) herd true prevalence distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds participating in the Danish MAP control programme. All herds enrolled in the programme between 2011 and 2013 were...... estimates. Bayesian posterior probabilities were computed in order to compare prevalence between the years. A total of 665,700 samples were included in the study, from 221,914, 224,040, and 220,466 cows sourced from 1138, 1112, and 1059 herds in years 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. In that period, HTP...
Longitudinal prevalence and molecular typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis in a range cattle herd in California
Objectives –(1) Identify the seasonal pattern and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in range cattle in California, (2) Determine strain diversity and transition over time using Multi-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Samp...
Metcalf, C J E; Ferrari, M; Graham, A L; Grenfell, B T
Individual immunity is a powerful force affecting host health and pathogen evolution. Importantly, the effects of individual immunity also scale up to affect pathogen transmission dynamics and the success of vaccination campaigns for entire host populations. Population-scale immunity is often termed 'herd immunity'. Here we outline how individual immunity maps to population outcomes and discuss implications for control of infectious diseases. Particular immunological characteristics may be more or less likely to result in a population level signature of herd immunity; we detail this and also discuss other population-level outcomes that might emerge from individual-level immunity.
Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten
Infectious diseases, such as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) virus infections in cattle, are often studied by Markov chain models. However, it is difficult to simulate dynamic interactions between production of a reproductive herd and the disease by this type of model. As an alternative, a dynamic...... stochastic model simulating the herd production was suggested. A dynamic stochastic model simulating the effect of BVD virus infection in a dairy cattle herd was used to exemplify how this type of model could be applied in research. The simulation example demonstrated that the effect of a BVD virus infection...
Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Renter, David G; Sanderson, Mike W
Although numerous diagnostic tests are available to identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cow-calf herds, data are sparse when evaluating the economic viability of individual tests or diagnostic strategies. Multiple factors influence BVDV testing in determining if testing should be performed and which strategy to use. A stochastic model was constructed to estimate the value of implementing various whole-herd BVDV cow-calf testing protocols. Three common BVDV tests (immunohistochemistry, antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and polymerase chain reaction) performed on skin tissue were evaluated as single- or two-test strategies. The estimated testing value was calculated for each strategy at 3 herd sizes that reflect typical farm sizes in the United States (50, 100, and 500 cows) and 3 probabilities of BVDV-positive herd status (0.077, 0.19, 0.47) based upon the literature. The economic value of testing was the difference in estimated gross revenue between simulated cow-calf herds that either did or did not apply the specific testing strategy. Beneficial economic outcomes were more frequently observed when the probability of a herd being BVDV positive was 0.47. Although the relative value ranking of many testing strategies varied by each scenario, the two-test strategy composed of immunohistochemistry had the highest estimated value in all but one herd size-herd prevalence permutation. These data indicate that the estimated value of applying BVDV whole-herd testing strategies is influenced by the selected strategy, herd size, and the probability of herd BVDV-positive status; therefore, these factors should be considered when designing optimum testing strategies for cow-calf herds.
Vasconcellos Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker
Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.
ELISA (Rønsholt et al., 1997; Bitsch et al., 1997) and the SVANOVIR ELISA (Juntti at al., 1987; Niskanen, 1993) were compared on milk and serum samples. The prevalence of antibody positive milking cows, which can be detected by each of those tests, was estimated by diluting positive individual milk...... dairy herds (e.g. after import of infected cattle) could be more difficult to detect compared to the past, due to the lower prevalence of antibody positive milking cows and the (expected) higher dilution of antibodies in bigger milk containers. Therefore, an evaluation and an eventual optimization...... of the BVD surveillance system in Danish dairy herds were considered necessary by the Danish Cattle Federation. In study I, we verified how the BVD herd prevalence, the herd size and the dilution of individual milk within the bulk tank milk (BTM) changed, between 2003 and 2010. Moreover, the Danish blocking...
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Rattenborg, Erik
surveillance systems. Register data might be useful for design of effective surveillance programmes for Salmonella Dublin in cattle in the future. Statistical analysis of register-based variables confirmed previously known risk factors for becoming test-positive (i.e. purchase of animals from test......This study illustrates how prevalence and incidence of Salmonella Dublin in cattle has been markedly reduced in dairy herds during active surveillance and a control programme targeting infected herds in Denmark from 2002 to 2010. The results suggest that this might by a good alternative to passive......-positive herds, number of cattle in test-positive neighbouring herds, herd size and season), but also pointed out additional factors affecting the risk of dairy herds changing status from test-negative to test-positive (indicative of new or recurrent infection). Increasing geometric cell count measured through...
Faham Khamesipour; Shahin Nejat Dehkordi; Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Shahrzad Azizi
Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen d...
Monti, G.E.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de, F.
In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but there is scarce quantitative information of the transmission of BLV in cattle herds. This information is a prerequisite to develop effective BLV control strategies. Mathematical modelling offers ways...
Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;
The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005...... through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from ... was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate...
Langley, David J.; Tan, Chee-Wee; Worm, Daniël
the Netherlands, we develop an analytical model to investigate drivers of herd formation, growth, and dissolution. Finally, combining environmental turbulence literature with our empirical findings, we derive a novel typology of online anti-brand herd behaviors, and put forward six propositions to guide theory...... light on the formation, growth, and dissolution of online anti-brand herds. First we expand on the concept of environmental turbulence to advance core properties unique to online herd behavior. Next, based on evidence gathered from 40 online anti-brand herd episodes targeting two prominent firms from...
Gandini, G.; Avon, L.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Bay, E.; Colinet, F.G.; Choroszy, Z.; Diaz, C.; Duclos, D.; Fernandez, J.; Gengler, N.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Kearney, F.; Lilja, T.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Martin-Collado, D.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Musella, M.; Pizzi, F.; Soini, K.; Toro, M.; Turri, F.; Viinalas, H.; Hiemstra, S.J.
Within the EURECA project (Towards self-sustainable EUropean REgional CAttle breeds), we interviewed a total of 371 farmers of 15 local cattle breeds in eight European countries. Besides collecting data on farmers, land use, herd composition and economic role of cattle, we aimed at understanding far
Langley, David J.; Tan, Chee-Wee; Worm, Daniël
light on the formation, growth, and dissolution of online anti-brand herds. First we expand on the concept of environmental turbulence to advance core properties unique to online herd behavior. Next, based on evidence gathered from 40 online anti-brand herd episodes targeting two prominent firms from...... the Netherlands, we develop an analytical model to investigate drivers of herd formation, growth, and dissolution. Finally, combining environmental turbulence literature with our empirical findings, we derive a novel typology of online anti-brand herd behaviors, and put forward six propositions to guide theory......The online environment offers a fertile breeding ground for anti-brand herds of disgruntled consumers. Firms are often caught off guard by the unpredictability of such herds and, as a consequence, are forced into a reactive, defensive stance. We conduct a social media analysis that aims to shed...
Ott, S L; Johnson, R; Wells, S J
Bovine-leukosis virus (BLV; also termed 'bovine-leukemia virus') is a retrovirus that primarily affects lymphoid tissue of dairy and beef cattle. Our objective was to investigate the association between BLV infection and annual value of production (AVP) on dairy herds within the United States, as part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1996 dairy study. 1006 herds (in 20 states) with at least 30 dairy cows were interviewed during 1996. The agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect serum antibodies to BLV. 10-40 cows from each herd were tested and each tested cow was classified as negative or positive based on results of a single test. A multivariable regression model was used with the 976 herds with complete data for analysis. When compared to herds with no test-positive cows, herds with test-positive cows produced 218 kg per cow (i.e. 3%) less milk. The average reduction in AVP was $59 per cow for test-positive herds relative to test-negative herds. For the dairy industry as a whole, BLV seropositivity was associated with loss to producers of $285 million and $240 million for consumers. Most of this $525 million industry loss was due to reduced milk production in test-positive herds.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study with a random cluster sampling design was carried out to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1 in non-vaccinated dairy herds in Hamedan province, west of Iran. Simple random sampling was used for selection of cattle in each herd. Informative data about each herd and selected animals were recorded by the farm manager in a provided questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from 492 animals in 41 industrial herds. A commercial indirect ELISA test was used to determine the seropositivity against BHV-1. The individual and herd seroprevalence for BHV-1 were 58.74% and 82.93%, respectively. The intra-herd prevalences were ranged from 16.70% to 100%. Geographical characteristics of Hamedan province may explain the high sero- prevalence rates found in this study compared to those of others obtained from different parts of the country. The proportion of seropositive cows were increased with age (p <0.05. Animals from large and moderate sized herds had higher odds of seropositivity than those of small size herds. These findings could be related to the presence of a considerable number of BHV-1 carriers in this region. The high herd and animal prevalence found in the present study suggested necessity of implementing an intensive control program for reducing BHV-1 infection rates.
Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.
A surveillance program in which all cattle herds in Denmark are classified into Salmonella infection categories has been in place since 2002. Dairy herds were considered test negative and thus most likely free of infection if Salmonella antibody measurements were consistently low in bulk tank milk...... samples collected every 3 mo. Herds were considered test positive and thus most likely infected if the 4-quarter moving average bulk tank milk antibody concentration was high or if there was a large increase in the most recent measurement compared with the average value from the previous 3 samples....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...
Hancock, A S; Younis, P J; Beggs, D S; Mansell, P D; Stevenson, M A; Pyman, M F
In the pasture-based, seasonally calving dairy herds of southern Australia, the mating period usually consists of an initial artificial insemination period followed by a period of natural service using herd bulls. Bull breeding soundness evaluations (BBSE) were performed on 256 bulls from 32 dairy herds in southwest Victoria, using guidelines produced by the Australian Cattle Veterinarians, before and immediately after a single natural mating period. At the same time, herd managers were questioned regarding the management of the bulls. The objectives of this study were to describe the management practices of dairy herd bulls; to describe the causes of increased risk of reduced fertility in dairy herd bulls, as measured by a standard BBSE; and to describe the reasons for bull removal by herd managers during mating. At the premating BBSE, 19.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities and reduced semen quality. At the postmating BBSE, 36.5% of bulls were classified as high risk of reduced fertility, mostly due to physical abnormalities, primarily lameness. Of the bulls used, 15.9% were removed from normal mating use by the herd manager, predominantly due to lameness and injuries. A premating BBSE is recommended in dairy herd bulls to identify bulls at risk of reduced fertility. Lameness is the most common problem in dairy herd bulls during the natural mating period, and risk factors associated with lameness in these bulls should be identified to better manage herd bulls.
Fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino 1 em rebanhos bovinos da região Oeste do Estado do Paraná Risk factors for bovine herpesvirus 1 infection in cattle herds in the West region of Parana State
Juliana A. Dias
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de rebanhos positivos (focos e identificar os fatores de risco que possam estar associados com a infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino 1 (BoHV-1 em rebanhos bovinos com atividade reprodutiva, na região Oeste do Estado do Paraná. O delineamento estatístico, amostras de soro e informações referentes às propriedades foram as empregadas para o estudo da brucelose bovina no Estado do Paraná dentro do contexto do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose. Foram avaliadas 1930 fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses, provenientes de 295 rebanhos não vacinados contra o BoHV-1. Para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção pelo BoHV-1, foi utilizado um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA indireto. Em cada propriedade foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico, afim de obter informações epidemiológicas e práticas de manejo empregadas. Dos 295 rebanhos analisados, 190 foram considerados positivos para o BoHV-1, com a prevalência de rebanhos de 64,41% (I.C.95% = 58,65-69,87%. As variáveis consideradas fatores de risco para a infecção pelo BoHV-1 na análise de regressão logística multivariada foram: i número (>23 fêmeas com idade >24 meses (OR=2,22; IC: 1,09-4,51; ii compra de reprodutores (OR=2,68; IC: 1,48-4,82; iii uso de pastagens comuns (OR=5,93; IC: 1,31-26,82; iv histórico de abortamento nos últimos 12 meses (OR=2,37; IC: 1,09-5,16; v presença de animais silvestres (OR=8,86; IC: 1,11-70,73. Estes resultados indicam que a infecção pelo BoHV-1 está amplamente distribuída na região estudada e que fatores relacionados às características das propriedades e ao manejo estão associados à infecção.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of positive herds and to identify the risk factors for BoHV-1 infection in breeding cattle herds in the Western region of Parana State. The statistic delineation, the serum samples and
Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N
Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged.
K?stenberger, Kerstin; Tichy, Alexander; Bauer, Karl; Pless, Peter; Wittek, Thomas
Liver fluke is a ubiquitous parasite that causes extensive production losses in cattle and is a zoonosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in 178 dairy cattle herds in Styria (federal state of Austria) and its influence on production, to detect the risk factors for infection, and to explore effective strategies in management and control. A questionnaire on farm management, prophylaxis, and therapy was developed and applied. Furthermore, production paramet...
Berends, I.M.G.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Swart, W.A.J.M.; Weber, M.F.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Weering, H.J.
The aim of this study was to determine the herd prevalence of veal and dairy herds and to identify risk factors for VTEC O157 positive veal herds. The study was based on monitoring data from November 1996 through July 2005 of 1051 dairy herds and 930 veal herds. The herd level prevalence (95% CI) wa
Moloney, B J; Kirkland, P D; Heuer, C
To determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef breeding herds across New South Wales (NSW) and to determine if there are any differences associated with geographic location and other herd-level factors. Cross-sectional survey of beef breeding cows (n = 3298) from 63 properties (approximately 55 cows per herd) sampled randomly from six regions in NSW using a multistage survey design. Samples were tested by ELISA for N. caninum. Seroprevalence was determined at animal and herd levels, using an analysis approach to account for stratification, sample weighting and within-herd clustering. Animal-level seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% across regions and the overall animal seroprevalence for NSW was 5.9%. The mean within-herd seroprevalence was 5.2%. The herd seroprevalence ranged from 50% to 92%, with an overall point estimate for NSW of 63.8% (using ≥ 1 animal positive = herd positive). The within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 1.6% to 32.7% Prevalence and associated confidence limits were adjusted for the design of the survey. Overall, about two-thirds of all herds in NSW showed evidence of infection, but the seroprevalence of N. caninum in individual beef cattle in NSW was low to moderate (1.8-11.3%). Significant differences occurred between regions. The risk for herds being positive for N. caninum was associated with geographic factors, particularly in the Mid-North Coast Region. © 2017 State of New South Wales.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar;
cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...... obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF...... countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability...
John, T J; Samuel, R
The term herd immunity has been used by various authors to conform to different definitions. Earlier this situation had been identified but not corrected. We propose that it should have precise meaning for which purpose a new definition is offered: "the proportion of subjects with immunity in a given population". This definition dissociates herd immunity from the indirect protection observed in the unimmunised segment of a population in which a large proportion is immunised, for which the term 'herd effect' is proposed. It is defined as: "the reduction of infection or disease in the unimmunised segment as a result of immunising a proportion of the population". Herd immunity can be measured by testing a sample of the population for the presence of the chosen immune parameter. Herd effect can be measured by quantifying the decline in incidence in the unimmunised segment of a population in which an immunisation programme is instituted. Herd immunity applies to immunisation or infection, human to human transmitted or otherwise. On the other hand, herd effect applies to immunisation or other health interventions which reduce the probability of transmission, confined to infections transmitted human to human, directly or via vector. The induced herd immunity of a given vaccine exhibits geographic variation as it depends upon coverage and efficacy of the vaccine, both of which can vary geographically. Herd effect is determined by herd immunity as well as the force of transmission of the corresponding infection. Clear understanding of these phenomena and their relationships will help improve the design of effective and efficient immunisation programmes aimed at control, elimination or eradication of vaccine preventable infectious diseases.
Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal
Nadia A.B. Antoniassi
Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.
Dank, M.; Holzhauer, M.; Veldhuis, A.; Frankena, K.
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were
Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László
A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.
Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;
-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery......Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd...... rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed...
DIAGNOSIS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL DETERMINATION OF THE MASTITIS IN DAIRY CATTLE HERDS FROM “TABULEIROS COSTEIROS” REGION IN SERGIPE STATE, BRAZIL DIAGNÓSTICO E DETERMINAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA MASTITE EM REBANHOS BOVINOS LEITEIROS NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS DE SERGIPE.
Hymerson Costa Azevedo
Full Text Available Aiming to determine the occurrence of the mastitis and the microbiological relationhip between the lab tests and the auxiliary tests which are done in the field, two cattle herds were studied for 18 months and 893 milk samples were collected. The udders were clinically examined, and the milk was tested using the strip cup test and the California Mastitis Test (CMT. The Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 196 (21.95% samples, the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp. (SCN in 104 (11.65%, the Streptococcus agalactiae in 67 (7.50%, the esculin-positive Streptococcus sp. (ESCPOS in 20 (2.24%, the esculin-negative Streptococcus sp. (ESCNEG in 29 (3.25%, leavenings in one (0.11% and the Corynebacterium sp. in 16 (1.68% samples. In the total, 433 microrganisms were isolated, 350 milk samples were negative and in 110 (12.32% samples the isolation and identification were not possible. Out of all the isolated microrganisms, the contagious were more frequent, when compared to the positive reaction for the CMT. The CMT test showned to be important in the presuntive diagnose, demanding, however, a periodic microbiologic analyses of the herd.
KEY WORDS: Dairy cattle, mastitis, diagnostic, mastitics, Tabuleiros Costeiros.
Com objetivo de determinar a ocorrência da mastite e a relação microbiológica entre os testes laboratoriais e auxiliares realizados de campo, foram acompanhados dois rebanhos bovinos leiteiros por dezoito meses e coletadas 893 amostras de leite. Procedeu-se a exames clínicos dos úberes, ao teste da caneca telada e ao Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT. Isolaram-se Staphylococcus aureus em 196 (21,95% amostras, Staphylococcus sp. Coagulase Negativa (SCN em 104 (11,65%, Streptococcus agalactiae, em 67 (7,50%, Streptococcus sp. Esculina Positivos (ESCPOS em 20 (2,24%, Streptococcus sp. Esculina Negativos (ESCNEG em 29 (3,25%, leveduras em uma (0,11% e Corynebacterium sp. em dezesseis (1,68% amostras. No total, foram
Cristiane de Queiroz Pinheiro
Full Text Available Sewage sludge and composted garbage are available in large quantities to be employed assources of organic matter for revegetation projects of mined spoils in the Brazilian FederalDistrict (DF. These sources were used for growing baru (Dipterix alata Vog. on minedspoils in the Brazilian Cerrado and the growth and mortality of 99 seedlings treated with theseorganic matter soruces were measured. In 4 months, rates of survival ranged from 56.7%, fortrees treated with compost, to 96.7% for plants treated with sewage sludge. The compostseems to have toxic effects on seedlings, since the treatments with 35, 45 and 50 L/hollow hadno survivals. After the first period of growth, the study was able to show that the best rate forplant development with sewage sludge was 20 and 30 L/hollow (57% and 47. For plantstreated with compost, the best result was obtained with the smallest dosage (5L/hollow,where the growth is similar to the best results obtained with the sludge (47%. In larger dosesthe growth varied between 6% and 24%, span in which the results obtained in the controltreatments, chemical treatment (16% and no treatment (12% are also found. Therefore, theincrease in growth of the seedlings is a function of the dosage and type of organic materialemployed.
Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.
A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... modelling principle. The validation problem in relation to the model was discussed. A comparison between real and simulated data using data from a published case report was shown to illustrate how user acceptance can be obtained....
Verdugo, Cristobal; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
This study aimed to estimate the between- (HTP) and within- (TP) herd true prevalence distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds participating in the Danish MAP control programme. All herds enrolled in the programme between 2011 and 2013 were included in the analysis, and one annual milk-ELISA test of all lactating cows present in such herds was considered. A Bayesian latent class model was used to obtain HTP and TP posterior distributions for each year. The model adjusts for uncertainty in age-specific test sensitivity and prior prevalence estimates. Bayesian posterior probabilities were computed in order to compare prevalence between the years. A total of 665,700 samples were included in the study, from 221,914, 224,040, and 220,466 cows sourced from 1138, 1112, and 1059 herds in years 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. In that period, HTP estimates of 0.92 (95% posterior probability interval (PPI), 0.87-0.96), 0.78 (95% PPI, 0.74-0.83), and 0.75 (95% PPI, 0.71-0.78) were recorded, respectively. Low TP were observed, with population mean estimates of 0.08 (95% PPI, 0.07-0.08), 0.07 (95% PPI, 0.07-0.08), and 0.07 (95% PPI, 0.06-0.07) for the three consecutive years. Statistically-important differences were recorded for HTP and population mean TP estimates between years, indicating a trend for a decreasing level of MAP infection at both herd and animal level. Model results showed that MAP infection was widespread among the Dairy cattle herds participating in the Danish control programme, though in general it was kept at very low levels.
El-Mahallawy, Heba S; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Jilei; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Lanjing; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Zhang, Zhenwen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming
Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, a zoonosis which occurs worldwide. As there is little reliable data on the organism in China, we investigated C. burnetii infections in dairy cattle herds around the country. Opportunistic whole blood samples were collected from 1140 dairy cattle in 19 herds, and antibodies to phase I and II C. burnetii antigens were detected using commercial ELISA kits. Seropositive cattle (381/1140, 33 %) were detected in 13 of the 15 surveyed provinces and in 16 of the 19 herds (84 %) studied. Our data indicates C. burnetii is widespread in China and that animal and human health workers should be aware of the possibility of Q fever infection in their patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several management and environmental factors are known as contributory causes of clinical mastitis in dairy herd. The study objectives were to describe the structure of herd-specific mastitis management and environmental factors and to assess the relevance of these herd-specific indicators to mastitis incidence rate. Methods Disease reports from the Danish Cattle Data Base and a management questionnaire from 2,146 herds in three Danish regions were analyzed to identify and characterize risk factors of clinical mastitis. A total of 94 (18 continuous and 76 discrete management and production variables were screened in separate bivariate regression models. Variables associated with mastitis incidence rate at a p-value Results Three latent factors (quality of labor, region of Denmark and claw trimming, and quality of outdoor holding area were identified from 14 variables. Daily milk production per cow, claw disease, quality of labor and region of Denmark were found to be significantly associated with mastitis incidence rate. A common multiple regression analysis with backward and forward selection procedures indicated there were 9 herd-specific risk factors. Conclusion Though risk factors ascertained by farmer-completed surveys explained a small percentage of the among-herd variability in crude herd-specific mastitis rates, the study suggested that farmer attitudes toward mastitis and lameness treatment were important determinants for mastitis incidence rate. Our factor analysis identified one significant latent factor, which was related to labor quality on the farm.
Warnick, L.D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Nielsen, Jens
antibody measurements for infected and noninfected herds were determined from field study data. Herd infection was defined as having either >= 1 Salmonella culture-positive fecal sample or >= 5% within-herd prevalence based on antibody measurements in serum or milk from individual animals. No distinction......The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program...... is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk...
Celso da Costa Carrer
Full Text Available Uma análise das especificidades dos recursos financeiros públicos destinados à pecuária de corte constitui o objetivo desse trabalho, além de buscar subsídios para a compreensão do processo de modernização e desenvolvimento desta atividade no país. Em primeira instância, estabeleceram-se as relações de causas e efeitos ocorridas durante o processo histórico de conformação do segmento da pecuária de corte do país, procurando-se analisar as particularidades da distribuição do crédito rural. Num segundo momento, para o diagnóstico da situação atual e das perspectivas da produção de carne bovina no Brasil, foram sistematizadas neste trabalho, com o uso da análise de tendências, informações que visam conjugar uma visão sistêmica da atividade, a fim de se detectarem sintomas de mudanças na base técnica e mercadológica da atividade. A política creditícia, que historicamente teve sua importância, deve sofrer substituição por mecanismos alternativos de financiamento da atividade, em que vendas "hedgeadas", adiantamentos à produção e parcerias produtivas se tornarão a tônica do segmento.This paper traces some of the aspects of the public financial resources destined to the Brazilian beef cattle industry, beyond searching subsidies for the understanding of the modernization process and development of this activity in the country. The relations of causes and effects during the historical process of conformation of the segment of the beef cattle of the country, were established, with the particularitities of the distribution of the rural credit being analysed. For the diagnosis of the current situation and the perspectives of the production of bovine meat in Brazil, the information on this activity was systematized in this work, in order to detect symptoms of changes in the technical base and marketing activity. The credit politics, that historically had its importance, must be substituted by alternative
Smith, J W; Ely, L O; Chapa, A M
Dairy Herd Improvement Holstein herd summary records (n = 11,259) were obtained for the year ending 1998. Reasons cows reportedly left the herd based on termination codes were analyzed for the effect of region, herd size, and herd milk production level. Regions were: North, Midsouth, and South. Herd sizes were: small (25 to 99), low medium (100 to 149), high medium (150 to 299), and large (greater than or equal to 300 cows). Milk production levels were: low (less than 7258 kg), medium (7258 to 9072 kg), and high (greater than 9072 kg). The overall percentage of cows leaving the herd was higher in the Midsouth than the South and increased with herd size. Low producing herds reported a lower percentage of cows left than high producing herds. Herds in the South reported more cows leaving for reproduction, death, and low production and fewer leaving for mastitis. Herds in the North and Midsouth reported more cows leaving for injury/other and disease, respectively. Cows left herds for disease less frequently in the North. Large herds in the South had a higher percentage leaving for low production than any herd size group in the North. Small herds reported more cows leaving for reproduction and mastitis than high medium and low medium size herds. The percentage of cows leaving for feet and leg problems was lowest for small size herds. High producing herds reported more cows leaving for reproduction, mastitis, feet and legs and disease.
Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M
Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.
Aureliano Angel Bressan
Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of time series models as a decision tool of buy and sell orders of live cattle futures contracts in the Brazilian Futures Market (BM&F, on dates close to expiration. The models considered are: ARIMA, Neural Networks and Dynamic Linear Models - DLM (this in the classic and bayesian approach. Weekly data, of the spot and futures markets, from 1996 to 1999, are used to calculate the forecasts. The main purpose is to calculate the returns, in buy/sell orders of live cattle futures between 1998 and 1999, in order to show the potentials or limitations of each model. The results show positive returns in almost all contracts analyzed, indicating the potential of the models as a decision tool in operating with futures contracts close to expiration date, with distinction on the performance of the Classic DLM and ARIMA models, although some differences in forecasting accuracy.
Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.
Identification of molecular markers on bovine chromosome 18 associated to calving interval in a Brangus-Ibagé cattle herd Identificação de marcadores moleculares no cromossomo bovino 18 associados ao intervalo entre partos em um rebanho Brangus-Ibagé
Tania de Azevedo Weimer
Full Text Available In the detection phase of a bovine marker assisted selection program, this paper investigated the genetic variability of three microsatellites on the chromosome 18 (BTA 18. The possible associations between genotypes or alleles of these markers versus weight at first calving and a lifetime calving interval (as indicators of reproductive performance were evaluated in a beef cattle herd (5/8 Aberdeen Angus x 3/8 Nelore. Eleven alleles were detected in TGLA227 and ILSTS002 and three in BMS3004, the most frequent being TGLA227*79, ILSTS002*133, ILSTS002*135 and BMS3004*129. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.41 to 0.84, while heterozygosity ranged from 49% to 86%, with an average value of 77%. The association analyses performed between genotype classes for the genetic markers versus weight at first calving indicated no significant result. Also, no correlation was observed between calving interval (CI and TGLA227 genotypes. However, positive associations were detected between ILSTS002 and BMS3004 and CI. Animals carrying at least one ILSTS002*135 allele presented a CI about 39 days longer than the individuals with other genotypes; animals heterozygous for BMS3004 presented a CI about 35 days shorter than the homozygous. On these grounds, it can be concluded that these markers can be useful as an aid to fertility selection, in this herd.Na fase de detecção, em um programa de seleção assistida por marcadores, em bovinos, este trabalho investigou a variabilidade genética de três microssatélites no cromossomo 18 (BTA 18. As possíveis associações entre genótipos ou alelos destes marcadores versus o peso ao primeiro parto e o intervalo entre partos (como indicadores do desempenho reprodutivo foram avaliados em um rebanho de gado de corte (5/8 Aberdeen Angus x 3/8 Nelore. Onze alelos foram detectados em TGLA227 e ILSTS002 e três em BMS3004, os mais freqüentes sendo TGLA227*79, ILSTS002*133, ILSTS002*135 e BMS3004*129. O conte
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
stock and adult cattle in 10 case herds that were followed for more than three years. The five steps in the structured approach were: 1) risk scoring to determine transmission routes within the herd and into the herd; 2) determining a plan of action; 3) performing management changes to close important...... routes of infection; 4) interpretation of repeated testing of individual animals to detect high-risk animals for special hygienic management or culling; and 5) diagnostic testing of different age groups and bulk tank milk to evaluate progress of control over time. Serology, true prevalence estimates...... and changes in herd classification in the Danish surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin were used to assess the progress in the herds during and after the control period. Effective control of Salmonella Dublin was achieved in all participating herds through management that focused on closing infection...
Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils
Detection of bulk tank milk (BTM) antibodies using ELISA (BTM-ELISA) may constitute an inexpensive test for surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in dairy cattle herds provided that the test is accurate and consistent. The objectives of this study were...... to determine: (a) the correlation between repeated BTM reactions; and (b) the association between the BTM antibody ELISA-level and the within-herd prevalence of antibody-positive cows. Eight BTM samples per herd and approximately four milk samples per lactating cow per herd were collected from each of 108...... Danish Holstein herds over a period of one year. All samples were tested using a commercial indirect ELISA for detection of MAP specific antibodies. The individual cow's results were dichotomised and used to estimate the within-herd antibody prevalence at each test-date. These prevalences were...
Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...
This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book
This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organ
Jorge Luís Ferreira
Full Text Available Reaction Norm (RN is the study of genotype-environment interaction (GxE that complies with alternative ways of genotypes within different environments. This study was carried out to verify GxE by a reaction norm model of weights at 120 (W120 and 210 (W210 days of age in Nellore cattle raised in the Humid Tropical Regions of Brazil. Environmental gradients were obtained by solutions of contemporary groups which were fitted as co-variables in the random regression model via reaction norms. Mean weight at 120 days of age was 127.97 kg, and environmental gradients ranged between -27 and +26 kg. Average was 185.60 kg at 210 days of age and gradients ranged from -54 to +55 kg. Scale changes in the breeding values and heritability estimates occurred along the gradients for the two weights; the genetic correlations between breeding value breeding values were also similar for both weights. These correlations were high between the close gradients, and low to even negative between extreme environments. Slopes representing the environmental sensitivity were high, with changes of scale and changes in classification of ten bulls with a great numbers of calves for the two traits. When regression slopes of the ten bulls with the highest breeding value breeding values were evaluated, these values were different in W120 from those in W210, perhaps due to the greater influence of maternal effect on W120. These results characterize the influence of GxE on the pre-weaning weights of animals in the humid tropical regions of Brazil. Due to this, it is possible to get greater precision on the predictions of the animals breeding values breeding value. A less biased selection and a greater genetic progress occurred.
Bihrmann, Kristine; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of economic importance to the cattle industry and a voluntary control programme is offered to Danish dairy farmers. Our objective was to evaluate spatial differences in both control programme participation and paratuberculosis prevalence in Denmark. The study...... included 4414 dairy herds: 1249 were participating in the control programme, and 1503 were tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Spatial differences were evaluated by kernel smoothing, kriging, and cluster analysis. Participation was lowest among herds on the island...
Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D
A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to
Jordan, David; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Warnick, Lorin Dean
Modeling the transmission of a pathogen between herds provides useful insight into how prevention and surveillance programs can be organised. We aimed to devise a technique for simulating the transfer of Salmonella (S.) Dublin between Danish dairy herds based on trading patterns and infection rates...... dairy industry using data fields and logic mimicking the ecology, surveillance and control of S. Dublin. Superimposed on this was a system for simulating movement of cattle between herds and between regions accounting for the infection status of both the source and destination herds. Predictions from...
Trypanosoma vivax infection dynamics in a cattle herd maintained in a transition area between Pantanal lowlands and highlands of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Dinâmica de infecção de Trypanosoma vivax em rebanho bovino mantido numa área de transição entre o Pantanal e o planalto de Mato Grosso do Sul
Charles F. Martins
Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax outbreaks in beef cattle in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, causes relevant economical impact due to weight loss, abortion and mortality. Cattle moved from the Pantanal to adjacent areas of this ecosystem for breeding and fattening is a common feature. Therefore an epidemiological study on breeding cows in the transition area between Pantanal lowland and adjacent highlands of Mato Grosso do Sul was performed to determine the T. vivax infection dynamics and outbreak risk. Three experimental groups were formed: Group 1 consisted of cows parasitologically negative by the Woo test and in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for T. vivax antibody detection (Tv-ELISA-Ab; Group 2 parasitologically negative and positive in the Tv-ELISA-Ab; and in Group 3 cows were parasitologically positive and with positive reactions in the Tv-ELISA-Ab. During 24 months, the cows' dislodgment between the above established groups was monitored by Woo test and Tv-ELISA-Ab exams. The tabanid population was also monitored and the highest number occurred during the rainy season. Although parasitemias were detected only in the first four samplings of the experimental period, the cows could be considered as trypanotolerant, because no clinical signs were observed. Despite the higher T. vivax incidence during the dry season, no disease symptoms were seen. Even though T. vivax epidemiological situation in the herd was characterized as endemic with seasonal variation, the probability of outbreaks was null within the conditions of the study.Surtos de Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos de corte do Pantanal foram responsáveis por relevante impacto econômico, devido a perda de peso, abortos e mortalidade. Um manejo comum é o deslocamento de bovinos do Pantanal baixo para áreas adjacentes desse ecosistema para reprodução e engorda. Por essa razão, foi efetuado um estudo epidemiológico em rebanho de vacas movidas para uma área de transi
Puput Tri Komalasari
Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.
Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.;
recorded among all cattle slaughtered (n=4,090,661) in Denmark between 2004 and 2011. The true animal level prevalence of BC was estimated to be 0.06%. The herd of origin of the cases were defined as the herd in which the animals spent most of their lifetimes. The detected cases were found to originate...
Sekiya, Mary; Zintl, Annetta; Doherty, Michael L
The bulk milk enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and inexpensive method of assessing herd exposure to pathogens that is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds. In this paper, with the dairy herd health veterinarian in mind, we review the principles of the assay and the recent literature on the potential role of bulk milk ELISA for the diagnosis of ostertagiosis, fasciolosis, parasitic bronchitis due to cattle lung worm and neosporosis. It is generally accepted that assay results reflect exposure to the parasite rather than the presence of active infection. Bulk milk ELISA can be a useful tool for the veterinary practitioner as a component of a herd health monitoring programme or in the context of a herd health investigation. It can also play a role in regional or national surveillance programmes. However, the results need to be interpreted within the context of the herd-specific health management, the milk production pattern and the parasite life cycle.
Rola, J G; Larska, M; Grzeszuk, M; Rola, J
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) is one of the most important pathogens of cattle; however, its effect on somatic cell count and milk components is not completely understood. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of BoHV1 infection on quality of bovine bulk tank milk (BTM). A total of 1,790 individual blood samples collected at 28 dairy farms were used to determine the BoHV1 infection status of the herds with ELISA tests. The quality parameters of milk were evaluated by instrumental methods with BTM samples collected at monthly intervals from May 2011 to May 2012. The statistical analysis was performed to study the associations between BoHV1 herd status, quality of BTM, and herd-specific parameters. The risk factors influencing bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) were estimated using the multivariable mixed-effects maximum likelihood regression model. The true prevalences of BoHV1 infection at the animal and herd levels were 49.3 and 64.6%, respectively. The average BMSCC differed significantly between the herds grouped accordingly to their BoHV1 infection status. Interestingly, the highest BMSCC was observed in the vaccinated herds (240.3×10(3) cells/mL). Additionally, the BoHV1 herd status had a significant effect on the fat content of BTM. The largest herds that were investigated had a BoHV1 seroprevalence over 30%. The herd status was considerably influenced by the numbers of cows in the herds. Besides, no significant differences in total bacterial count or protein content in milk from BoHV1-infected und uninfected herds were observed. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer compared with the winter months regardless of the BoHV1 status of the herds. In the final multivariable regression model, the main risk factors associated with BMSCC were BoHV1 herd status, the percentage of BoHV1 infected animals in a herd, the number of cows in a herd, and the season. Our study suggests that BoHV1 infection may influence BMSCC levels, which are key
More, S J; Sergeant, E S G; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Kenny, Kevin; Graham, D
Herd classification is a key component of national Johne's disease (JD) control programs. Herds are categorized on the basis of test results, and separate sub-programs are followed for test-positive and test-negative herds. However, a test-negative herd result does not necessarily equate to JD freedom for reasons relating to disease pathogenesis and available diagnostic tests. Thus, in several countries, JD control programs define test-negative herds as having a "low risk" of infection below a specified prevalence. However, the approach is qualitative, and little quantitative work is available on herd-level estimates of probability of freedom in test-negative herds. This paper examines the effect over time of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on JD risk in test-negative herds. A simulation model was developed in the programming language R. Key model inputs included sensitivity and specificity estimates for 3 individual animal diagnostic tests (serum ELISA, milk ELISA, and fecal culture), design prevalence, testing options, and testing costs. Key model outputs included the probability that infection will be detected if present at the design prevalence or greater (herd sensitivity; SeH), the probability that infection in the herd is either absent or at very low prevalence (i.e., less than the design prevalence; ProbF), the probability of an uninfected herd producing a false-positive result [P(False+)], and mean testing cost (HerdCost) for different testing strategies. The output ProbF can be updated periodically, incorporating data from additional herd testing and information on cattle purchases, and could form the basis for an output-based approach to herd classification. A high ProbF is very difficult to achieve, reflecting the low sensitivity of the evaluated tests. Moreover, ProbF is greatly affected by any risk of introduction of infection, decreasing in herds with poor bio-exclusion practices despite ongoing negative test results. The
Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z
The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins.
Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Oliveira Luciana Oliveira de; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias; Driemeier David
The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after...
Berends, I M G A; Swart, W A J M; Frankena, K; Muskens, J; Lam, T J G M; van Schaik, G
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of BVDV-free certification of dairy herds on fertility and udder health. Cases were defined as dairy herds that had at least one BVDV-antigen positive animal, subsequently gained the BVDV-free status by participating in the BVDV-control programme of the Animal Health Service (AHS) and maintained this status for at least 2 years. Controls had an unknown status for BVDV and two controls were matched to one case by region and herd size. Data concerning fertility and milk production of all herds were provided by The Dutch Royal Cattle Syndicate (NRS). After validation, data of 79,607 cows of 392 case herds and 124,831 cows of 730 control herds were analysed on ten fertility and three udder health parameters. For the analyses all observations were aggregated at herd level. To account for the matching, differences for fertility parameters were calculated between each of the two pairs of case-control within a matching code. The analyses were performed with these differences as dependent variables. Mixed models and GEE models were used for the statistical analyses of fertility and udder health. Case herds had a significantly lower abortion rate in the BVDV-free period than controls herds (10.3% versus 11.6%, P<0.01) while there was no significant difference for the other fertility parameters. There was no effect on mastitis prevalence or bulk-milk SCC but the mastitis incidence significantly decreased for case herds in the BVDV-free period (cases 0.6 % lower than controls, P<0.05). In our study the effect of getting the BVDV-free status may have been underestimated for several reasons like an unknown status for control herds, not knowing when an acute infection occurred in case herds and not knowing the management for both cases and controls. Interestingly, both significant variables, being abortions and mastitis incidence, are parameters that are more difficult to influence by the farmer than the other parameters (e
Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide
A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P cattle was 16.2 % (confidence interval (CI) 13.7-19.0) and 9.6 % (CI 6.9-12.9) in sedentary cattle. The overall cattle-level sero-prevalence for two the cattle production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P cattle into herd (P cattle gifts and dowry payment (P cattle and small ruminants together (P < 0.001), and long trekking during migrations (P = 0.0009). This study had shown the burden of CBPP in the two production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.
FATMIRA LEKA (SULAJ
Full Text Available Successful development of livestock farms that breed cows with high production capacities such as Simmental and Holstein breeds, an important role of manage genetic breed capacity import into future generations and management factors that constrain improvement of reproductive performance population. Importing a considerable amount of pregnant heifer Simmental and Holstein breeds from Austria, Germany , contributed positively to the addition of milk and meat production in our country. The study was conducted in Bio farm " Ramilli " – Shijak - Durres, for the periods 2008-2011. We also included about 150 cows Simmental pure - breed for dual purpose (milk – meat. Birth of a calf annually for cow provides the optimal milk production that can only be achieved with the correct programs to monitor the events of reproduction. To optimize reproductive indicators for genetic capacity utilization cow is aiming in our study. We also included three groups heifer imported from Austria, and approach them in terms of the farm. Production of milk for the first lactationconducted three groups to 4994 ± 936.4, 4123 ± 817.3, 3750 ± 560 proven statistically differences between them ( P less then 0:05. Calving interval realized 421.7 ± 73.4, 396.5 ± 42.1, 386.6 ± 43.7 days, the difference proven statistically (P less then 0:05. Conception index 2.1, 1.7, and 1.6. Improving reproductive performance in cows with higher milk production capacities, livestock farms achievedthrough unifying control period after calving.
Midgley, Sofie; Gram, Nina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane
Rotavirus group A infection causes gastroenteritis in both humans and a variety of animal species. Both domestic pet species such as cats and dogs, and commercial species such as pigs and cows can be affected. Zoonotic transmission is a possibility and could lead to the introduction into human...... populations of novel rotavirus strains....
Midgley, Sofie; Gram, Nina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane
Rotavirus group A infection causes gastroenteritis in both humans and a variety of animal species. Both domestic pet species such as cats and dogs, and commercial species such as pigs and cows can be affected. Zoonotic transmission is a possibility and could lead to the introduction into human...... populations of novel rotavirus strains....
Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, Niels F.; Ahrens, Peter
Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens...
Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) (figure 1) commonly poison cattle in many western rangelands of North America. Yearly herd mortality can be as high as 10% with annual economic losses of several millions of dollars in animal deaths, increased management, treatment costs, and the loss of the use of otherw...
Cattle are frequently exposed to a variety of stressors at various magnitudes throughout production that may be potentially detrimental to overall health and productivity. The most commonly encountered stressors include social stressors (e.g., isolation, commingling with a novel herd), psychological...
Anastácio, S; Carolino, N; Sidi-Boumedine, K; da Silva, G J
Ruminants are recognized as the main reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. EFSA highlighted the lack of knowledge about Q fever prevalence in many European countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected dairy herds (n = 109) from central Portugal to screen for C. burnetii infection and to correlate it with herd factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from cattle (n = 45) and small ruminant (n = 64) herds were tested by ELISA and PCR. The apparent seroprevalence of Q fever was estimated in 45.9% (95% CI: 36.3-55.7) being higher in small ruminants (51.6; 95% CI: 39.6-63.4) than in cattle (37.8; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). The shedding of C. burnetii in BTM was detected in 11.9% (95% CI: 7.1-19.4) of BTM, and it was higher in cattle (20%; 95% CI: 10.9-33.8) than in sheep and mixed herds (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.5-15). A high bacterial load (≥ 3 × 10(3) bacteria/ml) was observed in 85% of PCR-positive BTM. A significant correlation was found between the bacterial load and positive samples on ELISA (P < 0.001). Antibody positivity was significantly associated with the increased herd size (P < 0.01) and the occurrence of abortion (P < 0.05), whereas the shedding of C. burnetii was significantly associated with the report of infertility (P < 0.05). The results highlight that serological and molecular methods in combination are a useful tool to screen for Q fever and to clarify the herd infection status. The shedding of C. burnetii through milk is important, especially in dairy cattle, and thus, the role of milk as a potential source of infection among dairy workers should not be neglected. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii infection in dairy livestock in Portugal showing that Q fever is significant in dairy herds, leading to economic losses and being a risk for public health, which highlights the need of implementation of control measures. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Nielsen, L. R.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aabo, Søren;
The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007 2008. The animals came from 71...... randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella......-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P = 0.03) higher risk of delivering...
Busch, F.; Bannerman, F.; Liggett, S.; Griffin, F.; Clarke, J.; Lyashchenko, K. P.; Rhodes, S.
This report describes how Mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of England, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. By taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with gross visible lesions typical of bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Without detection and removal, these animals would have posed a continued risk of BTB persistence within the herd and potentially contributed to the spread of infection from deer into wildlife and surrounding cattle farms in an area of low BTB incidence. This case supports the use of ancillary diagnostic serological tests to speed up the resolution of incidents of BTB caused by M bovis in captive deer herds. PMID:28100768
Chapagain, Prem; van Kessel, Jo Ann; Karns, Jeffrey; Wolfgang, David; Schukken, Ynte; Grohn, Yrjo
Salmonellosis has been one of the major causes of human foodborne illness in the US. The high prevalence of infections makes transmission dynamics of Salmonella in a farm environment of interest both from animal and human health perspectives. Mathematical modeling approaches are increasingly being applied to understand the dynamics of various infectious diseases in dairy herds. Here, we describe the transmission dynamics of Salmonella infection in a dairy herd with a set of non-linear differential equations. Although the infection dynamics of different serotypes of Salmonella in cattle are likely to be different, we find that a relatively simple SIR-type model can describe the observed dynamics of the Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro infection in the herd.
Full Text Available Group B rotaviruses (RV-B were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. In human beings, the virus was only described in China, India, and Bangladesh, especially infecting adults. Only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the RV-B NSP2 gene have been conducted, and porcine RV-B has not been characterized. In the present study, three porcine wild-type RV-B strains from piglet stool samples collected from Brazilian pig herds were used for analysis. PAGE results were inconclusive for those samples, but specific amplicons of the RV-B NSP2 gene (segment 8 were obtained in a semi-nested PCR assay. The three porcine RV-B strains showed the highest nucleotide identity with the human WH1 strain and the alignments with other published sequences resulted in three groups of strains divided according to host species. The group of human strains showed 92.4 to 99.7% nucleotide identity while the porcine strains of the Brazilian RV-B group showed 90.4 to 91.8% identity to each other. The identity of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains with outer sequences consisting of group A and C rotaviruses was only 35.3 to 38.8%. A dendrogram was also constructed to group the strains into clusters according to host species: human, rat, and a distinct third cluster consisting exclusively of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains. This is the first study of the porcine RV-B NSP2 gene that contributes to the partial characterization of this virus and demonstrates the relationship among RV-B strains from different host species.
Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M...... density Coefficient). These changed to 43.5 [21.1-92.5 95% PCI] and 99.6 [98.8-100 95% PCI] if the cut-off was increased to 50 ODC%. In addition, herd-level diagnosis by ELISA would result in fewer false positives at a cut-off value of 50 ODC% compared to 37 ODC% without compromising the negative...
Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk
Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (Peconomic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (Peconomic gains from a rabies intervention in the dog population, of which the benefits can be shared by the public health sector.
Hert, J; Pekarek, L; Pavlicek, A; 10.1007/s00359-011-0628-7
This paper presents a study of the body orientation of domestic cattle on free pastures in several European states, based on Google satellite photographs. In sum, 232 herds with 3412 individuals were evaluated. Two independent groups participated in our study and came to the same conclusion that, in contradiction to the recent findings of other researchers, no alignment of the animals and of their herds along geomagnetic field lines could be found. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy should be taken into account: poor quality of Google satellite photographs, difficulties in determining the body axis, selection of herds or animals within herds, lack of blinding in the evaluation, possible subconscious bias, and, most importantly, high sensitivity of the calculated main directions of the Rayleigh vectors to some kind of bias or to some overlooked or ignored confounder. This factor could easily have led to an unsubstantiated positive conclusion about the existence of magnetoreception.
Ocorrência de Mollicutes e Ureaplasma spp. em surto de doença reprodutiva em rebanho bovino no Estado da Paraíba Occurrence of Mollicutes and Ureaplasma spp. in outbreak of reproductive disease in cattle herds, State of Paraíba, Brazil
Sandra B. dos Santos
Full Text Available Em março de 2012 foi diagnosticado um surto de doença reprodutiva em rebanho bovino no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinadas 32 vacas e dois touros da raça Girolando. As vacas apresentaram sinais de doença reprodutiva como repetição de cio, vulvovaginite granular, infertilidade e abortos. As amostras de suabes vaginais e prepuciais foram colhidas e submetidas a isolamento bacteriano e PCR. As reações da PCR para Mollicutes e Ureaplasma spp. foram realizadas com os iniciadores MGSO-GPO3 e UGP'F-UGP'R, respectivamente. Na Nested PCR para Ureaplasma diversum, os iniciadores usados foram UD1, UD2, UD3 e UD4. Para isolamento bacteriano, as amostras foram diluídas de 10-1 até 10-5, semeadas em meio "UB", líquido e placa, sendo incubadas por até 21 dias a 37ºC em jarra de microaerofilia. A frequência de Mollicutes detectada na PCR foi de 65,6% e para Ureaplasma spp. foi de 50,0%, enquanto que para U. diversum foi de 15,6%. No isolamento a frequência de Mollicutes foi de 57,1% e para Ureaplasma spp. foi de 28,6%. No ágar "UB" foi visualizado o crescimento misto de Mycoplasma spp. e Ureaplasma spp. em seis amostras. Foi confirmado o envolvimento de micro-organismos da Classe Mollicutes em surto de doença reprodutiva em vacas no sertão paraibano.In March of 2012 was investigated a reproductive disease outbreak in cattle herds from Paraíba State, Brazil. Were examined 32 cows and two bulls Giroland breed. The cows showed signs and symptoms of reproductive failure such as repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. Vaginal and preputial mucous samples were collected for analysis by PCR and isolation. The PCR reactions for Mollicutes and Ureaplasma spp. were realized with primers MGSO and GPO3, and UGP'F and UGP'R respectively. The nested PCR assay for Ureaplasma diversum was realized with primers UD1, UD2, UD3 and UD4. For bacteriologic isolation, obtained samples were diluted up to 10-1 at 10-5, inoculated
Full Text Available The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD serologically positive animals in 18 dairy herds with clinical and pathological lesions suggestive of BVD infection, the post-vaccinal seroconversion rates in negative animals vaccinated twice with an inactivated BVD vaccine, and the control measures taken, are described. The pathological and histopathological findings in 6 necropsies performed on animals that died in 5 separate herds closely resembled published descriptions. Positive immunohistochemistry results in 3 cases confirmed the diagnosis in those animals. In 1 herd the prevalence of prevaccinal BVDantibodies was only 36.8 %, while the prevalence varied from 79.85 to 100 % in the remainder. Control measures taken included immunoprophylaxis with an inactivated vaccine, culling animals that were serologically negative after vaccination that were regarded as probably persistently infected (PI and the implementation of additional biosecurity measures. The prevalence of serologically negative PI animals in 10 herds varied from 0.38 to 4.04 %, with 8 herds less than 1 %and 2 herds at 2.79 %and 4.04 %, respectively. Methods based on vaccinating the herd, followed by serological testing and culling cattle that did not develop an antibody titre, are not reliable. The identification of PI animals should be confirmed by isolation of the virus or identification of the antigen.
Full Text Available Disease recording of cattle is compulsory in Sweden and Norway. Sweden and Denmark also have mandatory disease recording for swine, whereas Finland and Norway only have compulsory recording of infectious diseases. Both compulsory and voluntary systems are databased, the first ones developed in the 1970's. Disease recording at pig slaughtering is somewhat older. The veterinary practitioner, and often also the farmer, can report treated cases as well as fertility disturbances to the systems. Disease recording at slaughter is carried out by veterinarians and inspection officers. The databases are handled by the veterinary authorities or the agricultural organisations in each country. Costs are defrayed by the authorities and/or the agricultural industry. The farmers receive periodic reports. Data are stored for three to ten years, often longer. Affiliation to animal health schemes for cattle or swine is voluntary. In Sweden and Denmark (cattle they are run within the scope of government regulations. Affiliation to animal health programmes may also be demanded by organisations within the agricultural industry. These organisations are also responsible for the administration of the programmes. Costs to take part in herd health schemes are covered by the farmers themselves. In certain cases, grants are received from agricultural organisations, authorities, or the European Union. Recording of diseases and the format of animal health schemes in the Nordic countries are described here in order to illustrate the possibilities to compare data between countries.
O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R
A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (PNeospora caninum (PNeospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems.
Soto-Blanco, B; Fontenele-Neto, J D; Silva, D M; Reis, P F C C; Nóbrega, J E
Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57 animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the other cases, accidental ingestion of residual parts of oleander derived from pruning or cutting plants on grazing land were responsible. Clinical signs were diverse; the most common were locomotion disturbances, diarrhoea, depression and sudden death. Postmortem findings varied from no significant lesions to widespread haemorrhage. The presence of oleander leaves in the rumen was noted in all cases. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders was the main cause for the accident, which prompt us to stimulate wide divulgation of the common toxic plants.
João B. Catto
Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da everminação de vacas no pré-parto e de bezerros antes do desmame, no número de ovos de nematódeos nas fezes (OPG e nos parâmetros produtivos em dois rebanhos de gado de corte na região do Brasil Central. Quatro lotes de vacas prenhes receberam os seguintes tratamentos: T1- vacas e bezerros controle, T2- somente bezerros tratados, T3- somente vacas tratadas antes do parto com ivermectina e T4- vacas e bezerros tratados. Os bezerros dos lotes T2 e T4 foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: A- tratados aos 3 a 5 meses de idade com ivermectina de ação prolongada, B- tratados com ivermectina e C- controle. Nas vacas a everminação não diminuiu o OPG durante a lactação, como também não teve efeito significativo na taxa de concepção, no ganho de peso e no peso dos bezerros aos 3 a 5 meses de idade. Os bezerros do Grupo A ganharam até o desmame, 84 a 108 dias após o tratamento, em média 4,2kg (P= 0,0003 e 7,1kg (PThe effect of deworming with ivermectin of cows before calving and of suckling calves on fecal egg counts (EPG and productive performance of two beef cattle herds in Central Brazil was studied. Four groups of pregnant cows received the following treatments: T1- cows and calves not treated, T2- only calves treated, T3- only cows treated, and T4- cows and calves treated. The calves of T2 and T4 were distributed in the following treatments: A- calves treated at 3 to 5 months of age with long action ivermectin, B- treated with ivermectin, and C- control. For the cows, the deworming did not diminish the EPG during lactation and also did not have significant effect on the conception rate, live weight gain and the body weight of their calves at 3 to 5 months of age. The calves of treatment A gained, from the time of treatment to weaning (84 to 108 days, an average of 4.2kg (P=0.0003 and 7.1kg (P<0.0001 more than those of treatment B and C, respectively. The average difference in live weight gain of 2.9kg
Fine, Paul; Eames, Ken; Heymann, David L
The term "herd immunity" is widely used but carries a variety of meanings. Some authors use it to describe the proportion immune among individuals in a population. Others use it with reference to a particular threshold proportion of immune individuals that should lead to a decline in incidence of infection. Still others use it to refer to a pattern of immunity that should protect a population from invasion of a new infection. A common implication of the term is that the risk of infection among susceptible individuals in a population is reduced by the presence and proximity of immune individuals (this is sometimes referred to as "indirect protection" or a "herd effect"). We provide brief historical, epidemiologic, theoretical, and pragmatic public health perspectives on this concept.
Dank, M; Holzhauer, M; Veldhuis, A; Frankena, K
The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were performed. Two hundred BTM positive (BTM+) and 200 BTM negative (BTM-) herds were selected based on their BTM test result of November 2013, obtained from a list of farms that participated in the Dutch GD Animal Health voluntary monitoring program for controlling nematode infections. The relationship between D. viviparus BTM status and 3 production parameters (milk production, milk fat %, and milk protein %) in summer (June to August 2013) and autumn (September and October 2013) was investigated using generalized linear mixed models. Production data were available for 126 BTM- herds and 109 BTM+ herds. Results showed that a positive D. viviparus status was associated with decreased milk production (June: -1.01, July: -1.19, August: -1.68, September and October: -1.33kg/cow per d). Milk fat percentage was 0.14% and 0.08% lower during summer and autumn, respectively, in BTM+ herds. No significant association was demonstrated between a positive BTM test result and milk protein percentage. Because a strong correlation was present between the BTM status for D. viviparus and that for Ostertagia ostertagi, these losses cannot be attributed to one of the two parasites. However, it is clear that these parasite infections have a considerable effect on production.
Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Al-Majali, Ahmad M
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in 62 nonvaccinated dairy herds (671 cows) in Jordan between January and June 2007. Information regarding herd management was recorded through a personal interview with farmers. Antibodies against C. abortus were detected using an ELISA test kit. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors associated with C. abortus seropositivity. The true prevalence of antibodies against C. abortus in individual cows and cattle herds were 19.9 % and 66.3 %, respectively. Univariable Chi-square analysis revealed three variables with P ≤ 0.25 that were further offered to multivariable logistic regression analysis. Small-sized herds were identified as a risk factor for seropositivity to C. abortus, while sweeping followed by water hosing and using disinfectants were identified as protective factors. Cows in the age groups of >8 and ≤ 10 years old and >2 and ≤ 6 years old had the highest and lowest significant seroprevalence to C. abortus, respectively. Results of this study indicated that C. abortus is highly prevalent in Jordan's dairy herds and Chlamydophila infection could be controlled by applying strict biosecurity measures in the dairy farms.
Alam, M J; Rahman, M F
Immunization is a means of protecting the greatest number of people. By reducing the number of susceptible in the community, it augments "herd immunity" making the infection more difficult to spread. It also reduces the risk for those individuals who have escaped vaccination or those who have not developed satisfactory protection. It is well to bear in mind that immunizations are not at all 100 per cent effective, particularly when an individual is exposed to a large dose of pathogenic organisms.
Jordan, D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Warnick, L.D.
for antibodies to S. Dublin was less effective than improved herd biosecurity. Restricting, cattle movement between regions provided a strong benefit to those regions initially with a low prevalence of infection. Enhanced control within infected herds was of intermediate benefit. A combination of strategies...... was highly effective although cost and feasibility of this option needs further exploration....
Stegantsev Mark A.
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methodology of research of domestic animals herd composition in ancient societies, based on the materials of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age sites located in the Western part of forest-steppe and steppe of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan. The theoretical portion of the article demonstrates that percentage composition of the ancient herd can be restored only by taking into account the early maturation of the domestic ungulates forming its component part. The values of their early maturation depend on the distribution of animals by age. The formulas, derived through herd models developed, make it possible to determine the required distribution, based on the number of animal units of different ages in osteological collections. They are not affected by the type of herd reproduction. The application of the derived formulas in order to determine the early maturation of large and small cattle, and horses in the settlements of certain cultures in forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones, has confirmed the adequacy of the model in explaining the archaeological data. It has also been shown that economic specialization of successive Late Bronze and Early Iron Age cultures in the region was determined mainly by the horse. The study of different methods of determining ancient herd composition has made it possible to come to the following conclusion. The method of transition from identifiable bones in the excavation to the number of animal units corresponding to them, and then, by determining early maturation of different species, to their ratio in the ancient herd, has an absolute priority as compared to the method of transition from the identifiable bones directly to herd composition.
Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.
Foley, Janet E.
Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312
Thomas R. Tucker
Full Text Available Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013. Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P<0.001 but not at study completion (P=0.075. Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81 cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis.
Skjerve, Eystein; Lium, Bjørn; Nielsen, Bent
A higher herd prevalence of antibodies (ELISA) to Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 was found in conventional slaughter production (86.0% seropositive herds) than in conventional farrow-to-finish herds (53.1% seropositive herds). The herd prevalence of antibodies to Y. enterocolitica in multiplying herds.......41) and using straw bedding for slaughter pigs (OR = 2.25) were other factors that increased the risk. In conclusion, the epidemiological data suggest that it is possible to reduce the herd prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 by minimising contact between infected herds and non-infected herds. Further...
Thiago Dutra de Carvalho
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian
-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable......A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread...
Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.
A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... variables describing biologic and management variables including 21 decision variables describing the effect of BVDV infection on the production of the individual animal. Two markedly different scenarios were simulated to demonstrate the behaviour of the developed model and the potentials of the applied...
Nekouei, Omid; Stryhn, Henrik; VanLeeuwen, John; Kelton, David; Hanna, Paul; Keefe, Greg
Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Estimating the prevalence of BLV within dairy herds is a fundamental step towards pursuing efficient control programs. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the prevalence of BLV infection at the herd level using a bulk-tank milk (BTM) antibody ELISA in the Maritime region of Canada (3 provinces); and (2) to develop appropriate statistical models for predicting within-herd prevalence of BLV infection using BTM antibody ELISA titers. During 2013, three monthly BTM samples were collected from all dairy farms in the Maritime region of Canada (n=623) and tested for BLV milk antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Based on the mean of the 3 BTM titers, 15 strata of herds (5 per province) were defined. From each stratum, 6 herds were randomly selected for a total of 90 farms. Within every selected herd, an additional BTM sample was taken (round 4), approximately 2 months after the third round. On the same day of BTM sampling, all cows that contributed milk to the fourth BTM sample were individually tested for BLV milk antibodies (n=6111) to estimate the true within-herd prevalence for the 90 herds. The association between true within-herd prevalence of BLV and means of various combinations of the BTM titers was assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for the stratified random sampling design. Herd level prevalence of BLV in the region was 90.8%. In the individual testing, 30.4% of cows were positive. True within-herd prevalences ranged from 0 to 94%. All linear regression models were able to predict the true within-herd prevalence of BLV reasonably well (R(2)>0.69). Predictions from the models were particularly accurate for low-to-medium spectrums of the BTM titers. In general, as a greater number of the four repeated BTM titers were incorporated in the models, narrower confidence intervals around the prediction lines
Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.
questions. The 121 units were situated in three areas with different swine densities. Sow units were described by their sizes (units with >110 sows were regarded as large herds) and health status (SPF herds or conventional herds). Of the 121 sow herds, 63 (52%) sold weaners. Most sow units (71%) used...... to be cleaned (16%) or cleaned and disinfected (48%) before the transport; large sites and SPF sites more often required stricter biosecurity measures, for example a quarantine period before the transport of weaners....
Okafor, C C; Grooms, D L; Bolin, S R; Averill, J J; Kaneene, J B
Development of point of concentration (POC) surveillance strategies for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would facilitate global efforts to eradicate bTB. The interferon-gamma (IFNγ) assay can detect IFNγ responses to Mycobacterium bovis in blood collected at commencement of exsanguination (COE) of experimentally challenged cattle but has not been evaluated under field conditions. The current study was aimed at determining (i) whether blood collected at COE of cattle at slaughter, under field conditions, is practical to obtain and useful for identifying cattle as IFNγ positive for bTB, (ii) whether the results of the IFNγ assay obtained at COE reliably compare with results obtained from live animals in the field, and (iii) whether the identified animal(s) originated from bTB-infected or bTB-exposed herds. Cattle from three risk groups were used: the highest risk group consisted of 49 cattle from 3 bTB-infected herds; the medium risk group consisted of 24 cattle from a potentially exposed herd; and the lowest risk group consisted of 60 cattle from herds with no known history of bTB exposure. The IFNγ assay was performed on blood collected both before stunning and at COE of cattle at slaughter. An enhanced slaughter inspection for gross lesions consistent with bTB was performed on all cattle. In addition, lymph nodes were cultured for M. bovis for cattle that tested positive for bTB via the IFNγ assay and for most cattle that tested negative for bTB. Cattle, both with and without lesions consistent with bTB, were identified as positive for bTB by the IFNγ assay using blood collected at COE, but none of the positive cattle originated from the lowest risk group. The current study demonstrates that blood collected at COE of cattle is both a practical and moderately reliable sample for accessing bTB infection using the IFNγ assay.
Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.
. Pigs produced in batches in herds with hygienic-lock facilities had >3-times lower odds for testing seropositive compared to pigs in herds where only one or neither factor was present. In herds where the caretaker(s) washed hands consistently before tending to the animals, pigs had 1.5-times lower odds...
Thomsen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans
During the last few years, many Danish dairy farmers have expressed increasing concerns regarding a group of cows, which we have chosen to term 'loser cows'. Until now, a loser cow has not been described scientifically. We defined a loser cow on the basis of a clinical examination of the cow. A total of 15,151 clinical examinations were made on 6,451 individual cows from 39 randomly selected, large Danish dairy herds with loose-housing systems using a clinical protocol. Scores for the clinical signs lameness, body condition, hock lesions, other cutaneous lesions, vaginal discharge, condition of hair coat and general condition were converted into a loser cow score. Cows with a loser cow score of 8 or more were classified as loser cows. The overall prevalence of loser cows was 2.15%, 4.50% and 2.98% during the first, second and third round of herd visits, respectively. The associations between the loser cow state and milk production, mortality, morbidity, culling and workload for the farmer were evaluated using data from herd visits and from the Danish Cattle Database and a number of different statistical techniques. It was concluded that the loser cow state has significant negative consequences for both the farmer and the cow. On average, loser cows yielded 0.61 to 2.24 kg energy corrected milk less per day than non-loser cows depending on parity. Hazard ratio for death or euthanasia was 5.69 for loser cows compared to non-loser cows. Incidence rate ratio for disease treatments was 0.69 for non-loser cows compared to loser cows. Loser cows were often culled in an 'unfavourable' way and generally caused extra workload for the farmer. A simplified version of the loser cow score was evaluated and is recommended for future research and use in practice.
O'Hare, A; Orton, R J; Bessell, P R; Kao, R R
Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems.
Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M
Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and
Sarrazin, Steven; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen
The shift from cure towards prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity, which includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering a herd and reducing the spread of pathogens within a herd. In Belgium no studies have considered the implementation of biosecurity measures in the daily management of cattle farms. Therefore the aim of the study was to map the current application of biosecurity measures in Belgian cattle farms in the prevention of disease transmission within and between farms. Between March 2011 and April 2013 the data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study, conducted to identify risk factors for reinfection with BVDV in cattle herds assumed free from BVDV. Questionnaire data from 33 dairy farms, 16 beef farms and 25 mixed (dairy and beef cattle) farms were analyzed using a combination of a linear scoring system, a categorical principal component analysis and a two-step cluster analysis to differentiate these farms based on their biosecurity levels and visit frequencies. Further enhancement of preventive measures considering external and internal biosecurity was still possible for each farm, as none of the farms obtained an overall high biosecurity level. Three groups of cattle farms were differentiated with a biosecurity level varying from low to high-medium, of which the group with the lowest biosecurity level mainly consisted of mixed farms. Animal-to-animal contacts with cattle from other herds were frequently possible as only 12% of the farmers purchasing cattle quarantined purchased animals at least three weeks and contacts over fences on pasture were possible in 70% of the herds. Basic biosecurity measures such as farm-specific protective clothing and boots were present in the majority of the farms, but they were insufficiently or incorrectly used. Cattle farms were very often visited by professional visitors of which the herd veterinarian, the AI technician and the cattle salesman most
Full Text Available To define mean herd size, structural traits, animal sourcing and use, management and aspects related to the milk production, 118 dairy herds, involved in a FAO dairy development project were studied. The mean herd size after allocation to clusters: Small (≤38 heads, Medium (>38, ≤61 heads and Large (>61 heads was 52.8±25.8, ranging from 7 to 134 heads of cattle. The following genotypes: Cross bred (CR 58.8%, Zebu (ZB 23.2% and Taurine cattle (TA 18.0% which were not uniformly distributed neither across nor within herds were identified. Sex ratio was two thirds of females (70.6%, one third of males (28.1% and a low proportion (1.3% of castrated males. No mature TA males compared to 53.3% of the male ZB and 31.4% of the male CR, were indicated as potential sires. Investments in purchase of animals were higher in Small than in Medium and Large herds; of all purchased sires 53.8% were found in Small herds vs. 28.2% and 18.0% in Medium and Large. Herd property was equally distributed between single (56.8% and multi property (43.2%. There was more manpower available per 100 cows in Small, being almost double and triple than in Medium and Large herds. Although milk extracted, was similar in all clusters averaging 2.4±0.5 litres/day/cow, milk off take rate, due to higher proportion of lactating cows, appeared higher in Small herds.
Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis
a local-based production, (B) 1950 – representing a period with emerging mechanization and introduction of new technologies and a more global market, (C) 1980 – representing a period with heavy use of external resources like fertilizer and feed protein and (D) 2010 – today with focus on balancing......Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level...
Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf
We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.
Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e de ganhos direto e indireto à seleção para características reprodutivas e de crescimento em um rebanho da raça Canchim Estimates of genetic parameters and of direct and correlated responses to selection for growth and reproductive traits in a Canchim cattle herd
Viviane Martha de Castro-Pereira
eighteen (W18 months of age, weight gain from birth to weaning (DGBW and from birth to eighteen (DGB18 months of age, days to 175 kg from birth to weaning (D175 = 175/DGBW and days to 450 kg from birth to slaughter (D450 = 450/DGB18. Data from a Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu beef cattle herd were analyzed by models that included fixed effects and the additive direct and maternal, permanent environmental, and residual random effects using REML. Heritability estimates were 0.41 (SC12, 0.09 (AFC and 0.42 (WFC. Genetic correlations of BW, WW, W12, W18, DGBW, DGB18, D175 and D450 with SC12 (-0.39 to 0.46 were favorable. Genetic correlation between BW (0.49 and AFC was not favorable, while with the other growth traits (-0.38 to 0.44 AFC showed favorable genetic correlations. Genetic correlations between WFC and growth traits ranged from -0.47 to 0.88, while the estimates of SC12 with AFC and WFC were -0.37 and 0.04, respectively. These results suggest that selection to improve growth after birth may reduce AFC and increase WFC. Selection to increase SC12 may reduce AFC without changes in WFC.
Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Koop, G.; Melkie, S.T.; Getahun, C.D.; Hogeveen, H.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.
Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A
Wanzala, Wycliffe; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem
The effects of formulated essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting livestock were evaluated in semi-field experiments. Forty-five zebu cattle naturally infested with ticks were randomly selected from 15 herds, three animals from each. Of
Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.
Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 6...
Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.
We analyze more than 20,000 forecasts of nine metal prices at four different forecast horizons. We document that forecasts are heterogeneous and report that anti-herding appears to be a source of this heterogeneity. Forecaster anti-herding reflects strategic interactions among forecasters...
Full Text Available Abstract Since 1994, Irish cattle have been exposed to greater risks of acquiring Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infection as a consequence of the importation of over 70,000 animals from continental Europe. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reported clinical cases of paratuberculosis in Ireland. This study examines the prevalence of factors that promote the introduction and within-herd transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP on selected Irish dairy farms in the Cork region, and the association between these factors and the results of MAP screening tests on milk sock filter residue (MFR. A total of 59 dairy farms, selected using non-random methods but apparently free of endemic paratuberculosis, were enrolled into the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data about risk factors for MAP introduction and transmission. The MFR was assessed on six occasions over 24 months for the presence of MAP, using culture and immunomagnetic separation prior to polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR. Furthermore, blood samples from all entire male and female animals over one year of age in 20 herds were tested by ELISA. Eighteen (31% farms had operated as closed herds since 1994, 28 (47% had purchased from multiple sources and 14 (24% had either direct or indirect (progeny contact with imported animals. Milk and colostrum were mixed on 51% of farms, while 88% of farms fed pooled milk. Thirty (51% herds tested negative to MFR culture and IMS-PCR, 12 (20% were MFR culture positive, 26 (44% were IMS-PCR positive and seven (12% were both culture and IMS-PCR positive. The probability of a positive MFR culture was significantly associated with reduced attendance at calving, and with increased use of individual calf pens and increased (but not significantly if mulitiple suckling was practised. There was poor agreement between MFR culture and MFR IMS-PCR results, but moderate agreement
Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T
Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and
Smith, R L; Schukken, Y H; Pradhan, A K; Smith, J M; Whitlock, R H; Van Kessel, J S; Wolfgang, D R; Grohn, Y T
Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be one of the primary sources of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-sectional analysis of longitudinally collected samples on 3 dairy farms. Composite samples from multiple environmental sites in 3 commercial dairy herds in the Northeast US were cultured quarterly for MAP, providing 1131 samples (133 (11.8%) were culture-positive), and all adult animals in the herds were tested biannually by fecal culture (FC), for 6 years. Of the environmental sites sampled, manure storage areas and shared alleyways were most likely to be culture-positive. Environmental sample results were compared to FC results from either the concurrent or previous sampling date at both the herd and the pen level. At the herd level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding increased the odds of a positive non-pen environmental sample by a factor of 6 and increased the average amount of MAP in non-pen samples by 2.9 cfu/g. At the pen level, a 1 log unit increase in average fecal shedding in the pen increased the odds of a positive environment by a factor of 2.4 and the average amount of MAP was increased by 3.5 cfu/g. We were not able to model the relationship between non-pen environmental sample status and the distance between shedding animals and the sample's location, and neighboring pens did not significantly affect the results of the pen-level analysis. The amount of MAP in pen-level samples and the probability of a pen testing positive for MAP were both positively but non-significantly correlated with the number of animals in the pen shedding >30 cfu/g of MAP. At least 6 environmental samples met the criteria for the U.S. Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program on 47 of the 72 sampling dates; of these, 19 of the 47 FC-positive sampling dates
van den Borne, Bart H P; Graber, Hans U; Voelk, Verena; Sartori, Carlotta; Steiner, Adrian; Haerdi-Landerer, M Christina; Bodmer, Michèle
Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S. aureus GTB in communal dairy operations. Cows (n=551) belonging to 7 communal operations were sampled at the beginning and end of the communal period. Transmission parameter β was estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. The basic reproduction ratio R0 was subsequently derived using previously published information about the duration of infection. Mean transmission parameter β was estimated to be 0.0232 (95% CI: 0.0197-0.0274). R0 was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2-3.0), indicating that S. aureus GTB is capable of causing major outbreaks in Swiss communal dairy operations. This study emphasized the contagious behaviour of S. aureus GTB. Mastitis management in communal dairy operations should be optimized to reduce S. aureus GTB transmission between cows and back to their herds of origin.
Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine;
Lameness in sows is an animal welfare problem which also presents an economic challenge to pig producers. Information about the prevalence of herd lameness in organic sows is relatively scarce. The first objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of lameness and to identify risk...... and fifty four gestation sows from 44 indoor conventional and nine organic sow herds were included in this study. The nine organic herds were visited twice: once in summer/autumn 2011, and once in winter/spring 2012. In winter/spring 2011, a total of 44 indoor conventional herds were visited. Risk factors...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter...
Huda, A.; Lind, Peter; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil;
A total of 315 cattle were tested for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) at three consecutive samplings, using the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) test on whole blood and bacteriological culture of faecal samples. Of 205 cattle from 10 infected herds 99...
Muma, J B; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V M; Oloya, J; Matop, G; Omer, M K; Munyeme, M; Mubita, C; Skjerve, E
A cross-sectional study was performed in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the non-interface area of Kazungula to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in domestic ruminants and identify individual animal risk factors of infection. A total of 1245 cattle from 124 herds and 280 goats and sheep from 29 flocks were tested sequentially for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive ELISA. In cattle, individual seroprevalence ranged from 14.1% to 28.1%, while herd sero-prevalence ranged from 46.2% to 74.0% in the three study areas. No goat or sheep tested positive for Brucella antibodies. Three types of cattle grazing strategies were encountered: locally grazed herds (LGH), transhumantly grazed herds (TGH) and river flood plain grazed herds (FGH). Brucella seroprevalence was seen to vary according to area and grazing strategy: Lochinvar and transhumant grazed herds recorded the highest figures, respectively. Age, sex and history of abortion were found to have independent effects on individual seroprevalence. This study establishes that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Blue Lagoon and Lochinvar national parks and the disease is also present in Kazungula. We observed that type of grazing strategy had significant impact on cattle Brucella seroprevalence and that transhumant herds were at high risk of being infected.
Human communities defend themselves against specific infectious agents in a way that extends beyond the simple sum of the immune status of its individuals. By analogy with individual immunity to specific agents, the community level of immunity may vary from complete susceptibility to full protection. Herd immunity has been used to name this community property, which is the result of evolution through natural selection, leading to relationships between two species, typical of prey-predator systems. Varying uses of the term herd immunity led to the use of other expressions, such as herd protection, herd effect and community immunity. Knowledge derived from observational studies and models on herd immunity has supported decisions on the choice of vaccines and vaccination strategies for the benefit of populations. This knowledge is most likely to be extended in the future, with far-reaching effects.
Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Elton, Mara; Gröhn, Yrjo T; McDonough, Patrick L; Siler, Julie D
The objective of this study was to determine if the within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding is higher in dairy herds with clinical outbreaks of disease, as compared to herds with subclinical infections only. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 lactating cows and that received clinical service from participating veterinarians. After enrollment, Salmonella surveillance consisted of both environmental screening and disease monitoring within the herd. Herds positive by either environmental or fecal culture were sampled during three visits to estimate the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella. We characterized isolates by serovar and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Among 57 enrolled herds, 44 (77%) yielded Salmonella-positive samples during the study period; 27 (61%) of the positive herds had Salmonella isolated from environmental samples only, and 17 (39%) had one or more laboratory-confirmed clinical cases. The within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding ranged from 0 to 53%. Salmonella Cerro was the predominant serovar, accounting for 56% of all isolates. Antimicrobial resistance ranged from zero to nine drugs, and 14 (32%) of the positive farms generated multidrug-resistant isolates. Herds with laboratory-confirmed clinical cases had a higher prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding than herds that only generated positive environmental samples, as estimated by a Poisson regression model (prevalence ratio, 2.7; p = 0.01). An association between dairy herd outbreaks of salmonellosis and a higher prevalence of asymptomatic shedding should help guide strategies for reducing the public health threat of Salmonella, as the ability to recognize high-risk herds by clinical laboratory submissions presents an obvious opportunity to maximize food safety at the preharvest level. This is in contrast with other foodborne zoonotic pathogens, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which
Luciana S. Soler
Full Text Available Agricultural census data and fieldwork observations are used to analyze changes in land cover/use intensity across Rondônia and Mato Grosso states along the agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon. Results show that the development of land use is strongly related to land distribution structure. While large farms have increased their share of annual and perennial crops, small and medium size farms have strongly contributed to the development of beef and milk market chains in both Rondônia and Mato Grosso. Land use intensification has occurred in the form of increased use of machinery, labor in agriculture and stocking rates of cattle herds. Regional and national demands have improved infrastructure and productivity. The data presented show that the distinct pathways of land use development are related to accessibility to markets and processing industry as well as to the agricultural colonization history of the region. The data analyzed do not provide any indication of frontier stagnation, i.e., the slowdown of agricultural expansion, in the Brazilian Amazon. Instead of frontier stagnation, the data analyzed indicate that intensification processes in consolidated areas as well as recent agricultural expansion into forest areas are able to explain the cycle of expansion and retraction of the agricultural frontier into the Amazon region. The evolution of land use is useful for scenario analysis of both land cover change and land use intensification and provides insights into the role of market development and policies on land use.
Cresswell, E.; Remnant, J. G.; Butterworth, A.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Wapenaar, Wendela
Injectable veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) are widely used in cattle in the UK, and in particular vaccines are often used on large numbers of animals in the herd. The formation of injection-site lesions (ISLs) is a risk when using injectable products and has potential consequences for meat quality, animal welfare and beef industry income. This study used carcase observation in four abattoirs in England to determine ISL prevalence in beef cattle. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was u...
Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo
Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... of small herds, given the among-herd design prevalence and test diagnostic sensitivity. Both a binomial model and a Poisson model can be used to establish the confidence for a given sample size of herds (and vice versa). The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more...
Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables.
Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.
Emissions from Brazilian cattle animal husbandry, mitigation measurements and energy generation: potentialities of confinement and semi-confinement; Emissoes da pecuaria bovina brasileira, medidas mitigatorias e geracao de energia: potencialidades do confinamento e do semi-confinamento
Palermo, Giuseppe Cernicchiaro; D' Avignon, Alexandre Louis de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
This paper presents three scenarios of the space handling by the culture of beef cattle, and the potentially removal of carbon from the atmosphere through growing of reforesting vegetal biomass. The results suggests the piquet and rotation of pastures presents the greatest potential of carbon sequestration, followed by the total confinement and associated with vegetables.
Weber, M F; Groenendaal, H
In many epidemiological models for paratuberculosis, it is assumed that infected young stock (stock from adult cattle (≥ 2 years) would largely prevent postnatal infections, provided that uninfected adult cattle are highly resistant to infection. However, this assumption is in contrast with observed faecal shedding of MAP in young stock. Consequently, this assumption may have resulted in an underestimation of the effects of MAP transmission in herds participating in certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of transmission of MAP amongst young stock on key output parameters of certification-, surveillance-, and control programmes for paratuberculosis in simulated closed dairy herds. Closed Dutch dairy herds participating in a paratuberculosis programme were simulated with a stochastic model, JohneSSim. Various test schemes, preventive management measures, distributions of age at onset of faecal shedding and rates of effective contacts between young stock were simulated. The results indicate that transmission of MAP amongst young stock has no relevant effects on the animal-level prevalence and milk quality of herds that are certified in a paratuberculosis programme. However, transmission of MAP amongst young stock increased the economic losses due to paratuberculosis and costs of participation in a programme. Moreover, it substantially decreased the beneficial effect of the separation of young stock from adult cattle on the probability of being certified. However, even in the presence of transmission of MAP amongst young stock, preventive management measures to separate young stock from adult cattle remain important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, T A
Vaccines and antibiotics are still relied upon as the standard methods of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention, control, and therapy. Success in building disease resistance begins with genetic selection and continues with colostrum management and reducing pathogen exposure. Purchasing single-source cattle with a history of pre- and post-weaning procedures will minimize pathogen exposure and enhance immunity. Using cattle-handling techniques and facilities that promote low stress will allow host immune defenses to remain effective against bacterial and viral colonization. Lastly, controlling BRD must be managed through a comprehensive herd health immunization and management program that effectively addresses disease challenges common to the operation.
Kenneth R. Whitten
Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterise behaviour of limousine and highland cattle kept on permanent grassland on a farm in the Wielkopolska region. Investigations consisted of observations conducted on the behaviour of animals in two herds of limousine and highland cattle during the four seasons of the year. Frequency was recorded for the following activities performed by animals: food consumption, drinking of water, rumination, resting (lying down, rubbing, allolicking, fights and excretion (urine, faeces. The second stage of the study comprised detailed descriptions of behaviour of animals on the pasture. Observations were conducted on a herd composed of dams, juvenile animals (up to seven-eight months old and a bull.
Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho
Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.
Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C
In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (pteat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships and relationships mediated through intermediate risk factors, allows the construction of latent variables and tests the directional hypotheses
Full Text Available Seasonality of calving and its association with milk yield was analyzed in Nili-Ravi buffaloes and compared with Sahiwal cattle and Sahiwal (x Friesian or Jersey crossbreds. Records of 9,174 lactations of Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds, 22,499 lactations from five Sahiwal herds and 656 lactations from a crossbred cattle herd were used for comparison. All the herds were located in Punjab province of Pakistan where environment is tropical. Month of calving was important source of variation in lactation milk yield of Nili- Ravi buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle but not in crossbred cattle (due to wide variation. Interactions of month of calving with parity as well as with herd were significant (P<0.01 both for buffaloes and Sahiwal cattle. First parity lactation milk yield averaged 1813±23.2, 1305±11.0 and 2459±81.8 litres while averages of later parity animals were 1926±19.0, 1527±7.6 and 2842±54.2 litres for Nili-Ravi buffaloes, Sahiwal and crossbred cattle, respectively. Milk yield pattern in crossbreds was more similar to buffaloes than to Sahiwals. Yet, crossbreds calving in June produced statistically similar but numerically higher lactation milk yield (2950±170 litres than other months but this was not true for buffaloes and Sahiwals. Buffaloes and Sahiwal cows calving in January-February produced better lactation yields than those calving in other months. Different pattern of milk yield in the three dairy species can be used advantageously for sustainable milk supply throughout the year.
Byrne, Andrew W; McBride, Stewart; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Guelbenzu, Maria; McNair, Jim; Skuce, Robin A; McDowell, Stanley W J
Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a widespread parasite of ruminants which can have significant economic impact on cattle production. Fluke infection status at the animal-level is captured during meat inspection of all animals processed for human consumption within Northern Ireland. These national datasets have not been analysed to assess their utility in uncovering patterns in fluke infection at animal- and herd-levels in Northern Ireland. We utilised a dataset of 1.2 million animal records from ~18,000 herds across 3 years (2011-2013) to assess animal- and herd-level apparent prevalence and risk-factors associated with fluke infection. Animal-level apparent prevalence was measured as the proportion of animals exhibiting evidence of fluke infection at slaughter; between herd-level infection prevalence was measured by binary categorisation of herds (infected or not). "Within herd" infection prevalence was measured using the proportion of animals within a herd that showed evidence of fluke infection per year (ranging from 0-100%). "Within herd" infection prevalence at the herd level was investigated using multivariable modelling. At the animal level, the proportion of animals slaughtered that exhibited evidence of infection was 21-25% amongst years. Across herds, the proportion of herds with at least one infected animal, varied between 61 and 65%. However, there was a significant sampling effect at the herd-level; all herds where at least 105 animals slaughtered over the study period exhibited evidence of fluke infection (100%). There was significant variation in terms of within-herd infection prevalence. Risk factors included herd type, long-term weather variation, geographic location (region) and the abattoir. Liver fluke apparent prevalence was high at the herd-level across years. However, there was lower prevalence at the animal level, which may indicate significant variation in the exposure to fluke infection within herds. The proportion infected within-herds
Guta, Sintayehu; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Saez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Saenz, Ariadna; Perez de Val, Bernat; Romero, Beatriz; Alvarez, Julio; Allepuz, Alberto
We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4-25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8-15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0-45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs.
Full Text Available We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period. Seven possible causes were considered: i residual infection; ii introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v presence of infected goats in the farm; vi interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4-25.6, followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8-15.8. The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0-45.4 of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs.
Pantelić V.; Novaković Ž.; Ostojić-Andrić D.
Increase of production and improvement of the quality of milk, as well as of the intensity of fertility, are main prerequisites of modern cattle production. For the purpose of production of domestic Simmental bulls it is necessary to select the best cows from main herd. These heads as a rule represent approx. 1% of best cows in the controlled population primary in regard to production of milk and milk fat, but also in regard to body development, udder development and fertility traits. Fertili...
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....
Full Text Available There are presently about 960 000 caribou in 32 herds in Alaska, including 4 herds shared with Yukon and Northwest Territories. Since complete population data were last published in the mid-1980s, Alaska's caribou population has doubled in size, largely from increases in the Western Arctic and Mulchatna herds. The number of recognized herds has increased by 6, largely because of increased use of radiotelemetry to inventory small caribou herds in inaccessible areas, and transplanting caribou to unoccupied ranges. About 33 000 caribou are harvested annually in Alaska, mostly from the Western Arctic, Mulchatna, and Nelchina herds. The primary wildlife management problem in Alaska for caribou and other species is the lack of clear management authority among state and federal agencies. Research priorities include work on the influence of short-term and long-term weather trends on nutritional ecology of caribou, and predation mitigation including sterilization, translocation, and diversionary feeding of wolves during the caribou calving period.
Camilla F Speller
Full Text Available The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15(th to early 16(th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the 'African' haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16(th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of "African-derived American" haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1 in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle.
Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke
Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...... evidence of forecaster herding. On the contrary, forecasters anti-herd and, thereby, tend to intentionally scatter their forecasts around the consensus forecast. The extent of anti-herding seems to vary over time.We also found that more pronounced anti-herding leads to less accurate forecasts....
Hohenboken, W D
Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons.
Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum
SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....
Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection II. Location of study herds relative to the oil and gas industry in Western Canada.
Waldner, Cheryl L
During the late part of 2000 and early months of 2001, project veterinarians recruited 205 beef herds to participate in a study of the effects of emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry on cattle reproduction and health. Researchers developed herd-selection criteria to optimize the range of exposure to facilities, including oil and gas wells, battery sites, and gas-gathering and gas-processing facilities across the major cattle-producing areas of Western Canada. Herds were initially selected on the basis of a ranking system of exposure potential on the basis of herd-owner reports of the locations of their operations in relation to oil and gas industry facilities. At the end of the study, researchers summarized data obtained from provincial regulatory agencies on facility location and reported flaring and venting volumes for each herd and compared these data to the original rankings of herd-exposure potential. Through this selection process, the researchers were successful in obtaining statistically significant differences in exposure to various types of oil and gas facility types and reported emissions among herds recruited for the study.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the porcupine herd of the barren ground caribou. The report covers the short history, the winter range, migration route, phenology, movements and...
Nielsen, Bodil; Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind
ABSTRACT: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious disease of cattle affecting the skin adjacent to the claws. Disease dynamics of DD have been described to some extend, but we still need to quantify the duration of lesions and look into non-treatment factors affecting this. The aim of this study......- and multiparous cows and between different stages in lactation at onset of the lesion. The median duration of lesions were estimated to be 42 days, less than previous published estimates. The relatively aggressive regime of topical treatment in the study herd might have shortened the duration of the lesions...
Livestock herding peoples are known for their close involvement with their animals, valuing them in multiple ways. This paper addresses the issue of the nature of emotional and moral commitment to livestock animals, particularly cattle, among a group of livestock herders in southwest Ethiopia, the S
Loobuyck, M.; Frössling, J.; Lindberg, A.; Björkman, C.
A cross-sectional serological survey for Neospora caninum was carried out in Swedish beef cattle in order to estimate the seroprevalence and investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. Blood samples were collected from 2754 animals in 2130 herds and analysed for presence of antibodies to
The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...
Schouten, J.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Frankena, K.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.
Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out
Loobuyck, M.; Frössling, J.; Lindberg, A.; Björkman, C.
A cross-sectional serological survey for Neospora caninum was carried out in Swedish beef cattle in order to estimate the seroprevalence and investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. Blood samples were collected from 2754 animals in 2130 herds and analysed for presence of antibodies to
Lorimer, J.; Driessen, C.P.G.
In the early 1980s the Dutch ecologist Frans Vera began an ambitious ecological restoration experiment on a polder in the Netherlands. He introduced herds of ‘back-bred’ Heck cattle and other large herbivores and encouraged them to ‘de-domesticate’ themselves and ‘rewild’ the landscape they inhabit.
Lorimer, J.; Driessen, C.P.G.
In the early 1980s the Dutch ecologist Frans Vera began an ambitious ecological restoration experiment on a polder in the Netherlands. He introduced herds of ‘back-bred’ Heck cattle and other large herbivores and encouraged them to ‘de-domesticate’ themselves and ‘rewild’ the landscape they inhabit.
Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).
McFadden, Amj; Ha, H J; Donald, J J; Bueno, I M; van Andel, M; Thompson, J C; Tisdall, D J; Pulford, D J
A dairy cow, from a herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand, was reported with regenerative anaemia on 12 September 2014. Testing of blood from the animal using PCR assays for Theileria orientalis produced a negative result for both Chitose and Ikeda types. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, blood from the cow was positive for Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos. Further testing of another 12 animals from the case herd, 27 days after the affected cow was first reported, showed 11 animals were positive for Candidatus M. haemobos or Mycoplasma wenyonii in the PCR. None of these cattle were clinically anaemic or positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type using PCR. A convenience sample of 47 blood samples from cattle throughout New Zealand, submitted to the Investigation and Diagnostic Centre (Ministry for Primary Industries) for surveillance testing for T. orientalis Ikeda, was selected for further testing for bovine haemoplasmas. Of these samples, 6/47 (13%) and 13/47(28%) were positive for M. wenyonii and Candidatus M. haemobos, respectively. There was no difference in the proportion of samples positive for the bovine haemaplasmas between cattle with anaemia that were negative for T. orientalis (6/20, 33%), or without anaemia or T. orientalis (10/18, 56%), or from cattle herds experiencing anaemia and infection with T. orientalis Ikeda type (3/9, 33%). Bovine haemoplasmosis. The presence of bovine haemoplasmas in blood does not establish causality for anaemia in cattle. Diagnosis of anaemia associated with haemoplasmosis would require exclusion of other causes of regenerative anaemia and an association of the agent with anaemia in affected cattle herds. The data collected in this study did not provide evidence that bovine haemoplasmas were associated with a large number of outbreaks of anaemia in cattle in New Zealand.
In technology adoption, herd behaviour can lead to a suboptimal outcome. An example is given by Choi (1997): it is a model of technology choice under uncertainty where herding arises because of strategic complementarities and risk aversion. It causes a positive experimenting bias against the adoption of a more efficient (in terms of expected value) technology. We introduce in his model an additional element upon which firms base their technology decision: the economic environment. We investig...
Weber, M F; Verhoeff, J; Holzhauer, M; Bartels, C J; van Wuijckhuise, L; Vellema, P
From early 1999 onwards, cattle health problems accompanied by chronic wasting of unknown aetiology were reported on a number of dairy farms. An association between these health problems and the compulsory use of gE-negative marker vaccines against bovine herpesvirus 1 was presumed by farmers. On one dairy farm an increased milk production of 50% was reported within a few days after parenteral vitamin B12 treatment. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effect of parenteral vitamin B12 treatment on the milk production of dairy herds with wasting cattle. A randomized blind trial was performed in five problem herds and two control herds. On each farm five lactating cows were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg vitamin B12 and paired with five untreated lactating cows. The milk production of treated and untreated animals was measured for 19 days following treatment and compared to pre-treatment production. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on milk production was established on either problem farms or control farms. Neither was a difference detected in the response to vitamin B12 treatment between problem herds and control herds. In a second experiment, parenteral vitamin B12 treatment was applied in three problem herds by local veterinary practitioners. The results of this experiment were in line with the results of the first experiment.
Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster of the Brazilian Pantanal Reação da polimerase em cadeia tempo real para diagnóstico de Anaplasma marginale em bovino e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster
Full Text Available Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR; and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%. This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%, and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 ºC ± 0.20 was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 ºC ± 0.12, suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.O estudo epizootiológico de Anaplasma marginale em regiões que existem vários reservatórios, co-existência de espécies de riquétsias patógenas e vetores comuns é uma tarefa complicada. Com o objetivo de obter o diagnóstico dessa riquétsia em bovinos e veado campeiro do Pantanal brasileiro foi avaliada uma reação da polimerase em cadeia em tempo real (PCR-TR com o fluoróforo intercalante de fita dupla de DNA Sybr Green e iniciadores baseados na seqüência do gene msp5 de A. marginale comparando-a a uma
Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A
The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.
Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W
Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control.
Detection and phylogenetic analysis of porcine enteric calicivirus, genetically related to the Cowden strain of sapovirus genogroup III, in Brazilian swine herds Detecção e análise filogenética do calicivírus entérico suíno, geneticamente relacionado com a estirpe Cowden do genogrupo III do sapovírus, em rebanhos brasileiros
Aline F. Barry
Full Text Available Sapovirus of the Caliciviridae family is an important agent of acute gastroenteritis in children and piglets. The Sapovirus genus is divided into seven genogroups (G, and strains from the GIII, GVI and GVII are associated with infections in swine. Despite the high prevalence in some countries, there are no studies related to the presence of porcine enteric sapovirus infections in piglets in Brazil. In the present study, 18 fecal specimens from piglets up to 28 days were examined to determine the presence of sapovirus genome by RT-PCR assay, using primers designed to amplify a 331 bp segment of the RNA polymerase gene. In 44.4% (8/18 of fecal samples, an amplified DNA fragment was obtained. One of these fragments was sequenced and submitted to molecular and phylogenetic analysis. This analysis revealed high similarity, with nucleotides (87% and amino acids (97.8%, to the Cowden strain, the GIII prototype of porcine enteric calicivirus. This is the first description of sapovirus in Brazilian swine herds.O sapovírus classificado na família Caliciviridae é um importante causador de gastroenterite aguda em crianças e leitões. O gênero Sapovirus é dividido em sete genogrupos (G, sendo que as estirpes dos GIII, GVI e GVII estão associadas com infecção em suínos. Apesar da alta prevalência da infecção em alguns países, ainda não existem estudos referentes à presença do calicivírus entérico suíno nos rebanhos brasileiros. No presente estudo 18 amostras de fezes de leitões com até 28 dias foram avaliadas pela RT-PCR para a presença do genoma do sapovírus, utilizando os primers desenvolvidos para amplificar um segmento de 331 pb do gene da RNA polimerase viral. Em 44,4% (8/18 das amostras foi amplificado um fragmento de DNA. Um desses amplicons foi seqüenciado e pela análise molecular e filogenética foi verificada similaridade de 87% em nucleotídeos e 97,8% em aminoácidos com a estirpe Cowden, protótipo do GIII. Esta é a
Juliano Martins Santiago
Full Text Available Equines morphometric analysis is an important method of selection related to functionality of the species. Mangalarga Marchador is the most important horse Brazilian breed and its evolution can be observed in specialized exhibition where owners expase their herd with the breed exponents, adopting them as selection parameters. In this context the study aimed to compare the morphometric measures of Mangalarga Marchador males herd with the champions of breed, using as parameters breed standards and Eclectic System of Proportions for saddle horse. Experimental design was completely randomized and treatments were the Mangalarga Marchador male herd, represented by all horses registered from 2000 to 2012, wich had measurements stored in Associação Brasileira de Criadores do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador (ABCCMM service studbook database, totaling 15,482 animals, and the champions of breed, represented by 222 horses champions who participated of the 29th, 30th or 31th Exposição Nacional do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador. Variables evaluated were height at withers and at rump, length of the head, neck, dorse, rump, shoulder and body, width of head and of rump, thoracic perimeter and cannon perimeter. Average linear measurements were related to length of head, according to Eclectic System of Proportions for saddle horse. Results were submitted to variance analysis and averages were compared by Fisher test (p<0.05. Regarding the current herd of males Mangalarga Marchador, the champions of the race showed greater length of neck, dorse, rump and body, height at withers and at rump, width of rump, cannon perimeter and shorter length of the shoulder. It was concluded that although larger, the champions horses Mangalarga Marchador are proportionally similar to current herd. Mangalarga Marchador horses have not yet reached the height considered ideal by breed standard and their proportions are different from those recommended by Eclectic System of Proportions for
Emmerzaal, A; de Wit, J J; Dijkstra, Th; Bakker, D; van Zijderveld, F G
The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the programme to monitor the official Brucella-free status of bovine herds was primarily based on periodical testing of dairy herds with the milk ring test (MRT) and serological testing of all animals older than 1 year of age from non-dairy herds, using the micro-agglutination test (MAT) as screening test. In addition, serum samples of cattle that aborted were tested with the MAT. The high number of false positive reactions in both tests and the serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for confirmation seemed to result in unnecessary blockade of herds, subsequent testing and slaughter of animals. For this reason, a validation study was performed in which three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the CFT and the SAT were compared using a panel of sera from brucellosis-free cattle, sera from experimentally infected cattle, and sera from cattle experimentally infected with bacteria which are known to induce cross-reactive antibodies (Pasteurella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia). Moreover, four ELISAs and the MRT were compared using a panel of 1000 bulk milk samples from Brucella-free herds and 12 milk samples from Brucella abortus- infected cattle. It is concluded that the ELISA obtained from ID-Lelystad is the most suitable test to monitor the brucelosis free status of herds because it gives rise to fewer false-positive reactions than the SAT.
Veling, J.; Barkema, H.W.; Schans, van de J.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Verhoeff, J.
Herd-level sensitivities of bacteriological and serological methods were compared in 79 bovine dairy herds, recently infected with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin. All farms experienced clinical signs of salmonellosis for the first time and had no history of vaccination against sa
Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.
Our objective was to find herd factors associated with pigs testing seropositive for Salmonella. Data were collected from 359 finishing-pig herds in Germany, Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden, between 1996 and 1998. Pigs fed non-pelleted feed (dry or wet) had 2- and 2.5-times lower odds...
Patrick Valkenburg et al.
Full Text Available After growing continuously for nearly 15 years, the Delta caribou herd began to decline in 1989. Most other Interior Alaskan herds also began declining. In the Delta herd, and in other herds, the declines were caused primarily by high summer mortality of calves and increased natural mortality of adult females. Other minor causes included increased winter mortality of calves, and reduced parturition rates of 3-year-old and older females. The decline in the Delta herd also coincided with increased wolf (Canis lupus numbers, winters with deeper than normal snow, and warm summers. Mean body weight of annual samples of 10-month-old female calves was consistently low during the decline. Except in some of the smallest Interior Alaskan herds, we conclude that evidence for population regulation in Alaskan caribou is weak, and that herds are likely to fluctuate within a wide range of densities due to complex interactions of predation and weather. Unless wolf numbers are influenced by man, the size of a caribou herd in a given year is likely to be largely a function of its size during the previous population low and the number of years of favorable weather in the interim.
Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Puchalski, Andrzej; Dec, Marta; Stęgierska, Diana; Grooms, Daniel L; Barbu, Nicolas I
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life. There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. Animals & methods: Nasal swabs and sera (n = 120) were obtained from young cattle aged 6-12 months from 45 farms in eastern and southeastern Poland. BRSV antigen detection in the nasal swabs was carried out using a rapid immunomigration assay used in diagnosing human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infections in humans, while antibodies to BRSV were detected in the sera by ELISA antibody detection. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. BRSV was detected in 27 of the 45 herds (60%) sampled. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance. The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity.
Monti, G E; Frankena, K; De Jong, M C M
In Argentina, bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is common in dairy herds. The country currently has a National Voluntary Control Programme but relatively few farms have enrolled. However, there is increased interest from authorities and farmers to implement regional compulsory programmes but there is scarce quantitative information of the transmission of BLV in cattle herds. This information is a prerequisite to develop effective BLV control strategies. Mathematical modelling offers ways of integrating population-level knowledge and epidemiological data to predict the outcomes of intervention scenarios. The purpose of the current paper is to gain understanding about the dynamics of the transmission of BLV in dairy herds from Argentina by simulation and to compare various BLV transmission models and select the one that is most appropriate. The hypothetical herd is conceptually described in terms of BLV status as a population of individuals that are protected by maternal antibodies (M), that are susceptible (S), that are in the latent period (E) or that are infectious (I). BLV is spread by horizontal and vertical transmission. We used an age-structured population model and within-herd transmission was simulated by Monte Carlo techniques. The next-generation approach has been used for the systematic computation of the basic reproduction ratio (R0). Parameter values for disease transmission were derived from previously published data; rates of entry, exit or transition between age groups were calculated based on our previous study, observational data, expert opinions and literature. With these parameter values the probability of a minor outbreak was estimated to be 10%, the probability of extinction was estimated as <0.001% and the expected time to extinction as more than 80 years. The probability of a minor outbreak and changes in prevalence were different when the index case was an adult cow compared to introduction by a heifer. Prediction of prevalences from
Full Text Available Extensive livestock production is a major deforestation driver in the Brazilian Amazon. This study presents an assessment of the economic and environmental feasibility of sustainable livestock intensification in São Félix do Xingu municipality, a deforestation frontier with an area of more than 8.5 million hectares, and home to the largest cattle herd in Brazil. Proposed intensification was limited to approximately three animal units per hectare to avoid negative environmental impacts. Transition costs to sustainable cattle intensification were estimated for thirteen pilot farms taking into account adoption of good agriculture practices, pasture maintenance/restoration, and restoration of environmental liabilities. To move to sustainable intensification practices, a mean total annual investment of US$1335/ha ± US$619/ha would be necessary, varying from US$750 to US$2595/ha. Internal rate of return and net present value estimates indicated that the sustainable livestock intensification approach proposed was profitable in farms with more than 400 hectares of pastureland, but not in those where the pasture areas were smaller than 150 hectares. Livestock sustainable intensification also had the potential to promote social and environmental benefits, including a 54% increase in the number of contract workers, improvement of landowners’ managerial skills, and workers’ training, in addition to avoiding emission of 1.9 Mt CO2eq and sequestration of 0.36 Mt CO2eq. We conclude that the sustainable intensification of pasture areas has the potential to prevent further deforestation in the Amazon while generating social and other environmental benefits.
Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias
Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus infection is related to reproductive failure in domestic ruminants. Although it has not been well characterized worldwide, this pathogen has already been identified in some European countries and in the USA. In Brazil, preliminary studies have shown serological evidence of C. abortus infection in herds with low antibody prevalence. Until now, the identification of C. abortus in biological samples from females presenting reproductive failures has not been described in Brazilian herds of domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the C. abortus in a collection of abortions from cattle (n=85, sheep (n=12, and goats (n=8, in samples of vaginal mucus from cows (n=13, sheep (n=90, and goats (n=20, and in semen from sheep (n=10 and goats (n=5. The specimens (n=243 were evaluated using a PCR assay developed to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space of C. abortus. A PCR assay with an internal control, which amplifies a fragment from the ND5 gene of bovine mitochondrial DNA, was used in order to evaluate the efficiency of the DNA extraction and of the PCR reaction. All biological samples (n=243 included in this study were negative for C. abortus in the PCR assay. The internal control enabled the amplification of a product from the bovine mitochondrial ND5 gene in all cattle abortion samples (n=85. Given the serological evidence indicating the presence of C. abortus infection in Brazilian herds of domestic ruminants, and considering the wide sampling evaluated, the failure to identify C. abortus in this survey suggests that the frequency of clinical signs in infected animals may be low or even absent.A infecção pela Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus em ruminantes domésticos está relacionada com distúrbios reprodutivos. Apesar de ainda pouco estudada em todo o mundo, a infecção já foi identificada em alguns países europeus e também nos EUA. No Brasil, estudos preliminares
Griffin John M
Full Text Available The four-area project was undertaken to further assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. It was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in matched removal and reference areas in four counties, namely Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan, representing a wide range of Irish farming environments. In the removal areas, a proactive programme of badger removal was conducted, on two or three occasions each year, whereas in the reference areas, badger removal was entirely reactive following severe outbreaks of tuberculosis amongst cattle. A detailed statistical analysis of this study has already been presented by Griffin et al. 13; this paper presents further, mainly descriptive, findings from the study. In total, 2,360 badgers were captured in the removal areas of which 450 (19.5% were considered positive for tuberculosis and 258 badgers were captured in the reference areas, with 57 (26.1% positive for tuberculosis. The annual incidence of confirmed herd restrictions was lower in the removal area compared to the reference area in every year of the study period in each of the four counties. These empirical findings were consistent with the hazard ratios found by Griffin et al. 13. Further, the effect of proactive badger removal on cattle tuberculosis in the four-area project and in the earlier east-Offaly project, as measured using the number of reactors per 1,000 cattle tested, were very similar, providing compelling evidence of the role of badgers in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds. The validity of the four-area project was discussed in detail. Efforts to minimise badger-to-cattle transmission in Ireland must be undertaken in association with the current comprehensive control programme, which has effectively minimised opportunities for cattle-to-cattle transmission.
Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis
Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...
Durnez, Lies; Sadiki, Harrison; Katakweba, Abdul
-infection and atypical mycobacterioses. Milk samples were taken from tuberculin positive animals and analysed for the presence of mycobacteria. Total prevalences of 2.5% and 10.1% were found for M. bovis-infection and atypical mycobacterioses respectively, with more M. bovis-infection in cattle in the extensive...... herd owners and their families at risk for BTB. Therefore control of BTB, as well as education of cattle owners is important, especially in the extensive sector....
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22 respondent (5% amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2% had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (≥0.05 was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle were found to be statistically significant.
Krook, L.; Maylin, G.A.
An aluminum plant on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, southwest of Cornwall Island, Ontario, Canada, has emitted 0.816 metric tons of fluoride daily since 1973. Considerably higher amounts were emitted from 1959 to 1973. The plant was designated as the major source of fluoride emissions impacting on Cornwall Island. Cattle located on this island showed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning. This poisoning was manifested clinically by stunted growth and dental fluorosis to a degree of severe interference with drinking and mastication. This Cornwall Island herds study indicates that the established tolerance level of fluoride for performance of dairy and beef cattle is not valid since the tolerance level was set based on experiments with healthy calves which were exposed to dietary fluoride from 3 to 4 months of age and not on cattle which were chronically exposed to fluoride from conception to death. 56 references.
Full Text Available The national herd prevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum infected dairy herds in Sweden were investigated. The study was based on a bulk milk survey comprising samples from 2,978 herds. Test-positive herds were found in all parts of Sweden and the overall prevalence of test-positive herds was 8.3% (95% confidence interval = 7.3-9.3%. The presence of spatial autocorrelation was tested using the Moran’s I test. Possible clusters of test-positive herds were identified by applying the local indicator of spatial association (LISA test statistic and the spatial scan statistic. Analysis based on data aggregated by postal code areas as well as analysis based on exact coordinates identified significant clusters of high prevalence in the middle parts of Sweden and low prevalence in the south. This was not expected considering the results from other European studies of N. caninum in cattle. However, the findings are supported by the distribution of previously known case herds.
Nolan, L K; Giddings, C W; Boland, E W; Steffen, D J; Brown, J; Misek, A
Nasal secretions, faecal samples and buffy coats were obtained from 102 cattle from a North Dakota dairy herd with a history of calf scours. Treated buffy coats, faecal samples and nasal secretions were inoculated into tetrathionate broth (TB), incubated at 37 degrees C overnight, and plated onto brilliant green agar medium with novobiocin (BGAN). The TB was left at room temperature for 5 days and then used to inoculate fresh TB. The fresh TB was incubated at 37 degrees C over night and plated onto BGAN medium. All the plates were incubated at 37 degrees C over night and observed for Salmonella-like growth. Suspect colonies were further tested and Salmonella isolates were serotyped by the National Veterinary Services laboratory. Twenty-two of the 36 calves sampled harboured S. typhimurium in their faeces, but no samples from cows were positive. No Salmonella were isolated from the buffy coats, but 4 calves were shown to have Salmonella in their nasal secretions. Extended enrichment of the faecal cultures in TB resulted in a significant increase in Salmonella isolations, although 2 samples were positive following the initial enrichment period and not after secondary enrichment. The typical Salmonella isolate detected from this herd contained a transmissible R-plasmid encoding resistance to tetracycline, kanamycin, sulphisoxazole and ampicillin. This study confirmed that delayed secondary enrichment in TB is superior to primary enrichment for detection of Salmonella from cattle.
Foddai, Alessandro; Boklund, Anette; Stockmarr, Anders
A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introduc-ing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester,respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitiga-tion measures and sources of uncer......A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introduc-ing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester,respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitiga-tion measures and sources...... of uncertainty due to lack of data. As suggested in the Agreementon the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the OIE Ter-restrial Animal Health Code was followed for a transparent science-based risk assessment.Data from 2010 on imports of live cattle, semen, and embryos, exports...... of live cattle, aswell as use of vaccines were analyzed. Information regarding the application of biosecuritymeasures, by veterinarians and hoof trimmers practicing in Denmark and in other countries,was obtained by contacting several stakeholders, public institutions and experts. Stochas-tic scenario...
Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F
Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle.
Ingrid Bortolin Affonso
Full Text Available Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV causes important lower respiratory tract illness in calves. According to F and G proteins genetic sequences, three BRSV subgroups have been reported and characterized in several countries, showing differences in its distribution. In Brazil, the virus is widely disseminated throughout the herds and the few characterized isolates revealed the solely occurrence of the subgroup B. This study describes the detection and characterization of an untyped BRSV strain from a twenty-days-old calf from a herd without clinical respiratory disease. Nasal swabs were analyzed by RT-nested PCR for the F and G proteins genes. One sample has amplified the F protein gene. Sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic reconstruction were accomplished, revealing that the strain could not be grouped with any other BRSV subgroups reported. This result may suggest that the BRSV is in constantly evolution, even in Brazil, where the vaccination is not a common practice. More detailed studies about BRSV characterization are necessary to know the virus subgroups distribution among the Brazilian herds to recommend appropriated immunoprophylaxis.
Johanna Vakkamaki; Suvi Taponen; Anna-Maija Heikkila; Satu Pyorala
.... This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012...
Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei
In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chisana caribou herd (CCH) is a small international herd occurring in Yukon and Alaska on the Klutlan Plateau and near the headwaters of the White River. During...
Análisis de las concentraciones de azufre en agua, alimento y gas sulfúrico ruminal de rebaños bovinos de carne de las regiones de La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos de Chile Determination of sulphur contents in water, forage and ruminal hydrogen sulphide concentrations in beef cattle herds from La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos regions of Chile
íodos fue Sulphur is an essential element for the metabolism of ruminant animals. However, high dietary concentrations of sulphur are potentially harmful. The purpose of this study was to measure the forage and water sulphur content in samples from 45 beef herds from the La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos regions of Chile. Additionally, ruminal gas hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentrations were obtained from 5 animals on each farm. Samples were collected during the spring 2008 and summer 2009. Pasture sulphur content was 1,482 ± 592 ppm in the spring and 1,471 ± 448 ppm in the summer. Water sulphur concentrations in all farms was < 1.5 ppm each season. Ruminal gas H2S concentrations in animals was 273 ± 187.5 ppm and 245.4 ± 173 ppm in spring and summer, respectively. Positive and significant correlations were found between pasture sulphur content and ruminal H2S concentration for both periods. Estimated total sulphur intake considering pastures and water was < 0.2% sulfur on a dry matter basis. The results of this study suggest that forage and water sulphur concentrations in Southern Chile do not represent a potential risk of intoxication in grazing beef cattle.
Thiago Bernardino de Carvalho
Full Text Available As atividades relativas à pecuária bovina de corte no Brasil possuem grande destaque, dado que o país possui o maior rebanho comercial do mundo, sendo o segundo maior produtor e o maior exportador mundial de carne bovina. A principal característica no desenvolvimento dessa atividade no País é a heterogeneidade nos sistemas de produção e nos mecanismos de gestão e de comercialização do gado. A Pecuária brasileira tem passado por grandes mudanças nos últimos anos. Na indústria, a profissionalização levou as empresas à abertura de capital, a internacionalização, a diversificação das atividades e produtos e, como consequência num mercado oligopolizado, à concentração do setor. Dentro da porteira, o setor produtivo também tem conseguido avanço, no emprego de tecnologias, diversificação de atividades e novas formas de comercialização, com a indústria de insumos e os frigoríficos. O futuro do mercado de gado de corte, assim como para todo o agronegócio brasileiro é promissor, devido principalmente a disponibilidade de terra e água presentes no território nacional para se produzir carne e ofertar ao mundo. = The activities related to cattle in Brazil are very important, given that the country has the largest commercial herd in the world, being the second largest producer and the world's largest exporter of beef. The main characteristic in the development of this activity in the country is the heterogeneity in the systems of production and in the mechanisms of management and commercialization of cattle. The Brazilian cattle has undergone major changes in recent years. In the industry, professionalization led companies to open up capital, internationalization, diversification of activities and products and, as a consequence, in an oligopolized market, to the concentration of the sector. In the farms, the productive sector has also achieved progress, in the use of technologies, diversification of activities and new
Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.;
the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion...
Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.
Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because
changes in product value are important, it is easy to join them to herd cost efficiency for ... should be evaluated in terms of total herd or life cycle effi- ciency, and not only for a ..... The decline of herd efficiency with increases in b in. Table 2 is in ...
Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Ruelke
We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-)herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding) of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from...
Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G
Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.
McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini
Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.
Heverton Luis Moreira
Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.
Taylor, David B; Moon, Roger D; Mark, Darrell R
Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are among the most damaging arthropod pests of cattle worldwide. The last estimate of their economic impact on United States cattle production was published 20 yr ago and placed losses at $608 million. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range. We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle. In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be 139 kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle, respectively. The 200,000 stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated 890 kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, 680, or 84 kg. In 2009 dollars, the value of these losses would be $254, $132, $1,279, or $154, respectively. Using cattle inventories and average prices for 2005-2009, and median monthly infestation levels, national losses are estimated to be $360 million for dairy cattle, $358 million for cow-calf herds, $1,268 million for pastured cattle, and $226 million for cattle on feed, for a total impact to U.S. cattle industries of $2,211 million per year. Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and
Robert A. Dieterich
Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.
Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine
included in the study were clinical parameters and factors related to the production system. Sows were examined visually by one of four trained observers. The organic sows were assigned scores for lameness, body condition, hoof length, bursitis, abscesses and leg wounds, while the conventional sows were...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter....../spring. ‘Wounds, bursitis and abscess’ on legs (OR=4.7, P3 (OR=1.79, P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of lameness in Danish organic sow herds. Season (winter/spring v. summer/autumn) lowered the risk of lameness (OR=0.37, P
Anderson, Roy M.; May, Robert M.
An understanding of the relationship between the transmission dynamics of infectious agents and herd immunity provides a template for the design of effective control programmes based on mass immunization. Mathematical models of the spread and persistence of infection provide important insights into the problem of how best to protect the community against disease.
Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Seyfarth, Anne Mette;
Due to logistic and economic benefits, the animal industry has an increased interest in using environmental samples to classify herds free of infections. For a valid interpretation of results obtained from environmental samples, the performance of the diagnostic method using these samples must...
Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.
Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten
Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing in...
Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene
In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133
von Altrock, Alexandra; Roesler, Uwe; Waldmann, Karl-Heinz
Recent epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that pork is an important source of yersiniosis in humans. Identifying risk factors and potential interventions in swine production that may decrease the risk of pork production contamination during harvest and processing is an important step before controlling Yersinia spp. Therefore, management strategies and production processes that might be associated with fattening pigs testing seropositive for pathogenic Yersinia spp. were investigated in 80 fattening pig farms. Although >70 farm characteristics were included in the risk assessment, there were only a few that seemed to be connected with serological prevalence: housing on a fully slatted floor and the use of municipal water were observed more often in herds with low serological Yersinia prevalence, whereas recurring health problems and a low daily weight gain compared with the mean of the herds included in the study were found in herds with a high prevalence. Besides, the Yersinia prevalence seemed to be inversely proportional to the herds' serological Salmonella status collected in accordance with German legislation. Additionally, the development of the serological Yersinia status of selected herds was assessed over a period of a year to gain knowledge of the dynamics of Yersinia infections in fattening pig herds. Three out of four serological negative herds maintained a low level of Yersinia prevalence, whereas one herd shifted between negative status and a prevalence of 100%. The reason for these considerable fluctuations could not be explained, and there was no direct association with the analyzed risk factors. Further research should be carried out to prove the given risk factors, especially the possible relation to the Salmonella prevalence before implementing a combined zoonoses surveillance and control program.
Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China.
Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.
Jenny Chaparro G
Full Text Available Objectives. To determine Neospora caninum seroprevalence in nonvaccinated dairy cattle from the Northern plains of Antioquia. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of neosporosis in a major dairy area of Colombia. Blood samples were collected from 1003 dairy cattle in 29 herds located in the municipality of San Pedro de los Milagros, in Antioquia. N. caninum antibody levels were measured by an enzymatic immunoassay (ELISA and the results classified as positive or negative. Results. Seropositive cattle were observed in all herds, with a prevalence ranging from 7 to 97% and a mean (±S.E of 37.1% (±4.2. The distribution of seropositive animals by age groups of <1, 1-2, 2-3 and ≥3 years old was 25.5, 30.3, 46.1 and 39.1%, respectively. Conclusions. There is a high seroprevalence of N. caninum in the main dairy cattle area of Antioquia. The large variation among herds suggests the presence of mayor risk factors whose identification would be essential to establish control programs. Considering that any seropositive cow has a greater risk to abort than uninfected mates, future studies should address the epidemiology of abortions that can be attributed to neosporosis and the type of control strategies that could be implemented.
Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv
In recent years management of cattle herds has become a much more automated process and machinery for measuring a number of biological entities online has been developed. Analysis of such online data can be helpful to the farmer in the management of the herd. This thesis is a contribution to the ongoing research in analysing online data. The focus here is on using state space models, which are a class of models suited for analysing time series. In the thesis the developed techniques are appli...
Full Text Available We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time.
Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.
Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429
Nicholas, Robin A J; Fox, Larry K; Lysnyansky, Inna
Bovine mastitis caused by mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma bovis, is a major problem for milk production and animal welfare in large dairy herds in the USA and a serious, although sporadic, disease in Europe and the Middle East. It causes severe damage to the udder of cattle and is largely untreatable by chemotherapy. Mycoplasma mastitis has a distinct epidemiology and a unique set of risk factors, the most important of which is large herd size. The disease is often self-limiting, disappearing within months of outbreaks, sometimes without deliberate intervention. Improved molecular diagnostic tests are leading to more rapid detection of mycoplasmas. Typing tests, such as multi-locus sequence typing, can help trace the source of outbreaks. An approach to successful control is proposed, which involves regular monitoring and rapid segregation or culling of infected cows. Serious consideration should be given by owners of healthy dairy herds to the purchase of M. bovis-free replacements. Increased cases of disease could occur in Europe and Israel if the trend for larger dairy herds continues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis complex could be possible between farmers and their cattle in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted in mixed type multi-purposes cattle raising region of Ethiopia on 287 households (146 households with case of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and 141 free of TB and 287 herds consisting of 2,033 cattle belonging to these households to evaluate transmission of TB between cattle and farmers. Interview, bacteriological examinations and molecular typing were used for human subjects while comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT test, post mortem and bacteriological examinations, and molecular typing were used for animal studies. Herd prevalence of CIDT reactors was 9.4% and was higher (p<0.01 in herds owned by households with TB than in herds owned by TB free households. Animal prevalence was 1.8% and also higher (p<0.01 in cattle owned by households with TB case than in those owned by TB free households. All mycobacteria (141 isolated from farmers were M. tuberculosis, while only five of the 16 isolates from cattle were members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC while the remaining 11 were members of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM. Further speciation of the five MTC isolates showed that three of the isolates were M. bovis (strain SB1176, while the remaining two were M. tuberculosis strains (SIT149 and SIT53. Pathology scoring method described by "Vordermeier et al. (2002" was applied and the average severity of pathology in two cattle infected with M. bovis, in 11 infected with NTM and two infected with M. tuberculosis were 5.5, 2.1 and 0.5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that transmission of TB from farmers to cattle by the airborne route sensitizes the cows but rarely leads to TB. Similarly, low transmission of M. bovis between farmers and their cattle was found, suggesting requirement of ingestion of contaminated milk from
DING Ke-wei; TAKEO Kayaba
The objectives of this study were to set up a new genetic evaluation procedure to predict the breeding values of Holstein herds in Heilongjiang Province of China for milk and fat production by utilizing Canadian pedigree and genetic evaluation information and to compare the breeding values of the sires from different countries. The data used for evaluating young sires for the Chinese Holstein population consisted of records selected from 21 herds in HeiIongjiang Province. The first lactation records of 2 496 daughters collected in 1989 and 2000 were analyzed. A single-trait animal model including a fixed herd-year effect, random animal and residual effects was used by utilizing Canadian pedigree and genetic evaluation information of 5 126 sires released from the Canadian Dairy Network in August 2000. The BLUP procedure was used to evaluate all cattle in this study and the Estimated Breeding Values (EBV)for milk and fat production of 6 697 cattle (including 673 sires and 6 024 cows) were predicted. The genetic levels of the top 100 sires originated from different countries were compared.Unlike the BLUP procedure that is being used in conjunction with the single-trait sire model in Heilongjiang Province of China now, the genetic evaluation procedure used in this study not only can be used simultaneously to evaluate sires and cows but also increase the accuracy of evaluation due to using the relationships and genetic values of the Canadian evaluated sires with more daughters. The results showed that the new procedure was useful for genetic evaluation of dairy herds and the comparison of the breeding values of these sires imported from different countries showed that a significant genetic improvement has been achieved for milk production of the Heilongjiang Holstein dairy population by importing sires from foreign countries, especially from the United States due to the higher breeding values.
Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene;
.003) in the ClinPain group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded...
Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.
Kubelová, M; Mazancová, J; Siroký, P
Distribution of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Ehrlichia ruminantium, was for the first time studied in Bié Province, central Angola. We examined 76 blood samples of cattle originated from seven farms, and 13 blood samples of goats from two farms employing molecular genetic tools (PCR). Most prevalent was A. ovis-infection in goats (100%) and A. marginale-infection in cattle (38% of examined animals, and six out of seven farms). B. bigemina-infection was detected in only one specimen at Andulo, whereas B. bovis was not detected in Bié. We did not detected T. parva, the causative agent of serious diseases in cattle; nevertheless, infection by T. velifera was quite frequent (14% of examined animals, and five out of seven farms). Causative agent of heartwater disease - E. ruminantium, was not detected. Taking into account short-term perspective of PCR methods in monitoring of epidemiological status in herds, the number of infected animals and distribution of detected pathogens should not be ignored.
Full Text Available Distribution of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Theileria spp., and Ehrlichia ruminantium, was for the first time studied in Bié Province, central Angola. We examined 76 blood samples of cattle originated from seven farms, and 13 blood samples of goats from two farms employing molecular genetic tools (PCR. Most prevalent was A. ovis-infection in goats (100% and A. marginale-infection in cattle (38% of examined animals, and six out of seven farms. B. bigemina-infection was detected in only one specimen at Andulo, whereas B. bovis was not detected in Bié. We did not detected T. parva, the causative agent of serious diseases in cattle; nevertheless, infection by T. velifera was quite frequent (14% of examined animals, and five out of seven farms. Causative agent of heartwater disease – E. ruminantium, was not detected. Taking into account short-term perspective of PCR methods in monitoring of epidemiological status in herds, the number of infected animals and distribution of detected pathogens should not be ignored.
Aline Cristina Sant'Anna
Full Text Available The aim of this note is to describe preliminary results on assessment of land use by cattle, obtained in a pilot study using Geographic Information System (GIS. The research was carried out on a semi-natural pasture in Sweden, where the geographic positions of one cow were recorded during 25 consecutive days during summer. The cow, wearing a GPS collar, was integrated in a herd of 53 Hereford cattle. Each location point registered for the animal was considered as a sampling unit (N=3,097. The spatial distribution of ground declivity, water sources, cattle tracks, and classes of woody vegetation cover (forest, grassland with trees and open grassland were recorded. The storage, processing and data analysis were carried out using the Idrisi and GS+ softwares. Three occupation zones were identified in function of the variation in the space used by the animal, which were occupied in a cyclical pattern; with the animal moving from one zone to another in cycles of five days. It was also clear that the cattle distribution in the area was neither random nor uniform, and it was affected by environmental characteristics that act as conditioners on its distribution. These preliminary results suggest that definition of zones of occupation and the environmental conditioners are promising tools to understand the land use by cattle
Chenoweth, P J; McPherson, F J
The bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) has evolved as a cost-effective veterinary procedure which provides benefits such as risk-reduction and improvements in strategic bull usage, herd fertility and economics. Semen evaluation is an important component of the BBSE when performed appropriately; a consideration that is increasingly addressed by third party andrology laboratories. The combination of competent physical/reproductive exams (including scrotal circumference measurements) and semen evaluations can contribute greatly to the fertility and economics of individual herds as well as adding to understanding of those factors which affect cattle fertility. Despite such advantages, there remain challenges in achieving full acceptance of BBSEs, particularly by the dairy industry and in developing countries.
Tounkara, K; Traore, A; Traore, A P; Sidibe, S; Samake, K; Diallo, B O; Diallo, A
Within the epidemiological surveillance of rinderpest in Mali a serological survey has been carried out on 58 herds of small ruminants. Out of 567 tested sera for the detection of antibodies against rinderpest 2 were positive. These sera were collected from two animals over 6 years old, probably infected during the last outbreak of rinderpest in Mali in 1986. Therefore, it can be assumed that the rinderpest virus has not circulated in Mali since that year. However, the infection rate among goats and sheep due to the PPR virus seemed to be high: 74% of herds had already been infected. The prevalence of individual infection is 32%. A similar serological survey was conducted on 450 cattleheads, without antibodies against the rinderpest virus and showed that 1.78% of these animals had been in contact with the PPR virus. With such a low infection rate in cattle, the PPR virus probably has no incidence in the epidemiology of rinderpest in Mali.
Dukpa, Kinzang; Robertson, Ian D; Ellis, Trevor M
Cross sectional serological surveys were conducted between March and December 2009 to determine the distribution of foot-and-mouth disease and also to validate the current passive surveillance system in Bhutan. A total of 1909 sera collected from cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs, from 485 herds in 106 villages, were tested using a foot-and-mouth disease non-structural protein 3ABC ELISA. The true prevalence at the animal-level for all species was 15% (95% CI: 13.5, 16.7) using the sensitivity (97.2%) and specificity (99.5%) for cattle. The true prevalence for cattle, goats, sheep and pigs were 17.6 (95% CI: 15.6, 19.5), 11.9% (95% CI: 5.6, 18.3), 11.9% (95% CI: 1.3, 25.1), and 1.9% (95% CI: 0.0, 3.8), respectively. The sub-districts that shared border with India had significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence than the interior sub-districts. Villages located in the sub-tropical zone had significantly (p<0.0001) higher seroprevalence than those located at high altitude zones. Herds with known outbreaks of FMD were 3.6 times more likely (p<0.001) to be seropositive than those with no history of outbreaks of FMD. The study showed the usefulness of population-based serological surveys in detecting circulation of active infection in populations which were, until now, considered to be free of disease based on a passive surveillance system. The study also highlighted the benefits of conducting serological and questionnaire surveys, simultaneously, to ascertain the infection status of herds and animals. Some of the findings from this study could be considered for strengthening of the current FMD control program in Bhutan.
Guta, Sintayehu; Casal, Jordi; Napp, Sebastian; Saez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Saenz, Ariadna; Perez de Val, Bernat; Romero, Beatriz; Alvarez, Julio; Allepuz, Alberto
We analyzed the most likely cause of 687 bovine tuberculosis (bTB) breakdowns detected in Spain between 2009 and 2011 (i.e., 22% of the total number of breakdowns detected during this period). Seven possible causes were considered: i) residual infection; ii) introduction of infected cattle from other herds; iii) sharing of pastures with infected herds; iv) contiguous spread from infected neighbor herds; v) presence of infected goats in the farm; vi) interaction with wildlife reservoirs and vii) contact with an infected human. For each possible cause a decision tree was developed and key questions were included in each of them. Answers to these key questions lead to different events within each decision tree. In order to assess the likelihood of occurrence of the different events a qualitative risk assessment approach was used. For this purpose, an expert opinion workshop was organized and ordinal values, ranging from 0 to 9 (i.e., null to very high likelihood of occurrence) were assigned. The analysis identified residual infection as the most frequent cause of bTB breakdowns (22.3%; 95%CI: 19.4–25.6), followed by interaction with wildlife reservoirs (13.1%; 95%CI: 10.8–15.8). The introduction of infected cattle, sharing of pastures and contiguous spread from infected neighbour herds were also identified as relevant causes. In 41.6% (95%CI: 38.0–45.4) of the breakdowns the origin of infection remained unknown. Veterinary officers conducting bTB breakdown investigations have to state their opinion about the possible cause of each breakdown. Comparison between the results of our analysis and the opinion from veterinary officers revealed a slight concordance. This slight agreement might reflect a lack of harmonized criteria to assess the most likely cause of bTB breakdowns as well as different perceptions about the importance of the possible causes. This is especially relevant in the case of the role of wildlife reservoirs. PMID:25127254
Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H
Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro
McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture
The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.
Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR are two important infectious diseases of cattle. Inactivated FMD vaccines are the most powerful tools to protect animals against FMD. Previous studies showed that recombinant IBR-FMD viruses protected cattle from virulent BHV-1 challenge and induced protective levels of anti-FMDV antibodies. FMD is considered to be endemic in Turkey and inactivated oil adjuvanted vaccines are used for the immunization of cattle. Previous studies showed that seroprevalence of IBR in the Turkey’s dairy herd more than 50%. In this study, antibody response in IBR seropositive cattle following vaccination against FMD was investigated. IBR seropositive (n=208 and IBR seronegative (n=212 cattle were vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted bivalent vaccine (containing O1 Manisa, A22 Iraq FMDV strains. Solid-phase competitive ELISA (SPCE was used to measure antibodies produced in cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O was detected in 77.4% and serotypes A in 83.6% of IBR seropositive cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O antibody was detected in 49% and serotypes A in 66.9% of IBR seronegative cattle. The differences between the protection rates against both serotype O (P=0.0001 and serotype A (P=0.0001 in IBR seropositive and seronegative animals were statistically important (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.01. Results showed that after FMD vaccination, IBR seropositive animals produced high titres of antibodies than seronegative animals.
Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J;
The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...... breeds. This review focuses on the practical and theoretical background of crossbreeding and describes the gain to be expected using systematic crossbreeding in dairy production. In Denmark, 24% of dairy farmers would consider starting crossbreeding programs within their herd. Evidence for the value...... through crossbred offspring, this prerequisite can be fulfilled. Crossbreeding can increase dairy income substantially, especially in management systems requiring a high level of functional traits...
Juan Zambrano A.; Julián Echeverri Z.; Albeiro López-Herrera
ABSTRACTObjective. To determine the associations of BoLA DRB3.2 alleles present in Holstein and BON x Holstein cattle to production and milk quality traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods. Ninety-one cows, 66 Holstein and 25 BxH, were genotyped for the BoLA DRB3.2 gene, through PCR-RFLP technique. Furthermore, the association of the alleles of the gene BoLA DRB3.2 with milk yield (PL305), fat yield (PG305), protein yield (PP305) fat percentage (PGRA) and protein ...
Juan Zambrano A; Julián Echeverri Z.; Albeiro López-Herrera
ABSTRACTObjective. To determine the associations of BoLA DRB3.2 alleles present in Holstein and BON x Holstein cattle to production and milk quality traits in a dairy herd of Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods. Ninety-one cows, 66 Holstein and 25 BxH, were genotyped for the BoLA DRB3.2 gene, through PCR-RFLP technique. Furthermore, the association of the alleles of the gene BoLA DRB3.2 with milk yield (PL305), fat yield (PG305), protein yield (PP305) fat percentage (PGRA) and protein ...
Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi
This work concerns the modeling of contagion and herding effects which can cause significant movements of prices and volatilities. The idea is to adapt some concepts borrowed from the Biological Sciences and that have emerged as useful analogies to model a variety of phenomena in a large variety of fields such as Engineering and Economics. In this work, the allegory of interacting particles is used to describe the contagion and emergence of herding behavior of financial agents leading to the formation of clusters. The main idea is to adapt the schemes originally employed in particle swarm optimization algorithms, together with the concepts of leaders and followers. As an illustration of the applicability of the proposed model, a case study is presented using data from the World Bank.
Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng
Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traf- fic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of complex resource allocation can be modeled as minority games in which the number of resources is limited and agents tend to choose the less used resource based on available information. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control strategies to suppress and elim- inate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method. That the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to mi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Giardia infections in dairy herds on farms in the New York City Watershed region and to evaluate risk factors associated with infections. Because co-infections of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common in this population, we also evaluated the effect of herd infection status on Giardia infections. Methods Farms were grouped into three cohorts based on their prior infection status with Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium spp. The sampling plan included collecting fecal samples from all calves below 30 days of age and proportional sampling of calves, young stock, and adults. A total of 10,672 fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of Giardia cysts using zinc sulfate flotation. Herds enrolled in the study were sampled seasonally for a study period of two years. The probability of shedding cysts past a certain age and the factors that influenced the likelihood of shedding were evaluated using survival analysis. Linear regression was used to evaluate factors that were associated with the intensity of shedding. Results The majority of Giardia infections occurred in calves within their first 180 days of age, with the most number of calves shedding Giardia cysts between 11 and 20 days of age. The incidence of shedding of Giardia cysts ranged from 0.0004 per animal day for cattle in the low risk cohort to 0.0011 per animal day for cattle in the high risk cohort. The likelihood of shedding was influenced by the prior infection status of the herd and the season of collection. Infected animals shed on average 9,658 cysts/gram and the intensity of shedding Giardia cysts varied significantly with the age (p Conclusion Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the New York City watershed, particularly in calves less than 6 months of age. Seasonality may be an important factor in the perpetuation of infections based on changes in management practices
Zielinski, Andrzej; Stefanoff, Pawel
The effectiveness of vaccinations is discussed in relation to vaccine efficacy and effectiveness of vaccination programs. The types of epidemiological studies used in the assessment of vaccine effectiveness are presented, and most common sources of bias in such studies are listed. Basic formulas for calculation of vaccine effectiveness are given as applied for cohort and case-control studies. The definitions and ways of estimation of indicators of herd immunity as applied to the analysis of the effectiveness of vaccinations are presented.
Sylvia Angubua Baluka
Full Text Available Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing.
Baluka, Sylvia Angubua
Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974
Thompson, James A; Scott, H Morgan
Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP - the causative agent of Johne's disease) and Neospora caninum (NC - the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle.
Abraham, G; Sintayehu, A; Libeau, G; Albina, E; Roger, F; Laekemariam, Y; Abayneh, D; Awoke, K M
A questionnaire-survey data indicated that 26% of 276 farmers reported the presence of respiratory disease in their herds in 2001. The incidence was perceived as "high" in small ruminants and camels, but as "low" in cattle. Simultaneously, 2815 serum samples from camels (n=628), cattle (n=910), goats (n=442) and sheep (n=835) were tested. The peste des petits ruminants (PPR) antibody seroprevalence was 3% in camels, 9% in cattle, 9% in goats and 13% in sheep. The highest locality-specific seroprevalences were: camels 10%, cattle 16%, goats 22% and sheep 23%. The animals had not been vaccinated against rinderpest or PPR. Antibody seroprevalences detected in camels, cattle, goats and sheep confirmed natural transmission of PPR virus under field conditions.
Xu, M; Dong, Y W; Lu, J G; Quan, Z; Wang, L; Wang, Z G; Wu, B B; Zhang, S N
The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. It is designed as a next generation space facility focused on indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. The calorimeter plays an essential role in the main scientific objectives of HERD. A 3-D cubic calorimeter filled with high granularity crystals as active material is a very promising choice for the calorimeter. HERD is mainly composed of a 3-D calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by silicon trackers (TK) from all five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of 9261 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. Here the simulation results of the performance of CALO with GEANT4 and FLUKA are presented: 1) the total absorption CALO and its absorption depth for precise energy measure...
Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.
Full Text Available Abstract Mycoplasma alkalescens is an arginine-metabolizing mycoplasma, which has been found in association with mastitis and arthritis in cattle. Routine bacteriological examination of 17 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from calves with pneumonia in a single herd in Denmark, identified M. alkalescens in eight samples. The organism was found as a sole bacterilogical findings in five of the samples as well as in combination with Mannheimia haemolytica, Haemophilus somni and Salmonella Dublin. This is the first report of isolation of M. alkalescens in Denmark.
McCormack, B L; Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Elsasser, T H; Hammond, A C; Welsh, T H; Jiang, H; Randel, R D; Okamura, C A; Lucy, M C
Miniature Brahman cattle at the USDA ARS Subtropical Agriculture Research Station in Brooksville, FL have normal proportioned growth but are approximately 70% of mature height and weight when compared with Brahman cattle in the same herd. Pedigree analyses suggest that the condition is inherited through a recessive allele. The miniature Brahman cattle in the Brooksville herd have been used for studies of growth and reproduction, but the underlying causative mutation is unknown. Presumably, the miniature condition could arise from a mutation in the GH gene. The objective, therefore, was to clone the GH cDNA from Brooksville miniature Brahman cattle, compare its sequence to normal Brahman cattle, and test the biological activity of the native GH protein. Messenger RNA was isolated from the pituitary, and a cDNA for the protein coding region of the GH gene was amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from each of 2 miniature Brahman bulls. The cDNA were cloned into plasmid vectors, and top and bottom strands were sequenced by automated DNA sequencing. The sequence of both cDNA clones derived from miniature cattle differed from Bos indicus GH (GenBank AF034386) at base number 641 because there was a cytosine (C) instead of a thymine (T). The C to T change encoded a mutation (threonine to methionine) at amino acid 200 (T200M mutation). The mutation was confirmed by sequencing of an additional 2 miniature cattle and comparing their sequence to 2 normal cattle. The threonine is located in the fourth alpha helix of GH and is 1 of 8 amino acids that participate in binding of GH to the GH receptor. Twelve miniature Brahman and 9 normal Brahman cattle were tested by using a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis that employed the BsmBI restriction enzyme (specific for the mutated nucleotide). The 12 miniature Brahman cattle were homozygous for the mutation (-/-). Seven of the normal Brahman cattle were homozygous for the wild-type allele
A traditional approach in agricultural and veterinary research is focussing on the biological perspective where large cattle-databases are used to analyse the dairy herd. This approach has yielded valuable insights. However, recent research indicates that this knowledge-base can be further increased by examining agricultural and veterinary challenges from other perspectives. In this paper we suggest three perspectives that may supplement the biological perspective in agricultural and veterinary research; the economic-, the managerial-, and the social perspective. We review recent studies applying or combining these perspectives and discuss how multiple perspectives may improve our understanding and ability to handle cattle-health challenges. PMID:21999487
Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.
Jeon, Soo Jin; Elzo, Mauricio; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Lamb, G. Cliff; Jeong, Kwang Cheol
Controlling the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the pre-harvest level is critical to reduce outbreaks of this pathogen in humans. Multilayers of factors including the environmental and bacterial factors modulate the colonization and persistence of E. coli O157 in cattle that serve as a reservoir of this pathogen. Here, we report animal factors contributing to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle. We observe the lowest number of E. coli O157 in Brahman breed when compared with other crosses in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd, and bulls excrete more E. coli O157 than steers in the pens where cattle were housed together. The presence of super-shedders, cattle excreting >105 CFU/rectal anal swab, increases the concentration of E. coli O157 in the pens; thereby super-shedders enhance transmission of this pathogen among cattle. Molecular subtyping analysis reveal only one subtype of E. coli O157 in the multibreed herd, indicating the variance in the levels of E. coli O157 in cattle is influenced by animal factors. Furthermore, strain tracking after relocation of the cattle to a commercial feedlot reveals farm-to-farm transmission of E. coli O157, likely via super-shedders. Our results reveal high risk factors in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle whereby animal genetic and physiological factors influence whether this pathogen can persist in cattle at high concentration, providing insights to intervene this pathogen at the pre-harvest level. PMID:23405204
Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David;
The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers with Red Danish Cattle (RDC) or Jersey herds. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize preferences of farmers for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online software 1000Minds. These pa......The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers with Red Danish Cattle (RDC) or Jersey herds. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize preferences of farmers for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online software 1000Minds...... characteristics can be linked to the different farmer clusters. The results from this study give a strong basis for setting up customized indexes or breeding goals for the different farmer clusters, which might increase the uptake of genetic merit....
Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81).
Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell
A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.
Elisabete F. Simões Vieira
Full Text Available This work studies herding behaviour in a small European market, by analysing the stocks that constituted the Portuguese stock PSI-20 index, for the period between 2003 and 2011. The two different approaches used to measure herding intensity led to different results, suggesting that measurements of the herding phenomenon are sensitive to the method used. Consequently, there is a need for further research into the methodology used to test this phenomenon. Additionally, the study analyses the relationship between herd behaviour and investor sentiment, an area that has been little explored. In applying causality tests to the impact of sentiment on herd behaviour, only weak evidence is found that sentiment influences herding.
Cajueiro, Daniel O. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Doutorado em Economia de Empresas, SGAN 916, Modulo B, Asa Norte, DF 70790-160 (Brazil); Tabak, Benjamin M. [Banco Central do Brasil, SBS Quadra 3, Bloco B, 9 andar, DF 70074-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In this paper we present evidence of multifractality and herding behavior for a large set of Japanese stocks traded in the Tokyo Stock Exchange. We find evidence that herding behavior occurs in periods of extreme market movements. Therefore, based on the intuition behind the tests to detect herding phenomenon developed, for instance, in Christie and Huang [Christie W, Huang R. Following the pied pier: do individual returns herd around the market? Financ Analysts J 1995;51:31-7] and Chang et al. [Chang EC, Cheng JW, Khorana A. Examination of herd behavior in equity markets: an international perspective. J Bank Finance 2000;24:1651-99], we suggest that herding behavior may be one of the causes of multifractality.
Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo;
Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer or the consu......Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer......" that used data extracted from ordinary management software to predict herd-specific financial performance related to major management changes. The metamodel was derived from systematic experiments with a complex simulation model that was used directly for advanced herd-specific decision support. We...
Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos objetivos de seleção para gado de corte criado nas condições de produção típicas do Brasil Central. As características consideradas foram: número de bezerros desmamados por vaca/ano (NBD, peso da carcaça (PC, peso à desmama (PD e consumo de alimento. Foram adotados dois sistemas de produção, um que considerava somente a cria e outro, o ciclo completo (cria, recria e engorda. No primeiro, as receitas foram a venda de bezerros à desmama, novilhas excedentes e vacas de descarte. No segundo, a receita foi a venda das novilhas excedentes, vacas de descarte e novilhos para o abate. Em ambas as situações, o lucro (USD/vaca/ano foi estimado pela diferença entre receita e despesa. Os valores econômicos estimados foram expressos em dólar por unidade de mudança na característica, calculados na base vaca/ano. O valor econômico foi calculado avaliando-se a alteração ocorrida no lucro quando a característica era incrementada de uma unidade, permanecendo as demais inalteradas. A característica que apresentou maior valor bruto do ponderador econômico foi o NBD, seguida pelo consumo, PC e PD. Quando se considerou o valor econômico, em unidades de desvio-padrão genético-aditivo, a ordem de importância foi consumo, PC, NBD e PD.Breeding objectives were developed for beef cattle production under typical economic and environmental conditions of central Brazil. The traits considered were: calves weaned per cow/year (NCW, weaning weight (WW, carcass weight (CW and food intake. In the study, two systems were examined, a cow-calf system (surplus calves sold after weaning and a cow-calf enterprise (in which surplus calves are raised for slaughter. In the first, income is from the sale of male calves and surplus heifers after weaning and of culled cows. In the second, the income is from the sale of steers, surplus heifers and culled cows. For both situations, the profit (US$/cow/year was estimated by the difference
Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758 infection in Brazilian cattle of Minas Gerais, Brazil Ocorrência de Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 em rebanhos bovinos do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil
Walter dos Santos Lima
Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a parasitic disease which is caused by digenetic trematodes, such as Fasciola hepatica, and which occurs worldwide. The disease causes significant economic losses in cattle because of the reduction in milk and meat production and because the parasitized livers have no economic value. Also, abortion and mortality rates increase. To determine the occurrence and dispersal of F. hepatica in the state of Minas Gerais, fecal samples were collected from bovines aged 12 months and older between April 2005 and April 2006. The bovines came from 1,251 rural farms of 120 municipalities/cities in Minas Gerais. Water was collected to ascertain the presence of the intermediate host in the properties where infected bovines were found. A total of 16 municipalities had infected bovines and 13 had the presence of Lymnaea columella. We detected infected bovines in 70% of the rural farms visited in the municipality of Itajubá. Itajubá was also found to have infected snails with the larval stage of F. hepatica. The results revealed that infection by F. hepatica in bovines of Minas Gerais was associated with the presence of the intermediate host and favorable epidemiological factors, drawing attention to the necessity of adopting proper control measures in the area.A fasciolose é uma doença parasitária que ocorre em todo o mundo e é causada por um trematódeo digenético conhecido como Fasciola hepatica. A doença é responsável por causar perdas econômicas significativas em bovinos, devido à diminuição na produção de carne e leite, condenação de fígados parasitados e aumento na mortalidade. Para determinar a ocorrência e a dispersão da F. hepatica no estado de Minas Gerais, amostras de fezes de bovinos com idade superior a 12 meses foram coletadas, no período de Abril de 2005 a Abril de 2006. Foram examinados bovinos provenientes de 1.251 propriedades rurais de 120 municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. Coleções hídricas tamb
Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.
Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.
Lam, T J; van Vliet, J H; Schukken, Y H
Postmilking teat disinfection is accepted as an important part of standard preventive measures against mastitis in dairy cattle. The efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection against infections with contagious pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae is beyond doubt. However, the efficacy of teat disinfection against infections with environmental pathogens such as Escherichia coli is disputed, and a negative effect has even been described in some situations. This article reviews the practice of teat disinfection in dairy cattle. Premilking and postmilking teat disinfection are discussed, as is the efficacy, different ways of teat disinfection, and different disinfectants. It is concluded that post-milking teat disinfection is an effective management measure in most herds. Selection of teat disinfectants should be based on proven efficacy, which is required for registration of the preparation as a veterinary medical product in the Netherlands.
Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.
Congenital transmissions of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) in cattle and buffalo in Indonesia have been found along time ago, primarily in animals treated with artificial insemination which semen came from the BHV-1 virus infected bull. The artificial insemination industry concerns with BHV-1 virus contamination of semen from healthy seropositive bulls with latent infections. Collection of semen from bulls maintained with a rigorous herd health program is an unlikely source of distri...