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Sample records for brazilian agrarian reform

  1. Livelihood strategies in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Determining drivers and factors within the Agrarian Reform Program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the

  2. Agrarian Reform and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the plight of the world's poor, which was discussed at The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in July, 1979. Urban bias is attributed to the failure of rural development. More participation of rural people is needed. Progress is being made. Examples of literary programs in Iraq and the Sudan are included.…

  3. Histórico e os limites da reforma agrária na contemporaneidade brasileira History and limits of the agrarian reform in the Brazilian contemporary time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nakatani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se reconstituir a trajetória da questão fundiária (e agrária na experiência de maior concentração de riqueza e recursos vivenciada no âmbito do sistema capitalista, partindo-se da premissa de que a crescente desigualdade do modelo brasileiro passa necessariamente pela questão agrária. Num segundo momento, procede-se à análise dos limites atualmente colocados a qualquer possibilidade de uma Reforma Agrária ampla e estrutural, dados pelo avanço do agronegócio nos últimos dez anos, pela desmobilização política de parcela significativa da sociedade no que se refere a esta questão e pelos próprios limites estruturais da economia brasileira nos quadros da globalização financeira. O texto será dividido em seis sessões: a colonização e origens do latifúndio; b O modelo agroexportador e a ruptura incompleta; c a questão agrária e a industrialização brasileira; d a questão agrária e o agronegócio; e os limites da reforma agrária na contemporaneidade; f considerações finais.This paper aims at reconstructing the history of the land (agrarian issue considering the greatest concentration of wealth and resources in the capitalist system. The standpoint is that the growing inequality of the Brazilian model is related to the agrarian issue. Secondly, we analyze the limits ­currently placed on any possibility of a comprehensive and structural agrarian reform, due to the advancement of the agribusiness over the last ten years, the political demobilization of a significant portion of society that put this issue aside, and the limits of the Brazilian economy in the context of the financial globalization. The paper is divided into six parts: a colonization and origins of the large landed estates; b the agro-export model and the incomplete rupture; c the agrarian issue and the Brazilian industrialization; d the agrarian issue and the agribusiness; e the limits of the agrarian reform in the contemporary time; f final

  4. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  5. UKRAINIAN PEASANTRY AS AN OBJECT OF AGRARIAN REFORMS

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    G. G. Krivchik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article attempts to analyze the agrarian policy of the modern Ukrainian State in the context of its human factor. It demonstrates the effects of agrarian reforms on social sphere of Ukrainian countryside. Methodology. The author uses the following methods: dialectical – in the depiction of the controversial nature of agrarian reforms; retrospective – in determination of the main stages of agrarian transformations inUkraine; comparative – in revealing common and different features in the agrarian policy of theUSSR and modernUkraine.The scientific novelty is in the substantiation of the natural unity of economic and social policies in agriculture, the use of a variety of historical sources for this purpose. Conclusions. While conducting agrarian reform, started in the early 1990s, and continued up to the present time, only economic factors are taken into consideration. At the same time, human factor, and the interests of the peasantry, in particular, were ignored and not taken into account, despite the declarations and promises of politicians. Peasants were removed from the determination of objectives, directions and methods of the agrarian reform. They acted solely as an object and not the subject of the reform. In this sense, the methods for carrying out agrarian reforms in an independent and democraticUkraine do not differ much from the methods of the Bolshevik leadership. Thus, as it is shown in the article, the consequences of the agrarian reform can be equally dangerous for Ukrainian peasants. The peasants will lose their land forever and become laborers on the land inherited from previous generations. While carrying out a large-scale reform of the agrarian sector, it mustn’t be allowed for oligarchs to take countryside, land and agriculture into their hands. The regulations of sale and purchase of the land must be so that the Ukrainian peasant will remain the main contractor.

  6. The Land and Agrarian Reform and Food Security: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the aim of this article is to create a historical review of the land and agrarian issues in developing countries in general, and in Africa in particular, as well as map up a landscape of the political economy of land and agrarian reform in the current millennium, and demonstrate how these relate to the issue of food security ...

  7. Types of planned agrarian colonization in Brazilian forests: Historical examples

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Kohlhepp

    2015-01-01

    About 200 years ago state or privately controlled agrarian colonization in South Brazil began with immigrants from Central and Southern Europe. As the Brazilian campos had been occupied by extensive cattle ranching of large landholders, forests were systematically cleared by peasants, the new rural social middle class. Three examples of the most different types of agrarian colonization are presented, colonization of European small farmers in South Brazil in the 19th century; colonization of a...

  8. Os direitos da mulher à terra e os movimentos sociais rurais na reforma agrária brasileira Women's land rights and rural social movements in the Brazilian agrarian reform

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    Carmen Diana Deere

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST, os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão dos direitos da mulher à terra é das mulheres dentro dos sindicatos rurais. Os direitos formais das mulheres à terra foram conseguidos na reforma constitucional de 1988, e em grande medida isso foi um subproduto do esforço para acabar com a discriminação contra as mulheres em todos as suas dimensões. A conquista das igualdades formais, contudo, não levou a um aumento na parcela de mulheres beneficiárias da reforma, a qual permaneceu baixa até a metade da década de 1990. Isso aconteceu principalmente porque garantir na prática os direitos da mulher à terra não estava entre as prioridades dos movimentos sociais rurais. Além disso, o principal movimento social a determinar o passo da reforma agrária, o (MST, considerava classe e gênero questões incompatíveis. Próximo ao final da década de 1990, entretanto, havia uma consciência crescente de que deixar de reconhecer os direitos da mulher à terra era prejudicial ao desenvolvimento e à consolidação dos assentamentos da reforma agrária e, portanto, para o movimento. O crescente consenso, entre todos os movimentos sociais rurais, sobre a importância em assegurar o direito da mulher à terra, junto com um lobby efetivo, encorajou o Estado em 2001 a adotar mecanismos específicos para a inclusão de mulheres na reforma agrária.This article examines the evolution of the demand for women's land rights in the Brazilian agrarian reform through the prism of the three main rural social movements: the landless movement, the rural unions and the autonomous rural women's movement. Most of the credit for raising the issue of women's land rights rests with

  9. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  10. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  11. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  12. On the position of the Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on the Agrarian Reform

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    Drakić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was the process of the agrarian reform. The agrarian reform was a complex state measure with an economic, social and political aspect. All political parties, due to political reasons, spoke in favor of the resolution of the agrarian issue through agrarian reform. Political parties kept in mind the large number of those individuals interested in the agrarian reform, as well as the fact that majority of the voters were farmers, when they formulated their position towards the reform. The Democratic Party was one of the most influential political party in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The paper presents the basic concepts related to the agrarian reform and agricultural policy in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes that represented the Democratic Party.

  13. Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    The focus on South Africa's land and agrarian policies is relevant at a time ... be coordinated at various policy levels, including macroeconomic policy, trade policy, agricultural policy and local economic development and planning for land.

  14. The Place of Pluriactivity in Brazil's Agrarian Reform Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Livelihood diversification by Brazil's peasantry has intensified as rural areas have become more integrated with the country's urban fabric and as landlessness and poverty have increased. Despite the growing awareness of pluriactivity by rural households, key agrarian institutions have not addressed this key feature of life of the people they…

  15. Agrarian reform, land and territory: evolution in the thinking of La Via Campesina

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    Peter Michael Rosset

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the thinking of the transnational rural social movement La Via Campesina over the past two decades, particularly concerning agrarian reform and the defense of land and territory, is analyzed from a participant-observer perspective. The rural world has changed, and the changes external to the movements, along with their internal dialogs and exchange of experiences, have generated new positions, strategies of struggle, consensuses and dilemmas.  Several issues are highlighted, such as the concept of territory, what to do with the land, relationships among actors who share territories, land occupations, titling, the state, and new rights.

  16. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  17. Backlash and Beyond: The Criminalization of Agrarian Reform and Peasant Response in the Philippines

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    Jennifer Franco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 35 years since the end of the dictatorship in the Philippines many rural poor Filipinos have been caught up in a political battle over the pace and direction of agrarian change. This paper focuses on the political-legal dimension of agrarian conflict in one region, exploring how it has fueled and been fueled by criminalization, particularly the indiscriminate filing of criminal charges against share tenants struggling for recognition as legal land rights holders under the 1988 agrarian reform law. Here, criminalization is a form of landlord retribution against tenants who dare to defy the status quo. The case demonstrates how tenants get “bound by law” – e.g., caught up in inconsistencies in state law and ensnared in costly legalist traps set by powerful landowners threatened with redistribution, but then also leading to innovative collective efforts to activate state officials to step in on the side of peasants to make state law authoritative in society. En los 35 años transcurridos desde el final de la dictadura en Filipinas muchos filipinos pobres de zonas rurales se han visto atrapados en una batalla política por el ritmo y la dirección del cambio agrario. Este artículo se centra en la dimensión político-jurídica del conflicto agrario en una región, analizando cómo ha impulsado y ha sido impulsado por la criminalización, especialmente la presentación indiscriminada de cargos penales contra los aparceros que luchan por que se les reconozcan los derechos de tierra legales, bajo la ley de reforma agraria de 1988. En este caso, la criminalización es la forma que tienen los terratenientes de responder contra los aparceros que osan desafiar el status quo. El caso demuestra cómo los arrendadores están "obligados por ley" - por ejemplo, están inmersos en incoherencias en la ley estatal y atrapados en costosas trampas legalistas puestas por los poderosos terratenientes amenazados con la redistribución, pero al mismo

  18. Decree No. 2.363 of 21 October 1987 abolishing the National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform--INCRA, creating the Legal Institute of Rural Land--INTER, and other measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Decree abolishes the Brazilian National Institute of Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA) and creates a Legal Institute of Rural Land (INTER) linked to the Ministry of Agrarian Reform (MIRAD) to perform the activities of INCRA. MIRAD will henceforth be responsible for the rights, powers, and obligations of INCRA and will supervise INCRA's property and resources. In this capacity MIRAD will supervise, coordinate, and execute activities related to agrarian reform and agricultural policy. Among these activities are the promotion of social justice and productivity through 1) the just and adequate distribution of ownership of rural land, 2) limitation of the acquisition of rural property by foreigners, and 3) encouragement of the harmonious development of rural life. In developing such activities MIRAD is to make use of legal measures contained in land law, including those relating to the selection of public rural lands, the privatization of rural land through regularization of ownership, colonization, zoning, and taxation. It is also authorized to expropriate and distribute unexploited or improperly exploited land to worker families, with priority going to labor cooperatives. Further provisions establish rules on expropriation. Among these is the requirement that forests must be protected.

  19. Doing Justice Outside the Courts: From 19th Century Demands to the Reparations of the Agrarian Reform

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    Helga Baitenmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article interprets Mexico’s revolutionary agrarian reform as a rearrangement of the balance of power between the executive and judicial branches of government in which village representatives played a key role. In the nineteenth century, when villagers were unable to resolve their land conflicts in the courts, they often asked the executive to intervene. However, the judiciary successfully defended its authority over contentious land matters. The same dynamic played out during Francisco I. Madero’s government, when pueblo representatives assumed that the Ministry  of development would take over land and settle boundary disputes, but the judiciary continued to defend the constitutional separation of powers. Yet the existing balance of power changed radically when Venustiano  Carranza, in the middle of a civil war during which he shut down the judiciary,  signed an agrarian law that allowed the executive to appropriate court functions. The first two reinstated Supreme Courts subsequently gave up some of the prerogatives that constitutionally belonged to the judiciary. This analysis reevaluates prevailing understandings of Mexican agrarian law and the origins of the federal executive’s extraordinary twentieth-century powers.

  20. From landless to forestless? : settlers, livelihoods and forest dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homero Diniz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: deforestation; remote sensing; mental models; stakeholders’ perceptions; agrarian reform

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in projects in the Brazilian Amazon within the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP) framework, the rationale

  1. Reforma agrária: o impossível diálogo sobre a História possível Agrarian Reform: the impossible dialogue about the possible History

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    José de Souza Martins

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Os desencontros entre o governo, de um lado, e o MST, a Igreja e as oposições, de outro, quanto à política de reforma agrária, só podem ser compreendidos se tivermos em conta o que vem a ser a questão agrária no Brasil. Num país em que o grande capital se tornou proprietário de terras, a concepção clássica da questão agrária, e das reformas que ela pede, fica substancialmente alterada. São essas alterações que propõem as condições e os limites da reforma agrária no país. São elas, também que apontam o desenrolar possível da história brasileira a partir dessa referência estrutural. A reforma agrária se tornou uma reforma cíclica em virtude da, de certo modo, contínua entrada e reentrada em cena de clientes potenciais dessa medida. O fato de que o MST e os sem-terra tenham assumido a iniciativa das ocupações, atuando o governo como suplente para fazer a reforma, não indica a debilidade do Estado democrático para realizá-la. Apenas indica que a sociedade civil, através de organizações e movimentos populares, passou a ter um papel na nova estrutura do Estado brasileiro.The misunderstandings between the government, on one side, and the MST, the Church and the opposition parties on the other side, when the topic is the agrarian reform, can only be understood if we keep in mind what this agrarian matter is in Brazil. In a country which the big capital turned to be the owner of the lands, the classical conception of the agrarian matter, and of the reforms required by it, is substantially altered. These reforms are what really propose the new conditions and limits to the reform in the country. Moreover, they also point to a possible development of the History of Brazil based in this structural reference. The agrarian reform turned to be a cyclical reform due to the continuous entry and reentry of potential clients in this scene. The fact that the MST and the landless have assumed the initiative of the occupations

  2. The 1921 Agrarian Reform in Transylvania and its Reflection in the Considerations of the Members of the Bucharest School of Sociology

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    TELEGDY, Balázs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1921 agrarian reform aimed to be a significant step towards Romania’s agricultural development. The main motive of this reform – at least on a declarative level – was a socially oriented one: to expropriate a part of the big landowners’ estates, and to distribute in among the poverty-stricken people, with a special concern towards the First World War veterans, or their widows. At the same time, the agrarian reform recognised the differences in development between the different regions of the newly-formed Greater Romania, and as such there were two different laws regulating the reform processes in the Old Kingdom and in the newly annexed territories. The members of the Bucharest School of Sociology, based on the scarce data available to them to the time, approached the economically questionable results of this reform in a critical manner. József Venczel, who had acquired the bases of his professional knowledge at the same school, also proves, with regard to the Transylvanian land reform, that this had a second, national policy oriented goal, and its implementation was also ethnically biased.

  3. Stolypin’s Agrarian Reform in Kyiv Province: Antecedents and Consequences for Peasant Land Tenure

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    L. Ihnatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the state of the Ukrainian peasantry tenure in the province of Kyiv. After the reforms of the Russian government in 1861. The majority of the peasants received small plots of land. The reform was carried out with the intention to preserve the estates of the landlords. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the early twentieth century, the plight of the peasants led to their active participation in the revolutionary events of 1905. Analyzes the attempts of the government and landowners to solve the peasant question of handing over land to rent. But this approach to the Kiev province was ineffective. Therefore, the Russian government is trying to address this issue at the legislative level. November 9, 1906 a law was passed that abolished the peasant community and allowed it to strengthen private property. But in the province of Kyiv, these actions of the Russian government have been ineffective. Land hunger of the peasants remained a major problem, because the allocation of the farm required a certain amount of land. Therefore, most of the peasants were forced to sell their land and migrate.

  4. Agrarian Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to…

  5. Lessons learned from Brazilian natural gas industry reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Melissa Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades many countries have reformed their infrastructure industries. Although these reforms have been broadly similar for the most part, aiming at introducing competition in potentially competitive segments, the contexts in which they have been carried out differ. This is due to the past regulatory experience in each country, the maturity of the industry and/or the number of agents when the reform process started. The Brazilian natural gas reform stands out due to the country's singular conditions. The development of the natural gas industry in Brazil was grounded on stepping up supplies through integration with neighboring nations (particularly Bolivia) and establishing a competitive environment by lowering the barriers hampering the arrival of new investors. However, natural gas is located at the crossroads of two main energy chains: oil and hydroelectricity. This article analyzes the Brazilian natural gas reform, and extracts lessons from this process. The low capillarity of transportation and distribution systems continues to be the main bottleneck of the country's natural gas industry. The challenges of the new legal framework are to encourage investments in networks and guarantee supply, to allow the industry to consolidate and mature, against a backdrop of rapid changes in the world market. (author)

  6. Women's land rights and rural social movements in the Brazilian agrarian reform

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana

    2004-01-01

    Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão dos direitos da mulher à terra é das mulheres dentro dos sindicatos rurais. Os direitos formais das mulheres à terra foram conseguidos na reforma constitucional de 1988, e ...

  7. La reforma agraria en Campeche, ¿permanencia de una cultura indí­gena? The Agrarian Reform in Campeche, Continuation of an Indigenous Culture?

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    Mauricio Cantún Caamal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo mostraremos el proceso histórico de la reforma agraria mexicana del siglo XX y cómo se dio en el estado de Campeche. Veremos cómo un intento de los gobiernos posrevolucionarios por restituir y dorar de tierras a las comunidades se convirtió en la oportunidad de rescatar y consolidar la tenencia comunal. También cómo las omisiones e inconsistencias de las leyes durante el proceso dio lugar a errores como no contemplar que las comunidades tuvieran aún tierras y no saber cómo clasificarlas. En la mayoría de las veces estos desaciertos permitieron que los campesinos obtuvieran grandes extensiones de tierra. Finalmente discutiremos cómo la reforma agraria permitió la permanencia de un elemento cultural como lo es posesión en común, el cual ha formado parte de la identidad de los grupos mayas del estado de Campeche.This paper shows the historical process of the Mexican agrarian reform in the 20th century and explains how ¡t took place in the state of Campeche. It demonstrates how an attempt by post-revolutionary governments to return and provide land for communities became an opportunity to restore and consolidate communal ownership. It also reveals how the omissions and inconsistencies of the laws during the process gave rise to errors such as not imagining that communities still had land and not knowing how to classify them. Nevertheless, most of the time, these mistakes enabled peasants to obtain large expanses of land. Lastly, it discusses the way the agrarian reform permitted the continuation of a cultural feature, common ownership, which has formed part of the identity of Maya groups in the state of Campeche.

  8. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  9. Uso de imagens orbitais como base de dados para projetos de reforma agrária The use of orbital images as subsidies to agrarian reform projects

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    Marina de Fátima Vilela

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Análises técnica e econômica foram realizadas em imagens dos sensores IKONOS, TM/Landsat 5, ETM+/Landsat 7 e CCD/CBERS, objetivando a verificação da viabilidade destas como base de dados em projetos de reforma agrária. Essas análises efetuadas e a situação de mercado indicaram que a imagem IKONOS apresenta excelente desempenho técnico, mas o custo de aquisição inviabiliza sua utilização como base de dados para a reforma agrária. A imagem do Landsat 7, com baixo custo de aquisição, apresentou grande viabilidade técnica para fins de reforma agrária. No entanto, a perda do contato com a plataforma Landsat 7 inviabilizou a compra de novas imagens do sensor ETM+. A imagem CCD/CBERS apresentou a segunda maior similaridade com a verdade de campo e o menor índice Kappa para a classificação. Apesar do baixo índice de exatidão para a classificação, as análises de custo, o lançamento do CBERS-2 e a possibilidade de correção dos problemas de radiometria podem tornar as imagens da plataforma CBERS-2 concorrentes de peso no mercado e, ainda, preencher a lacuna deixada pela perda do Landsat 7. A imagem do Landsat 5 apresentou o mais baixo desempenho técnico nas análises efetuadas. Entretanto, seu potencial como base de dados é amplamente reconhecido pelo INCRA, que ainda utiliza tais imagens. O declínio da vida útil do Landsat-5 atribui mais importância ao lançamento do CBERS-2.Technical and economical analyses were performed on IKONOS, Landsat TM 5 and Landsat ETM+ 7 and CCD/CBERS data in order to verify their feasibilities to subsidy agrarian reform projects. Results showed that IKONOS data presented excellent technical viability but its high cost prevents its use. Landsat ETM+ 7 data, with low cost, presented good technical viability, however due to the problems occurring in the satellite operation, its use was also prevented . CCD/CBERS data presented the second best similarity with the ground truth data, although it

  10. State and market in post-reform Brazilian air transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fonseca Monteiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes that have taken place in Brazilian air transportation following the cycle of “market reforms” have turned this sector into an object of growing interest. This interest, in turn, has led to the emergence of a broad literature on the subject, characterized by the emphasis on an agenda of liberalization and the critique of State activism. The goal of the present article is to promote a confrontation between the different interpretations that have been made, incorporating the contributions of approaches inspired in Economic Sociology and in institutionalist analyses in order to draw attention to the importance that political variables, and the State in particular, have for economic performance. The post-reform context is characterized by an initial moment of greater State activism regarding air transportation, through re-initiation of stricter regulatory mechanisms and the re-opening of channels of dialog between state actors and firms. This is followed by a second moment in which state activism is abandoned, at the same time that the sector demonstrates expressive rates of growth, pushing it beyond its existing capacity and flight support infrastructure. This culminated in the episode known as the “apagão aéreo” (aerial black out Analysis of testimonies of state and private sector actors regarding the “blackout” enables us to identify the flaws in the responsible state apparatus as one of the factors that led to the “blackout”. Our conclusions draw attention to the importance of taking political factors into consideration, and particularly the role of the State, in the development of air transportation in Brazil. Keywords: commercial aviation, politics and economics, regulation, Economic Sociology, Historical Institutionalism.

  11. The duopoly policy in the Brazilian model of telecommunications reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important characteristics of the Brazilian Model of Telecommunications Reform (BMTR was the adoption of a duopoly policy, constraining the entry of new players in the wire segment in the transitional phase until free competition in 2002. This policy was also used in the reform experience of the United Kingdom in telecommunications in the 80's. The theoretical explanations behind this kind of policy are not strong enough to justify the duopoly policy in telecommunications. The most plausible idea rests on the prominent role conferred to privatization revenues in the design of the reform as a means of helping the efforts to consolidate price stabilization in the country. We introduce a model with the trade-offs between competition, duplication of fixed costs and privatization revenues. Despite the importance of fixed costs in the objective function of the regulator, we show that the privatization revenue target is the aspect, which justifies the imposition of entry constraints. The British experience shows that the sacrifice of this kind of policy regarding efficiency in the long run can be substantial.Uma das características mais importantes do Modelo Brasileiro de Reforma das Telecomunicações foi a adoção de uma política de duopólio, restringindo a entrada de novas empresas no segmento de telefonia fixa durante a fase de transição até a livre concorrência a ser adotada a partir de 2002. Essa política foi também utilizada na experiência de reforma das telecomunicações ocorrida no Reino Unido na década de 80. As explicações teóricas para justificar a adoção deste tipo de política não são satisfatórias o suficiente para justificar a política de duopólio como prescrição de política nas telecomunicações. A idéia mais plausível se baseia no papel proeminente conferido às receitas de privatização no desenho da reforma como forma de auxiliar os esforços de consolidação da estabilização de preços no

  12. Economics of oil regulation and the Brazilian reform. Some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Perez, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic fundamentals for regulation in the oil industry, with a focus on the current regulatory proposal for the Brazilian oil industry. The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of the optimal contract, with a remuneration structure that combines upfront with future payments to mitigate uncertainty and incentivize exploratory efforts. In Brazil, despite slow market deconcentration since 1997's liberalization, the current oil regulation is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. From an economic standpoint, the 2009's new regulatory proposal prompted by the major oil discoveries offshore in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts while the changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities are not so clear. (author)

  13. Economics of oil regulation and the Brazilian reform. Some issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, Adriana [Center for Economics and Oil Studies, IBRE/Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    This paper reviews the economic fundamentals for regulation in the oil industry, with a focus on the current regulatory proposal for the Brazilian oil industry. The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of the optimal contract, with a remuneration structure that combines upfront with future payments to mitigate uncertainty and incentivize exploratory efforts. In Brazil, despite slow market deconcentration since 1997's liberalization, the current oil regulation is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. From an economic standpoint, the 2009's new regulatory proposal prompted by the major oil discoveries offshore in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts while the changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities are not so clear. (author)

  14. Economics of oil regulation and the Brazilian reform: Some issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.perez@fgv.b [Center for Economics and Oil Studies, IBRE/Fundacao Getulio Vargas (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    This paper reviews the economic fundamentals for regulation in the oil industry, with a focus on the current regulatory proposal for the Brazilian oil industry. The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of the optimal contract, with a remuneration structure that combines upfront with future payments to mitigate uncertainty and incentivize exploratory efforts. In Brazil, despite slow market deconcentration since 1997's liberalization, the current oil regulation is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. From an economic standpoint, the 2009's new regulatory proposal prompted by the major oil discoveries offshore in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts while the changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities are not so clear. - Research Highlights: {yields} The observed exploration and production (E and P) contracts foresee much of the characteristics of an optimal contract. {yields} The current oil regulation in Brazil is in general consistent with an optimal regulatory response. {yields} The changes in the net risk of the E and P offshore activities in Brazil are not so clear. {yields} The 2009's new regulatory proposal in Brazil reduces the power of incentive schemes with respect to exploratory and cost-reducing efforts.

  15. An agrarian town?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Kirstine

    This paper will discuss how to understand the early development of Odense seen through the archaeological record. Is it possible to see if, how and when the town transformed from agrarian to urban during the 11th to 16th Century? Untill now the evidence of the earliest history of Odense has mainl...... these features change over time....

  16. Peace through agrarian justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.; Bah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Postwar countries in Africa are among the poorest. In the countries of the Mano River region (Liberia, Sierra Leone) agrarian injustice emerges as a major cause of both poverty and conflict. Serious efforts are needed to improve the labour, land and property rights of rural women and young people if

  17. BRAZILIAN ADMINISTRATION, ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM AND THE NEW STATE: THE ROLE OF ADMINISTRATIVE APPARATUS IN VARGAS ADMINISTRATION

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    Emerson Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The role played by the administrative apparatus through the Department of Administrative Services in the Government policy Vargas is the object put in debate. Analyzes the theme from the the investigation of patrimonial, authoritarian and inefficient context which marks the formation and development of administrative bureaucracy, the tenders of professionalization and efficiency brought by the administrative reforms of the 1930s and 1940s with the contrast of the limitations of the import of the Weberian model in the Brazilian context and analysis of the establishment of the New State DASP and their assignments. Search the work demonstrate the control position he held directly and through the State Departments in the Brazilian Public Administration ensuring centralized and developmental policy of the government. For this is adopted as the research method of approach structuralism in order to identify the deconstruction of the phenomenon - of administrative reforms - in the superficial perception - the proposed impersonality and efficiency as the best way of achieving the public interest - its invariant structure - the search for the adequacy of the administrative apparatus and bureaucracy for pursuit of political ends pursued by the Government.

  18. Contributions of fallow lands in the Brazilian Amazon to CO2 balance, deforestation and the agrarian economy: Inequalities among competing land use trajectories

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    Francisco de Assis Costa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of regulations limiting greenhouse gas emissions is creating demands and new markets for land-based carbon sinks. Expectations of development of clean technologies and new sources of clean energy are affecting the supply side, creating opportunities for remuneration for sustainable development of natural resources. This paper[1] presents a model developed to gain a realistic understanding of the heterogeneous roles of capoeira (fallow agricultural land in land use dynamics and CO2 balance in the Brazilian Amazon. The model estimates the areas and CO2 balance of different types of capoeira in association with different farming activities and also monitors carbon intensity over time in the context of technological trajectories (distinct farming systems. Modeling with agricultural census data compared six different, competing technological trajectories of capoeira for changes in major land use variables and impacts on CO2 balance from 1990 to 2011. Results revealed that: a technological trajectories contribute differently to net emissions of CO2, with livestock for meat enterprises being the highest net emitters and peasant agroforestry and plantation enterprises the lower emitters; b carbon intensity tends to diminish over time because of increased weight of trajectories with lower carbon intensity, in combination with reduced carbon intensity of trajectories with higher carbon intensity; and c for most trajectories, reuse of “old land” becomes increasingly more important for explaining the essence of agricultural dynamics, including CO2 balance, than is deforestation for opening up new agricultural land. These results draw attention to the role of capoeiras in modernization and intensification of the agricultural sector through renovation of deforested land. The model allows evaluation of deforestation and CO2 emissions as functions of the evolution of markets for agricultural products and of deforestation dynamics

  19. Availability and use of woody plants in a agrarian reform settlement in the cerrado of the state of Goiás, Brazil

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    Vanessa Pessanha Tunholi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are important sources providing plant resources for human populations, and contributing to the livelihood and income of families. To test the ecological apparency hypothesis, that there is positive relationship between the visibility of a species and its use, we conducted an ethnobotanical survey in the protected area of the Itaúna rural settlement in the municipality of Planaltina, in the state of Goiás, in central Brazil. The phytosociological parameters were obtained in 5.6 ha area of the Brazilian cerrado (savanna, and the ethnobotanical survey conducted with semi-structured interviews with 75 people. There was a weak positive correlation between the use value and the phytosociological parameters. A principal component analysis showed that seven species (Pterodon pubescens, Hancornia speciosa, Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Eugenia dysenterica, Annona crassiflora, Stryphnodendron adstringens and Solanum lycocarpum have high use value, despite having low density, dominance and frequency. Nineteen species showed a positive relationship between their use value and their phytosociological parameters. The relationship between vegetation structure and use value differed among species in the protected area, indicating that more attention should be paid to those under more pressure, with low abundance. Further studies of these seven species should be conducted to determine whether human pressure is affecting populations structures and to define management strategies.

  20. Agrarian philosophy and ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Mainstream environmental ethics grew out of an approach to value that was rooted in a particular conception of rationality and rational choice. As weaknesses in this approach have become more evident, environmental philosophers have experimented with both virtue ethics and with pragmatism as alternative starting points for developing a more truly ecological orientation to environmental philosophy. However, it is possible to see both virtue ethics and pragmatism as emerging from older philosophical traditions that are here characterized as "agrarian." Agrarian philosophy stresses the role of nature, soil and climate in the formation of moral character as well as social and political institutions. As such, reaching back to the agrarian tradition may provide a way to move forward with both virtue oriented themes as well as pragmatist themes in developing ecological ethics.

  1. Planned Change in Agrarian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Arthur H.

    The report provides operationally relevant concepts and guidelines for persons responsible for planning and implementing development projects in agrarian countries. A framework for describing or evaluating the conduct of development projects is proposed, and applied to the results of an analysis of 203 case studies of past projects. Influences,…

  2. Dynamics of risk management tools and auctions in the second phase of the Brazilian Electricity Market reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Fabio Cavaliere; Legey, Luiz Fernando Loureiro

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, the reform of the Brazilian Electricity Market underwent a thorough revision. One of its causes was the electricity rationing that began in June 2001 and lasted until February 2002. Among other measures, the 2004 revision devised new mechanisms intended to reduce risks associated to contracts settled in electricity auctions and those related to investments in new generation plants. As 4 years have passed since the onset of the reform's revision, sufficiently enough data are now available for an analysis of the post-revision dynamics of the Brazilian Electricity Market. This is the purpose of the present paper. We focus on the dynamics of the different types of electricity auctions and on the so-called Mechanism for Compensation of Surpluses and Deficits, both created in the wake of the 2004 revision. The ultimate goal is to understand the behavior of the agents involved in auctions - notably buyers and sellers of electricity - and propose remedial actions to eliminate existing loopholes in the present regulatory framework. To achieve this goal, four steps were necessary. Firstly, a data base to support the analysis was built. Then, the main drivers of the dynamics of the risk management tools were identified. Finally, consequences of the implemented changes were discussed and corrections for observed pitfalls proposed. (author)

  3. Rebellion and Agrarian Tensions in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Richards, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which customary governance in Sierra Leone can be held responsible for an increasingly unstable two-class agrarian society. A case is made for regarding the civil war (1991–2002) as being an eruption of long-term, entrenched agrarian tensions exacerbated by chiefly

  4. ACCESS REFORM DALAM KERANGKA REFORMA AGRARIA UNTUK MEWUJUDKAN KEADILAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Irawan Febriansyah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In essence, the purpose of the implementation of agrarian reformis to improve the welfare of the poor peasants. Agrarian reformis not only understood as a policy for there distribution of land, but also as abroader process such as access to natural resources, financial/capital, technology, goods and labor markets, and also the distribution of political power. Equitable distribution of land tenureinrural areas as a result of agrarian reform will result in an increase in the welfare of the villagers who are generally small farmers or farm laborers. Agrarian reform plays an important role in the fight against ruralpoverty. The main target of the agrarian reformis the creation of social justice that is characterized by the presence of agrarian justice.

  5. Nos labirintos da lei: a retórica da reforma agrária no Estado Democrático de Direito - Brasil 1995/2006 In the labyrinths of the law: the rhetoric of agrarian reform in the Democratic State - Brazil 1995/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar de forma condensada, parte das reflexões de pesquisa da autora. Discute alguns vínculos entre direito e história. Procura evidenciar historicamente como o direito é uma prática argumentativa, como são construídos e pensados os argumentos que permitem uma elite política traçar os rumos para o país criando uma legislação que criminalize a atuação dos diversos movimentos sociais, mais concretamente o MST- Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra, transformando o problema "político" da reforma agrária em caso jurídico e de "polícia".This article has objective to present in condensed form, part of the reflections of the author's search. Discusses some links between law and history. Search historical evidence as the law is an argumentative practice, as are built and designed the arguments that allowing an group political outlining the direction for the country by creating a law that criminalizes the actions of various social movements, specifically the MST- Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Landless, making the problem "political" of agrarian reform in legal case the "police."

  6. The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo, Santos and Campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Amélia Luzio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo (capital, Santos and Campinas, in order to understand their material, social and political impacts, the progress in the process of breaking away from the psychiatric ward model, and the establishment of creative and productive groups, required to build up the psychosocial treatment in regard to mental health, as well as to evaluate the contribution that the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System had on the psychiatric reform in the mentioned cities. The research, which is the basis of this paper, is part of a thesis regarding mental health care, whereby the innovative projects implemented in those cities served as framework and basis for comparison to analyze mental health policy in small and medium-sized cities and towns in the state of São Paulo.

  7. [The artistic-cultural field in Brazilian psychiatric reform: the identity paradigm of recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, Paulo; Freitas, Fernando; Pande, Mariana Rangel; Nabuco, Edvaldo

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative study examining a series of artistic and cultural activities that emerged over the last years in Brazil in the context of psychiatric reform. Using both semi-structured interviews with users and mental health professionals as the authors of these activities, as well as participant observation in cultural and artistic events within the period 2007-2010, this study analyzes the role of recognition within the artistic-cultural dimension in the production of subjectivities different from those produced by the traditional psychiatric field.

  8. Migration decisions, agrarian structure, and gender: the case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-ureta, B E; Quiroga, R E; Brea, J A

    1996-07-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on migration in Latin America and examines migration decision making in Ecuador. Aggregate data are obtained from the 1974 census of agriculture and population for cantones. Individual level data are obtained from the 1982 census of population. Migration refers to all census persons who recorded differences in their present and previous place of residence during 1974-82. Migration is modeled as dependent upon gender, age, education, marital status, income at origin and at destination, and population pressure or agrarian reform. Logistic model findings indicate that migration decisions are influenced by individual characteristics of migrants and contextual variables. Migration varied by gender. The results confirm Todaro's hypothesis that the probability of migrating is related to income differences between place of destination and origin, but only for males. Findings suggest that females migrate for primary reasons other than economic ones. The probability of migration was greater with increased levels of education. The decision to migrate was affected by quality of life differences, such as literacy rates and levels of urbanization. The probability of migration was reduced by the effects of land reform. Population pressure had a significant effect in increasing migration. The effects of land reform differ from findings in Mexico by William E. Cole and Richard D. Sanders. Land reforms were initiated in 1964 in Ecuador, but by 1974 there was still considerable inequality in land distribution and increased population pressure. Traditional haciendas were modernized, and peasants increased their dependency on non-farm income.

  9. The history of a movement: Saúde em Debate magazine and Brazilian health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, Paulo; Rizzotto, Maria Lucia Frizon; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    This article traces significant moments in the history of the magazine Saúde em Debate - sourcing references and information from documents, historical studies, editions of the magazine, academic work and interviews with physicians and writers who contributed to its creation. In its 39 years of existence, although there may have been variations in the magazine's editorial policy, its role as a means for exchange of ideas and debate on critical health thinking, and making a contribution by in some way intervening in the Brazilian political process, has not changed. The magazine established itself with a firm reputation as a vehicle of scientific communication especially in the areas of health policy and management, expanding the scope of subjects over time. Among the challenges it has faced, as well as that of financial sustenance, has been its role as an instrument for dissemination of Latin American thinking in the field of health.

  10. The Land Reform Debate in Brazil Under the Current Rural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Mattei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15nesp1p234 In this article we summarize a discussion about the main thesis about the pertinent of land reform in the beginning of twenty first century in Brazil. The papers starts with general contextualization of the Brazilian rural situation after a decades of structural reforms followings the discussion of thesis against and favorable the land reform. On the one side we observe that exist an expressive number of researchers that are defending the land reform because they are understanding that this policy is very important to combat the poverty and social inequalities, and the other side we saw also another group of researchers that are against the land reform because they believe that the time for the land reform is already gone. We concluded that academic debate about agrarian reform now is less important than it was in the post war period, especially in the 1960s.

  11. PERFECTION OF INFORMATION SUPPORT OF BUSINESS IN THE AGRARIAN SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tyumerova I. B.

    2014-01-01

    The article defines the functions and information management tools of entrepreneurship in the agrarian sphere, the impact of the algorithm information support for business development in the agrarian sector, identified ways of improving information systems

  12. Alternative Evaluation of the Agrarian Sector in Guatemala 10 Years ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alternative Evaluation of the Agrarian Sector in Guatemala 10 Years after the ... in research and advocacy for agrarian legislation ever since the adoption of the ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  13. Development of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises: regional accent

    OpenAIRE

    VINITCHENKO I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical principles, modern state and prospects of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises, are considered. Going is certain near a management innovative development of agrarian sphere, that can be applied in the process of forming of corresponding soil of forming of the conceptual going near state administration an innovative process in an agrarian sphere.

  14. The economic impacts of the upstream activities after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry; Impactos economicos da exploracao e producao apos a abertura da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of the investments in the oil and gas upstream, which took place after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry. The reason why I chose to analyze such a period of time was the institutional change which took place in the Brazilian oil industry after the Brazilian Parliament approved Law n. 9.478 in 1997. The law represented the new regulation of the activities related to the oil industry in Brazil. Since then, there has been a very large amount of capital spending in the oil and gas upstream, not only by PETROBRAS, the state-owned oil company, but also by the oil companies which entered the Brazilian oil industry after it was opened to foreign and private upstream investments. This paper analyses the economic impacts of these upstream investments by PETROBRAS and by the new players in Brazil, addressing the impacts of these investments on the generation of aggregate value and yield and the economic activity of other industries. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal, whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  15. A questão do investimento no Setor Elétrico Brasileiro: reforma e crise The investment in the Brazilian power sector: reform and crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lizardo de Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is presently going through its worse electricity supply crisis in fifty years. This happens after seven year efforts of market-oriented reforms, and inevitably raises the issue of whether the design and rhythm of the reform have been correct. The roots of the present crisis lie in a long period of underinvestment dating from the eighties; sector reforms were aimed at correcting this situation, but have been unsuccessful thus far. This article discusses the causes of this failure and attempts a way out of the present problems. The present crisis requires an emergency answer, but also a long term policy. I argue that such a policy must be based upon the acknowledgement that electricity demand in Brazil will tend to grow fast for the foreseeable future and that sector reform must be based upon dynamic rather than static efficiency. Furthermore, the large Brazilian hydropower system requires special treatment if we are to have investment in hydro and in thermal plants.

  16. Organizational and legal support of innovation development in the agrarian sector of the economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Валеріївна Панченко

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a long process of reform, Ukraine is trying to create a competitive, export-oriented agriculture in accordance with international standards of safety and product quality. In Ukraine is no efficient system for the transfer of innovations, the spread of modern technologies for the production and processing of agricultural products, methods and ways to organizing production and economic activity of agricultural enterprises. System analysis of the current legislation on innovation development in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy proved that it is premature to assert a coherent and mutually agreed system of legal acts in this area. The legislation under consideration requires further improvement in order to enhance the appropriate level of organizational and legal support for innovation development by concentrating the state resources on the priority directions of scientific and technical updating of agricultural production, increasing the competitiveness of domestic products in the external and internal markets. To address the issues of proper organizational and legal provision of innovation development in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy in order to increase the competitiveness of agriculture and promote the development of rural areas on a sustainable basis in accordance with EU standards and international standards it is necessary: to define a long-term concept of development of agriculture and rural areas, have a basis for a stable, predictable and transparent legal system aimed at improving the business climate, countering corruption and stimulating investment for the modernization of the agrarian sector, to carry out the institutional reform necessary for effective control. This will balance the approach to strengthening the competitiveness of the agrarian sector and increase exports, will promote the development of rural areas and the conservation of natural resources and the environment.

  17. Rural Women's Experience in the Latin American Agrarian Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana

    1985-01-01

    A partir d'une analyse comparative de 13 réformes agraires latino-américaines, cette communication indique qu'une condition nécessaire mais non suffisante pour que les femmes rurales ne soient pas lésées par rapport aux hommes consiste à les désigner, à égalité avec les hommes, comme les bénéficiaires de ces politiques. Il convient de donner aux femmes autant qu'aux hommes l'accès à la terre, ou la possibilité de participer aux coopératives agricoles ou aux fermes d'Etat. Mais tel n'a pas été...

  18. A POLICY MIX TO PREVENT A NON-COMMONS TRAGEDY FOR COLLECTIVE FOREST RESERVES IN AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHWEST MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Davenport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agrarian reform settlements have recently been identified as a major contributor to ongoing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Collective forest reserves were established in some settlements to thwart forest loss, but settlers usually do not recognize forest commons, opting instead for continued private accumulation through forest clearing, or a "non-commons" tragedy. Pathways toward ensuring the viability of common-pool management in settlements remain unclear. Our case study focused on two similarly sized settlements in neighboring municipalities in Northwest Mato Grosso, Brazil, each with formally designated collective forest areas. In one, deforestation shifted into the collective reserve and intensified; in the other, deforestation stabilized and the collective reserve was protected. In the latter, settlers understood their collective forest reserve as a commonly held asset, with two commercially viable settlement cooperatives involved in Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa extractivism and added value processing. We analyze differences between the two settlements using Elinor Ostrom's framework for analysis of socio-ecological systems, and identify the locally applied policy mix ensuring the viability of a forest commons. The study concludes that "top-down" efforts to institutionalize collective governance over remaining forests will likely fail in most settlements, without a focus on alternative livelihood opportunities synergetic with forest tenure.

  19. Socioeconomic diagnosis of milk production in three agrarian reform settlements in the semiarid of Sergipe State Diagnóstico socioeconômico da produção leiteira em três assentamentos de reforma agrária no semiárido do Estado de Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diomar Cláudio dos Santos Sobrinho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aimed this research was a socioeconomic survey of dairy farms, from November 2007 to January 2008, in agrarian reform settlements Paulo Freire, Cachoeirinha e Cajueiro, located respectively in municipalities Porto da Folha, Gararu e Poço Redondo in the semiarid of Sergipe State. Data were obtained through questionnaires to producers, containing questions that dealt from the social to the economic factor. Was observed a high rate of illiteracy among producers (varying from 28.5 to 49%, which prejudice the production system due to their incapacity to understand and apply new technologies. The herd was characterized by crossbred animals derived from crosses between Holstein and Gir or Guzera and small production daily (5.4 to 6.5 liters/cow, with reduction in profitability and commitment of family lace. It was perceived unfavorable relationship between the amount received per liter of milk - varying from R$ 0.52 to R$ 0.54, between the settlements - and the average cost of producing a liter of milk, varying from R$ 1.19 to R$ 1.44. Moreover, the difficulty of access to technology and technical assistance are problems found in 23.8, 90 and 84.8%, respectively, in the settlements Paulo Freire, Cachoeirinha and Cajueiro. Therefore, is necessary the fomentation of research and development of alternatives to improve the productivity and sustainability of producers with these breeding conditions and the Movement of Landless Rural Workers (MST invests mainly technical assistance and education to the settlers to that be promoted an acceleration and improvement in its development. Foi realizado um levantamento socioeconômico da pecuária leiteira, no período de novembro de 2007 a Janeiro de 2008, nos assentamentos de reforma agrária Paulo Freire, Cachoeirinha e Cajueiro, localizados nos municípios sergipanos de Porto da Folha, Gararu e Poço Redondo. Os dados foram obtidos por meio da aplicação de questionários aos produtores, contendo perguntas

  20. "Trabalhar com os braços e a cabeça para ver o futuro...": representações sobre educação a partir de trabalhadores rurais assentados da reforma agrária "Working with arms and mind to see the future": representations on education among rural workers settled through the agrarian reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Augusto de Azevedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Trabalho que discute a educação como objeto de representação social entre trabalhadores rurais assentados da reforma agrária. Nesse contexto, a inserção desses sujeitos marcados pela exclusão de direitos elementares no processo de luta pela terra disseminou a esperança de se iniciar uma nova trajetória de vida a partir da conquista da terra e de outros direitos que se sucedem à posse e à consolidação do assentamento, como: trabalho, renda, escola, um pedaço de terra ou uma casa para morar. A valorização da educação escolar entre os assentados adultos é uma cantiga atravessada por "ruídos" como as trajetórias pessoais de exclusão da escola; a itinerância sistemática - anterior à condição de assentado - que transforma cada novo lugar de chegada em momento de reordenamento da vida e reinserção social; as experiências de refundação do presente que se instaura quando se é acampado e, posteriormente, assentado; e, também, pelo abandono com que os poderes públicos, ao longo dos anos, têm tratado o conjunto de demandas socioeconômico-culturais das populações assentadas. Os dados da análise do edifício representacional que compõe a leitura de mundo dos sujeitos deram-se a partir da aplicação de um teste de associação livre, no qual foi solicitado aos entrevistados que apresentassem três expressões consideradas mais associadas à palavra indutora Educação.Paper that discusses the subject of education as a social representation among rural workers settled agrarian reform. In this context, the inclusion of these subjects marked by the exclusion of basic rights in the struggle for land spread the hope of starting a new trajectory of life from the conquest of land and other rights that follow the ownership and consolidation of the settlement, as work, income, school, a piece of land or a house to live. The valuation of schooling among adults is a ditty settlers crossed by "noise" as the personal histories of

  1. REGIONAL FEATURES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNCTIONING IN THE AGRARIAN SPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Tyumerova I. B.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the activities of the agrarian sphere in the Chuvash Republic; we have also developed a matrix of opportunities for the development of the agrarian sector in conjunction with the entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial development strategy identified the cluster as the main factor of socio-economic development of the region

  2. The Origins of Agrarianism and the Development of the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Victor Davis

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history of agrarianism and its connection with Western cultural values of private property, civil liberties, constitutional government, separation of power, individualism, and self-reliance. Argues that agrarian history has vast implications beyond just farming, affecting the language, values, and foundations of culture. Discusses…

  3. Agrarianism: An Ideology of the National FFA Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The traditions of the National FFA Organization (FFA) are grounded in agrarianism. This ideology focuses on the ability of farming and nature to develop citizens and integrity within people. Agrarianism has been an important thread of American rhetoric since the founding of country. The ideology has morphed over the last two centuries as the…

  4. Reforming Land and Resource Use in South Africa: Impact on Livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebinck, P.G.M.; Shackleton, C.

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the emergent proprieties of rural and peri-urban South Africa since land and agrarian reforms were initiated after the transition to democracy in 1994. It explores how these reforms have broadened options for the use of land and natural resources. Reform-minded policies in South

  5. Bonded Labour and its Roots in Rural Sphere: An Analysis by Criticality Gaps in the Brazilian Agricultural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Amaral de Pontes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the Agrarian Law and slave labor phenomenon derived from situations of oppression in rural work sometimes are invisibilized by the agrarian academic debate. It is necessary to analyze the Brazilian identity of land property for an interconnected approach to the bonded labour. The exit from legalistic bubble to recognize its relation to the genesis and maintenance of slave labor is our focus. Other regulations, either the CF in 1988 cannot able to eradicate slavery, "updated" in contemporary mold. The uncritical view of agrarian institutes cause false aseptic realities of the Brazilian context, is our approach.

  6. NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING AND IMPROVING AGRARIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics and suggest a framework for assessing efficiency of farms and agrarian organizations. Our new approach includes: study of farm and agrarian organizations as governing rather than production structure; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative market, contract, internal, and hybrid modes of governance; analysis of level of transaction costs and their institutional, behavioral, dimensional, technological and natural factors; determination of criteria of farm efficiency and its effective boundaries; specification of economic role of government and needs for public interventions in agrarian sector; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative forms of public involvement.

  7. ANALYSIS OF AGRARIAN SECTOR RESOURCE PROVIDING IN UKRAINE

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    Iryna Bezpyata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is an analysis of material well-being level in agrarian sector of economy by productive resources (by land, labour, hardware providing with that provides efficiency of economic activity and ground of basic directions of the rational bringing in and use of resource potential of agrarian sector of economy in Ukraine in market conditions. Research methodology consists in the use of statistical and economic research methods for analysis of productive resources using modern state of agriculture for period from 2010 to 2014 years. Research results show that the resource providing agrarian sector development can be defined as totality of certain types of resources (land, technological, labour, financial and sources of their forming, directly participating in the processes of agrarian sector economies development that can be mobilized with the purpose of providing the scale using of their potential possibilities and transition of agriculture to the qualitatively new state. Analysis of the modern state of material well-being of agrarian sector resources of economy in Ukraine is unsatisfactory and with every year gets worse. To overcome this problem agricultural commodity producers are unable only by themselves. For the improvement of the economic state of agrarian sector of economy in whole country and regional state support of home agricultural producer, stimulation of his activity is needed. And first of all the self-weighted investment policy of the state should become such measures in the agrarian sector of economy that will allow bringing in of greater amount of investment resources for the improvement of technical equipment at agricultural enterprises, development of production co-operation and products sale, introduction of personnel management modern methodology, increase in labour activity level in agrarian sector, realization of the permanent updating and increase in products quality control, etc. Practical value. Got

  8. Agrarian Landscape Management in a Modernized World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    ) A historical analysis of social drivers of land use change affecting agrarian landscapes in the Western world in the period 1700-2000 based on a litterature review of modernization theory applied to two local scale historical case studies of changes in landscape structure; (2) A national scale analysis based...... on archival and cartographic sources of the way selected modernization processes affected rural land use patterns in New Zealand in the period from its first Europeancolonial exploration in the 17th century until the present. (3) A global scale analysis of historical patterns of modernization affecting rural...... land use patterns within the Western world based on historical cartographic evidence, (4) A local scale analysis of the decision making practices of landscape managers in four modern case landscapes in Denmark and New Zealand, based on interview surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012. Findings indicate...

  9. Investigating the impact of agrarian policies on conflict and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Investigating the impact of agrarian policies on conflict and peacebuilding ... tourism industry, defusing the conflict impact of relative land scarcity. ... the idea — flowing from the increasingly influential "Economic Theory of War" ...

  10. Agrarian Problems in the New Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Karsky

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le phénomène des révoltes agraires était bien connu en Amérique coloniale. Cependant, les chercheurs ne s’accordent pas sur la signification qu’il convient de donner à la présence continue de révoltes rurales organisées au cours des années qui suivirent la révolution américaine. Les historiens se sont surtout concentré sur deux mouvements post‑révolutionnaires : les Shays et Whiskey Rebellions. Par leur volonté de resituer ces mouvements, au‑delà des doléances agraires exprimées, dans le contexte politique plus large d’une nation en pleine création, les travaux de David Szatmary et Thomas Slaughter, publiés dans les années 1980, ont joué un rôle important dans la recherche sur les révoltes rurales. Quelle a été, depuis, l’évolution des études sur les Shays et Whiskey Rebellions ? Si les historiens ne s’accordent pas sur les causes et la composition des mouvements agraires, la plupart d’entre eux tendent à réduire la signification politique du petit fermier dans la nouvelle nation en reléguant les mouvements au contexte de l’arrière‑pays ou de la frontière. Une autre question divisant les historiens spécialisés dans l’étude de ces rébellions est celle de la part que les fermiers ont prise dans l’économie de marché. Ces mouvements demandent à être analysés dans un cadre économique et social plus vaste, afin de mieux comprendre leur contribution au développement de la démocratie dans la jeune République.Agrarian protest was a well known phenomenon of colonial North America. Yet the continued presence of organized rural protest in the years following the revolutionary war has divided scholars as to its significance. Historians have focused their attention especially on two postrevolutionary movements, the Shays and the Whiskey Rebellions. In attempting to interpret these movements beyond their immediate agrarian grievances in a larger political framework of nation‑making, the

  11. Wealth geography, environment and hunger: small critic contribution to the current agrarian/agricultural model of the natural resources usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text questions the geopolitical issue implied in the argument about hunger and the environment. It criticizes the current agrarian / agricultural model of the natural resources usage, stating it is a model of economic development of mild regions that has been imposed all over the world at a very high ecological, cultural and political cost. This model has faced the patrimonial, collective and community knowledge, characteristic of populations with distinct rationality from the occidental atomistic-individualistic one, with severe risks to the feeding safety. It analyzes the social-environmental consequences of the current agrarian / agricultural model, the contradictory results of the increase of the world capacity of food production, hunger in the world, the meanings of the Green Revolution from the seventies on, the social-environmental impacts of the agrarian business in the Brazilian cerrado and the complexity of the use of transgenic products. It criticizes the restricted ecological sustentation based on a political realism, and proposes a reflection upon a new rationality for the environmental challenge. It concludes that hunger is not a technical problem, for it does not happen because of the lack of food, but because of the way the food is produced and distributed. Today hunger lives with the provisions necessary to overcome itself.

  12. Technical and Environmental Change in Spain: Agrarian Underdevelopment or “European Dragon”?

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    Ricardo Robledo Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The belittling view of Spanish agriculture, the main source of employment until 1950, was a constant reference in the socioeconomic analyses carried out until the end of last century. This became one of the clichés that nourished the Hispanic inferiority complex, to which writers like Joaquin Costa contributed. The revision of agrarian history has helped to correct the image of social and economic underdevelopment in two ways. Firstly, the better knowledge of the technical innovation processes. Secondly, the environmental and biological limits the Spanish agricultural activity suffered. The latter statement is also useful to underline the risks of productivism after the destruction and redirection of the innovation systems by the Franco regime, when the opportunities for farming development offered by the Republican agricultural reform disappeared

  13. Agrarian Transitions, Rural Resistance and Peasant Politics in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Drahmoune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent revival of agrarian studies in the scholarship of Southeast Asia, this paper reviews three recent publications that are concerned with specific aspects of what has been framed as “agrarian transition”, “agrarian change” or “agrarian transformation”. It seeks to identify new perspectives and fresh approaches to the analytical challenges that arise from the multi-faceted and intertwined nature of agrarian change in the region. Further, it considers the implications of these processes – specifically in social, political and economic terms – for the rural population and examines their ways of embracing and resisting these changes. By emphasising the explanatory potential that linking approaches, theories and methodologies of different research traditions and disciplines in an integrative fashion has, it will be argued that – in order to enhance our understanding of people’s responses to rural change – it is essential to recognise their agency and perceptions as interconnected across multiple scales within broader structural conditions.

  14. The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní: inequities and contradictions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Martínez Massip

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian innovation in Camajuaní shows a group of social problems, despite of being a leading municipality in the production of different crops, tobacco and livestock farming. The article is aimed at characterizing, from a sociological approach, the agrarian innovation in producers of different crops, industrial crops, livestock farming and poultry in Camajuaní. A survey, a semi-structured interview and an analysis of the content were applied to an intentional simple of 39 innovators. The outcomes resulted in: gender and age inequity, variability in the levels of scholarship and the tenure of the land of the farmers for an insufficient cognitive domain of innovation, and predominance of a medium level of innovation for most agrarian practices with a high efficiency but low novelty in the various cultures. The agrarian innovations are affected by the contradiction of lacking a bond to the social innovations, with economical aims and being absent to a local system of innovation, which not only limits its growing and development, but also reflects the lack of projection of local entities and civil society; what put at risk the agrarian, rural, and local development.

  15. BULLYING IN AN AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzes bullying in a high school belonging to an agrarian university in the municipal area of Texcoco, State of Mexico. The profile of the students that attend this agrarian high school was analyzed, the impact of bullying on education is explained, along with the risk factors and their consequences, a phenomenon which is very scarcely documented in formative spaces of high school studies, and particularly absent in investigations from agrarian institutions in Mexico. A quantitative investigation was proposed containing a sample of 112 students. In order to collect data, a questionnaire was used, and the information was analyzed using univariate descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation analysis. Out of all the interviewees, 99.1% claimed there is bullying in the agrarian high school and mentioned that the main cause is the lack of values among students, who discriminate their classmates; due to gender stereotypes, it is men who are mainly in the triangle of bullying as attackers, victims, or observers. The analysis of bullying in the agrarian high school helped to know the profile of the students who are vulnerable to become victims, attackers, or observers of bullying: they are not friendly or tolerant, they partake in pranks, they are violent, aggressive, jealous, restless, and they feel uncomfortable in the presence of homosexual or transgender people.

  16. From the history of agrarian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil Silagadze

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has long been recognized as the main field of production in Egypt, Babylon, China, India … It is not accidental that we still have the most precious materials on the issues of management of this sphere, which have not lost their sensitivity to the present day. The study analyzes the individual aspects of the problem mainly on the example of ancient countries, particularly Rome. Based on the conclusion: For Platon the main thing is: The existence of natural farmland where everything is made according to demand; The land is the main sign - “mother”, which is the property of the “ideal state”. About the role of farming, Xenophon had a similar view, who first used the term “economics” and Aristotle, whose ownership is the term “economic science”; The issues of Latifundian agrarian farming research gained particular attention to Antiquity in Rome, where the specialists of Roman thinkers clearly outlined that the main field of agriculture, and the income derived from it - is the most sacred; The most effective product is near the selling markets; The importance of livestock, viticulture and gardening took place in the foreground; The objective of the science of farming is to study soil composition, selection of favorable time for land-processing tools and land cultivation; Additional work used in land cultivation ensures receiving of surplus product … Despite the experience of history, unfortunately, in post-Soviet Georgia does not pay much attention to the development of real economy, including agriculture sector. Keywords: Ancient epoch, Economy, Agriculture, Georgia, Real estate, Employment

  17. Sectoral transitions - modeling the development from agrarian to service economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.; Rybski, Diego

    2013-04-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's GDP, i.e the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations we characterise the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing 4 country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow 3 of 8 characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  18. Fostering a culture of land. Commentary on "Agrarian philosophy and ecological ethics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyfogle, Eric T

    2008-12-01

    Paul Thompson's essay, "Agrarian Philosophy and Ecological Ethics," [1] usefully highlights some of the defects in the now-dominant strands of environmental ethics. It offers an agrarian alternative that solves many of them. Thompson's agrarianism, in turn, has its own limitations, yet it nonetheless merits close attention.

  19. Solving problems of modern land relations on the way of formation of competitive agrarian production in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoruk Olena P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is identification of modern problems of conduct of the land reform and ways of their solution in the context of economic consequences for development of the competitive agrarian production in Ukraine. It identifies that the main task of completion of the land reform is creation of the land market, which would ensure transition of the right of ownership on land lots to an efficient land owner. The basis of this development are farms that combine the owner and master of land in one entity. The article shows that adoption of the Draft Law “On Agricultural Land Turnover” would facilitate development of this form of management. The article identifies main problems of the moratorium on agricultural land sales, namely: land black market activity, withdrawal from market turnover of land of about USD 40 thousand million cost and, as a result, impossibility for agrarians to apply mortgage. The article identifies gaps in the legislation with respect to state control over unclaimed shares and escheats, due to which the state budget does not receive significant amounts of money. It offers ways of solution of these problems through empowering the founded Goszembank, which should become a partner and support for development of small and medium farms after withdrawal of the moratorium on agricultural land sales, with relevant authorities.

  20. Reforma sanitária brasileira: dilemas entre o instituinte e o instituído Brazilian sanitary reform: dilemmas between the instituing and the institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fleury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a trajetória das políticas sociais no Brasil e identifica, em cada etapa, o modelo de proteção social vigente. Afirma que a Constituição Federal de 1988, ao introduzir o conceito de Seguridade Social e criar o Sistema Único de Saúde, representou uma ruptura com o modelo tanto de Estado quanto de cidadania anteriores, em resposta à mobilização social que a antecedeu. A subordinação dos princípios de justiça e inclusão social, que orientaram o desenho desse novo padrão de proteção social, a uma política liberal e monetarista, tiveram importantes impactos na fase de implementação das políticas sociais. No entanto, os dilemas que atravessam tais políticas e, em particular, a construção do sistema único de saúde devem ser analisadas sob uma perspectiva teórica que compreende as convergências e divergências entre os três movimentos que caracterizaram a Reforma Sanitária brasileira, quais são: a subjetivação, a constitucionalização e a institucionalização.The article presents the trajectory of social policies in Brazil and identifies, at each stage, the existing social protection model. It affirms that the Federal Constitution of 1988, when it introduced the concept of Social Security and created the National Health Care System, represented a rupture with what came before. The subordination of the principles of justice and social inclusion, which guided the design of this new social protection model, to a liberal and monetarist policy had important impacts in the phase of implementation of the social policies. However, the dilemma that such policies go through and, in particular, the construction of the National Health Care System must be analyzed from a theoretical perspective that encompasses the agreements and disagreements between the three movements that characterize Brazilian Sanitary Reform, which are: subjectivation, constitutionalization and institutionalization.

  1. Modeling in architectural-planning solutions of agrarian technoparks as elements of the infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrassilova, Gulnara S.

    2017-09-01

    In the context of development of the agriculture as the driver of the economy of Kazakhstan it is imperative to study new types of agrarian constructions (agroparks, agrotourists complexes, "vertical" farms, conservatories, greenhouses) that can be combined into complexes - agrarian technoparks. Creation of agrarian technoparks as elements of the infrastructure of the agglomeration shall ensure the breakthrough in the field of agrarian goods production, storing and recycling. Modeling of architectural-planning solutions of agrarian technoparks supports development of the theory and practice of designing objects based on innovative approaches.

  2. Competitiveness of Agrarian Areas in the Stavropol Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varivoda, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Regional development is determined by possessing specific competitive advantages and their constant improvement. The problem how to increase competitiveness of the areas remains one of the most important for the agrarian sector. Russian economic policy aims at the stable development of the agro

  3. Planning livelihood cohesion for agrarian Tsunami victims | Newport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper highlights the need for adequate livelihood planning for agrarian Tsunami victims in Tamil Nadu are of India. It looks at the reason why the inhabitants of the area were affected by the disaster especially as they are around the coastal plains, which experience periodic monsoon. The recent tsunami devastated the ...

  4. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  5. The politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change: editors' introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, Saturnino M

    2010-01-01

    This introduction frames key questions on biofuels, land and agrarian change within agrarian political economy, political sociology and political ecology. It identifies and explains big questions that provide the starting point for the contributions to this collection. We lay out some of the emerging themes which define the politics of biofuels, land and agrarian change revolving around global (re)configurations; agro-ecological visions; conflicts, resistances and diverse outcomes; state, capital and society relations; mobilising opposition, creating alternatives; and change and continuity. An engaged agrarian political economy combined with global political economy, international relations and social movement theory provides an important framework for analysis and critique of the conditions, dynamics, contradictions, impacts and possibilities of the emerging global biofuels complex. Our hope is that this collection demonstrates the significance of a political economy of biofuels in capturing the complexity of the "biofuels revolution" and at the same time opening up questions about its sustainability in social and environmental terms that provide pathways towards alternatives.

  6. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  7. A reforma sanitária brasileira e o Sistema Único de Saúde: dialogando com hipóteses concorrentes The Brazilian Health Sector Reform and the Unified Health System: talking to competing hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairnilson Silva Paim

    2008-01-01

    Reform. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to analyze the emergence and the development of a Health Sector Reform inside a capitalist social formation, its foundations and characteristics, discussing the praxis challenges. The point of depart are four types of praxis and social changes: partial reform, general reform, revolutionary political movement and global social revolution. The thesis that is supported is that the Brazilian Health Sector Reform, as a social and historic phenomenon, is a social Reform. The hypothesis of the study is that the Brazilian Health Sector Reform, even though proposed as a global reform in its praxis and theorized to reach a revolution in people's way of life, has became a partial reform - sectorial and institutional. It was carried out a case study research based on documental analysis over two conjunctures. The descriptive component of the study was the cycle: idea-proposal-project-movement-process, and the explanatory one was the analysis of Brazilian society's development based on Gramsci's theoretical referential, particularly the categories of passive revolution and transformism. The results points in the direction of a partial reform. The importance of the Jacobin compound in a Democratic Health Sector Reform is discussed. In this case, the democratic radicalization would help change the correlation of forces, unbalancing the binomial conservation-change in the benefit of the latter and conferring a more progressive characteristic for the passive revolution.

  8. The failure of agrarian capitalism : agrarian politics in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and the USA, 1846 - 1919

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative analysis of agrarian policies in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and the USA from 1846-1919.

    The author examines the evolution of agricultural policy and factors that motivate it. These factors are discussed in the context of the repeal

  9. Analysis of investment potential for enterprises of economic agrarian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Dankevych

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with and determines the peculiarities of the investment potential of lands of Ukrainian economic agrarian sector. The author studies the main positives contributing the development of investment for enterprises of agricultural purpose. The reasons that restrain the investment in agriculture are determined. It is emphasized that when using land resources, one should take into account the current specificity of environment in the economic agrarian sector. The article singles out the factors, which form the specificity of development of lease land relations. It is stressed that the important characteristic of lease land relations is their social and economic direction. It is proved that the obligatory condition of a lease agreement has to become the characteristic of a quality state for a land plot. More than a third part of all national income of the country was formed in economic agrarian sector. In particular, 70 % of total amount of retail goods turnover, a third part of main production facilities, a fourth part of population, employed in the Ukrainian economy, was busy working. According to the data of UNO, the potential of Ukrainian lands allows to provide about 100 mln. individuals with foods. To reach this and to renew the present level under current economic conditions one can due to the implementation of essentially new approaches to the organization of agricultural production.

  10. Estructura agraria y violencia rural en América Latina Agrarian structure and rural violence in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Kay

    2003-01-01

    crucial to analyze the origins of that violence in order to find solutions to the problems that cause it. The purpose of the present essay is to explore relations between the agrarian structure, agrarian reform and rural violence in Latin America. Its interrelations are examined from a historical perspective in which global transformation processes are underscored. Factors such as the political regime, markets, technology, crops (for instance, coca and State actions have an important presence in the several kinds of conflicts and violence in rural areas. Nevertheless, the level of influence of such factors varies a good deal according to the characteristics of existing agrarian structure and social relations. A special examination is made on the influence of agrarian reforms and/or peasants' demands for agrarian reform over rural conflicts and violence. The cases of Chile, Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Mexico and some countries from Central America are considered. Although preliminary, the conclusions present some comparative analyses. However, it is my understanding that those should be further developed, but I hope they might offer reference points for more encompassing comparative analyses. The studies on rural conflicts and violence have so far focused mainly on one country. Comparative studies, in my opinion, can offer a broader analytical scope and comparative context might open new possibilities for a better understanding of causes and consequences of rural violence in Latin American countries.

  11. Um balanço da reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: instituições, atores e políticas An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Fernandes Pitta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo provoca olhares sobre a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira (RPB na última década, após a homologação da Lei Federal 10.216/2001 e pretende suscitar o debate inadiável sobre os novos desafios que ela precisa enfrentar para alimentar ou reciclar a antiga utopia de "cidadania plena para todos, numa sociedade sem manicômios". Estaria a Reforma dando sinais de exaustão? É inegável a reorientação do modelo assistencial de Saúde Mental no Brasil do hospital para a comunidade nessa última década. Ao tomar o uso de Substâncias Psicoativas como objeto de políticas e intervenção, incorpora demandas complexas que o atual drama do Crack somente imediatiza a necessidade de questionar sua história, seus limites, sua potência. O que manterá acesa a chama de um movimento exitoso que, surpreendentemente, resiste à força do tempo e do estigma nesses dez anos da Lei? Essas e outras questões precisam ser equacionadas. Está na hora de reciclar os focos de avaliação e análise no sentido de identificar o que ameaça sua vitalidade. Esse é o desafio que a articulista e debatedores estarão provocados a contribuir.The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly

  12. Venezuelan Agrarian dynamic: reflections for its discussion La dinámica agraria venezolana: reflexiones para su discusión

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    Diosey Ramón Lugo-Morin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Century XX started in Latin America with intense social movements. Most important it was the Mexican revolution that it destroyed many of the oppressive structures under which was the immense majority of the population. The example of the movement invaded all Latin America and the notion of the agrarian reform was adopted by the advanced social sectors more than they tried to take to his own countries to more modern productive models. By the previous thing, the present study proposes to make an analytical reflection of the dynamics of change of the Venezuelan agrarian from an neoinstitutional perspective. It was concluded that the transformations in the Venezuelan agrarian structure sustain to a positive impact in their rural space and an opportunity for a reflective debate is opened on the paper of the institutions in the task of the Venezuelan agrarian question.El siglo XX arrancó en América Latina con intensos movimientos sociales. El más importante fue la revolución mexicana que destruyó muchas de las estructuras opresivas bajo las que se encontraba la inmensa mayoría de la población. El ejemplo del movimiento invadió toda América Latina y la noción de la reforma agraria fue adoptada por los sectores sociales más avanzados que intentaban llevar a sus propios países a modelos productivos más modernos. Por lo anterior, el presente estudio propone hacer una reflexión analítica de la dinámica agraria venezolana desde una perspectiva neoinstitucional. Se concluye que las transformaciones en la estructura agraria venezolana sustentan un impacto positivo en su espacio rural y abre la oportunidad para un debate reflexivo sobre el papel de las instituciones en el quehacer de la cuestión agraria venezolana.

  13. Views on agrarian question in the russian empire early twentieth century public don (on the example of V.I. Denisov

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    Z. V. Svyaschenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the essence of agrarian nobility Don initiatives as an example of marshal of the nobility of the Don area V.I. Denisova, draws attention to the radical changes large landowners understand the nature of the agrarian question. Detailed analysis of vision causes aggravation and solving agricultural problems under conditions of revolution «Union supporters peaceful resolution of the agrarian question», which was organized by Don autumn 1905 Union believed that the government should immediately allow farmers free access to the community with fixing them processed before this allotment in private ownership and the right of selling. The analysis looks marshal of the nobility area of the Don V. Denisov, according to which land reform must be focused on the transition from communal farmers to homestead entities on the basis of peasant private ownership of land, increasing the size of peasant land ownership through the purchase of additional land they or their resettlement intensification individual farm. A general conclusion is that the views of V.I. Denisov and other landowners reflect the general mood and position of large landowners on agricultural issues. Their analysis shows a major fact of evolution beliefs representatives of large estates. As the patriots of their country, they offered very real steps to address not only the agricultural problems and to improve general well-being of the population, increasing the efficiency of the economy and legal equality of different layers Russian imperial society and so on. A large estates in various regions of the country were unanimous that stop the deployment of revolutionary elements in the country is possible only on one condition - the resolution of the agrarian question.

  14. Further thoughts on agrarian capitalism: a reply to Albritton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmolek, M

    2001-01-01

    In response to Albritton [2000], who asserts that the central dynamic of capitalism's genesis was putting-out manufacturing, I provide a sketch of the processes of agrarian capitalism. The elaboration of the common law in the Middle Ages enabled widespread conversion to leaseholds after the plague. An increasingly privatized system of land ownership resulted from the enclosure movement in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the upheavals of the seventeenth century represented the triumph of the enclosers. The rise of cottage industry in the eighteenth century was supported by a systematic effort at improving agricultural productivity. By the Industrial Revolution, the principle of individual control over production had long been established.

  15. Reframing ‘Crisis’ in Fair Trade Coffee Production: Trajectories of Agrarian Change in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.; Fisher, E.; Arce, A.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A focus on crisis provides a methodological window to understand how agrarian change shapes producer engagement in fair trade. This orientation challenges a separation between the market and development, situating fair trade within global processes that incorporate agrarian histories of social

  16. Agrarian Violence: A Comparative Analysis of Recent Farm Movements in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartell, Ted

    Collective agrarian violence was examined in the U.S. and Canada to determine: (1) if the American historical experience was unique; (2) if the American farm movements evidenced the same characteristics and development as those in Europe; (3) if American collective agrarian violence has manifested the same characteristic shape as that of France…

  17. RESEARCHING FACTORS OF INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES OF AGRARIAN BUSINESS OF UKRAINE UNDER GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY

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    Vadim Sidorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern processes of reforming the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine, a large part of which belongs to the agrarian sector, under the globalization of world economic processes in the agricultural market require that domestic agroindustrial enterprises improve and rationally manage innovative activities (IА. The effective solution of problems that arise in this context in the rapidly changing economic and social and political environment requires that analytical methods in the management of the enterprises of the agroindustrial complex (AIC be used on the basis of the tools of economic and mathematical modelling, taking into account characteristics of agrarian production. The main approaches to modelling systems related to IА management are either descriptive or insufficiently formalized, and suggest virtual experimenting with IA management, avoiding the possibility of assessing the impact and consequences of different management options in the long view, minimizing IA risks when making managerial decisions. The subject matter of the article is the tools of economic and mathematical simulation of the development of innovative activities of the domestic agroindustrial complex. The goal is to develop tools for modelling innovative activities of enterprises of the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine in the form of analytical dependencies of impact factors. The objective is to research the dynamics of innovative activities of enterprises of the agroindustrial complex of Ukraine in terms of its components under the globalization of world economic processes in the market of agricultural products. General scientific methods are used, such as system analysis – to determine the peculiarities of development of IА of agroindustrial production in Ukraine, factor analysis – to formalize the cause-and-effect relationships of the investigated factors of AIC enterprises impact on IA. The following results were obtained: on the basis of the analysis of the

  18. Educação para promoção da saúde infantil: relato de experiência em um assentamento de reforma agrária, Vale do Rio Doce (MG Education for child health promotion: the experience with an agrarian reform settlement in Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Maria Gontijo Coelho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho relata uma experiência pedagógica de intervenção para promoção da saúde infantil em um assentamento de reforma agrária no Vale do Rio Doce (MG. No processo, procedimentos pedagógicos grupais e individualizados foram combinados, criando espaços dialógicos de problematização da saúde e nutrição infantil. Foi proposto e planejado um levantamento diagnóstico das condições de saúde das crianças menores de 5 anos; a devolução e a discussão dos dados com a população se deram por meio de reunião coletiva. Foi efetuado atendimento nutricional individualizado às mães das crianças; tratado com as gestantes e nutrizes o tema do aleitamento materno e ministrado um curso de Vigilantes da Saúde das Crianças, com vistas ao monitoramento da saúde infantil no local. Houve grande participação dos assentados nas intervenções, desde o planejamento até a execução das atividades. A estratégia adotada permitiu detectar as intervenções aceitas, as mais efetivas e as que deverão ser reformuladas com a comunidade. Do ponto de vista teórico e metodológico, a experiência permitiu observar os limites e potencialidades de ações que aproximam áreas de saber como sociologia e nutrição em atividades transdisciplinares.This study reports a pedagogical experience of intervention for child health promotion in a land reform settlement in the Vale do Rio Doce, Brazil. Grouped and individualized pedagogical procedures were combined to create spaces for discussion of child health and nutrition issues. Diagnosis on health conditions of children under 5 was proposed; planned and the results were discussed in a community meeting. A second moment consisted of an individualized nutritional counseling offered to the children’s mothers, emphasizing the health problems of high occurrence at this age. The topic of breastfeeding was debated with pregnant and lactating women and a course on Child Health Care was taught to monitor

  19. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  20. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  1. Competitiveness analysis of Czech agrarian foreign trade in the context of world agrarian market and agrarian trade of EU-27 countries

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    Miroslav Svatoš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the commodity structure of Czech (CR agrarian trade in relation to the EU countries. An emphasis is put on comparative advantages of particular aggregations from the view-point of their application on the EU internal market. This analysis is based on an evaluation of comparative advantages by means of a modified Balassa index. It is studied in two stages, for the internal EU market and the world market. The analysis results are then shown in a graph. Subsequently, the authors implement an idea arising from a BCG matrix on the results of the graphic presentation. The aim is to identify those aggregations (SITC, rev. 3 which are or have a potential to be a pillar of agri-business (ie, the “cash cows” and “stars”, and vice versa to show the aggregation which are non-prospective in the long term or problematic (ie, the “dogs” and “problem children”. As start are identified as those aggregations which are characterised by the highest growth rate of comparative advantage value. From the analysis results, changes are apparent if we compare the CR trade commodity structure in relation to the EU countries. Findings also concern the development of comparative advantages and following CR specialisation on trade with certain aggregations.

  2. Newspaper Portrayals of Agrarian Reform: The "Jacksboro Rural Citizen" and "The Dallas Morning News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerts, Jean Lange

    The Farmers' Alliance was organized in Texas in 1877, and soon spread through the South and Midwest. Farmers formed cooperatives to combat the crop-lien system that bound them to furnishing merchants and to oppose differential railroad rates that hampered the shipment of their crops. As it grew, the alliance began to demand other land,…

  3. The Agrarian Natural Resource Use in the Area of Risky Farming: Principles and Priorities for Rationalization

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    Golyan Vasyl A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The essence of agrarian natural resource use as an important prerequisite for agricultural production in the area of risky farming (drainage zone, irrigation zone, and mountainous areas has been disclosed. The problem points of rationalizing the agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been identified in relation to the structural deformations of agricultural production. The main sectoral and institutional priorities for agrarian natural resource use in the drainage zone have been determined. The principles of agrarian natural resource use in the area of risky farming have been formulated, consisting in the restoration of traditional agricultural specialization, maintaining the environmental-economic balance, ensuring the adaptability to international environmental conventions, comprehensively countering the rural poverty, overcoming the asymmetry in information, preserving the food orientation of agricultural production, and transforming negative externalities into positive effects.

  4. The debate on food sovereignty theory: agrarian capitalism, dispossession and agroecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution reviews recent critiques of the food sovereignty framework. In particular it engages with the debate between Henry Bernstein and Philip McMichael and analyzes their different conceptualizations of agrarian capitalism. It critically identifies tendencies in food sovereignty

  5. MONITORING AND PROGNOSTICATING PROCESSES OF INVESTMENT IN AGRARIAN-AND-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanova I.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. At present, Ukraine’s development depends on the agrarian-and-industrial sector as a sphere of priority to ensure the competitive ability of the national economy. The following growth of the agrarian-and-industrial complex demands accessible and considerable financing. The latest legislative changes created a great extent for investing climate in the country and a great probability of the moratorium cancellation to sell agricultural lands give grounds to observe and analyze the...

  6. Mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex

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    Buryak E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the concept of competitiveness and mechanisms of management of competitiveness of production is considered. Major factors of ensuring competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex are allocated. The main problems of production of wheat in the Republic of Crimea making negative impact on the level of her competitiveness are revealed. The mechanism of management of competitiveness of production of agrarian and industrial complex is developed.

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE ACTIVATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN AGRARIAN SECTOR

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    Svitlana Syrtseva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is a justification of roles and identifying areas of improving the functioning of innovation infrastructure that will boost innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Methodology. The methodical basis of the study consists of general scientific cognition methods of economic phenomena and processes. Realization of the work tasks required such methods: theoretical generalization method – during study of scientific papers, legislative and regulatory acts; abstract logical method – to summarize theoretical and methodological provisions, as well as define the research goal; system approach method – identifying areas for improving the functioning of the innovation infrastructure of Ukrainian agrarian sector. Results. Found that in modern development conditions, a network of innovative structures that would provide infrastructure support for innovation development in the agricultural sector should be represented by such institutions as: agricultural innovation clusters, science parks, business incubators, venture funds, advisory services. Taking into account the international experience of the main institutions of infrastructural maintenance of innovative development, suggested areas of improvement and optimization of their formation and functioning to ensure innovation in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. Proved that the formation of agricultural innovation regional clusters should be represented by the following stages: a preliminary analysis and identifying promising areas and productions; selection of the cluster members; the strategic planning stage; setting goals and objectives; work scheduling of the cluster members in order to implement strategies; control over the execution of the approved programs and projects. Taking into account the global model of organization of advisory services, determined that the development of agricultural advisory system should be implemented through extension services

  8. KEY FEATTURES OF THE AGRARIAN TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE FORMER GDR

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    Ш Мерль

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the agrarian transformations (primarily privatization and structural adaptation to the domestic and international markets in the former GDR that are often presented as a success story due to the growth in agricultural productivity and competitiveness of new types of agricultural en-terprises. First, the author identifies the main tasks of these transformations: (1 privatization of the “socialist property” and its distribution between (a those who contributed capital and land to the agricultural enter-prise when it was established, and (b its employees at the moment of restructuring; (2 adaptation to new market conditions. Both tasks were extremely difficult and challenging for they required large investments in better breeds and machinery, and a significant reduction of agricultural workforce. Second, the author considers the legislative basis for privatization and the real practices of the reorganization of the former agricultural enterprises (proposals for the distribution of the assets, land restitution as prior to compen-sation, the successor large-scale enterprises forced land leasing contracts, manipulations with the balance sheets to obtain hidden reserves necessary for survival by underestimation of the existing assets, etc.. The author believes that the Kohl government did not foresee that privatization would be so complicated, and made many mistakes while striving to keep agricultural production in the new countries, especially to restrain the growth of unemployment. Therefore, the contemporary research of the agricultural economy is very critical of the regulations and frameworks set by the German government that is blamed for being responsible for many serious development constraints (short-term leasing contracts, paying off old debts, the lack of state subsidies for large enterprises, etc.. The final section of the article reveals the meaning of the land property in the agrarian transformations in the GDR

  9. Small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effland, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This address is an exploration of a lifetime of disparate and often conflicting observations about how different people view what is right and good for agriculture, food, and farmers around the world. The exploration utilizes the concept of wicked problems to focus on the issue of differing historical interpretations of global agricultural development. Sandra Batie defines wicked problems as "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" for which "there can be radically different views and understanding of the problem by different stakeholders, with no unique 'correct' view." The wicked problem construct is applied to four core ideas in the history of agricultural development -- small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development -- to demonstrate the potential for using this concept to approach complex problems of historical interpretation and contribute to solutions to the challenges of global agricultural development. The author suggests historians should acknowledge contradictory interpretations adn work toward reconciliation and synthesis, where it is possible and, where not, toward a clear explication of the basis for remaining differences. The author also encourages historians to seek multidisciplinary research opportunities that will help bring insights about historical context to policy deliberations.

  10. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  11. Imaging the Rural: Modernity and Agrarianism in Hiroshi Hamaya’s ‘Snow Land’ Photographs

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    Ross Tunney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Snow Land photographic series by Japanese photographer Hiroshi Hamaya [1915–1999] in relation to issues of modernity, nostalgia and discourses of agrarianism in 1940s and 1950s Japan. Hamaya is one of Japan’s most celebrated and influential documentary photographers at both a national and international level. His Snow Land series presents an idyllic view of life in the small mountain villages of Japan’s Niigata Prefecture, emphasising a sense of community and spiritual meaning that Hamaya perceived to be lacking in modern society. In this sense, Snow Land constituted a critique of modernity. Through engagement with theorists such as Heidegger, Foucault and Barthes, as well as critical writings on agrarian ideology, this article investigates the underlying assumptions that govern Hamaya’s depiction of snow country, demonstrating that the series is shaped by a modern worldview and is tied to ideological discourses of agrarianism.

  12. Fragmented Agrarian Space: Building Blocks and Modernisation Trajectories. The Case of Slovenia

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    Slavič Irma Potočnik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production, processing and consumption within Slovenian agrarian space are fragmented due to physical constraints (72.4% of the territory categorised as ANC and socio-geographic factors. Based on available data, five essential building blocks of contemporary Slovenian agrarian space (available land, change management, integrated circular economy, adjustable policies, and flexibility of institutions are discussed. Interrelations among the building blocks shape the modernisation trajectories of approx. 70,000 agricultural holdings in Slovenia. The coexistence of three modernisation trajectories, i.e. practised autarky, various forms of pluri-activity, and small-scale intensive and innovative modernisation, creates a complex mosaic. The governance of multifunctional and multi-structured agrarian space is becoming more demanding.

  13. [In the America of mountain ranges, the brief summer of Indian agrarian movements (1970-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bot, Y

    1991-01-01

    Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make

  14. [The medical support of resettlement of peasants in Siberia during the Stolypin reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorysheva, I V; Gontcharova, S G

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the organization of medical care of settlers en route and in places of their settlement beyond the Ural during the Stolypin agrarian reform. The role of P.A. Stolypin, the Chairman of Council of ministers is demonstrated concerning the application of urgent measures on improvement of functioning of departments, controlling the resettlement and arrangement of peasants at new places. The development of resettlement medicine patterned after zemstvo medicine enhanced the penetration of scientific medicine into inaccessible regions of country.

  15. The rise of agrarian capitalism and the decline of family farming in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Taylor, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Historians have documented rising farm sizes throughout the period 1450–1850. Existing studies have revealed much about the mechanisms underlying the development of agrarian capitalism. However, we currently lack any consensus as to when the critical developments occurred. This is largely due to the absence of sufficiently large and geographically wide-ranging datasets but is also attributable to conceptual weaknesses in much of the literature. This article develops a new approach to the problem and argues that agrarian capitalism was dominant in southern and eastern England by 1700 but that in northern England the critical developments came later.

  16. A review investigating agrarian female entrepreneurship in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Present research has found the link between economic development, gender equality and rural development of particular areas. Female agrarian entrepreneurship leaning on multifunctional agriculture and agribusiness, can create favorable work climate in the whole region. Comparative analysis of female agrarian entrepreneurship of some populated places in north and south of Serbia gives information that can help in creating independent regional developmental politics. Experiences, attitudes, suggestions and recommendations acquired from polled women entrepreneurs give valuable and hardly attainable data to the other women living in rural areas and planning on starting their own businesses.

  17. Diversification of de-agrarianization? Income diversification, labor, and processes of agrarian change in southern and northern Malawi, mid-1930s to mid-1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the links between market-oriented activities and subsistence production among peasant farmers in the Thyolo and Mzimba districts in Malawi from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. The two districts were chosen because of their differences in terms of land-labor ratios, quality of soils, and structure of market engagement. Exploring the different paths of agrarian change in these two districts demonstrates that they were dependent on the structure of market engagement and its effects on the supply and flexibility of labor. African agricultural history is best understood when agricultural systems are viewed in connection to the overall economic activities of rural households. More simply put, the dynamics of agrarian change in rural Africa cannot be understood without linking such changes to the wider economy and their impact on local labor processes.

  18. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  19. Demographic perspectives on agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations': supply-side banalities versus redistributive imperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper frames the discussion of agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations' in the Global South within a political economy and macro-structural consideration of the developmental challenges faced in the context of contemporary rapid population growth. The case is made that the

  20. The Investment Model for the Intensive Development of Ukrainian Enterprises in the Agrarian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulynych Yurii M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an investment model for the development of Ukrainian enterprises in the agrarian sector, which is one of the «locomotives» of the domestic economy. However, only by creating high value-added can be expected sustainable economic development both as an economic entity and as a whole economy of country. A long-term partnership with the advanced economies of the world is another key prerequisite for sustainable economic development. The article explores a potential Norwegian market in the context of the consumption of agriproducts as fodder for aquaculture, as well as Ukrainian agrarian market. Ukraine’s competitive advantages in the market for food ingredients for fish in Northern Europe have been formulated. The results of the study point to the high potential of soybean protein concentrate (SPC for the Norwegian market and, in turn, the great prospects for Ukraine in this market as a leader in the European soya growing. Measures that will facilitate the establishment of strong economic ties between Ukrainian agrarian enterprises and the markets of the developed countries have been determined. An investment model for the intensive development of Ukrainian enterprises in the agrarian sphere has been formed.

  1. The Effects of Violence and Internal Displacement on Rural-Agrarian Change in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Abdulkerim

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses two interrelated issues that have assumed major political significance in the handling of the Kurdish question in Turkey. The first is the impact of violence and resulting internal displacement in Eastern and Southeastern Turkey on rural-agrarian change. The second concerns the implications of the structural change and social…

  2. Comparative Analysis of Pedagogical Technologies in the Context of Future Agrarians' Multicultural Education in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    In the article the comparative analysis of pedagogical technologies in the USA has been carried out in the context of future agrarians' multicultural education. The essence of traditional and innovative pedagogical technologies and the peculiarities of their realization at higher educational establishments have been viewed. The expediency of…

  3. Social Capital, Organic Agriculture, and Sustainable Livelihood Security: Rethinking Agrarian Change in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of extra local market linkages and local-level social capital to sustainable livelihood outcomes in two agrarian communities on Mexico's Baja Peninsula. Contextualized by the specificity of Mexico's transition from state-directed rural development to neoliberally-guided rural development in the 1990s, findings…

  4. Peasant in transition : agrarian society in Western Sri Lanka under Dutch rule, 1740-1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period

  5. Agrarian land use decision making in the light of global change and climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available in Limpopo Province to help land beneficiaries to achieve integrated and coordinated agrarian land use decision making. The second project is ongoing and it seeks to build local resilience to climate change by providing people at local government...

  6. Game animals and small terrestrial mammals - Suitable bioindicators for the pollution assessment in agrarian ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávrová, M.; Zlámalová Gargošová, H.; Šucman, E.; Večerek, V.; Kořínek, P.; Zukal, Jan; Zejda, Jan; Sebestiánová, N.; Kubištová, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2003), s. 165-172 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : bioindicator s * agrarian ecosystems * pollution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003 http://www.psp-parlar.de/details_artikel.asp?tabelle=FEBArtikel&artikel_id=234&jahr=2003

  7. The drive for accumulation: environmental contestation and agrarian support to Mexico's oil palm expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Jansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm expansion has been related to rural dispossession, environmental degradation and rural resistance. This paper explores the politics and impact of farmer-based oil palm expansion in Chiapas, Mexico. In relation to the debate on the greening of the agrarian question, this paper engages with

  8. [Johan Eellend. Cultivating the Rural Citizen : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia] / Kersti Lust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lust, Kersti, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Eellend, Johan. Cultivating the Rural Citizien : Modernity, Agrarianism and Citizenship in Late Tsarist Estonia. Stockholm : Stockholm Universty, 2007. Eesti agraarideoloogia kujunemist ja olemust käsitlevast dissertatsioonist. Tegemist on Eesti ühiskondliku mõtte voolude ja nende mõjuulatuse tavapärasest erineva nägemusega

  9. How Biodiversity Conservation Policy Accelerates Agrarian Differentiation: The Account of an Upland Village in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, W.H.; Xuan To, P.; Mahanty, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how the implementation of Vietnam«SQ»s recent biodiversity conservation policy in Ba Vi National Park has increased the economic value of nature, created sustained conflict, and exacerbated agrarian differentiation in an upland village in northern Vietnam. Increased global and

  10. Geographical proximity on the valuations of unlisted agrarian companies: Does distance from company to company and to strategic points matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhino, P.; Maté, M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a first attempt to examine the role played by the geography on agrarian firms’ valuations. The geography was evaluated through the physical proximity from agrarian companies to other companies and to some strategic points which ease their accessibility to external economic agents. To get our purpose, we developed an empirical application on a sample of non-listed agrarian Spanish companies located in the region of Murcia over the period 2010-2015. We applied Discount Cash Flow methodology for non-listed companies to get their valuations. With this information, we used spatial econometric techniques to analyse the spatial distribution of agrarian firms’ valuations and model the behavior of this variable. Our results supported the assertion that agrarian firms’ valuations are conditioned by the geography. We found that firms with similar valuations tend to be grouped together in the territory. In addition, we found significant effects on agrarian firms valuations derived from the geographical proximity among closer agrarian companies and from them to external agents and transport facilities.

  11. Geographical proximity on the valuations of unlisted agrarian companies: Does distance from company to company and to strategic points matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occhino, P.; Maté, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a first attempt to examine the role played by the geography on agrarian firms’ valuations. The geography was evaluated through the physical proximity from agrarian companies to other companies and to some strategic points which ease their accessibility to external economic agents. To get our purpose, we developed an empirical application on a sample of non-listed agrarian Spanish companies located in the region of Murcia over the period 2010-2015. We applied Discount Cash Flow methodology for non-listed companies to get their valuations. With this information, we used spatial econometric techniques to analyse the spatial distribution of agrarian firms’ valuations and model the behavior of this variable. Our results supported the assertion that agrarian firms’ valuations are conditioned by the geography. We found that firms with similar valuations tend to be grouped together in the territory. In addition, we found significant effects on agrarian firms valuations derived from the geographical proximity among closer agrarian companies and from them to external agents and transport facilities.

  12. Agrarian diet and diseases of affluence – Do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson Tommy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of varying prevalence of diseases of affluence, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, suggests that some environmental factor specific to agrarian societies could initiate these diseases. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that a cereal-based diet could be such an environmental factor. Through previous studies in archaeology and molecular evolution we conclude that humans and the human leptin system are not specifically adapted to a cereal-based diet, and that leptin resistance associated with diseases of affluence could be a sign of insufficient adaptation to such a diet. We further propose lectins as a cereal constituent with sufficient properties to cause leptin resistance, either through effects on metabolism central to the proper functions of the leptin system, and/or directly through binding to human leptin or human leptin receptor, thereby affecting the function. Testing the hypothesis Dietary interventions should compare effects of agrarian and non-agrarian diets on incidence of diseases of affluence, related risk factors and leptin resistance. A non-significant (p = 0.10 increase of cardiovascular mortality was noted in patients advised to eat more whole-grain cereals. Our lab conducted a study on 24 domestic pigs in which a cereal-free hunter-gatherer diet promoted significantly higher insulin sensitivity, lower diastolic blood pressure and lower C-reactive protein as compared to a cereal-based swine feed. Testing should also evaluate the effects of grass lectins on the leptin system in vivo by diet interventions, and in vitro in various leptin and leptin receptor models. Our group currently conducts such studies. Implications of the hypothesis If an agrarian diet initiates diseases of affluence it should be possible to identify the responsible constituents and modify or remove them so as to make an agrarian diet healthier.

  13. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF EDUCATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF KRASNOYARSK STATE AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Antonova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to issues of internationalization of educational process in Federal state budget educational institution of higher education “Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University”. The authors’ aim is to analyze and describe the methodology for this work at Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University. Methods. Theoretical and empirical methods of research, such as analysis and synthesis of the information available in psychological and pedagogical literature, as well as modelling, observation and experiment constitute the basis of the research. Results. In the study, the authors analyze and substantiate the reasonability of the implementation of practical forms of education internationalization at Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, as the basis for fulfillment of the efficiency indicators in the higher education institutions monitoring, including internationalization of curricula and educational programs, mobility of students and teachers, as well as the export of educational services as a separate component of the internationalization. Separately, the linguistic and socio-psychological adaptation of foreign students in Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University as the basis of internationalization is examined. The work on the internationalization of education in the Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University allowed fulfilling the indicator of monitoring. If in 2014 the university had only 0,41% of foreign students in the given contingent, then starting with 2015, the indicator is met. In 2017, it was 4,8%. The indicator of the receipt of funds from foreign students training also increased from 1,8 million rubles in 2016, up to 2,2 million rubles in 2017. Practical implication and results. The results of the study may be of interest for the management of higher educational institutions implementing the provisions of the Bologna Declaration, the staff of the international and educational departments of universities and can be used as

  14. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  15. Formation of the investment mechanism in the agrarian sphere of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Arkad'evna Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews investment activity in the agrarian sector of economy of the Russian Federation during the period after overcoming the sharp phase of world financial crisis. Estimation is given to the factors constraining further improvement and development of branches of agriculture, first of all — investment activity. The question of possibility of the account of the earth as resource of mortgaging maintenance in system of crediting of agriculture is revealed. The urgency of creation of Land bank is proved; preconditions for formation of the third link of banking system are defined: a specialized financially-credit institution (mortgage, investment, ground banks with a regulation and supervision particular treatment. Measures regarding a solution of a financial maintenance problem and agriculture crediting are offered. To raise efficiency of crediting of agrarian sector, means of development of institutes of crediting of bank system taking into account post crisis factors are suggested.

  16. Women and microcredit in rural agrarian households of Uganda: match or mismatch between lender and borrower?

    OpenAIRE

    Namayengo, M.M.F.; Ophem, van, J.A.C.; Antonides, G.

    2016-01-01

    The alignment of microfinance programs with the context and expectations of the recipients is critical for ensuring clients' satisfaction and desired program outcomes. This study sought to investigate the extent to which the objectives and design of the BRAC microfinance program match the expectations, context and characteristics of female borrowers in a rural agrarian setting in Uganda. Quantitative and qualiative methods were used to obtain socio-demographic, personality and microenterprise...

  17. Peasantry and politics in the Athenian society. On the Aristotelian model of agrarian democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Julián GALLEGO

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the peasantry's situation in the Athenian polis under the condition of full citizenship. Athens has recently been recognized as a society whose democratic political organization was based on the presence of citizen agriculturists who controlled most of the land, constituted the majority of the civic body and had a decisive role in the working of the government. Under certain limits, Aristotle's ideas in the Politics with respect to the agrarian democracy are taken as elem...

  18. Problems of software financial resources agrarian sector in the current economic conditions of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grischuk Nadiya Viktorivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of financial science on questions providing of financial resources does not exhaust and needs a further study that acquires new descriptions and vectors of development constantly, what costing illuminations in the conditions of present time. Research of the state of provision of financial resources agrarian to the sector of economy with allocating of main segment – loan and attracted financial resources, today topically. In the article the essence funds are considered sources of agricultural enterprises financial resources and problems associated with the formation and use of financial resources in the modern world. Also the problems arising in improving the process of raising funds agricultural enterprises. Revealed that an effective tool to attract financial resources is the issue of convertible bonds and the introduction of agricultural receipts. It is well-proven that in the conditions of unstable environment forward development of the system of agrarian relations must be carried out on the basis of the government programs, and normatively-legal adjusting that take into account not only the existent state of affairs at the market of agroindustrial products but also economic provision of enterprises national agrarian to the sector.

  19. The Neoindustrial Principles for the Development of Integration Relations in the Agrarian Sector of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutorov Andrii O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at elaborating the neoindustrial principles for the development of integration relations in the agrarian sector of economy. It has been shown that the engine of sectoral development and economic growth in the context of neoliberal globalization are the integration relations formed by the product principle and intrinsically linked to the neoindustrial transformation of the agro-industrial potential. The article explores the lack of options when choosing a national model for the sectoral development of economy: vertical integration of advanced playback, neoindustrialization, and economic security. It has been proven that the mutual relationship between the socio-economic formations and the strategies for integration interaction is organic. The replacement of the functional target setting of economic system at all levels of the hierarchy from the maximum profit to the maximum of the cumulative newly created (added value has been substantiated. A conceptual model for the development of the agrarian sector through integration and neoindustrialization has been accomplished, as well as the principles of strategic management of the system of integration relations have been elaborated. The main forms of implementation of the integration relations with the centralized and decentralized models of neoindustrial development of the agrarian sector have been defined.

  20. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...

  1. Reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: conhecimentos dos profissionais de saúde do serviço de atendimento móvel de urgência Reforma psiquiátrica brasileña: conocimientos de los profesionales de salud del servicio móvil de urgencia Brazilian psychiatric reform: knowledges of health professional of mobile service of urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2013-06-01

    tratamiento psicosocial, sus líneas de referencia a la necesidad de hospitalización para los pacientes psiquiátricos. El modelo centrado en los hospitales y diseñado por la psiquiatría clásica exclusiva sigue vivo en las ideas de estos profesionales como una referencia a la atención de urgencias psiquiátricas.Objective is to identify the knowledge of health professionals of Service of Mobile Emergency of Natal on the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 health professionals stationed at the institution. The interviews were transcribed and submitted to the technique of thematic analysis revealed three categories of analysis: admission of the subject in crisis as social and family demands; Psychiatric Reform: legislation and reality in the SAMU-Natal, and the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform as a promoter of deinstitutionalization. The professionals showed misleading and reductionist understandings of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and, mostly, did not give credence to the current model of mental health care in guided psychosocial treatment, his lines referring to the need for hospitalization of psychiatric patients. In this sense, we realize that the hospital-centered model designed by classical psychiatry is still alive in the ideas of these professionals as a reference to the psychiatric emergency care.

  2. Evaluation of Brazilian family farming program: a study on the intention of repaingy the agricultural credit / Avaliação do programa nacional de fortalecimento da agricultura familiar: a intenção de pagamento do crédito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardonio Rique Dias (in memoriam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication is part of a major study (Thesis. In that thesis it was analyzed the intention of Pronaf's beneficiaries to repay the credit they have received. The Pronaf is a line of credit for small farmers implemented by the Brazilian Federal Government in 1996. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1991 was used to evaluate the beneficiaries' intention in paying what they owned. In order to accomplish this evaluation, two studies were conducted. The first one (Preliminary Study focused on the small farmer's beliefs about the program operation. The second (Main Study focused on the measurement of these beliefs. Two beneficiary groups participated of the studies: Group A (agrarian reform settlers and Group B (small farmers. According to Ajzen's model, for the participants of the Group A, the Attitude, the Normative belief (subjective norm component and the Subjective Norm were positive significant predictors of the Intention to repay the credit. For the Group B, the Attitude, Behavioral belief (attitude component, Normative belief (subjective norm component and Control belief (perceived behavioral control component were positive significant predictors of the Intention to repay the credit. The Perceived behavioral control did not influence directly the behavioral Intention, but this variable indirectly predicts the target behavior.

  3. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  4. ROMANIAN PEASANTRY AND BULGARIAN AGRARIANISM IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD: BENCHMARKS FOR A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel POPESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study that attempts to highlight the similarities and differences between Bulgarian agrarianism and Romanian peasants during the Interwar period, the Second World War and period of transition towards the Leninist-Stalinist totalitarian regimes. The objectives of our approach are integrated within the boundaries of the main research directions and concrete levels, namely: the general context from the two countries, early agrarian/peasants’ movements, the political program, election results, the promotion of certain legislative measures, and the relationship with other political and institutional entities. Without trying to offer an exhaustive view or reveal new aspects in the strict sense of the term, our contribution confronts, in a coherent whole, a series of data and information on the basis of which one could make value judgments. These judgments might help to shape a global, comparative image. Among the main sources of the article we included the monographic works signed by Ioan Scurtu, Pamfil Șeicaru, Apostol Stan, Dimitrina Petrova, John D. Bell, R.J. Crampton, supplemented by data from several other publications (encyclopedias, syntheses etc.. One can identify several distinct stages within the period under review (1918-1947. The broad picture is that the Bulgarian agrarian group was more popular and better organized than its Romanian counterpart, but more inclined towards Leftism and authoritarianism, which led to its political isolation in 1923 and subsequent fragmentation, whilst the Romanian peasants’ movement managed, after 1924, to remain at the forefront of the political scene, showing an interest for dialogue and sometimes for compromise, first with The National Party, then with the authoritarian monarchy, but also with the Antonescu regime and, to a lesser extent, with the communist regime.

  5. Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Land tenure changes in forest Ejidos after agrarian reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Barsimantov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido, such as ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes, leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.

  6. Land reform in NE Brazil: a stochastic frontier production efficiency evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques de Magalhães

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to address the sources of technical and allocative inefficiency from a cross section sample of 308 beneficiaries of a market assisted land reform program, called "Cédula da Terra"; from five states in Northeastern region of Brazil. In spite of some differences on governance of the "Cédula da Terra"; in comparison with traditional expropriation land reform program, studies carried by Buainain et al. (2002 have shown small differences between then, regarding their social and economic characteristics. We believe that our results could be useful to identify the main problems of Brazilian land reform settlements. We estimated a potential production frontier following the methodology of Battese and Coelli (1995, Coelli et al. (1998 and applied econometric techniques to explain inefficiency. The results indicate the existence of technical and allocative inefficiency, which is identified mostly in situations where the presence of production for consumption is high. This is a result that shows how immature the agriculture activity is in most of Cédula da Terra Program settlements and the difficulty to overcome the limitations imposed by the initial condition of formation of agrarian reform, primarily in Northeastern region of Brazil.O objetivo desse artigo é caracterizar as fontes da ineficiência técnica e alocativa em um conjunto de 308 beneficiários de um programa de reforma agrária de mercado, chamado "Cédula da Terra";, distribuídos em cinco estados do Nordeste brasileiro. Estudos conduzidos por Buainain et al. (2002 mostraram existem poucas diferenças entre as características de beneficiários deste programa e dos programas tradicionais de reforma agrária por expropriação e que portanto, os resultados obtidos por este trabalho permitem visualizar as dificuldades enfrentadas pelos assentamentos no Brasil. Para medir eficiência, estimou-se uma função de produção potencial segundo a metodologia de Battese e

  7. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  8. Educação superior no século XXI e a reforma universitária brasileira Educación superior en el siglo XXI y la reforma universitaria brasileña Higher education: the XXI century and the Brazilian university reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Roquete de Macedo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como referência a evolução e as características do sistema brasileiro de educação superior discute-se neste artigo os fundamentos de uma efetiva reforma da educação superior. Procura-se mostrar que a adequação desse sistema para o enfrentamento dos desafios da sociedade do conhecimento, em um país como o Brasil, deve necessariamente resolver três questões: a modernização do sistema, o efetivo aprimoramento da qualidade da educação brasileira em todos os níveis, graus e modalidades e a democratização do ensino promovendo a inclusão social.Tomando como referencia la evolución y las características del sistema brasileño de educación superior, en este artículo se discuten los fundamentos de una efectiva reforma de la educación superior. Se intenta mostrar que la adecuación de este sistema para el enfrentamiento de los desafíos de la sociedad del conocimiento, en un país como Brasil, se deben necesariamente resolver tres cuestiones la modernización del sistema, la efectiva mejora de la calidad de la educación brasileña a todos los niveles, grados y modalidades, y, la democratización de la enseñanza promoviendo la inclusión social.This paper aims to present the essential basis for an effective higher education reform. The strategies chosen by the authors to develop and to construct their proposals are based on studies of evolution and special features of the Brazilian Higher Education System. By analyzing this special and highly complex system the authors could conclude that in order to fit the challenges which emerge from the knowledge society the higher education system reform adjusted to a country like Brazil has to be reorganized in order to present solutions to three main questions: the system modernization, the improvement of the quality of the whole brazilian education system and the promotion of social inclusion through the access democratization.

  9. The expansion of agrarian societies towards the North – new evidence for agriculture during the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse; Karg, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    activities are intertwined at inland sites showing a rapid change to agrarian ideology. ► At coastal and lake shore sites agrarian subsistence was applied gradually showing a slow change towards farming activities. ► Local hunter–gatherers and pioneering farmers gradually assimilated during a complex process....

  10. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  11. Reforms of rural areas and directions of innovational activity in the agroindustrial complex of the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Trofimovich Sabluk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes scientific and practical aspects of innovative re-equipment of agricultural production in Ukraine. A classification of innovation processes in the agricultural sector is given, special attention is paid to theoretical and methodological positions that have been ignored or underestimated during the reform processes in agribusiness. The estimation of results of the full market mechanism introduction in the outdated technological environment with its high costs and low productivity is made, several inconsistencies of «anti-innovational character» that paralyze economic mechanism and minimize its effectiveness, are highlighted. The author proposes ways to solve the problems of the agrarian sector of Ukraine and its transfer to the innovational base. The conclusion is made about the need to focus on solving the problem of increasing profitability of agricultural production as the main condition for the development of post-industrial model of development. According to scientific concepts and doctrine of reforms designed at the Institute of Agricultural Economics (The Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Institute of Economics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other scientific centers, a comprehensive approach to reforming the agricultural sector, phasing in addressing key issues of agriculture is required.

  12. O processo de Bolonha no espaço europeu e a reforma universitária brasileira/The Bologna process in the european space and the brazilian higher education reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Célia Barradas Correia Bastos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda questões que envolvem o movimento de reformas educacionais na educação superior, a partir do final do Século XX, como a Declaração de Bolonha assinada em 1999, por ministros da Educação europeus, e que promove, atualmente, a reforma chamada Processo de Bolonha. Outros documentos como a Declaração Mundial sobre Educação Superior, 1998, representam marco referencial das reformas a que se refere este texto. Em sua essência, os documentos europeus vinculam o movimento reformista da educação superior às necessidades contextualizadas pelo padrão de globalização da economia. São articulações que têm como base o incentivo à competitividade, mobilidade discente, adaptação ao mercado de trabalho. No Brasil, em que sentido é possível situar os reflexos desse movimento? Na busca desse entendimento, focalizamos o movimento empreendido pelo Ministério da Educação para discutir a reforma universitária para o país, em especial destacamos o Seminário Internacional Universidade XXI e a Declaração de Brasília. Resguardadas as especificidades de cada situação, vislumbramos refletir sobre possíveis intersecções dos movimentos reformistas na educação superior contemporânea. This article approaches questions that involve the movement of educational reforms in the higher education, from the end of Century XX, until the Declaration of Bologna signed in 1999, by European ministers of Education that promoted the reform called Bologna Process. Other documents as the World-wide Declaration on Higher Education, 1998, represent referential landmark of the reforms that this text is related to. In its essence, the European documents tie the reformist movement of the higher education to the necessities contextualized by the economy globalization standard. They are have as base the competitiveness encouragement, learning mobility, and adaptation to the work market. In Brazil, where is possible to point out the

  13. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  14. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME, REMITTANCE AND PRICES IN RURAL NIGERIA AMID POLICY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis affected almost all aspect of human life. This paper explored effects of the global financial crisis on farmers' income, remittance and prices of food staples and highlighted certain government policy responses. The study was conducted in Nigeria. Secondary data were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, equivalent variation and Shannon index analysis. Results showed the global financial crisis affected the agrarian households/sector in Nigeria. The increase in prices meant more nominal income to farmers but grossly reduced their welfare due to decrease in real income as result of high inflation trend. Recommendations include that government should continue to sustain agrarian programs aimed at helping poor farmers to increase their capacity in production to meet the growing demand and changes. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  15. The Ecological Footprint of the Agrarian Sector in Villa Clara. A qualitative approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Reinoso Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the environmental impacts and aspects and their relationship to the ecological footprint of the agrarian sector in Villa Clara. In order to achieve this goal, 23 enterprises were used as study cases, which were clustered according to the main land use: (i succession planting (17 and (ii livestock and animal production (6. The information collected was used to develop the environmental aspects and impacts matrixes associated to the productive processes in each enterprise. The environmental aspects with higher relative frequencies (> 0.60 were water and energy consumption, the existence of invasive plants, the soil use, the greenhouse gas emissions, the use of forest resources, the generation of solid wastes and the use of agro-chemicals. Such aspects are causing negative impacts on the environment, and consequently they are increasing the ecological print of the sector in this province. The use of heavy machineries, the generation of liquid and dangerous residues, the continuous grazing and the use of alien species had a significant impact with a relative frequency below 0.55. However, these environmental aspects should be under control. It is concluded that, in all of the studied cases, the environmental aspects had a negative incidence on the environment. And they contribute in many ways to increase the ecological footprint of the agrarian sector in the territory. The implementation of the Environmental Management System, according to the international standards, is recommended.

  16. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

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    Allan Silveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  17. Through Student Eyes: Perceptions and Aspirations of Students from the Armenian State Agrarian University and Selected European Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Glen C.; Briers, Gary E.; Navarro, Maria; Peake, Jason; Parr, Brian; Ter-Mkrtchyan, Ani; Duncan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    This research compared attributes of students enrolled in the Armenian State Agrarian University (ASAU) with university students from 30 European countries (EFMD) about graduate study policy issues. A cross-national comparative design used a survey questionnaire to explore contextual, social and cultural phenomena. Samples included 801 ASAU and…

  18. Place-Based Education in the Architectural Design Studio: Agrarian Landscape as a Resource for Sustainable Urban Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nikezić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights how “place-based education” can be used to raise awareness about sustainability and potentially influence design process decisions that have environmental and cultural implications. “Place-based education” is a term used to describe an educational worldview based on development of curriculum centered on the local, social, economic, and ecological resources of a community. The study shows results of Masters Students’ research on situating a housing complex in the context of the agrarian landscape of Vojvodina, Serbia, considering it as a resource for a new sustainable urban lifestyle. During the first year of Masters Studies at the Faculty of Architecture, Belgrade University, an architectural design studio with 15 students had the task of exploring the potential of expanding the city of Belgrade across the agrarian landscape, as to affirm the role of place in contemporary everyday life. Students were expected to explore the possibilities and limitations of the relationship between man and agrarian landscape via architecture, re-thinking how various architectural design approaches could balance and harmonize the impact of the built environment on the agrarian landscape. The paper shows that “place-based education” possesses elements necessary for the inclusion of a wider spatial-cultural context in the process of architectural design and prioritization of environmental literacy and responsibility, as one of the main components of sustainable development.

  19. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACHES OF MODERN SOCIO-ECOLOGO-ECONOMIC FORMS OF ECONOMY IN AGRARIAN SECTOR OF ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Main problems of agrarian sector of economy of Ukraine are revealed. Main directions of development of agriculture of Ukraine are determined. The necessity of socio-ecologo-economic agrarian sector is proved. Tendencies of institutionalization of forms of economy in a system of agrarian relationship were investigated. The necessity of creation of effective system of institutions with an aim of functioning effective and rational forms of economy in agrarian sector of Ukraine, which could provide a balancing of economic, social and ecologic spheres, is confirmed. In the paper is proved the necessity of creation and function of social-ecologo-economic model of agriculture development, where a social-ecologo-economic development is characterized like economic development of rural territories, rural employment in agriculture, the efficiency of employment, ecologo-safe production focused on human needs and etc., on the one side and on the other side is a significant role of rural social capital. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, it's confirmed that development socio-ecologo-economical forms of economy are accompanied with modification of the institutional structure of regulation of agriculture. It's proved that the functioning of effective forms of economy promotes the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the national economy.

  20. Applicability of economic instruments for protecting ecosystem services from cultural agrarian landscapes in Doñana, SW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaitán-Cremaschi, Daniel; Palomo, Ignacio; Baraibar Molina, Sergio; Groot, De Rudolf; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment and conversion of cultural agrarian landscapes are major drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in Europe. One incentive for land-use conversion is the higher (private) economic return from industrial mono-functional crops relative to traditional multi-functional ones. However,

  1. The discussion about the privatization of the brazilian electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, G.A.P. do; Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the complexities of the privatisation of the brazilian power sector. We try to explain the differences between privatisation.It is shown, based on a formulation proposes by Aylen, that the solutions of the sector problems has to do with the management reform of the public utilities and also the holding ELETROBRAS. (author)

  2. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RATIONAL DESIGN FORMATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE OF AGRARIAN SECTOR OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Korchynskyy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methodological aspects of formation of rational design of infrastructure of agrarian sector of Ukraine on the basis of the institutional approach and laws of architectonics are examined. It is shown that the agrarian sector of Ukraine is a complex socio-economic system, the formation and development of which is in the process of market transformation what is caused by institutional influences. In general the process of relations institutionalization imply their formalization and standardization, in other case the subject of public life could not predict the actions of other entities associated with him and ensure their cooperation. One of the specific characteristic of human society is formed institutional system that regulates behaviour. In the article the factors of influence on the conduct of being in charge subjects are considered in the conditions of development of market economy. The special attention is spared the institutional factors of the economy growing. Methodology. The meaning of “agricultural field” and “infrastructure” and their mutual consistency is classified. As the scientific method, the institutional approach of principles of architectonics has been used, which allowed to justify the creation of a rational approach to the design of infrastructure in agrarian sector as a whole on the basis, relation and interdependence of its elements, based on the fundamental laws of architectonics (law of equilibrium, law of the golden mean structuring. The article demonstrates a necessary of the choice of a theory of institutionalism as the main methodological basis for the study of the process of innovation development of economic system of Ukraine. It is determined that the inefficient activities of institutions in Ukraine are the main cause of the low level of innovation, which has a negative impact on the development of the economy as a whole. Results. Research points on new aspects of infrastructure as a part of the entire

  3. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  4. The Interaction between Environmental Preservation throuout Sustainability as an Agrarian Law Principle: Hermeneutics Transcending Borders in Order to Obtain a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ramos Jordão

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses environmental preservation as a principle of Agrarian Law and hermeneutics. It aims to comprehend connection between both concepts from refounding Agroecology and Sustainability as a major precept in order to obtain agrarian development and environmental preservation. By using the deductive method, it analyses the fact that environment (and studying Law cannot be seen in separate ways, otherwise, it would risk having high complexity environmental and agrarian damage. Therefore, consciousness of how dependent human is from environment as an issue of fundamentality and materiality of mere formal rights nowadays.

  5. [Public health and agrarian liberal politics in Spain: the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918).].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the meaning of the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918) for the history of Spanish public health, thanks to a wealth of previously unknown sources found through a systematic search through medical journals of the time and the Bulletin of the national department of Agriculture. The Bureau was dependent of the Ministry of Development, in the same way as the competences on animal health. It aimed to provide a public health rationale for a plan of agrarian infrastructures, a goal resolved into a huge task of surveillance on hookworm disease, malaria, water supplies, and diet. Thus it becomes a perfect paradigm of the Spanish Liberal tradition of promoting information instead than actual changes into society, as well as a needed complement to the hydraulic policy sponsored by Rafael Gasset.

  6. Viability study of cold generation from biomass in an agrarian exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan Gomez, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Roman, S. [Departamento Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, E II, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda, Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Miranda, A. [Departamento Eng, Electromecanica, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Turegano, J.P. [Esc. Sup. de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, 7300 Portalegre (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    In this work the performance of a cold production plant using biomass residuals from an agrarian exploitation as the primary energy source is analyzed. These residuals are generated in the pruning and renovation of fruit trees and are used in a boiler to convey heat to an absorption refrigeration engine. At first the study carries out the characterization and quantification of the energy produced by the residuals. Furthermore, it ponders on the viability analysis of converting that energy in cold by means of an absorption machine. The estimated thermal power sourced from the biomass generated in the exploitation (approx. 4216 ton) is of approximately 56.92x10{sup 6} MJ/year. This energy was shown to be greater than that required to keep the fruits at a suitable low temperature, thus obviating the use of conventional refrigeration and avoiding their associated high energy consumption. (author)

  7. The Modern Elements of the Management System of the Agrarian Business Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fostolovych Valentyna A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an operation mechanism for the integrated management system that is recommended for the introduction at the enterprises of the agrarian business by means of principles, methods and tools of management system. An example of the modern element of the management system of the agricultural enterprises is the software product Soft.Farm. The article considers improving of the organizational structure of enterprises in the direction of formation of clusters of different forms and active implementing of an integrated management system with wide application of its principles (Deming principles, principle of continuous improvement of processes, zero defects principle, principle of collaboration, methods (teamwork method, quality function deployment (QFD, value analysis, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA, SKO, SPC and structural elements (flowchart, Ishikawa diagram, Pareto chart, column chart, checklists, and control maps.

  8. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officially. Materials and Methods: All the cases of attempted suicide who were admitted and referred for psychiatric evaluation and management to a rural medical college of central India during a period of one Year (April 13-March-14, following initial recovery they were evaluated on a semi-structured performa on socio demographic profile, mode of attempt and reason for attempt. Data collected was analyzed using suitable statistical methods. Results: Total 68 cases were evaluated during the study period. 43% of the cases were involved in farming. Among 85% of the study population pesticide consumption was the common mode of attempt, which is easily available among the agrarian community of rural India. Interpersonal conflict in the family due to indebtedness, financial loss due to crop failure was the commonest reason for attempt. Conclusion: Though there is reduced reporting in the incidents of suicide cases in media from this region, still quite a number of people attempt suicide due to financial constraint from crop failure, ongoing indebtedness, and poor socioeconomic condition culminating into poor mental health among the rural agrarian community of central Maharashtra.

  9. Land Use and the Agrarian Economy in the Roman Dutch River Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Groot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct agrarian land use for a rural community in the Roman frontier zone in the Netherlands. The Dutch River Area was characterised by a dynamic landscape. Rivers regularly flooded the surrounding low-lying land. Only the higher streamridges provided suitable places for habitation and arable agriculture. The limitations of the landscape dictated to a large extent both the types and quantities of crops and animals that could be produced. An interactive map of the micro-region of Tiel-Passewaaij shows how the land was used for agrarian production and sourced for other products. These symbols link to short texts that discuss the archaeological evidence for aspects such as growing cereals, raising livestock and the exploitation of wood and wild animals. The complex and dynamic geological situation of the Dutch River Area is also explained, and the consequences for agriculture discussed. We address three main research questions. How were the different elements of the riverine landscape used by rural inhabitants? How were arable agriculture and animal husbandry organised spatially, both within the settlement and in its immediate surroundings? Which natural resources were used and managed? Our research is mainly based on one large and well-excavated settlement complex (Tiel-Passewaaij, but we will use complementary data from several other settlements in the region. Our results show that the river landscape offered plenty of opportunities for agriculture. The interaction between arable and pastoral farming was essential, with livestock providing manure and agricultural labour, and the fields offering fodder and additional grazing (after harvest or during fallow years. The location of large enclosure ditches suggest that even minor differences in height, caused by older streamridges, may have made arable farming possible in the flood basin.

  10. [Psychiatric reform, federalism, and the decentralization of the public health in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Siqueira, Sandra Venâncio; Uhr, Deborah; Silva, Paulo Fagundes da; Molinaro, Alex Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between Brazilian psychiatric reform, the adoption of the Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS) and the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). The adherence of municipal governments was a variable determinant for the spread of reform, especially due to the continental scale and fragmentation of the Brazilian federation. The article demonstrates the institutional stability of psychiatric reform in Brazil over two decades. The institutional nature of the decision-making process in the public arena has permitted the implementation of new organizational formats through imitation and financial incentives. The psychiatric reform was successful in defending the advantages of CAPS in relation to the asylum and hospital model dominant in past decades. The inductive policies, strengthened and upheld by Law 10.216/2001, transformed the agenda of psychiatric reform, limited to pioneering cities in a national public policy.

  11. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  12. Integração entre assentados agrários e comunidades vizinhas Integration between agrarian settlers and neighbor communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Batista de Albuquerque

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o processo de integração entre pequenos agricultores e assentados da reforma agrária de uma cidade da Zona da Mata paraibana, através de um levantamento de crenças destes grupos. Utilizou-se um roteiro de entrevista semi-estruturado Participaram 232 pessoas, com idade entre 14 e 78 anos (M=28,31; DP=14,45, sendo 116 homens e 116 mulheres. Dos participantes, 56,0% eram assentados e 44,0% eram moradores da comunidade. Verificou-se que as variáveis sociodemográficas (sexo, estado civil e origem dos assentados não exercem influência sobre o processo de integração entre os grupos. O fator determinante para esta integração reside no modo como o governo central financia a produção, posto que, antes do Pronaf, era mais forte a presença de discursos conflituosos entre assentados e seus vizinhos pequenos agricultores.It is the purpose of the present study to evaluate the integration process between small farmers and the agrarian reformer settlers in a city that is located in the region known as zona da mata (bushy zone in the state of Paraiba. This evaluation was accomplished by surveying the popular beliefs among the groups. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 232 individuals from 14 to 78 years of age, (M=28.31; DP=14.45, being 116 male and 116 female. It was verified that the socio-demographic variables (gender, marital status, and the origin of settlers have not exerted any influence on the group's integration process. The leading factor towards integration lays on the way the central government finances farming production, for, before the Pronaf, conflicting dialogues were seen to have occurred between settlers and their neighbors - the small farmers.

  13. The food security under another look: analysis on the evolution of the Brazilian population occupied in activities of self-consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of the Brazilian active population occupied in activities of self-consumption between 2001 and 2006 years. The date used come from the National Research on Sample of Domiciles. The authors examine the situation since the point of view the individuals and families (rural or urban, also classified as employers, self employed e and workers families, besides others forms of classification (exclusively agrarian, no-agrarian and pluriactive. The study reveals an important and general increment on the population employed in the self-consumption activities. However this research showed that this kind of activity is essentially feminine which occupies approximately 6.1 million of families in rural and urban areas of Brazil.

  14. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  15. Reforming Organizational Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Walle, Steven

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...

  16. Impact of Market Reforms on the Agricultural Sector Development and Food Self-Sufficiency in the Northern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of Northern and Arctic areas depends on sustainable functioning of the agricultural sector. Agriculture and fishing agriculture is a way of life of the indigenous population. The article discusses the state of agriculture and food self-sufficiency in the Komi Republic in the years of relatively stable development (1960–1980 and in the conditions of market reforms. It analyzes production and consumption of food and shows a positive effect of modernization processes on the agricultural sector in the pre-reform period. It studies market transformation of the agrarian economy, accompanied in the 1990s by the sharp decline in agricultural production, degradation of productive capacity, rural demography, rural infrastructure, decrease in living standard of farmers, and disparity of prices on agricultural and industrial products. The paper discloses trends in food self-sufficiency of the northern region in 1980–2013 and reveals reasons for the decrease in its level in the period of market reforms. It considers possible scenarios to develop the agrarian sector and food self-sufficiency. To predict the agriculture development the author identifies strong and weak sides, opportunities and threats by means of SWOT-analysis. The article proposes 3 scenarios: inertial (pessimistic, baseline and optimistic. It finds out the most reasonable optimistic development scenario based on innovative modernization for the Komi Republic. The study results can be used to adjust the current State program of agricultural development and elaborate the strategy of the agro-food sector of the region

  17. Health system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  18. Social security reform in two stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Brazilian social security reform during the Fernando Henrique and Lula Administrations. After comparing the contexts in which the different Constitutional Amendment proposals (PECs were submitted and the behavior by Members of Congress during the two periods, we argue that a contextual change (namely a switch in places between government and opposition affected the distribution of preferences and resources between the players and impacted the government in the various arenas in which the game was being played, and that as a result the reformist agenda has made more progress under the current Workers' Party administration.

  19. El problema agrario: una crisis epistemológica Tha agrarian problem: an epistemological crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Carlos Fernando

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas agrícolas de los últimos veinte años en Colombia presentan evidentes incoherencias, falta de claridad, avances y retrocesos sin sentido. El autor sostiene que ese caos obedece a la carencia de una visión de largo p.lazo del sector rural y, en los medios académicos, a la carencia de una teoría agraria que abarque la complejidad de 10 rural, que aclare -con rigor, un método definodo e instrumentos adecuados- en qué consiste el problema agrario que las politicas deben contribuir a resolver. Luego de recordar algunos fundamentos teóricos se pregunta cómo se llegó a la confusión que hoy existe y, para responderla, hace un seguimiento, en la obra de Jesus Bejarano, de la evolución de la visión del problema agrario, hasta desaparecer de las preocupaciones académicas actuales. Conc 1uyc presentando algunas opciones epistemológicas que tienen la academia y la sociedad para revisar sus fundamentos, partiendo de la necesidad de volver a pensarse como sociedad.Agricultural policy in Colombia during the last two decades has been characterized by incoherence, lack of clarity and a senseless pattern of advances and U-turns. The author sustains that this chaos is due to the lack of a long term vision of the rural sector and, in academic circles, the lack of of an adequate theory capable of encompassing its complexity. Such a theory should clearly establish -with rigor, a definite method and appropiate instruments- what precisely in the
    agrarian problem to whose solution policies are addressed. After reviewing some basic theoretical concepts, this essay explores the causes of the current confusion. In order to formulate an answer, it follows the evolution, in the work of Bejarano, of the vision of the agrarian problem until it disappeared below the horizon of current academic concerns. It concludes with a discussion some epistemological
    options available to society and academia to return to the basics. One of these is the

  20. The Agrarian Question and the Neoliberal Rural Transformation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the neoliberal turn in Latin America the rural economy and society has experienced a great transformation. Corporate capital and transnational agro-industries have taken hold of agriculture radically transforming the economic and social relations of production leading to the precarization and feminisation of rural labour as well as the intensification of work. Peasant farmers were further squeezed having to increasingly find off-farm incomes, largely through precarious wage labour activities, so as to make a living thereby furthering the process of proletarianization. The ‘new rurality’ and ‘territorial’ approaches tried to take account of these transformations but they are found wanting. Instead, a political economy view to the agrarian question is found more promising. A counter-movement to neoliberalism has emerged spearheaded by indigenous peoples and the rural poor, sometimes linked to the transnational peasant movement ‘Via Campesina’. Their main aim is to construct an alternative agrarian system based on ‘food sovereignty’ which is promising but also controversial. Resumen: La Cuestión Agraria y la Transformación Rural Neoliberal en Latinoamérica  Desde el giro neoliberal en América Latina la economía y sociedad rural han experimentado una gran transformación. El capital corporativo y las agroindustrias transnacionales se han apoderado de la agricultura transformando radicalmente las relaciones económicas y sociales de producción que llevan a la precarización y feminización de la mano de obra rural, así como a la intensificación del trabajo. Los campesinos enfrentan condiciones cada vez más difíciles teniendo que buscar con mayor frecuencia ingresos fuera de la finca, principalmente a través de actividades salariales precarias, con el fin de ganarse la vida impulsando con ello el proceso de proletarización. Los enfoques de la ‘nueva ruralidad’ y ‘territoriales’ trataron de explicar estas

  1. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...

  2. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda: an observational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Larry W; Grabowski, Mary K; Ssekubugu, Robert; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nantume, Betty; Lessler, Justin; Moore, Sean M; Quinn, Thomas C; Reynolds, Steven J; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is crucial for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in Rakai, Uganda. The Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) is an open, population-based cohort of people aged 15-49 years in 40 communities. Participants are HIV tested and interviewed to obtain sociodemographic, behavioural, and health information. RCCS data from Aug 10, 2011, to May 30, 2013, were used to classify communities as agrarian (n=27), trading (n=9), or lakeside fishing sites (n=4). We mapped HIV prevalence with Bayesian methods, and characterised variability across and within community classifications. We also assessed differences in HIV risk factors and uptake of antiretroviral therapy and male circumcision between community types. 17 119 individuals were included, 9215 (54%) of whom were female. 9931 participants resided in agrarian, 3318 in trading, and 3870 in fishing communities. Median HIV prevalence was higher in fishing communities (42%, range 38-43) than in trading (17%, 11-21) and agrarian communities (14%, 9-26). Antiretroviral therapy use was significantly lower in both men and women in fishing communities than in trading (age-adjusted prevalence risk ratio in men 0·64, 95% CI 0·44-0·97; women 0·53, 0·42-0·66) and agrarian communities (men 0·55, 0·42-0·72; women 0·65, 0·54-0·79), as was circumcision coverage among men (vs trading 0·48, 0·42-0·55; vs agrarian 0·64, 0·56-0·72). Self-reported risk behaviours were significantly higher in men than in women and in fishing communities than in other community types. Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and service uptake in Rakai, Uganda, emphasises the need for local surveillance and the design of targeted HIV responses. High HIV burden, risk behaviours, and low use of combination

  3. The Conceptual Approaches to Strategic Management of Region Using the Spatially Localized Agrarian Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Natalia О.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at improving the theoretical and methodical provisions of the cluster approach to development of the spatially localized systems of the agricultural sector of Ukrainian economy at the regional level. Based on generalizing the relevant theoretical provisions, the identified characteristics of formation and development of the spatially localized systems, it has been found that, originating in the form of economic growth zones, they have been transformed into clustered and subclustered forms. It has been indicated that a prospective form of further development of the spatially localized systems is formation of subclustered structures that take account of the established specialization of localities, appropriate infrastructure, resource availability. The possibility of creating a project of developing a cluster formation was discussed on the example of the Central Economic Area. A complex of basic requirements for the intended localization of the cluster has been formulated. Proceeding from the results of the study, practical proposals for strategic management of region have been developed on the basis of development of cluster formations, using the spatially localized agrarian economic systems.

  4. Significance of monitoring of the phytoradiobiological researches for development of agrarian radiology in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogebashvili, M.E.; Ivanishvili, N.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : Monitoring of development of concrete scientific discipline-multifactorial process and at studying of its efficiency is necessary selection of adequate ways of the analysis. Especially it is important under conditions cardinal changes of schemes of management of a science, level of financing and serious redistribution of personnel structure. It has occurred last years in many Post-Soviet countries. Thus, the question of the control and regulation of development of scientific directions to become rather actual. It is known, that selection of adequate criteria of the estimation is necessary for monitoring of a condition of various scientific directions. It is natural, if we consider a science as reception innovation process knowledge it is necessary to track distribution and growth of number of thematic scientific publications. For the task in view decision namely to carry out monitoring of development of radio plant biology in Georgia within the limits of an agrarian science the known method of an estimation of scientific publications on Key Word has been used. It demands creation of new mechanisms of management by development of a science with the assistance of regulating academic and state structures

  5. Popular Demobilization, Agribusiness Mobilization, and the Agrarian Boom in Post-Neoliberal Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lapegna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research, archival data, and a catalog of protest events, this article analyzes the relationship between popular social movements, business mobilization, and institutional politics in Argentina during the post-neoliberal phase, which arguably began circa 2003. How did waves of popular mobilization in the 1990s shape business mobilization in the 2000s? How did contentious politics influence institutional politics in the post-neoliberal period? What are the changes and continuities of the agrarian boom that cut across the neoliberal and post-neoliberal periods? While I zoom in on Argentina, the article goes beyond this case by contributing to three discussions. First, rather than limiting the analysis to the customary focus on the mobilization of subordinated actors, it examines the demobilization of popular social movements, the mobilization of business sectors, and the connections between the two. Second, it shows the ways in which the state can simultaneously challenge neoliberal principles while also favoring the global corporations that dominate the contemporary neoliberal food regime. Finally, the case of Argentina sheds light on the political economy of the "Left turn" in Latin America, particularly the negative socio-environmental impacts of commodity booms. The article concludes that researchers need to pay closer attention to the connections between contentious and institutional politics, and to the protean possibilities of neoliberalism to inspire collective actions.

  6. Analysis and Diagnosis of the Agrarian System in the Niayes Region, Northwest Senegal (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Fare

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian system Analysis and Diagnosis is used for this study, the goal of which was to provide a corpus of basic knowledge and elements of reflection necessary for the understanding the Niayes farming systems dynamics in Senegal, West Africa. Such holistic work has never been done before for this small region that provides the majority of vegetables in the area, thanks to its microclimate and access to fresh water in an arid country. Reading of the landscape and historical interviews coupled with fine-tuned household surveys were used to build a typology of agricultural production units (each type being represented by a production system. The main phases within the region’s history were distinguished. Before colonization, agriculture was based on gathering and shifting agriculture (millet and peanut in the southern region and transhumant stockbreeding in the North. During colonization, market gardening became a source of income as a response to cities’ increasing demand. Two major droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s have accelerated this movement. Extension of market gardening areas and intensification of activities were made possible by Sahelian migrants’ influx and the creation of mbeye seddo, a contract that allows for sharing added value between the employer and seasonal workers, named sourghas. Over the past 20 years, the “race for motorization” has created important social gaps (added value sharing deserves review and a risk of overexploitation of groundwater.

  7. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2018-04-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  8. Peasantry and politics in the Athenian society. On the Aristotelian model of agrarian democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián GALLEGO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the peasantry's situation in the Athenian polis under the condition of full citizenship. Athens has recently been recognized as a society whose democratic political organization was based on the presence of citizen agriculturists who controlled most of the land, constituted the majority of the civic body and had a decisive role in the working of the government. Under certain limits, Aristotle's ideas in the Politics with respect to the agrarian democracy are taken as elements valid to the Athenian political context in some periods. According to this model, it is analyzed the ways of incorporation of the rural villages to the State structure, the relation of hoplite farmers both with landed aristocrats and other candidates to leadership and with the social classes located below the farmers, and the actual political participation that the latter could develop in different stages of the Athenian history. The conclusion aims to maintain, beyond certain schematizations, the possibility of a long term vision of the Athenian history starting from Aristotle's characterizations.

  9. La cuestión agraria y el desarrollo agropecuario The agrarian question and agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado C. Absalón

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo presenta los principales trabajos de Jesús A. Bejarano sobre historia agraria y economía agrícola y destaca los temas que más le preocuparon desde el punto de vista académico. Esos temas mUestran su esfuerzo por interpretar la compleja realidad colombiana a partir de la teoría clásica y la Literatura económica contemporánea, adaptándolas al país sin caer en dogmatismos y, más bien, combatiéndolos. Sus trabajos constituyen un referente importante para quienes estudian la evolución del sector rural colombiano y se aventuran en el dificil camino de la formulación de políticas.This essay discusses the main contributions of Jesus A. Bejarano in the fields of agrarian history and agricultural economics and emphasizes the issues which most interested him from an academic standpoint. His work shows a concern with the interpretation of the complex Colombian reality using classical theory and contemporary economic li terature as a starting point. Bejarano adapted these to the situation of the country, without incurring in dogmatismo On the contrary, he struggled against it. His work is a necessary reference for students of the evolution of Colombia 's rural sector and for those who adventure in the difficult path of policy formulation.

  10. Book review of Prof.Ph.D. Božidar Petrač: AGRARIAN ECONOMICS, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zmaić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Author of the book AGRARIAN ECONOMICS is Božidar Petrač, an assocciate professor of the Faculty of Economics in Osijek. The book is composed of 265 pages. This is the first book from agrarian economics field appeared in the Republic of Croatia. Research results obtained by Ph.D. B. Petrač, other domestic and foreign scientists as well as modern aspect of agriculture and agricultural economics development are included in the book. The main parts of the book are as follows: I. Introduction into agrarian economics, II. Conditions of agricultural production, III. Analysis of agricultural production trends in the Republic of Croatia, IV. Agrarian policy. The introductory considerations are characterized by the author’s bases creating for further researches, demarcating and defining main ideas being applied in further analysis. All vital agriculture functions and their contribution to economic development of the Republic of Croatia are analysed completely and in detail. Also Ph.D. B. Petrač has quantified indicators of agriculture development and status in the total economy structure as well as other relevant indicators important for determination of agriculture significance in an economic development. In the second and largest chapter the author explained how volume, structure, intensity and other traits of agricultural production depended on quantitative and qualitative condition characteristics of agricultural production and rationality degree by which these conditions are utilized. Natural conditions, agricultural population, labour force, possessive structure, technical equipment, agricultural production organization, consumption of agricultural products, socio-economic system and other conditions of agricultural activities are discussed in detail. In this way Ph.D. B. Petrač pointed out that aforesaid specificities of agricultural production should be taken into consideration and have a special place in economic policy field. Namely

  11. REFORMING OF LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNDER AUTHORITY OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh O.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the

  12. Cooperação interprofissional e a Reforma Sanitária no Brasil: implicações para o modelo de atenção à saúde Interprofessional collaboration and the Brazilian Sanitary Reform: implications for delivery of healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Guinoza Matuda

    2013-03-01

    which has required more intensive process of professional interaction. The aim of this article was to review the knowledge related to interprofessional collaboration as a research issue highlighting its importance for understanding of the relations among workers in the production of care within Brazilian health system. Historical characteristics that marked the health sector reforms in the world and particularly in the Brazil were summed up. Based on review studies, knowledge about interprofessional collaboration were summarized focusing definitions, theoretical models and the observed results. An approach directed to comprehension of process and relations implicated to the problem is indicated in order to surmount the barriers connected to the need for a more effective, efficient and equitable health care model. For this it is necessary to admit the professional as a social agent bearer of an interested practice considering that thinking frameworks as organizations and overall structure denote social construct. The understanding of the forces that guide the interprofessional conflict and collaboration may subsidize the formulation of strategies for improving healthcare in Brazilian health system.

  13.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  14. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  15. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  16. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  17. Diseño organizacional de la unidad de desarrollo agroempresarial del Banco Agrario de Colombia s.a. Organizational design for an agrarian business development unit of the agrarian bank of colombia s.a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales C. José Rubén

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La temática sobre desarrollo agroempresarial se ha venido convirtiendo en epicentro importante de discusión en el contexto de la situación por la cual atraviesa el sector
    agropecuario. Es importante destacar que para plantear
    una estrategia sobre desarrollo agroempresarial que acoja
    como beneficiarios a pequeños y medianos productores rurales mediante su asociación con el propósito de hacerlos más competitivos y aprovechen mejor el uso del crédito, se hace necesario que una entidad con cobertura nacional como el Banco Agrario de Colombia, oriente y encause su misión a través del rediseño de su estructura organizacional. Este argumento se constituyó en el elemento por el cual se adelantó este estudio, cuyo objetivo de investigación fue la cultura organizacional del sistema de crédito del Banco Agrario. Como resultados destacables de este trabajo de investigación vale la pena mencionar la valoración en muy alto grado de la cultura organizacional en razón a que los dominios liderazgo, clima y contexto organizacional y sus correspondientes índices tuvieron excelente percepción en el grupo de funcionarios encuestados. Así mismo la respuesta sobre viabilidad de la unidad de desarrollo agro empresarial
    son contundentes por la apreciación que los funcionarios
    tienen sobre la necesidad que el Banco ofrece para adelantar esta estrategia de manera directa a través de una estructura matricial por proyectos, que promueva el desarrollo agroempresarial mediante las etapas de iniciación, desarrollo y consolidación para hacer viable el cumplimiento de sus objetivos estratégicos.
    The thematic related to agrarian entrepreneurship and business development has been transforming into important epicentre of discussion in the context of the situation for which crosses the agricultural sector. It is important to highlight that to outline a strategy oriented to agrarian business development, which concems as

  18. Breaking the Logic of Groundwater-Led Agrarian Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T.

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that the past groundwater led agrarian change in India is not sustainable and the major productivity growth in the agricultural sector over the last 50 years threatened. The groundwater economy in South Asia is characterized by the multitude (20 million in India alone) of individual private well owners who make independent extraction choices in an imperfect market environment. As a result and all over the subcontinent, dramatic regional aquifer depletion (100 to 150 m drops of groundwater levels in some regions) and soil salinization (20'000 to 30'000 ha lost to water logging and soil salinization annually) is observed. Considering that agriculture accounts for approximately 25% of India's GDP and employs nearly 62% of the population these observations are all the more worrisome. Consequently, India might turn from a major crop exporter (35 cubic km / a of freshwater equivalent presently or 50% of the annual average runoff of the Nile river) to a large volume staple food importer in the future so as to be able to feed its estimated population of 1.5 billion (2 billion) people by 2030 (2050). Apart from constantly worsening local employment opportunities, this development will most likely have repercussions on global food markets by causing substantial food commodity price increases on a world-wide level. In order for policies to effectively address the problems related to groundwater irrigated agriculture in India, the micro foundations of the above mentioned macro level outcomes have to be properly understood. This is far from simple, given the complex fragmentation of the social, political and economic spaces in India and their intricate interplay. Examples of the latter are the targeted public food distribution systems. It will be argued that the outcomes to freshwater allocation, i.e. the absence or presence of certain institutional forms, are critically shaped by the place-dependent dialectic between nature and society. Thus, a prerequisite

  19. Scaling and contextualizing climate-conflict nexus in historical agrarian China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry F.

    2017-04-01

    This study examines climate-conflict nexus in historical agrarian China in multi-scalar and contextualized approach, illustrating what and how socio-political factors could significantly mediate the climate-violent link in pre-industrial society. Previous empirical large-N studies show that violent conflict in historical agrarian society was triggered by climate-induced food scarcity. The relationship was valid in China, Europe, and various geographic regions in the Northern Hemisphere in pre-industrial era. Nevertheless, the observed relationship has only been verified at a macro level (long-term variability of the nexus is emphasized and data over large area are aggregated), and somewhat generalized in nature (only physical environmental factors are controlled). Three inter-related issues remain unresolved: First, the key explanatory variable of violent conflicts may change substantially at different spatio-temporal scales. It is necessary to check whether the climate-conflict nexus is valid at a micro level (about short-term variability of the nexus and data in finer spatial resolution), and explore how the nexus changes along various spatio-temporal dimensions. Second, as the climate-conflict nexus has only been demonstrated in a broad sense, it is necessary to check whether and how the nexus is mediated by local socio-political context. More non-climatic factors pertinent to the cause and distribution of conflicts (e.g., governance, adaptive mechanisms, etc.) should be considered. Third, the methodology applied in the previous studies assumes spatially-independent observations and linear relationship, which may simplify the climate-conflict link. Moreover, the solitary reliance on quantitative methods may neglect those non-quantifiable socio-political dynamics which mediates the climate-conflict nexus. I plan to address the above issues by using disaggregated spatial analysis and in-depth case studies, with close attention to local and temporal differences and

  20. The fiscal reformation: quandaries and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Mariano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The  present  article  describes  the  evolution  of  the  Brazilian  State tax  structure  as  well as  the  main  pressure  poles  in  terms  of  accomplishing  a  broad  reformation.  It  shows  the  changes  occurred in the institutional order and the unfolded  results  in  the increase  of  the  tax  reformulation  scope of the State, as well as the impacts caused  in the Brazilian community. This study was done  through  the  revision  of  the  national  economic  literature and was based on statistical information  obtained from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia  e  Estatística  (IBGE  and from  National  Treasury  Agency of the Brazilian Treasury Ministry.

  1. FACTORS OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE OF THE AGRARIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Babenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the conceptual provisions of the essence of labour productivity in agriculture in order to determine the factors and conditions for its growth at the present stage of economic development. Methods. The theoretical and methodological bases of research are the works of classical and modern economic science concerning labour productivity and human capital. With the aim of concretizing the conceptual and categorical apparatus, the dialectical and abstract-logical methods were used; a monographic method was used during covering the views of scientists on the investigated problem; for the analysis of labour productivity trends, the method of comparative analysis and the graphical method were used. Results. The conditions of agricultural production management in an agrarian region are characterized. Factors of labour productivity growth in agriculture are determined. It is established that the main reserves of increasing labour productivity consist of reducing labour costs for the production of agricultural products. In turn, the reduction of labour costs is caused by the use of new equipment and new technologies, progressive forms of labour organization, improvement of the system of material incentives for labour. Practical significance. The realization of proposals and recommendations concerning the formation and development of human capital for agricultural production, optimization of production resources, strengthening of labour motivation will provide an opportunity to increase the labour activity of personnel, the volume of agricultural production. Relevance/originality. Further development of research results allows us to collect an empirical, multifactorial model of labour productivity growth in agricultural production.

  2. Public health and agrarian liberal politics in Spain: the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the meaning of the Rural Health Bureau (1910-1918 for the history of Spanish public health, thanks to a wealth of previously unknown sources found through a systematic search through medical journals of the time and the Bulletin of the national department of Agriculture. The Bureau was dependent of the Ministry of Development, in the same way as the competences on animal health. It aimed to provide a public health rationale for a plan of agrarian infrastructures, a goal resolved into a huge task of surveillance on hookworm disease, malaria, water supplies and diet. Thus it becomes a perfect paradigm of the Spanish Liberal tradition of promoting information instead than actual changes into society, as well as a needed complement to the hydraulic policy sponsored by Rafael Gasset.

    Abordo el significado en la historia de la Salud pública española de la Inspección de Sanidad del Campo (1910-1918 partiendo de fuentes escasamente conocidas producto de una búsqueda sistemática en las revistas médicas de la época y en el Boletín de Agricultura técnica y económica, órgano de la Dirección general de Agricultura. La Inspección dependió del Ministerio de Fomento, al igual que la higiene veterinaria, y su objetivo era proporcionar bases higiénicas para un plan de infraestructuras agrarias, lo que se tradujo en una ingente tarea de vigilancia epidemiológica sobre anquilostomiasis, paludismo, aguas y alimentación. En este sentido resulta un perfecto epítome de la tradición informativa liberal, así como un complemento de la política hidráulica impulsada por Rafael Gasset.

  3. Reforming Organizational Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with

  4. Reforming science: methodological and cultural reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.

  5. The quest for recognition: Brazilian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    'Hispanic' and 'Latino' are imprecise umbrella terms often used in the United States to designate nationals from Central and South America. The labelling of Brazilians in this manner generates inaccurate demographic information, including a significant undercount of the migrant population. Research data indicates that Brazilians object to being designated Hispanics, since Brazilians speak Portuguese and have no Spanish heritage. The labelling of ethnic groups has been criticized as a stereotypical and racist system, which primarily responds to non-scientific demands. This commentary appeals for reform in the way researchers and institutions refer to minority citizens as well as for continued research to investigate racism and ethnic prejudice. The development of new approaches and methodologies to examine social networks, migration and the geographic concentration of poverty is advocated.

  6. Book review of Prof.Ph.D. Božidar Petrač: AGRARIAN ECONOMICS, Faculty of Economics in Osijek, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    K. Zmaić

    2002-01-01

    Author of the book AGRARIAN ECONOMICS is Božidar Petrač, an assocciate professor of the Faculty of Economics in Osijek. The book is composed of 265 pages. This is the first book from agrarian economics field appeared in the Republic of Croatia. Research results obtained by Ph.D. B. Petrač, other domestic and foreign scientists as well as modern aspect of agriculture and agricultural economics development are included in the book. The main parts of the book are as follows: I. Introduction into...

  7. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  8. The impact of global trends on Czech trade in agrarian and foodstuff products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosochatecká

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech retail market has changed its structure and form during the last twenty years. The influence of two factors is especially significant. The first one is the growth of internationalization and the second one is market concentration growth. The significant opening process of the Czech economy, accompanied by the liberalization of the Czech market process, enabled the international retail companies to penetrate the national retail market. The most powerful European retail companies are now present in the Czech market. The available shopping area/cap is also one of the largest in Europe. Retail chains have taken a dominant position in the market, and because of their market power they are able to determine trade/contract conditions for domestic suppliers. Retail chains’ sales have been constantly growing. While in 2006 the value of sales was about 258.5 billion CZK, in 2008 it was about 312.2 billion CZK. The impact of the economic crisis on the Czech retail market has not been as stressful as it was abroad. In 2009, a slowdown of the Czech retail market was recorded, but the value of sales decreased by only 3 billion CZK (in comparison with 2008. The highest sales (59 billion CZK were recorded by the Lidl & Schwarz-Gruppe, which is the owner of two dominant retail chains in the Czech retail market (Kaufland and Lidl. The main aim of the paper is to evaluate the selected aspects, which have been influencing the relationship between multinational companies (retail companies – supermarkets and hypermarkets and local (Czech suppliers of agrarian and foodstuff products (farmers and foodstuff companies. The paper analyses the problem of abuse of multinational companies’ significant market power in relation to their suppliers. Based on a pilot project, the efficiency of market force law, and its use in practice, are analysed. The main idea is to analyse the following problems: the impact of 30 days payment period for goods delivered, under

  9. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  10. Monotony, Isolation and Backward Agriculture. Travel Accounts of 19th Century and Agrarian History of Bogota Plateau (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different works of Agrarian History reproduce a similar description of Bogota Plateau (Colombia throughout the nineteenth century: agricultural use since colonial times; vast fields of wheat and barley; abrupt replacement of crops by cattle; agricultural crisis linked to the agro-export booms and the demand for tropical products that could not be obtained above 2000 meters. This paper discusses how this approach has perpetuated descriptions of travelers who visited the region during the nineteenth century and wrote up their notebooks based on their origins, objectives, political and economic interests, or from affirmations of their guides and informants. This article rebuilds a profile of travelers that are most often quoted by historians, their views about the Plateau landscape and its farming and ranching, and their influence on today reconstructions of the agrarian history of Bogota Plateau along nineteenth century. This text invites to contrast the travel accounts among themselves and with another sources, and also to incorporate the results of the research about the Colonial period and the biophysical conditions of the regions under study in the analysis.

  11. The System of Indicators for Monitoring the Achievement of the Goals of Sustainable Development in the Agrarian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chala Tеtyana G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of statistical evaluation of the system of indicators for monitoring the achievement of the goals of sustainable development (GSD in the agrarian sector. It has been determined that, in order to achieve sustainable development, the following three pillars need to be reconciled: economic growth, social integration, and environmental protection. The objectives and indicators of the GSD 2 «Overcoming hunger, achieving food security, improving nutrition, and facilitating sustainable development of agriculture» were considered in detail. It has been determined that the indicator, which illustrates vividly the status and perspective of development of the agrarian sector, is the indicator 2.a.1 «Index of orientation towards agriculture, defined by the public expenditure structure». Methods for calculation of the Agriculture Orientation Index (AOI were considered. The dynamics of the AOI for Ukraine and world-wide for 2004-2013 were analyzed. The values of the AOI index for Ukraine, the neighboring countries, and the EU Member States in 2013 have been provided. It has been determined that Ukraine has a low AOI among the EU countries and among the neighboring countries, which indicates a poor orientation towards agriculture.

  12. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  13. The Institutions of «Green Economy» for Sustainable Development of Agrarian Sector: Theoretical Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodakivska Olga V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the conceptual foundations and theoretical positions of the place and role of institutions in formation of the «green economy» in the context of implementation of the principles for sustainable development of agrarian sector. The article reflects the main scientific concepts that are directed to address the problems of environmentally oriented development, in particular the concepts of ecotopia, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, biocentrism, and the concept of sustainable development. It has been found that the conceptual foundations for sustainable development include ecologization of economy, humanization of production, introducing a system of principled approaches to public affairs. The general provisions of formation of «green economy» have been characterized and its key principles have been provided. The role and value of institutions in the organizational provision of the sustainable development of agrarian sector, which, in the organizational-economic, coordinating and enabling aspects are the key driver for harmonization of the interaction of all participants in economic relations, have been substantiated.

  14. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  15. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  16. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  17. Problematizando a reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: a genealogia da reabilitação psicossocial Problematizaciones de la reforma psiquiátrica brasileña: la genealogía de la rehabilitación psicosocial Problematizating the brazilian psychiatric reform: the genealogy of psychosocial rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Marques Pinto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo problematizar um dispositivo importante no processo de reforma psiquiátrica brasileira que é a reabilitação psicossocial. Os autores observam que novas modalidades de tratamento em saúde mental não determinam que os doentes mentais possam efetivamente assumir a condição de cidadão, pois princípios manicomiais podem estar presentes, embasando serviços e práticas. O que se observou é que a reabilitação psicossocial tem uma grande importância na vida dos ditos doentes mentais, mas apresenta o risco de promover a manutenção da condição de psiquiatrizado. Para se pensar sobre essa questão, recorre-se à genealogia de Michel Foucault que consiste na problematização das práticas de poder subjacentes aos discursos psiquiátricos contemporâneos no Brasil.Este artículo tiene por finalidad problematizar un dispositivo importante en el proceso de reforma psiquiátrica brasileña que es la rehabilitación psicosocial. Los autores observan que nuevas modalidades de tratamiento en salud mental no determinan que los enfermos mentales puedan efectivamente asumir la condición de ciudadano, pues principios de las prácticas manicomiales pueden estar presentes, dando soporte a los servicios y prácticas actuales. Lo observado es que la rehabilitación psicosocial tiene una enorme importancia en la vida de dichos enfermos mentales, pero presenta el riesgo de promover la manutención de la condición de psiquiatrizados. Para pensar sobre esta cuestión, se recurre a la genealogía de Michel Foucault a fin de poner en cuestión las prácticas de poder subyacentes en los discursos psiquiátricos contemporáneos en Brasil.The aim of this article is to question a very important device of the actual Brazilian psychiatric reform process: psycho-social rehabilitation. The authors formulated a hypothesis that the creation of new forms of treatment in mental health does not determine that the mentally-diseased can

  18. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  20. Pioneiros da ecologia política agrária contemporânea The pioneers of the contemporary agrarian political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda Nascimento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os pioneiros dos estudos materialistas sobre ecologia política agrária contemporânea. É feita uma análise das contribuições da Escola Russa de Estudos do Solo e de referências mais recentes aos escritos de Marx e Liebig. Nas considerações finais, enfatiza-se a necessidade de desenvolver a abordagem da Ecologia Política Agrária como maneira mais apropriada de entender a relação entre sistemas agrários, formações sociais e ecossistemas específicos em áreas rurais.The pioneering studies on the relationship between society and nature are important for the analysis of agricultural and ecological changes in rural areas. The goal of the present article is to introduce the contemporary pioneers of the agrarian ecology studies with a Marxist Materialism approach. The agrarian ecology describes the relations among agrarian systems, social formations and specific ecosystems in rural territories. Thence, the concept has a double function: turn the agrarian problem into an ecological theme and redefine its importance for the current studies on rural territory.

  1. A Comparative Leadership Development Study within Student Collegiate Clubs and Organizations at an Agrarian University in Ukraine and a University within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Erik; Hoover, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore leadership development within student collegiate clubs and organizations at an agrarian university in Ukraine. The data were then compared to a College of Agricultural Sciences at a university within the United States. The information collected in the study will serve as a basis for understanding leadership…

  2. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  3. El Parque Agrario: Preservación de la actividad agraria en espacios periurbanos (El caso del Bajo Llobregat / The agrarian Park: Agrarian activity preservation in periurban areas (The case of the Baix Llobregat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zazo Moratalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl interés por la problemática contemporánea de los espacios agrarios periurbanos ha despertado una nueva conciencia urbana que afianza la importancia de la preservación de estos espacios agrarios por sus valores ambientales, culturales y productivos, y que comienza a reaprender las posibles ventajas de su proximidad urbana. Entre ellas, la calidad alimentaria. En el análisis de las respuestas a esta problemática, aparece un uso recurrente del término ‘Parque Agrario’ materializado en diversas propuestas con dispares objetivos, escalas y dimensiones. Para aclarar la confusión del término, se estudia el Parque Agrario del Bajo Llobregat. De este caso se induce la estructura organizativa básica de su figura, analizándola de manera poliédrica y multiescalar. El objeto último del trabajo es valorar la sostenibilidad de la figura en función del resultado de su aplicación a un espacio agrario periurbano, tipológico y predispuesto. Su aplicación y fusión con el espacio agrario periurbano dará lugar a otro ‘concepto aplicado’ de parque, que creará y fortalecerá sus propias redes productivas para introducirse en el ciclo alimentario de la ciudad próxima, bloqueando la base territorial frente al proceso urbano.Palabras clavePreservación, gobernanza, proteccionismo, dinamización agraria, multifuncionalidad, multidimensionalidad territorial.AbstractThe interest in contemporary issues of suburban farmland has awakened a new urban consciousness that reinforces the importance of preserving these agrarian areas because of their environmental, cultural and productive values, and starts to re-learn the potential benefits of its proximity to urban areas. Among this potentials, food quality can be found. In the analysis of responses to this problem has found a widespread use of the term 'Agrarian Park' embodied in proposals for different purposes, scales and dimensions. To clarify the confusion of the term, the

  4. Inclusive Businesses and Land Reform: Corporatization or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wytske O. Chamberlain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive businesses (IBs, embodying partnerships between commercial agribusinesses and smallholder farmers/low-income communities, are considered to contribute towards rural development and agricultural sector transformation. Structured as complex organizational set-ups consisting of, and overcoming the limitations of, standard inclusive instruments (collective organization, mentorship, supply contract, lease/management contract and equity, they allow for the inclusion of smallholders and low-income communities into commercial agricultural value chains. IBs are a way for governments to engage private agribusinesses in agricultural and rural policies. However, will the commercial sector, through IB partnerships, contribute towards the government’s transformation and developmental objectives? Based on case studies in South Africa—a country engaged in land and agrarian reforms—the effects of IBs at the project level appear positive, illustrated by an increase in production and growth in agricultural assets. However, individual beneficiaries experience only a marginal change in income and livelihoods. Whereas land reform, project development and market integration are generally achieved, the transformation and beneficiary development objectives are compromised. Although commercial agribusinesses contribute to investment needs in the sector and smallholder exposure to commercial markets, IB partnerships allow commercial entities control over the smallholders’ assets. Ownership and secure rights, especially of land, and support of external parties to capacitate beneficiaries and adjust power asymmetries, are essential starting points. Without these aspects, IBs will not lead to effective transformation and development.

  5. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  6. The agropecuarian sector in Los Lagos region, and the paradigm "Chile power food": challenges for a national agrarian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring of the economic model in Chile in the mid- seventies hit all productive fields and the agropecuarian sector was no exception. Thus started the beginning of the "Agricultural export Age" that fostered productive guidelines with clear competitive advantages in international markets. The Chilean agricultural paradigm has been characterized by functioning on the basis of low wages, availability of labor and favorable exchange rate. In 2006, under this scenario, the public policy called "Chile Power Food 2020" was implemented, which seeks to reinforce the above formula. This initiative considers growth strategies which make bimodal agrarian structure, present in the country, invisible. To the above an added aggravating factor is that territories (such as Los Lagos Region in southern Chile with traditional productive orientations (specifically cattle have clearly vulnerable positions, especially in those producer groups which are characterized by different rationales to run business

  7. Health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  8. Health care reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušič Dorjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  9. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  10. AGRICULTURA Y DESARROLLO RURAL; REFERENCIA ESPECIAL AL ASOCIACIONISNO AGRARIO/AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT; SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE AGRARIAN AFFILIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín GARCÍA SANZ

    2007-05-01

    de los productos alimenticios y la trazabilidad, retos para los que sin duda están muy concienciadas las cooperativas./The agriculture is an activity trasversal that concerns the rural world but also to villages that are not rural. It is an activity that is present in very big villages of the South named agro cities. Regardless there is a very direct entail between agriculture and ruralidad, not so much because the agriculture is already the base of the work of the rural world, but because being his counterfoil. To analyze the agrarian work in the rural world there are several sources, one is the Survey of the Active Population (EPA who realizes of the persons who are employed at this sector and other one is the Agrarian Census or the Survey of Agrarian Structures that he gathers all the persons who have some labour entail with the agrarian activity. The contrast between these two sources reveals the existence of new figures that appear in the Censuses and not in the EPA as the holders of agrarian developments who have another activity, the holders who cover less half a day in the exploitation, the spouses of the holders or the relatives. This leads us to affirming the importance that has the activity in the rural world as the entail o the works of the agriculture not only of the farmers but also of those that are retired, they have another principal occupation or are simply temporary collaborators of the agrarian work. Raising the future of the agriculture a commentary has interfered on the importance of the asociacionismo, not so much that of production, but that of marketing. Though the levels reached as for members and implied sectors it is high, still there stays a great span that to cross, especially regarding cooperatives of the second degree and control of the markets. This one is a challenge to that it is necessary to add a new bet that consists of penetrating in the circuits of the transformation for taking part of the distribution of benefits, which

  11. Ensino da enfermagem psiquiátrica/saúde mental: sua interface com a Reforma Psiquiátrica e diretrizes curriculares nacionais La enseñanza de la enfermería psiquiátrica/salud mental: su conexión con la Reforma Psiquiátrica y las directrices curriculares nacionales Teaching psychiatric nursing/mental health: its interface with the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform and national curriculum guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josicelia Dumêt Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    étodos y técnicas pedagógicas; es necesario superar desafíos e implementar los cambios, guiándose por una nueva perspectiva, y osando colocar en cuestión la naturaleza del saber y de las prácticas institucionales psiquiátricas.This theoretical study addresses the education system for Psychiatric Nursing in an increasingly changing world of accelerated scientific and technological modernization. The objective is to discuss the pedagogy in Psychiatric Nursing, and its interface with the principles of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses. The theoretical foundation of the study consisted of constructs of the Brazilian psychiatric reform and national curriculum guidelines of nursing undergraduate courses and their relationship to factors constituting the pedagogy in psychiatric nursing. The study shows that it is not enough to identify technical issues regarding contents and teaching, didactic procedures, methods and pedagogical techniques; it is necessary to implement changes, using a new perspective and by daring to question the nature of knowledge and institutional psychiatric practices.

  12. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min

    2017-01-01

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured

  13. Introduction of renewable energies in a settling down of agrarian reform of the West Amazon; Introducao de energias renovaveis em um assentamento da reforma agraria da Amazonia ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Francisco Eulalio Alves dos; Duarte, Alejandro Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil). Climatologia e Energia

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the social evolution of a rural community directly connected to the actions of a research project and extension, which promoted the access to the renewable energies, and the exploration before and after the transit for the use of electric power distribution conventional networks at the Limoeiro community, state of Acre, Brazil.

  14. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  15. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  16. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  17. Comments on regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented

  18. Comments on regulatory reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.

  19. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...

  20. Welfare Reform and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  1. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  2. Competition and PUHCA reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform

  3. Tax reform in the Lula government: continuity and fiscal injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrine Brami-Celentano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.

  4. The 'reformation' of counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Lotter

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.

  5. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  6. Role of Global Food Security in the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Shcherbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author devoted his research to the role of the global food security in the priorities of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP. The research sheds light on the parameters of the Common Agricultural Policy and the basic steps on the path of its reform. The research demonstrates that the priorities of the EC are mainly concentrated on achieving food security for the member-states of the EC, its population and the interests of the agricultural sector. The modern challenges to the Global Food Security (global food crises of 2007-2009, acute food shortages and hunger in crises regions of Africa and chronic malnutrition are placed high on the agenda of the CAP. In this situation, the EU is trying in the interests of stabilization of the world agricultural market to solve simultaneously the tasks of providing assistance for development and mitigation of the threats to the Global Food security. The deepening rift between the strategy of the CAP oriented towards promotion of agricultural export and real contribution of the EC to the Global Food Security and assistance for development is becoming more and more the most «vulnerable» place of the CAP.

  7. Impact of Euro-Canadian agrarian practices: in search of sustainable import-substitution strategies to enhance food security in subarctic Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelaar, Nicole F; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, food insecurity exists among Aboriginal (Inuit, Metis and First Nations) people living in remote northern communities, in part, because of their reliance on the industrialized, import-based food system. Local food production as a substitute to imports would be an adaptive response, but enhancement of food security via food localization requires reflection on previous failings of conventional agricultural strategies so that informed decisions can be made. In light of potential reintroduction of local food production in remote First Nations communities, we investigated the cultural, social and ecological effects of a 20th century, Euro-Canadian agrarian settlement on the food system of a subarctic First Nation; this will act as the first step in developing a more sustainable local food program and enhancing food security in this community. To investigate the socio-cultural impacts of the Euro-Canadian agrarian initiative on the food system of Fort Albany First Nation, purposive, semi-directive interviews were conducted with elders and other knowledgeable community members. Interview data were placed into themes using inductive analyses. To determine the biophysical impact of the agrarian initiative, soil samples were taken from one site within the cultivated area and from one site in an undisturbed forest area. Soil properties associated with agricultural use and productivity were assessed. To compare the means of a given soil property between the sites, one-tailed t-tests were employed. Vegetative analysis was conducted in both sites to assess disturbance. According to the interviewees, prior to the agrarian initiative, First Nation families harvested wild game and fish, and gathered berries as well as other forms of vegetation for sustenance. With the introduction of the residential school and agrarian initiative, traditional food practices were deemed inadequate, families were forced to work and live in the settlement (becoming less reliant on

  8. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  9. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  10. The Tendencies and Prospects of Teaching the Discipline of «Managerial Consulting» in the Agrarian Institutions for Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Iryna I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching the discipline of «Managerial consulting» in the higher education institutions of Ukraine is characterized by a wide range of thematic issues and depends on the structure of the educational programs of specializations. The article is aimed at substantiating the prospects for contents of the discipline of «Managerial consulting» and proposing innovative approaches to its teaching in the agrarian higher education institutions. The article substantiates the algorithm of the content formation of the discipline of «Managerial consulting» in the agrarian higher education institutions, based on the object-subject approach and using the principle of sectoral differentiation in the process of its teaching. As innovative approaches in the course of teaching the discipline of «Managerial consulting» should be considered the interchangeability of contents, the possibility to group topics, the concentration of information as to institutional regulation, the information support of the agrarian consulting, the development of the system of agricultural consulting, the implementation of mechanisms of educative consulting.

  11. Reforming process. Reformierungsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, C.S.

    1982-05-19

    A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.

  12. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  13. Implementing Security Sector Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-04

    ownership and genuine reform. His experience in Diyala Province indicated that the most effective means of pursuing transition and transformation among...that I have no solution to the security situation in Afghanistan, or to the questions of violence, crime, insurrection, or militias vs . army vs ...than to merge those interests into a greater whole. Franchising of problems or solutions is often the result. In Afghanistan, problems and

  14. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers

  15. Landscape Transformation under Global Environmental Change in Mediterranean Mountains: Agrarian Lands as a Guarantee for Maintaining Their Multifunctionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Varga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of past and present patterns of agrarian mountain areas allows researchers to characterize the influence of landscape heterogeneity on biodiversity, cultural heritage, and forest fire hazard. This process was mapped, quantified, and described through the use of digital mapping (GIS and landscape indexes in a protected area in Alta Garrotxa (Catalonia, Spain. These areas require urgent management and modelling to provide alternative management scenarios, in order to maintain and recover habitats. A set of different scenarios have been designed using a multi-criteria evaluation and geospatial information available for the study area to identify the key areas for management action and to predict the potential effects on agricultural lands by prioritizing one or another management objective: biodiversity, landscape structure and perception, cultural heritage, fire hazard, and management cost. The observed progressive land abandonment of open areas with a small size and greater isolation will have a large impact on biodiversity and cultural heritage, and increase fire risk. Sustainable development will require planning objectives compatible with the conservation of biodiversity and the preservation of Mediterranean features with support for agricultural activities. This methodology can contribute to and be easily implemented by land managers, which could help to strengthen the link between managers and stakeholders.

  16. Operational Efficiency as a Factor of Formation of Strategies of Positioning of Products of Agrarian Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozak Lyudmyla V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses operational efficiency as a factor of formation of strategies of positioning of products of agrarian enterprises in Ukraine on the basis of competitive analysis of crop yield, livestock yield and cost of products by aggregate and variable expenditures. The author analyses the level of intensity of production by the criterion of aggregate and variable expenditures per one hectare of crop (one head of livestock in Ukraine and in its main competitors in the world markets of agricultural products – USA and Germany. On the basis of the conducted analysis the article draws a conclusion that the applied technologies of production in Ukraine have less intensity in the context of crop and livestock yield, but namely the limited use of resources allows domestic producers keeping the production cost at a lower level than that of the competitors. It pays big attention to comparative analysis of competitiveness of supply of agricultural producers in the said countries by the criterion of payout of expenditures without state payments.

  17. Kettle Holes in the Agrarian Landscape: Isolated and Ecological Unique Habitats for Carabid Beetles (Col.: Carabidae and Spiders (Arach.: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platen Ralph

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kettle holes are small depressional wetlands and because of the high variability of site factors they are potential hotspots of biodiversity in the monotone arable land. We investigated eight kettle holes and two agrarian reference biotopes for carabid beetles and spiders. The animals were captured with pitfall traps from May to August 2005, along with surveys of the soil and vegetation. We asked whether each kettle hole has specific ecological properties which match with characteristic carabid beetle and spider coenoses and whether they represent isolated biotopes. Differences in the composition of ecological and functional groups of carabid beetles and spiders between the plots were tested with an ANOVA. The impact of the soil variables and vegetation structure on the distribution of species was analyzed with a Redundancy Analysis. The assemblage similarities between the kettle hole plots were calculated by the Wainstein-Index. Ecological groups and habitat preferences of carabid beetles had maximal expressions in seven different kettle holes whereas most of the ecological characteristics of the spiders had maximal expression in only two kettle holes. High assemblage similarity values of carabid beetle coenoses were observed only in a few cases whereas very similar spider coenoses were found between nearly all of the kettle holes. For carabid beetles, kettle holes represent much more isolated habitats than that for spiders. We concluded that kettle holes have specific ecological qualities which match with different ecological properties of carabid beetles and spiders and that isolation effects affect carabid beetles more than spiders.

  18. Agrarian foreign trade of the Czech Republic in the period of 2004–2008, competitiveness of commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Burianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with agrarian foreign trade (AFT of the Czech Republic during the period of 2004–2008. Distinct changes in the trade volume, but also changes in the net export structure were observed. The export is being assisted with a much larger trading area without customs restrictions but it is also exposed to a much tougher competition. A methodology that makes it possible to evaluate the competitiveness of individual commodities is described in the first part. A sequence of individual items from a total list of basic food goods was analyzed using chosen indicators – Balass indicator RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage as well as the Michaely index MI that shows a specific degree of specialization for export. In the Results section, attention is firstly focused on the year 2004. The values of export and import for 24 items of basic food commodities are summarised, and the most important items in respect of the share in total export are selected. Analogical output was acquired for the year 2008. The values of RCA and MI indicators are then itemised, and a sequence is determined for the highest values for the commodities able to compete that shows the specific degree of specialization for export.

  19. Modelos e concepções de inovação: a transição de paradigmas, a reforma da C&T brasileira e as concepções de gestores de uma instituição pública de pesquisa em saúde Innovation models and conceptions: transition of paradigm, the Brazilian S&T reform and conceptions of managers from a public health research institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Velloso Fernandez Conde

    2003-01-01

    the causal links between science, technology, economics and society and the acceleration of the changes in the role of knowledge in society gave rise to several analytical models of innovation in contrast to the "linear model of innovation", suggesting a period of paradigm transition. The analysis showed a high level of convergence with the innovation models and conceptions adopted by the economic advanced countries. These models have been influencing an ongoing Brazilian Science and Technology reform, introducing important issues to the public health sector.

  20. Concepção de clientela: análise do discurso da benevolência no contexto da reforma psiquiátrica brasileira Concepción de clientela: análisis del discurso de la benevolencia en el contexto de la reforma psiquiatrica brasileña Concept of clientele: discourse analysis of the benevolence in the context of the Brazilian psychiatrich reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barbosa de Pinho

    2010-06-01

    workers of mental health about the concept of on the concept of the clientele of the service. The corpus of this work is composed for interviews applied to 17 of the 25 professionals of mental health who work in a service substitute of a city of the Brazilian South Region. The theoretical-philosophical referential was the Critical Discourse Análisis. The methodological device was the "axiologic-discursive diagram". The results demonstrate that the workers assume relations of benevolence because the clientele conceptual undefinition, fruit of the difficulty in establishing what is normal and pathological in mental health. We wait that the study it contributes to problematize the process of consolidation of the Brazilian psychiatric reform.

  1. Economic Reforms and Constitutional Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...

  2. Security Sector Reform in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...

  3. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  4. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  5. Education Reform in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dowson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.

  6. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  7. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  8. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  9. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  10. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  11. Regulation aspects of the restructuring of Argentine oil and gas sector. The Brazilian experiences; Aspectos regulatorios da reestruturacao do setor de oleo e gas argentino. Experiencias a observar no caso brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczynski, Estanislau; Paula, Claudio Paiva de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: stasczenco@zipmail.com.br; clpaiva@mandic.com.br

    1999-07-01

    During the last years, some countries have reorganized their oil and gas sector. The reforms included the opening of national basins to exploration by foreign companies, and the association of a national oil company with a foreign one. Argentina was the first country in Latin America to reform its sector. The major action was the privatisation of YPF, in 1993. Some years later Brazil also begun the process of reforming the national oil and gas sector. The first step was promulgating a new petroleum law. This law created an agency to regulate the national sector during and after the reforms. The Brazilian restructuring model is based on the foreign ones. This paper aims at discussing whether or not the weakness those foreign models could be avoided. The idea is to learn from those experiences and to propose a national reform lead by the Brazilian society instead. (author)

  12. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy presents an overview of social policy reforms currently ... It shows how some experimental approaches to reform have worked in different ... and students in development studies and social sciences; policymakers and ...

  13. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  14. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  15. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  16. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  17. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  18. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  19. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  20. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  1. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  2. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  3. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  4. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  5. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  6. Utilization of agrarian potentials'. Challenges for agriculturists and society; Agrar-Potenziale nutzen.. Herausforderung fuer Landwirte und Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the scope of the meeting 'Utilization of agrarian potentials' held by Deutsche Landwirtschaftliche Gesellschaft e.V. at 8th to 10th January, 2008, in Muenster (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (a) The world markets move - challenges for production (Joachim von Braun); (b) Global markets - future terms of references for the agriculture: guidelines for future strategies under new objectives (Juergen Zeddies); (c) Structural change and globalization - challenges for cooperative societies as market partners of the agriculture (Andreas Schueren, Dieter Hake); (d) More efficient utilization of scarce resources - we need changed thought patterns and decision patterns (Carl-Albrecht Bartmer); (e) Optimal intensities in the agriculture - the requirement of the hour: Adjustment of production at optimal intensity (Theo Jachmann); (f) Growth potentials of selected locations for the agriculture - area productivity in the international comparison (Klaus Nehring); (g) Optimization of the intensities in the crop farming - new challenges, possible adjustments (Hubertus Paetow); (h) Considering inventory management? The fertilization of tomorrow (Klaus Muenchhoff); (i) Value added chain of grain - quality requirements from the view of the traceability: The test system grain (Petra Melisch); (j) Young farmers full of optimism - current results of interview for the estimation of the situation and future and to efficiency potentials (Marika Prasser-Strith); (k) The responsibility for the soil - challenges at technology for cultivation and tillage (Franz-Georg von Busse); (l) The sustainable use of the plough land is an obligation - plough land is precious. (Lothar Hoevelmann); (m) Development of milk cattle companies till 2015 - strategic future planning now necessarily (Johannes Thomsen); (n) The ethical responsibility for a sustainable and global development - agriculture and nutrition (Beatrice van Saan-Klein, Markus Vogt); (o) Ethical

  7. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  8. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  9. Public Administration reforms and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on administrative reforms during the past thirty years indicates that reform efforts of countries differ. The Anglo Saxon states were at the forefront of the New Public Management movement while countries on mainland Europe were more hesitant and moved further towards the Neo-Weberian state. Academics have tried to explain different reform efforts within countries by looking at political, historical and cultural issues, values and economic factors to name just a few. Three hypotheses are put forward to explain reform efforts in different states. This research involves analysing the implementation of two different reform trends, New Public Management and the Neo-Weberian tradition. The analysis indicates that countries vary in their commitment to reform rather than in the emphasis on either New Public Management or the Neo-Weberian State. Decentralization, clear objectives and consultation with communities and experts are closely related to national reform efforts. However, Iceland does distinguish itself from Europe and the Nordic countries. The analysis reveals that although decentralization is high in the Icelandic system, autonomy of agencies does not have a strong relation to a varied use of administrative instruments. The second part of the article focuses on the results and achievements of reform programmes. The achievement of reform programmes are examined in relation to theories of bounded rationality, street level bureaucracy (bottom up and consensus decision making. Three hypotheses are presented and tested to explain what causes reforms programmes to be successful in some countries and not in others. The analysis reveals that countries are more likely to succeed if bounded rationality is applied with careful preparation and when stakeholders are consulted.

  10. VISITING THE MUSEUM OF MADNESS: THE EXPERIENCE OF LEARNING ABOUT THE PSYCHIATRIC REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Museum of Madness in the landscape of the Minas Gerais State is a place where art, history and memory disclose the differences about the Psychiatry approach since the beginning of the last century till nowadays. A qualitative study with 39 nursing undergraduate students was developed, aiming to identify the meaning of the visit to the Museum of Madness. The methodological referential was the Collective Subject Discourse and the theoretical the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform. The data shows the meaning of the visit as potential experience of learning of the dimensions of the Psychiatric Reform when leads the student to question the practice and to know of Psychiatry in the asylum perspective. KEY WORDS: Nursing Education; Mental Health; Health Care Reform.

  11. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  12. Energy policy and regional inequalities in the Brazilian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gervasio F.; Haddad, Eduardo A.; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the long-run regional impacts of the tariff policy of the Brazilian electric power sector. This sector has undergone a reform process that started in the 1990s. Since the beginning of the reform, two spatial trends of distribution of electric power tariffs have emerged among the Brazilian states, one of convergence and another of spatial divergence. These trends have been guided by the new electric power tariff policy and by the spatial features of the Brazilian economy, which is marked by a high degree of spatial concentration and hierarchical distribution of large markets. In addition, because of the presence of strong economies of scale, the recent electric power prices differentials might be caused by differentials in market size that provide better conditions for the achievement of economies of scale for electric power utility companies located in larger markets. Given the role of electric power as an important intermediate input in the production process and the interdependence between sectors, an Energy Interregional Computable General Equilibrium model was used to simulate the long-run regional impacts of electric power tariff policy in Brazil. The simulations showed that the heterogeneity of energy-intensity and the differentials of energy substitution drive the spatial impacts of changes in electric power prices. On the other hand, the recent trend of spatial dispersion of electric power prices might contribute to a decrease in the long-run economic growth and to an increase in the regional inequalities in Brazil. - Highlights: ► We model the regional impacts of tariff policy of the electric power sector in Brazil. ► High electric power tariffs increases in regions with higher electric-power-intensity. ► Heterogeneity of energy supply determines an unequal pattern of energy substitution. ► Low possibilities of energy substitution generate the most negative economic impacts

  13. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  14. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  15. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  17. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... It is furthermore our contention that the notion of culture and African worldviews was always perceived negatively ..... dean of the South East Asia Graduate School of Theology. He later .... Another Reformed church for Indian.

  18. on the accra document, reformed theology and reformed ecclesiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-14

    Dec 14, 2009 ... Many churches and ecumenical bodies have already responded, in diverse ways ..... and contains a number of practical commitments and appeals. (par. ..... rhetorical power and emotion that it seemingly has for Reformed.

  19. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  20. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  1. Radiant non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.

    2017-10-31

    A radiant, non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot exhaust gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned adjacent to the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot exhaust gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is positioned outside of flue gas flow path for a relatively large residence time.

  2. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  3. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  4. Analysis of major risk factors affecting those working in the agrarian sector (based on a sociological survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekoten, Olena M; Dereziuk, Anatolii V; Ihnaschuk, Olena V; Holovchanska, Svitlana E

    Issues related to labour potential, its state and problems have consistently been a focus of attention for the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Its respective analysis shows that labour potential problems remain unresolved in many countries of the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), adverse working conditions are among major factors of occupational disease development in Europe and the reason for disabilities of economically active population during 2.5% of their lifetime. The aim of the present study is to identify and analyse major risk factors, which have a bearing on people working in agriculture in the course of exercising their occupation, with account of forms of ownership of agricultural enterprises. Carried out was a cross-sectional study involving a sociological survey of 412 respondents - those working in agriculture - who made up the primary group and the control group. The study revealed 21 risk factors, 9 of which were work-related. A modified elementary cybernetic model of studying impact efficiency was developed with the view of carrying out a structural analysis of the sample group and choosing relevant methodological approaches. It has been established that harmful factors related to working environment and one's lifestyle are decisive in the agrarian sector, particularly for workers of privately owned businesses. For one out of three respondents harmful working conditions manifested themselves as industrial noise (31.7±3.4), vibration (29.0±2.1) trunk bending and constrained working posture (36.6±3.4). The vast majority of agricultural workers (91.6±2.5) admitted they could not afford proper rest during their annual leave; male respondents abused alcohol (70.6±3.0) and smoking (41.4±2.0 per 100 workers). The research established the structure of risk factors, which is sequentially represented by the following groups: behavioral (smoking, drinking of alcohol, rest during annual leave, physical culture), working

  5. Financial reform lessons and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio Jr, Gerard; Atiyas, Izak; Hanson, James

    1993-01-01

    The argument in favor of gradual - but sustained - financial reform is based on two factors. First, the development of borrower net worth will determine the health of the real and, ultimately, the financial sector. Thus, speeding up reforms when borrower net worth is subject to positive shocks - or slowing them when it is subject to negative shocks - appears sensible and appears to have worked better in practice. Second, the initial conditions of the banking sector - not just its net worth bu...

  6. Misrecognition and science education reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  7. Reforming health care in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Császi, L; Kullberg, P

    1985-01-01

    Over the past two decades Hungary has initiated a series of social and economic reforms which have emphasized decentralization of control and the reintroduction of market mechanisms into the socialized economy. These reforms both reflect and reinforce a changing social structure, in particular the growing influence of upper class special interest groups. Market reforms are an expression of concurrent ideological shifts in Hungarian society. We examined the political significance of three recent proposals to reform health services against the backdrop of broader social and economic changes taking place. The first proposes a bureaucratic reorganization, the second, patient co-payments, and the third, a voucher system. The problems each proposal identifies, as well as the constituency each represents, reveal a trend toward consolidation of class structure in Hungary. Only one of these proposals has any potential to democratize the control and management of the heath care system. Moreover, despite a governmental push toward decentralization, two of these proposals would actually increase centralized bureaucratic control. Two of the reforms incorporate market logic into their arguments, an indication that the philosophical premises of capitalism are re-emerging as an important component of the Hungarian world-view. In Hungary, as well as in other countries, social analysis of proposed health care reforms can effectively illuminate the social and political dynamics of the larger society.

  8. Reforming the European Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ezra Bigio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An unbridled globalization based on a simple premise about earnings and profit may be detrimental to the livelihood of many thousands of individuals. The greed and utter selfishness that result from the adherence to this sort of business practice are the two things that generate more unemployment, misery and degradation than most other characteristics of the human species. These considerations present the challenge for Western societies and call for the implementation of other principles, standards and procedures, such as cooperation, cohesion, development objectives and social responsibility. In the first part of the paper this approach is tested in the case of the EU-US foreign exchange relationships. The second part of the paper raises more general and fundamental issues. While adhering to the Schumpeter-type innovation environment, it aims to introduce the social dimension ahead of the immediate competitiveness and, therefore, argues for the fundamental reform of the catechism of the capitalist manager. The EU, due to its advanced integration, is relatively well-equipped to move towards the new economic system.  

  9. The Brazilian 2010 oil regulatory framework and its crowding-out investment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florêncio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Investment is an essential variable in the oil sector. It is even more important in the vast Brazilian pre-salt domains, where the technological requirements are high and sophisticated. The Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras, is facing severe financial limitations to undertake these disbursements. Other oil companies will therefore have to be significantly engaged in the endeavour, which reinforces further the importance of attracting investments in Brazil. Yet this article shows that the governance architecture established in the 2010 Brazilian oil framework will deter investments in several ways, giving rise to agency problems among entities and moral hazard situations because of contractual legal liabilities. There are some credible indications that the government of President Lula overestimated the attractiveness of the Brazilian pre-salt oil discoveries and their capacity to draw investments when proposing the 2010 changes. Little attention was given to the careful examination of how the framework would affect investors, under the assumption that the favourable geological conditions would be sufficiently attractive in themselves. Even though the 2010 reforms have brought some minor advancements and there have been some signs that the government has been recently attempting to mitigate some of the problems examined in this article, that is not enough. - Highlights: • The Brazilian regulatory oil framework deters investments in the country. • The governance setting between entities is one of its worse aspects. • It causes agency problems and moral hazard situations. • Brazil has to urgently tackle these investment hindrances.

  10. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  12. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  13. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  14. A importância do desenvolvimento de revistas científicas em mídia digital: O caso da Revista Agrarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Campos Burin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos e pesquisas são ações fundamentais em qualquer área do conhecimento e funcionam como alicerces no processo de evolução e desenvolvimento. Tão importante quanto a geração do conhecimento é a disseminação e difusão destas informações, utilizando meios de comunicação abrangentes e eficientes. O objetivo dos autores foi apresentar o caso da Revista Científica Agrarian: sua criação, desenvolvimento e consolidação, enfatizando os resultados e ações obtidos durante seus 6 anos em atividade. A revista científica foi criada em 2008, sendo a primeira revista científica de Mato Grosso do Sul de acesso aberto e totalmente digital que publica trabalhos nas áreas de Ciências Agrárias, Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Economia e Administração do Agronegócio. A Agrarian recebe submissões de todas as regiões do país, o que possibilita disponibilizar conhecimentos de grande importância ao público, entre técnicos, pesquisadores e estudantes. Foram publicadas vinte e uma edições entre os anos 2008-2013, todas disponibilizadas no Sistema Eletrônico de Editoração de Revistas (SEER. Com um número de 615 submissões e 285 artigos publicados, é possível concluir que a Revista Agrarian está se tornando um veículo de informação confiável e consolidado. Estes dados também confirmam as hipóteses relacionadas à importância de veículos práticos e econômicos para a difusão do conhecimento científico agrário no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, importante centro do agronegócio no País.

  15. EL PARADIGMA CIENTÍFICO DE LAS CIENCIAS AGRARIAS: UNA REFLEXION THE SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM OF AGRARIAN SCIENCES: A REFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Darío Vélez Vargas

    2004-06-01

    . The empirical evidence surpasses the theoretical and assumed limits from which these challenges are analyzed and their solutions proposed. To successfully confront the new challenges and contexts, new paradigms will be required that define a core group of scientific and engineering bases and a minimum unit of study and work. This minimum unit should permit, from a systemic and harmonic perspective, the identification and analysis of the factors that influence the productive processes and their contexts, the work in these disciplines and the formulation of questions and needs. In the agrarian sciences, this change in paradigm could be represented by the agroecosystemic viewpoint, which permits a the hierarchical organization of the work and research unit and its levels of interaction; b the presentation of the productive process as a result of the integrated effect of socioeconomic, ecological, cultural, scientific, and technological factors; c the integral identification of the problems and solutions; d the breaking of disciplinary limits; e the responding to demands for an agriculture that is sustainable, competitive, multifunctional, and equitable.

  16. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  17. Arktisk Reform i Ukraines Skygge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål.......USA overtager formandskabet for Arktisk Råd ved udenrigsministermødet d. 24.-25. april 2015. Der er behov for nødvendige reformer af Rådets struktur, men Ukraine-konflikten gør det vanskeligt at nå de ambitiøse mål....

  18. Florence Nightingale and healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudzma, Elizabeth Connelly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the work of Florence Nightingale in light of her collaboration with William Farr, the eminent medical statistician. Nightingale's epidemiological investigations supported by Farr illustrated that attention to environmental cleanliness was an important factor in preventing spread of disease. Nightingale channeled her investigations to support hospital reforms and the need for an educated nurse who could provide better management of the hospital environment. Statistical support and solicited criticism allowed Nightingale to argue more forcefully for her reforms.

  19. The Economic Effects of Comprehensive Tax Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study analyzes the major economic effects of several tax reform plans and finds that much uncertainty surrounds the likelihood and magnitude of the economic gains from tax reform...

  20. TAX-REFORM - DREAMING ABOUT TOUGH REALITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKAM, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.

  1. INSTITUTIONAL THEORY OF ECONOMIC REFORMS: BASIC IMPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeevich SUKHAREV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of institutional economic theory to explain various kinds of economic reforms (changes on the basis of theoretical ideas about the dysfunction of institutions and systems are investigated. A number of classifications of reforms and dysfunctions is introduced and kinds of institutional efficiency of economic systems are defined. Qualitative regularities of various reforms of the twentieth century in different countries are generalized. A number of criteria of effective institutional reforms, capable to lower the depth and the scale of dysfunctions of the functioning economic subsystems is formed. System approach to the analysis of economic systems reforming with underlining the importance of reform “management” factor which defines productivity of economic development is elaborated. Life cycle of institution and economic system in the process of its reforming is presented and correction of J. Hellmann’s model, describing the reforming logic of economy is made.

  2. On being African and Reformed? Towards an African Reformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, the notions of being African and Reformed are interrogated. The research notes that these notions are rarely used in the same vein. It is admitted that notions tend to pick up different meanings as they evolve, so these notions are especially seen in that light. The theological hegemony, which in the South African ...

  3. Insertion of the free consumers in the Brazilian electrical sector: challenges and opportunities; Insercao dos consumidores livres no setor eletrico brasileiro: desafios e oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Cristiane Padilha

    2010-03-15

    This thesis analyses the role of free consumers in the Brazilian Electric Power Sector. Therefore, it evaluates the role of free consumers in other markets worldwide and analyses the current Brazilian regulatory framework that was introduced in 2004. The current model has replaced the one adopted in the 1990s, when the first reform of the Brazilian Electricity Sector occurred. To assess the role of free consumers in the electricity sector, this work analyses the benefits that this kind of consumers perceive and the risks they are exposed to when they switch from the captive market and go towards the open market. It also evaluates the influence of free consumers over the other industry agents: generators, distributors, retail consumers and society. It also identifies new options for free consumers in the Brazilian electric energy (author)

  4. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  5. Reforming EIA systems: A critical review of proposals in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Alberto, E-mail: albertof@em.ufop.br [Federal University of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Sánchez, Luis Enrique [University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, José Claudio Junqueira [Escola Superior Dom Helder Câmara, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems are under pressure in many countries, driven by a call for efficiency and streamlining. Such a phenomenon is particularly clear in Brazil, where, in the past few years, a number of influential associations put forward documents proposing significant changes to environmental licensing and impact assessment regulations. So far, there is no publicly available information about any initiative towards scrutinizing those proposals. The objective of this study was to critically review the merits and drawbacks of the changes proposed in those documents. The analysis triangulated content analysis, focus group and online survey data. The focus group included ten seasoned Brazilian EIA specialists; the survey, based on Likert-scale and open-ended questions, resulted in 322 valid responses from EIA professionals. Results show that the proposals generally agree that the current EIA system, while playing a key role in mitigating impacts and enhancing project design, needs many changes. Nonetheless, the proposals neither offered solutions to overcome political, technical and budget barriers, nor established a sense of priority of the most urgent issues. Findings from the focus group and the survey signaled that a number of proposed actions might face public outcry, and that those changes that do not depend on legislative action are more likely to be implementable. Previous studies about EIA reform focused mostly on the context of developed countries after changes had taken place. This study, while addressing the perspective of a large developing country in a “before-reform” stage, shows that capacity-building is a key requirement in EIA reform. - Highlights: • Brazil's EIA system is under strong pressure for change. • Findings corroborate ineffectiveness in current system. • There are tensions as to the best approaches to overcome problems. • Exact effects of proposals are uncertain. • Low institutional capacity can

  6. The agrarian social structure of Pehuajoïs party (2010 La estructura social agraria en el partido de Pehuajó (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a product of the ongoing transformations in the Agricultural sector in Argentina, recent debates in the social sciences have compared the new characteristics of development with older forms. Inside this field of debates, the question of the agrarian actors at present has been particularly relevant. Though their exists a great quantity of works that approach the problems of the actors, few analyses make reference to their productive roles. The present article presents a case study of Pehuajó's party. It provides a description of the social agrarian structure, focusing on the forms in which production develops as a result of the links between different actors, and establishing "rupture" points that caracterize the older forms of development.Producto de las transformaciones recientes en el sector agropecuario argentino, en las ciencias sociales se han ampliado los debates en torno a las nuevas características que asume en comparación con las formas de desarrollo del pasado. Dentro de este campo de debates, la cuestión de los sujetos agrarios en la actualidad ha cobrado una especial relevancia. Si bien existen una gran cantidad de trabajos que abordan la problemática de los sujetos, pocos análisis refieren a las vinculaciones que entre estos se establecen para llevar a cabo la producción. En el presente artículo, a partir de un estudio de caso en el partido de Pehuajó, se describirá la estructura social agraria focalizando en las formas en que se desarrolla la producción a partir de la combinación de vínculos entre distintos sujetos y estableciendo los puntos de "ruptura" con respecto a las formas de desenvolvimiento del pasado.

  7. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  8. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  9. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  10. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  11. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  12. Free-Market School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  13. Law Reform and Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Cormacain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Editorial Ronan Cormacain (Editor-in-Chief, ISLRev, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies welcomes you to the third issue of the IALS Student Law Review. He explains the background to this special edition focusing on Law Reform and Child Protection and introduces the articles featured in this issue of the journal.

  14. Education Reform: A Managerial Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Conley, Sharon C.

    1986-01-01

    Education reform has wrongly focused on teacher motivation and rewards, when the organizational system itself is at fault. Research shows that effective school management hinges on increased individual discretion and decision-making opportunities for teachers and less controlling behavior by administrators. Ten characteristics of effective…

  15. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A…

  16. Steam hydrocarbon cracking and reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many industrial chemical processes are taught as distinct contrasting reactions when in fact the unifying comparisons are greater than the contrasts. We examine steam hydrocarbon reforming and steam hydrocarbon cracking as an example of two processes that operate under different chemical reactivity

  17. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  18. State , Citizenship and Participatory Democracy Between Managerial Reform and Legitimation of Social Power in Public Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marana Sotero De Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to point out the importance of participatory democracy for continuous affirmation of Law Democratic State, shrouded at modifications about citizenship in his evolution between State models following as suffered reforms under Brazilian Public Administration. Through qualitative methodology, especially with historical and hermeneutic procedures and bibliographical sources, the objective is develop the discussion about Popular Participation As legitimation instrument in the decisions that are limited in the administrator space. At the end, show the popular participation and citizens are fundamentals for current democratic model of state.

  19. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO 2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO 2 /H 2 O/CH 4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO 2 reforming. The CO 2 /CH 4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO 2 /CH 4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO 2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Analysis of the opening model of the Brazilian upstream business; Analise da adequacao do modelo de E e P brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the institutional model adopted for the reform of the oil industry in Brazil, beginning with the approval of Law n. 9.478 by the Brazilian Parliament in 1997. The reform of the Brazilian oil industry took place in the context of the reforms of the world's national economies throughout the 1980's and 1990's. From this worldwide process of reform stemmed a huge increase in the international capital flow directed to long-run investment opportunities in the economic infrastructure sectors. The aim of this paper is to analyse both the regulatory model for the oil and gas upstream activities in Brazil and the bidding model adopted at Brazil's National Petroleum Agency's auctions for the acquisition of exploration areas. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal (in memoriam), whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  1. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  2. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  3. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  4. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  5. Reforming the reform: the Greek National Health System in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida

    2002-10-01

    The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  7. Curriculum reform and the market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    A neo-liberal discourse in the 2000s has been prevalent not only in international and Danish educational policy contexts, but also within a specific area, namely the education of adult immigrants in Denmark. With the adoption of a new law in 2003 high-stakes testing, standards, new market economy...... in Denmark. Based on studies of curriculum reform and research about headmasters’ and teachers’ attitudes the article addresses paradoxes rising in the wake of the neo-liberal education policy. Despite the intention of high-stakes testing to increase adult migrants’ language and employment related....... Teachers furthermore find the new working conditions stressing. It is discussed whether a neo-liberal discourse in adult teaching is ‘dumping down’ the intentions of curriculum and education reform....

  8. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  9. The Consequences of Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenthal, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the effects of tax reforms for an economy in a welfare state. I do this by a macroeconomic model, which includes not only households, firms and a government but also a monopoly labour union. The households are of two types, workers and entrepreneurs. The workers are employed by the firms, which are owned by the entrepreneurs. This paper shows that decreasing labour taxation and increasing consumption taxation would have a number of positive effects. These include incr...

  10. The california electricity reform debacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, California launched a dramatic reform of its electricity sector, vertically de-integrating its major utilities and establishing a competitive generation market, with separate entities responsible for grid control and power exchange. After two uneventful years, wholesale prices rose dramatically in the summer of 2000 and have remained high into 2001. An imbalance between the high wholesale prices and frozen retail rates caused a financial crisis for the electric utilities and power shortages have been a chronic threat. Several factors contributed to this crisis: capacity has not expanded in step with demand either in California or its larger trading region; extreme weather and poorly timed plant outages further increased demand and decreased supply; market design flaws allowed significant suppliers to influence the market while frozen retail rates limited the demand response that would have mitigated the supply-demand imbalance. State and federal agencies have taken corrective action but the situation may remain critical for some time. Longer term solutions involve recognizing the special characteristics of electricity in designing marking reform. Because electricity supply and demand must be instantaneously balanced at all times, market reform must ensure that someone has the responsibility and effective tools to ensure that this occurs, in spite of unforeseen circumstances, and to prevent the exercise of market power. Because a competitive commodity market must work in concert with a monopoly delivery system, someone must be responsible and have the means to develop and operate the grid in ways that are amenable to effective competition. Finally, reform design must ensure that the cyclical investment and price patterns of normal commodity markets are minimized in the electricity market and that when they do occur, market volatility does not compromise reliability and price stability for those who value these highly and would pay a premium for them

  11. The role of the State in land reform processes: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Botella Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es estudiar el proceso de reforma agrarian en Latinoamérica y caracterizar el caso de Brasil, por esta razón voy a exponer una visión general del proceso y el rol de los gobiernos durante el siglo XX acorde al punto de vista de organizaciones internacionales como el Banco Mundial o el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Como punto a añadir al objetivo de mi investigación está el explicar en términos generales y únicamente con un análisis teórico el proceso de reforma agraria y, por esta razón, me gustaría mostrar las mejores normas a fin de poner en práctica esta clase de política de acuerdo a la difícil situación del punto de salida. Finalmente, la presencia de Brasil será tomada para demostrar las importantes implicaciones de los movimientos sociales para llevar a cabo los procesos de reforma agraria.____________________ABSTRACT:The purpose of my article is to study land reform processes in Latin America and characterise the case of Brazil, for this reason I am going to expound a general vision of the process and the role of Governments during the 20th century according to the point of view of International Organizations like The World Bank or The Inter-American Development Bank. In addition the objective of my research is explaining in general terms and only with a theoretical analysis land reform processes and, for this reason, I would like to show the best norms in order to put in practise this kind of policy according to the difficult situation of the starting point. Finally the instance of Brazil will be undertaken to demonstrate the main implications of social movements in order to make land reform processes.

  12. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  13. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  14. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  15. Ambientalismo e concepções de RESEX, extrativismo e conhecimento no ICMBIO na Amazônia Legal Environmentalism and conceptions of RESEX, extractivism and knowledge in the ICMBIO in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos Menezes

    2011-08-01

    in the Brazilian Amazon, in relation to environmentalism and identifies possible relationships between the positioning and views on knowledge, conception of Extractive Reserve (RESEX and extractivism. According to the theoretical discussion, we make the following types for the studied categories: environmentalist slope: preservationist, sustainabilist and socio-environmentalist; views of knowledge: anarchist, dialogic (or environmental knowledge, interdisciplinary and pure science; views of RESEX: RESEX as Conservation Unit (UC for sustainable use, RESEX serving the agrarian reform and opportunist RESEX; views on extractivism: legitimate extractivism, legitimate extractivism and opportunistic extractivism. The method used was a comparative cross-partition, checking similarities and dissimilarities of respondents groups. To survey the positions of the respondents was made a questionnaire available to all staff with statements representing different views, using Likert scale. It was done a classification into categories of technicians, using cluster analysis by the agglomerative hierarchical method, having as parameter the proximity of placement. It was found that no single view about environmentalism in the Chico Mendes in the Legal Amazon and there are not pure environmentalist lines, but composed of several strands of ideas. The views on RESEXs and extractivism are related concepts socio- environmentalism, reinforcing the argument that this type of conservation is a part this line of thought.

  16. EJERCICIO DE LAS FUNCIONES EMPRESARIALES POR PARTE DE LOS SOCIOS EN LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS / THE EXECUTION OF MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS BY THE MEMBERS OF AGRARIAN COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen GALVE GÓRRIZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cómo es efectuada por parte de los socios la coordinación de la empresa cooperativa agraria. Dicha coordinación ha sido analizada a través del análisis de las funciones que deben desarrollar los socios como empresarios. Estas funciones son enumeradas, descritas teóricamente y analizadas a partir de una muestra de cooperativas agrarias pertenecientes a la Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja. Entre los principales resultados obtenidos cabe destacar que, en la mayoría de los casos analizados, la función de inversor es realizada sin que exista separación con la desempeñada como proveedor; el control formal es ejercido bajo el principio democrático de un hombre un voto; existe poca delegación de las actividades de gestión en una gerencia profesionalizada y cuando esta delegación se produce, no se obtiene niveles de eficiencia significativamente superiores; la organización de actividades muestra una clara especialización en las primeras fases del ciclo productivo y una alta concentración de ventas; por último, la selección de personal es realizada exigiendo unos niveles de cualificación adecuados en cada departamento. / The aim of this work is to analyse how the coordination of the agrarian cooperative firm is brought about by the members. Said coordination has been analysed by means of a study of the functions which members have to develop in their role as managers. These functions have been numbered; theoretically described, and analysed by using a sample of agrarian cooperatives belonging to the Domination of Origin Qualified Rioja. From the principal results obtained, we can highlight the fact that, in most cases analysed, formal control is exercised under the democratic principle, “one-man-one-vote”; where little delegation of management activities exists in professional management and when this delegation occurs, the cooperative does not obtain higher efficiency levels. The

  17. Discursos y políticas agrarias en Argentina, 1920-1955 Discourse and Agrarian Policies in Argentina, 1920-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Balsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza cómo el discurso agrarista crítico del latifundio fue consolidándose en la opinión pública argentina y se tradujo en medidas que fueron teniendo cada vez más impacto sobre la realidad agraria. En 1921 la lucha de los chacareros logró una primera ley que reguló los contratos de arrendamiento. En las décadas siguientes, incluso algunas figuras políticas del conservadurismo fueron incorporando la discursividad agrarista crítica e implementaron políticas acordes, aunque de carácter limitado que, de todos modos, contribuyeron a la legitimación de las demandas chacareras. Con el golpe militar de 1943 y el ascenso de Perón, el agrarismo crítico se convirtió en una real estrategia política, hasta que a partir de 1948 asistimos a un giro discursivo y político por parte de Perón, frenándose el proceso colonizador oficial y reduciéndose las medidas agraristas.This article analyzes the consolidation of an agrarist discourse critique of the latifundio in the Argentine public opinion and how this had impact on the agrarian reality. In 1921, the chacareros' fight achieved the first law that regulated tenure contracts. In the next decades, even some political figures of the Argentine conservatism begun to assimilate the critique agrarist discursivity and they took some appropriate, but limited measures that, anyway, contributed to the legitimation of the chacareros' demands. With the military coup of 1943 and the promotion of the political figure of Perón, critique agrarism became a real political strategy, until from 1948 when we attend to a political and discursive turn of Peron's policies, that stopped the official colonization process and reduced the amount of agrarian measures.

  18. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  19. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  20. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  1. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  2. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  3. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  4. Development of ATSR (Auto Thermal Steam Reformer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, J.; Yoshino, Y.; Kuwabara, T.; Fujisima, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Maruko, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Auto-thermal reformers are used popularly for fuel cell vehicle because they are compact and can start up quickly. On the other hand, steam reformers are used for stationary fuel cell power plant because they are good thermal efficiency. While, there are many cases using the auto- thermal reformer for stationary use with expectation of cost reduction in USA, as well. However, they are still insufficient for its durability, compactness and cost. We have been developing the new type of fuel processing system that is auto-thermal steam reformer (ATSR), which is hybrid of a conventional steam reformer (STR) and a conventional auto-thermal reformer (ATR). In this study, some proto-type of ATSR for field test were designed, tried manufacturing and tested performance and durability. And we have tried to operate with fuel cell stack to evaluate the system interface performance, that is, operability and controllability. (author)

  5. High temperature ceramic-tubed reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Rosenberg, Robert A.; McDonough, Lane J.

    1990-03-01

    The overall objective of the HiPHES project is to develop an advanced high-pressure heat exchanger for a convective steam/methane reformer. The HiPHES steam/methane reformer is a convective, shell and tube type, catalytic reactor. The use of ceramic tubes will allow reaction temperature higher than the current state-of-the-art outlet temperatures of about 1600 F using metal tubes. Higher reaction temperatures increase feedstock conversion to synthesis gas and reduce energy requirements compared to currently available radiant-box type reformers using metal tubes. Reforming of natural gas is the principal method used to produce synthesis gas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide, H2 and CO) which is used to produce hydrogen (for refinery upgrading), methanol, as well as several other important materials. The HiPHES reformer development is an extension of Stone and Webster's efforts to develop a metal-tubed convective reformer integrated with a gas turbine cycle.

  6. Review of Judicial Reforms in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Dubgyur, Lungten

    2004-01-01

    This essay highlights the anomalies of judicial reforms in Bhutan. It presents a historical perspective of Bhutanese judicial reforms and addresses recent developments. It discusses court performance and experiences and approaches adopted in making the courts efficient. Much of the reform initiatives emanate from the throne. His Majesty the King has always advocated an efficient judicial system for the Kingdom. In obedience to the Royal Commands, the judicial system and judicial process in Bh...

  7. The English and Swedish health care reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Matsaganis, M

    1994-01-01

    England and Sweden have two of the most advanced systems of universal access to health care in the world. Both have begun major reforms based on similar principles. Universal access and finance from taxation are retained, but a measure of competition between providers of health care is introduced. The reforms therefore show a movement toward the kind of approach advocated by some in the United States. This article traces the origins and early results of the two countries' reform efforts.

  8. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  9. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  10. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  11. Plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol: influence of air activation rate and reforming temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Demchina, V.P.; Bortyshevsky, V.A.; Korzh, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence that air activation rate and reforming temperature have on the gaseous products composition and conversion efficiency during the plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol. The analysis of product composition showed that the conversion efficiency of ethanol has a maximum in the studied range of reforming temperatures. Researched system provided high reforming efficiency and high hydrogen energy yield at the lower temperatures than traditional conversion technologies

  12. Pension reform in the European periphery: the role of EU reform advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Anderson, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: This paper analyzes the impact of international reform advocacy on national pension reforms. We analyze European Union (EU) reform advocacy in two EU member states: Greece and Hungary. Although the EU has articulated a fairly coherent template for sustainable pensions, its use of soft

  13. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Ca...

  14. Influence of irrigation on the occurrence of organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, water and sediments of a Spanish agrarian basin (Lerma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahao, R.; Sarasa, J.; Causape, J.; Garcia-Garizabal, I.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In order to understand the several possible environmental impacts caused by irrigation, the existence of a study area under transition from unirrigated to irrigated land is a great advantage. This work investigates the presence of 44 pesticides and metabolites, 11 organo chlorinated compounds, 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 13 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several metals and metalloids such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Se and Hg, in the soil, water and sediments of an agrarian basin in Northeast Spain. The study area was unirrigated until 2006, when irrigation began. The objective of this work was to verify if the first irrigation years influenced the concentrations of the substances and elements analyzed. The main contaminants detected were organo chlorinated compounds, Paths and metals in the soil; atrazine, desethyl atrazine, terbuthylazine, dicofol and pp'-DDT in the water; and PAHs, 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene and metals in the sediments. Until the conclusion of this study, no serious contamination issues existed related to the analyzed substances, and for the moment, irrigation has not significantly influenced the concentrations of such substances in the basin. Nevertheless, slightly elevated punctual values were observed for endrin in the soil, pp'-DDT in the water, and Ni and Zn in the sediments. (Author) 45 refs.

  15. More Energy and Less Work, but New Crises: How the Societal Metabolism-Labour Nexus Changes from Agrarian to Industrial Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Haas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific finding that humanity is overburdening nature and thus risks further ecological crises is almost uncontroversial. Main reason for the crises is the drastic increase in the societal metabolism, which is accomplished through labour. In this article, we examine the societal metabolism-labour nexus in two energy regimes: a valley in the Ethiopian highlands, typical of an agrarian society, and a village in Austria, typical of an industrial society. In the Ethiopian village, the supply of food demands almost the entire labour force, thus limiting the capacity to facilitate material flows beyond food provision. In the Austrian village, fewer working hours, lower workloads but 50 times higher useful energy allow to accumulate stocks like buildings 70 times higher than the Ethiopian case. With fossil energy, industrial societies decisively expand their energy supply and reduce labour hours at the cost of high carbon emissions, which are almost non-existent in the Ethiopian case. To overcome the resulting ecological crises, there is a call to drastically reduce fossil fuel consumption. Such an abandonment of fossil fuels might have as far reaching consequences for the societal metabolism-labour nexus and consequently human labour as the introduction of fossil fuels has had.

  16. China struggles to reform giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Paul

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the struggle to reform the Chinese oil industry. Topics discussed include the defending of state monopolies, the capital injections required by the three main national oil companies, the bidding of the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for oilfields in Kazakhstan resulting in the need for large investment, and CNPC's failure to meet its spending commitments in the Middle East. Expenditure on exploration, the funding of gas development, and the plans of the China Petroleum Corporation (Sinopec) to raise funds overseas are discussed, and competition problems are considered. (UK)

  17. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  18. Steam reforming of light oxygenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Resasco, Daniel E; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) of ethanol, acetic acid, acetone, acetol, 1-propanol, and propanal has been investigated over Ni/MgAl2O4 at temperatures between 400 and 700 degrees C and at a steam-to-carbon-ratio (S/C) of 6. The yield of H-2 and conversion increased with temperature, while the yield of by-...... of CH4. Significant deactivation of the catalyst was observed for all of the compounds and was mainly due to carbon formation. The carbon formation was highest for alcohols due to a high formation of olefins, which are potent coke precursors....

  19. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  20. Welfare implication of reforming energy consumption subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Michèle; Mirzapour, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Reforming energy consumption subsidies, in particular for fossil fuels, has been frequently referred to as a quick-win policy to enhance environmental mitigation. In addition, the removal of such subsidies may release a sizeable portion of a country's national budget for use on more productive targets. One of the most recognized challenges of such reform is “selling” the new energy prices to citizens, particularly those with a more fragile purchasing power. Several empirical and technical studies have prescribed that the reform might be supported by a direct compensation mechanism in order to ensure feasibility. This is what was done during the recent energy subsidy reform in Iran. However, the compensation mechanism implemented in Iran's reform was successful at the beginning, but did not proceed as expected. This has raised questions about the feasibility and sustainability of the direct compensation mechanism, and even of the reform policy itself. In this paper, we consider a stylized model where direct compensation is the instrument proposed to restore consumers’ utility against increased energy prices. We find that, when prices of Other Goods are affected by the announced reform policy, the feasibility of a subsidy reform critically depends on the value of certain parameters: the initial subsidization rate, the share of energy in the consumers’ bundle, and the energy portion of price of Other Goods. - Highlights: • A model of energy subsidy reform with direct compensation is proposed. • Feasibility of the reform is related to three key parameters. • An illustrative example using data from the recent Iranian reform is discussed.

  1. Working towards Justice, Security Sector Reform and Better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on security sector reform, constitutional reform, governance of diversity and critical dialogues in MENA societies. ... Reform will take time and one of the tests for those involved in this process is exercising patience and .... Related articles ...

  2. Integrating competition and planning: A mixed institutional model of the Brazilian electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajay, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, the Brazilian electric power sector went through similar institutional changes taken place in both developing and developed countries. The main goals for such changes were to inject competition into the generation and supply links of the sector's production chain and to reduce public debt via privatization of state-owned utilities that dominated the pre-reform sector. This paper discusses why these changes took place in Brazil and explains why the results of the reform model implemented by the previous federal administration were unsatisfactory. The current federal administration has substantially altered the prior model, aiming to remedy insufficient private investment in new power stations that caused a serious power shortage in 2001. The paper addresses the main characteristics of the new model, which implements (a) public biddings of new power plants for all distribution utilities in the country, and (b) forward planning of optimal commissioning times and capacity of new plants. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential benefits and drawbacks of the new scheme and the role of the regulator in the early stage of the ongoing transition in the Brazilian electrical power industry. (author)

  3. New Configuration of the Brazilian State: Liberty and Development in the Evolution of Government in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Reyes-Ricon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent events in the global economy have revitalized the debate about the size and functions of the State. The neoliberal discourse was put in check, reopening the discussions concerning Market Liberty and the importance of the State. Since the proclamation of the Republic, the Brazilian government has undergone numerous reforms, sometimes assuming a liberal, external market dependent orientation, while at other times assuming an authoritarian, developmental state-driven orientation. The aim of this article is to develop insights into the evolution of the governmental organization and reflect on the assumptions that lie behind the various reforms that have taken place since the beginning of the Republic. The theoretical framework is divided into three parts: Development and Liberty based on the perspectives of Friedrich Hayek and Amartya Sen; the role of the State and its impact on the economy and; the formats assumed by the Brazilian State throughout the history of the Republic. The latter part of the work returns to the theoretical framework, summarizing all that has been discussed in order to fulfil the aims of the study.

  4. Land reform in Russia in 1990-2000-ies, or how land reform was "reformed" during the departmental reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barsukova Svetlana, Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the land reform in Russia's recent history. Analysis of land reform, which started in 1990, shows what actions and what logic led the land sector in the state in which it was at the finish line of the quarter-century reform marathon. The reform process was not linear, it highlighted the steps differing objectives and strategies to achieve them. Land reform is presented as a struggle of different political forces, which were reflected in the redistribution of functions between agencies in lobbying for appointment to senior positions promoted various commands. The authors conclude about the gradual displacement of state regulation of land relations, the deliberate destruction of the land management as a basis for the development of land resources.

  5. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  6. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  8. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  9. Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Telecommunications Reform in Nigeria: The Marketing Challenges. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... This paper discusses the telecommunications reforms process, the role of the regulatory body (Nigeria Commission, the current state of the telecommunication sector and the marketing challenges in ...

  10. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  11. The Reform of Qatar University. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Joy S.; Bikson, Tora K.; Neu, C. Richard; DeSisto, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the State of Qatar engaged the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute to assist Qatar University, the nation's first and only public higher education institution, with reform of its major administrative and academic structures, policies, and practices. This monograph summarizes that reform effort, which formally lasted from October 2003 through…

  12. Quality Reforms in Danish Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2012-01-01

    . This reform strategy represents a shift from the welfare state modernisation program of the 1980s, which built mainly on economic strategies of cost-efficiency and New Public Management (NPM) princi-ples, including contract management and performance management. Recent reforms have instead attempted...

  13. JP8 Reformation for Combat Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-07

    phase (fuel), and a gas phase (hydrogen) at elevated pressures. • Trickle - bed configuration is difficult to model and scale down—not practical for...gases output from HDS reactor are used to fuel the reformer. Current Technology Status: •Integrated desulfurization/reforming system successfully

  14. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  15. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  16. Public Pension Plan Reform: The Legal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in reforming retirement plans for public school employees, particularly in light of current market conditions. This article presents an overview of the various types of state regulation of public pension plans that affect possibilities for reform. Nearly all of the various approaches to public pension plan protection…

  17. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  18. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal

  19. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is

  20. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  1. Customs Valuation Reform in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents the adoption of transaction valuation reform in the Philippines and assesses its impact on collection, customs administration cost, and business transaction cost. Philippine customs authorities and critics of the reform have been concerned that giving up the use of published official customs values would lower customs collection. On the contrary, this research shows the use of transaction values expanded customs revenues.

  2. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  3. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  4. Saudi Arabia between conservatism, accomodation and reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Aarts, P.; Wagemakers, J.; Kanie, M.; Geel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the countries in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia seems to have remained immovable since the beginning of the Arab Spring. What does conservatism mean, are reforms possible, and what is the pace of change? The clever mix of conservatism, reform and accommodation are the characteristic features

  5. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  6. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  7. Public health policy and the building up of a Brazilian medical identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Santos, L A

    2005-12-01

    Since George Herbert Mead studied "the social self" and the interactionists went further in distinguishing "images of self", a lecture on the building up of a Brazilian medical identity should try to focus on the patterns of self-images, presented images, and aspired-to images among the Brazilian medical elites during the First Republic (1889-1930). In no other period of Brazilian history were those "images" of professional identity so close--in contrast, later periods of Brazilian history witnessed an almost permanent "collision" or the clashing of such images among public health specialists. Oswaldo Cruz, Carlos Chagas, Artur Neiva and Belisário Pena are perhaps the best examples of successful careers as "sanitarians" (to recall John Duffy's historical work on luminaries before and after the "New Public Health" in the United States), and as important political actors during Brazil's First Republic. In light of the prominent political, policy-oriented, and scientific roles public health professionals played in Brazil, it is interesting to suggest that in large part such prominence resulted from the symbolic impact of the ideologies of sanitary reform on the political agenda of that period of Brazilian history. Where many studies look for personal rivalries and disputes around Chagas and Neiva as public figures, we may also see the importance of finding identity-building processes among public health specialists as an integrated group (e.g., trying to appear as "significant others" for the new generations of medical graduates in the country), regardless of existing rivalries. Cruz and Chagas, especially, were names with great impact in the Brazilian press (pro and con), a circumstance made possible largely by their easy and direct access to the Brazilian presidents Rodrigues Alves and Epitácio Pessoa, and, most clearly, by public health being one of Brazil's political priorities to find a place among the "civilized nations" of the world. A task that further

  8. Environmental consequences of electricity sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, the electricity industry is in the process of undergoing fundamental transitions. The reform process typically involves one or more of the following changes: commercialisation, privatisation, unbundling/restructuring and introduction of competition. The environmental impacts of these changes pull in different directions. There is concern that restructured electricity markets may not always incorporate adequately the environmental impacts of electricity resource development and consumption decisions. However, the electricity sector reform process also offers an opportunity to promote positive environmental changes: because the sector is already in flux, it may be easier to address environmental issues. The paper gives an overview of power sector reform in six countries where reforms have already been implemented, and concludes that reform measures will have to be accompanied by competitively neutral regulations in order to stimulate investment in environmentally sound technologies, including renewable and energy efficient technologies. (author)

  9. Reform despite politics? The political economy of power sector reform in Fiji, 1996–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to reform the electricity sector in developing countries have achieved mixed results, despite the implementation of similar reforms in many developed countries, and concerted effort by donors to transfer reform models. In many cases, political obstacles have prevented full and effective implementation of donor-promoted reforms. This paper examines the political economy of power sector reform in Fiji from 1996 to 2013. Reform has been pursued with political motives in a context of clientelism. Policy inconsistency and reversal is explained by the political instability of ethnic-based politics in Fiji. Modest success has been achieved in recent years despite these challenges, with Fiji now considered a model of power sector reform for other Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific. The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed. The way in which political motives have driven and shaped reform efforts also highlights the need for studies of power sector reform to direct greater attention toward political drivers behind reform. - Highlights: • This is the first study of power sector reform in Fiji or other Small Island Developing States (SIDS) of the Pacific. • The clientelist nature of politics in Fiji is found to have both driven and shaped reform efforts. • There has been modest success in recent years despite these obstacles, with Fiji now considered a model for other SIDS. • The experience demonstrates that reform is possible within difficult political environments, but it is challenging, takes time and is not guaranteed

  10. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  11. Productivity Antecedents of Brazilian Courts of Justice: Evidence from Justiça em Números

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Costa Louro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public sector managers and researchers have emphasized the importance of performance measurement. Nevertheless, few theoretical and empirical studies are found in Brazilian Judiciary Courts’ literature. In order to empirically identify which variables (IT investments, own or outsourced human capital are more relevant for improving productivity, the current research proposes a model using secondary data extracted from the Justiça em Números (Justice in Numbers report, using structural equation modeling for the analysis. The results suggest that: (a all variables are relevant for improving productivity in Brazilian Courts, confirming our first three theoretical hypotheses; and (b own human capital has a greater impact on productivity than outsourced, confirming the fourth. For those who are responsible for reforms, this finding indicates that IT is not the most important investment. However a question remains: Seen as a cure for almost all problems in the public sector, is it possible to improve performance without hard IT investments? For future research there are some additional questions: Why is own human capital more relevant than outsourced? Which variables should be included in the model for improving the general significance? The answers can help improve Brazilian court productivity.

  12. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  13. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  14. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  15. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  16. Electricity sector reform in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadou, Ekaterini N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece which is heavily dependent on indigenous lignite firing generation, while being located in the periphery of the EU internal electricity and gas markets. Competition through enhancing electricity trade in the region is limited to date, as the establishment of an internal market in South East Europe also progresses slowly. Development of competition through gas-firing generation by new entrants has been the priority adopted by State and Regulator's policies. However, the gas supply market in Greece and in the region still lags behind. (author)

  17. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  18. Human appropriation of net primary production in the United Kingdom, 1800-2000. Changes in society's impact on ecological energy flows during the agrarian-industrial transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musel, Annabella

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the United Kingdom's society's long-term intervention into the energy flows of domestic terrestrial ecosystems through the human appropriation of aboveground net primary production (aHANPP) covering the period 1800-2000. The depicted aHANPP trajectory and the historical development of its components are discussed in view of a continuously increasing population and the transition process from an agrarian to an industrial socioecological regime. During the 19th century, aHANPP shows a steady decline from its level of 71% in 1800. While even higher levels were reached during the mid 20th century, the trend during the last forty years of the period under investigation again shows a reduction of aHANPP, which lies at 68% in the year 2000. The high values of aHANPP in the United Kingdom are primarily attributable to the limited amount of forest in comparison to large agricultural areas. At the beginning of the studied period, the relative stabilisation or even decrease in aHANPP in comparison to population development was made possible through the area expansion of and productivity increases on cropland and permanent pastures. Later this was made possible through the outsourcing of biomass harvest, by satisfying local nutritional demands by means of overseas imports, and as from the mid 20th century through huge amounts of fossil fuel based inputs into agriculture (e.g. increased amounts of fertilizers and motorized traction) which allowed increases in biomass harvest to be decoupled from HANPP. (author)

  19. Power sector reform in Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totare, Ninad P.; Pandit, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    In early 1990 the power sector in India required an initial set of reforms due to the scarcity of financial resources and its deteriorating technical and commercial efficiency. The Indian power sector is now going through a second stage of reforms in which restructuring of electric supply utilities has taken place. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) initiated reforms in 2005 by dividing the state electricity board into four separate companies. In this paper, the situations that led to the reform of the MSEB and the scope of the work required for an action plan initiated by the state electricity distribution company in the context of the proposed Key Performance Index are discussed. The post-reform status of the distribution company is analyzed with selected key parameters. The study also analyzes the electricity supply model implemented and the effect of a multi-year tariff plan as one of the key milestones of the tariff structure. The various new projects implemented by the distribution company to improve consumer services and the reform experiences of the other states are discussed, along with the future scope of the present reform process. (author)

  20. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  1. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  2. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  3. Market screening of natural gas reformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themsen, J.; Pagh Nielsen, M.; Knudsen Kaer, S.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents results from the project: Market screening of natural gas reformers. The project objective was to screen the natural gas reformers available on the international market. The technology is developing rapidly, and the results from this project will assist in determining the focus for the future Danish activities and in setting up ambitious and realistic targets. The reformer screening is partly based on AAU and Dantherm's experiences from previous studies, and the screening has been further extended with a number of activities, including seminars and contact with some of the most interesting suppliers. (BA)

  4. Concertina Reforms with International Capital Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    We show that the standard concertina result for tariff reforms -i.e. loweringthe highest tariff increases welfare - no longer holds in general if we allow for international capital mobility. The result can break down if the good whose tariff is lowered is not capital intensive. If the concertina...... reform lowers welfare it lowers market access as well, thereby compromising a second goal that is typically connected with trade liberalisation.JEL-Classification: F11, F13, F15Key words: Trade Policy Reform, International Factor Mobility, Welfare, MarketAccess...

  5. Economic democracy and financial reform in Vanuatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the rationale and trajectory of finance sector reform as part of the donor-sponsored Comprehensive Reform Program (CRP) in Vanuatu and provides an analysis of the problems associated with the lack of affordable credit for sectors of the population that do not fulfill...... commercial lending criteria. The article relies on financial hegemony theory in order to explain Vanuatu's role within larger international financial structures and rationale for reform. The discussion shows that foreign banking institutions are not interested in broadening credit access to poorer sections...

  6. New Reforms to the Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Dai, Candice; Duchâtel, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Based on:– Li Ling, “Successful reform of the health system hangs on two key elements,” Zhongguo jingyingbao (China Management News), 18 April 2009.– Li Hongmei, Li Xiaohong, Wang Junping, “Ten experts comment on the new reform of the health system: Providing better and cheaper access to medical care,” Renmin ribao (People’s Daily), 15 April 2009.– Yao Qi, “The new reform of the health system must first and foremost compensate for the shortcomings in the local hospitals,” Yangcheng wanbao (Ya...

  7. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Catholic Church for the missionary practice to take place. Agreements were reach in the context of a threatening series of insurrections and revolts performed by communities of free men and women in the Northeastern countryside.

  8. Application of flexible micro temperature sensor in oxidative steam reforming by a methanol micro reformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  9. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Lo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM, with the relevant parameters optimized as well.

  10. Domestic coalitions in the FTAA negotiations: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Castelan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes an explanation to the domestic coalitions organised in Brazil around the FTAA negotiations, which stand as a hard case for the existing theories on political cleavages: industrialists and trade unions, albeit having shared common interests in the negotiations, did not adopt a joint strategy to foster their positions. The hypothesis to explain the political alignments in the FTAA is that the opening of the Brazilian market, which had advanced a lot in the years of negotiations, altered the priorities of workers and employers, as well as their preferences in foreign trade policy, hindering the reconciliation of class interests. Both agreed that the U.S. proposal for the FTAA was undesirable, but they completely disagreed on other issues that emerged in the political agenda during the reforms period, such as the role of the State in an open economy, the scope of labour and social rights and the social security system, the structure of taxation, etc. Some of the controversial issues were not new, but the international trade liberalisation intensified the dispute over them.

  11. The replacement of payroll tax by a tax on revenues: A study of sectorial impacts on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Bernardino da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topic of current research in discussion about the Brazilian economy is the exemption from payroll taxes, which aims to stimulate competitiveness of the firms, boosting economic growth. This topic was introduced in Brazil by new laws that proposed replacing the payroll tax with a new tax on revenues. The payroll tax rate of 20% was replaced by a tax rate of 1% or 2% on revenue. This change has been applied primarily in labor-intensive economic sectors. In this paper, a neoclassical model was used to evaluate some sectoral impacts of these tax changes. The results show positive effects of this reform, among them, the increase in aggregate consumption and capital stock. Employment also grows in the labor-intensive sector. However, under a government revenue neutral scenario, these effects are almost completely lost, which shows some evidence about the low efficiency of these reforms.

  12. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  13. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  14. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  15. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  16. Does the Energy Sector Reform Call for Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the course of the energy sector reforms in Europe so far, its objectives, achievements, issues, and dilemmas. In particular, long term and security aspects of energy supply of Europe are analyzed. In addition to the legislative changes regarding the open energy market regulation, and primarily the changes, concerning electricity and natural gas markets, the past period saw dynamic changes of institutional framework such as: increasing members of the European Union, increased number of countries aspiring to the EU (candidate countries and potential candidates), changes in other European countries out of which Russia is the most significant energy producer. The paper analyzes the issue of responsibility between state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer. In Europe, it is more a complex question because the system of responsibility includes the institution of the European Union. Therefore, the relations between EU - state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer are especially important. The paper looks in to the issue of energy company integrations, creation of energy mega-undertakings and their influence on further market development. The question of monopolies now appears in s new form. The conclusions suggest possible measures for institutional influence on energy market development, especially in the network energy systems, which may have a positive impact on system security and stability and markets development and their long term sustainability.(author)

  17. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1988-01-01

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  18. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  19. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  20. The Political Context of School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    1976-01-01

    Reports the results of a case study of the political decision-making process in Wisconsin through which control over educational finance reform was exercised between January, 1972, and August, 1973. (Author)

  1. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Sources of Funding for Education Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the trends in educational funding patterns needed to enact educational reform. Local property taxes, state revenues, and federal aid continue to provide the bulk of financing. Includes two tables. (MD)

  3. Education management process implementation of reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kondratyeva

    2013-12-01

    In the dissertation research looks at the problem of the study. This article contains material research and evaluate different points of view on the issue of a systematic approach using educational management in the implementation of reforms.

  4. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  5. Carbonaceous deposits on naptha reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwan, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous deposits on naphtha reforming catalysts play a decisive role in limiting process performance. The deposits negatively after catalyst activity, selectivity and the production cycle of a semi regenerative reformer. The magnitude of negative effect of those deposits is directly proportional to their amounts and complexity. Investigations on used reforming catalysts samples reveal that the amount and type (complexity of the chemical nature) of carbonaceous deposits are directly proportional to the catalysts life on stream and the severity of operating conditions. In addition, the combustibility behavior of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst samples taken from different reformers are found to be different. Optimal carbon removal, for in situ catalyst regeneration, requires the specific conditions be developed, based on the results of well designed and properly performed investigations of the amount and type of carbonaceous deposits. (author)

  6. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to change the overall high concentration of landownership, This thesis examines to what effect, if any, a redistributive land reform policy implemented amid the ongoing rural conflict would have on its resolution...

  7. TAX REFORM AND NONCOMPLIANCE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Iswahyudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Indonesia’s tax reforms of 2000 and 2008/2009 on taxpayers’ noncompliance. Noncompliance is defined as the difference between the Value Added Tax (VAT liability and the actual revenue. Data are mainly collected from the World Input-Output Database and Indonesia’s Central Board of Statistics. The methodology uses one of the ‘top-down’ approaches, in which national accounts figures are employed to arrive at an estimation of the VAT liability. It is found that compliance deteriorated when reform efforts were incomplete – that is when the reforms suffered from decelerations, setbacks or reversals. This paper contributes to the literature by providing a framework for analyzing the impact of tax reform on taxpayer’s compliance behavior.

  8. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  9. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  10. The Reformed tradition as public theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani S. Vellem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a South African perspective of a Black African reflection on the publicity of Reformed faith. Whilst the notion of public theology is fairly new, the article argues, it is important to define the ‘public’ of the type of public theology to which Reformed faith and tradition could be linked. As a confessional tradition, Reformed faith is intrinsically public, the article demonstrates. The publicity of this tradition is however ambivalent and tainted. I attempt to show this by discussing two important tenets of the Reformed Tradition: sola scriptura and sola fide, within the festering wounds of Black African colonialism, apartheid and the hegemony of the neoliberal paradigm in the 21st century.

  11. Reform and privatisations transform investment scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, Maria.

    1993-01-01

    Macroeconomic reforms in the countries of Latin America, including the privatization of state-owned industries, are opening the way for new injections of both domestic and foreign capital in the region's oil and gas sector. (Author)

  12. Police reform from the bottom up

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practitioners across the usual North-South divide. Few police ... colleagues in the North. ... The introduction sets out the ... descriptive overview of key reforms in American policing. ... departments to illustrate the scope for involving officers ...

  13. Globalisation, Economic Reforms and Democracy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Strategy (NEEDS) and trade and financial liberalisations ...... The reforms started with the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Decrees (1972, ..... product prices and utility tariffs, a freeze on wages and salaries in the public sector,.

  14. Who defines the need for fishery reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    -making process as reform according to this ‘grand reform’ discourse was blocked by a combination of small-scale fishers’ informal networks and the power of the parliamentary majority. After a parliamentary shift in power the new government implemented the ‘grand reform’ gradually whilst new patterns...... of participation and exclusion emerged. In this process, the identities of the participating participants were reinterpreted to fit the new patterns of influence and participation. The article argues that fishery reform does not necessarily start with the collective recognition of a problem in marine resource use...... and a power-neutral process of institutional learning. Instead, it argues that fishery reform is likely to be the ‘reform of somebody’ and that this ‘somebody’ is itself a changing identity....

  15. Acquisition Reform: "This, Too, Shall Pass..?"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munechika, Curtis

    1997-01-01

    .... Will this effort too, come, and go? This paper attempts to answer this question by comparing the past efforts in implementing acquisition reform to today today's efforts using the backdrop of current organizational change theories...

  16. How "Doing Business" jeopardizes institutional reform

    OpenAIRE

    Arruñada, Benito

    2008-01-01

    Simplifying business formalization and eliminating outdated formalities is often a good way of improving the institutional environment for firms. Unfortunately, the World Bank’s "Doing Business" project is harming such policies by promoting a reform agenda that gives them priority even in countries lacking functional business registers, so that the reformed registers keep producing valueless information, but faster. Its methodology also promotes biased measurements that impede proper consider...

  17. Reforms for competitive markets in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem; Ahmed, Vaqar; Shahid, Sana

    2011-01-01

    While Pakistan has taken several steps to promote competition in its markets, further reforms are required in improving domestic commerce, agricultural markets and industries. With increasing risks and cost of doing business due to deteriorating law and order situation as well as massive energy shortages, Pakistan needs to compensate its entrepreneurs and investors by enhancing its investment and business climate. By adopting certain administrative and legal reforms, Pakistan can considerably...

  18. Reform in Turkish Elementary Mathematics Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    BABADOĞAN, Cem; OLKUN, Sinan

    2006-01-01

    Disappointed from such major international studies as TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS andsome internal indicators such as national university entrance examination, the Turkish Ministry ofNational Education initiated a massive reform movement in education. These reforms includedeveloping new curricula for both elementary and secondary education and developing teachercompetencies. The purpose of this paper is to present an evaluation of the elementary schoolmathematics curriculum, which is a part of the ref...

  19. Progress in Nuclear Safety Reform of TEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, A.

    2016-01-01

    On March 29, 2014, TEPCO issued the Nuclear Safety Reform Plan describing the background cause of our Fukushima Nuclear Accident and our plan to challenge organizational and cultural change to avoid recurrence of such a tragic accident and to pursue the excellence in safety. This report will reflect that background cause with some specific examples and introduce how we are currently implementing this reform plan.

  20. Testing and school reform in Danish education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Hamre, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will focus on shared characteristics of the Danish national standardized testing in public school and the ideals of being a student according to the Danish School Reform of 2014. In the chapter we argue that both kinds of materials (documents regarding the newly implemented national ...... and that this intermingles with the explicated intentions of the Danish school reform as a more profound educational intervention....

  1. An Asian perspective on global financial reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter J.; Pontines, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the likely impact on Asian economies and financial institutions of various recent global financial reforms, including Basel III capital adequacy and liquidity rules. Part one reviews the lessons of the global financial crisis (GFC) of 2007–09 and their relevance for Asian economies. Part two describes the major regulatory reforms that have been announced and possible concerns about their impacts on emerging economies. Part three reviews the ...

  2. IMF and Economic Reform in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    relevant to actors and entities with a broader, and more microeconomic, focus such as national policymakers and the World Bank. It is in choices among competing projects and programs that trial and error is most likely to be necessary. Nevertheless, reforms of the IMF such as the “streamlining initiative......” should start from a good understanding of the reasons for adherence to policy orthodoxy. We discuss underlying institutional and organizational reasons for policy rigidity and consider some suggested reforms....

  3. Tax reform Ukraine: implementation mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Lebedzevіch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main shortcomings of the existing domestic tax systems, which were the main reasons for the need for its reform in the context of integration into the European Community. Determined the first stage of reforming tax systems Ukraine, which is associated with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine and laws of Ukraine». The main provisions of this legal act, revealing the essence of the mechanism for implementing tax reform. Analyzed the mechanism of implementation of tax reform by analyzing the major innovations of the Tax Code of Ukraine and their comparison with the tax «standards» that operated the implementation of tax reform 2015. Thesis there is determined a number of tax loopholes and nedoopratsyuvan conducted tax reform and their implications for payers of taxes and duties, and the need for further research and improvement. The experience of European countries towards the introduction of electronic filing and processing of tax returns.

  4. Russian electricity reform. Emerging challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.

  5. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  6. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  7. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  8. Health care reform and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.

  9. Hospital Acquisitions Before Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Thompson, Jon M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The hospital industry has experienced increased consolidation in the past 20 years. Since 2010, in particular, there has been a large rise in the number of hospital acquisitions, and observers have suggested this is due in part to the expected impact of federal healthcare reform legislation. This article reports on a study undertaken to identify the market, management, and financial factors affecting acute care, community hospitals acquired between 2010 and 2012. We identified 77 such hospitals and compared them to other acute care facilities. To assess how different factors were associated with acquisitions, the study used multiple logistic regressions whereby market factors were included first, followed by management and financial factors. Study findings show that acquired hospitals were located in markets with lower rates of preferred provider organization (PPO) penetration compared with nonacquired hospitals. Occupancy rate was found to be inversely related to acquisition rate; however, case-mix index was significantly and positively related to a hospital's being acquired. Financial factors negatively associated with a hospital's being acquired included age of plant and cash flow margin. In contrast to the findings from earlier studies of hospital acquisitions, our results showed that acquired hospitals possessed newer assets. However, similar to the findings of other studies, the cash flow margin of acquired hospitals was lower than that of nonacquired facilities.

  10. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  12. High temperature nuclear heat for isothermal reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.

    2000-01-01

    High temperature nuclear heat can be used to operate a reformer with various feedstock materials. The product synthesis gas can be used not only as a source for hydrogen and as a feedstock for many essential chemical industries, such as ammonia and other products, but also for methanol and synthetic fuels. It can also be burnt directly in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine in an efficient combined cycle and generate electricity. In addition, it can be used as fuel for fuel cells. The reforming reaction is endothermic and the contribution of the nuclear energy to the calorific value of the final product (synthesis gas) is about 25%, compared to the calorific value of the feedstock reactants. If the feedstock is from fossil origin, the nuclear energy contributes to a substantial reduction in CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. The catalytic steam reforming of natural gas is the most common process. However, other feedstock materials, such as biogas, landfill gas and CO 2 -contaminated natural gas, can be reformed as well, either directly or with the addition of steam. The industrial steam reformers are generally fixed bed reactors, and their performance is strongly affected by the heat transfer from the furnace to the catalyst tubes. In top-fired as well as side-fired industrial configurations of steam reformers, the radiation is the main mechanism of heat transfer and convection heat transfer is negligible. The flames and the furnace gas constitute the main sources of the heat. In the nuclear reformers developed primarily in Germany, in connection with the EVA-ADAM project (closed cycle), the nuclear heat is transferred from the nuclear reactor coolant gas by convection, using a heating jacket around the reformer tubes. In this presentation it is proposed that the helium in a secondary loop, used to cool the nuclear reactor, will be employed to evaporate intermediate medium, such as sodium, zinc and aluminum chloride. Then, the vapors of the medium material transfer

  13. Avaliação do programa nacional de fortalecimento da agricultura familiar: a intenção de pagamento do crédito Evaluation of Brazilian family farming program: a study on the intention of repaingy the agricultural credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo de Castro Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicação faz parte de um estudo maior (Tese. Nela analisou-se a intenção de pagamento do crédito no contexto da avaliação do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Pronaf na Paraíba. A pesquisa foi executada com base na opinião dos beneficiários do Grupo A (Assentados e B (Agricultores familiares em duas etapas: (a preliminar, para o levantamento de crenças e informações e (b principal, para a medição dessas crenças. Para avaliar a intenção de pagamento, foi empregado o modelo Teórico da Ação Planejada de Ajzen (1991. Com base nesse modelo, a Atitude, a Crença normativa (componente da norma subjetiva e a Norma Subjetiva foram, para o Grupo A, as variáveis preditoras que explicaram a Intenção de pagamento de crédito. Para o Grupo B, as dimensões Atitude, Crença comportamental (componente da atitude, Crença normativa (componente da norma subjetiva e a crença de controle (componente da percepção de controle influenciaram a Intenção do pagamento de crédito. A Percepção de controle não influenciou diretamente a Intenção comportamental, mas indiretamente essa variável é preditora do Comportamento-alvo.This publication is part of a major study (Thesis. In that thesis it was analyzed the intention of Pronaf's beneficiaries to repay the credit they have received. The Pronaf is a line of credit for small farmers implemented by the Brazilian Federal Government in 1996. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1991 was used to evaluate the beneficiaries' intention in paying what they owned. In order to accomplish this evaluation, two studies were conducted. The first one (Preliminary Study focused on the small farmer's beliefs about the program operation. The second (Main Study focused on the measurement of these beliefs. Two beneficiary groups participated of the studies: Group A (agrarian reform settlers and Group B (small farmers. According to Ajzen's model, for the participants of the

  14. A critical view of the 'social reinsertion' concept and its implications for the practice of psychologists in the area of mental health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazatto, Carina F; Sawaia, Bader B

    2016-03-01

    Improving psychological practice in mental health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) requires a critical analysis of core concepts of the psychiatric reform, such as 'social reinsertion'. This analysis, oriented by the dialectics of exclusion/inclusion, showed that this concept is impregnated with the adaptation paradigm and asylum view which prevents its effective implantation. The results suggest it is necessary to include social aspects in the discussion of mental health, articulating it with networks of social work and recuperating the revolutionary aspects of the psychiatric reform, thus demarcating the political nature of professional practices. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Factors associated with minimal meal frequency and dietary diversity practices among infants and young children in the predominantly agrarian society of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Mekonnen; Sileshi, Semere; Benti, Tomas; Teshome, Mulusew; Woldie, Haile

    2017-01-01

    Poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the first 2 years of age are among major causes of childhood malnutrition, in developing countries including Ethiopia. It results in irreversible outcomes of stunting, poor cognitive development, and significantly increases risks of many chronic and infectious diseases. This study was intended to assess factors associated with minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity practice among children aged 6-23 months in the predominantly agrarian society of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was employed from January to June 2016. An interviewer administered, pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multi-stage sampling followed by a systematic random sampling technique was used to include study subjects. Data was entered using Epi info version 3.5.3 and analyzed by SPSS version 20. In the logistic regression, both bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity scores. All variables with P -values of agrarian society of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia.

  16. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  17. What triggers reforms in OECD countries? Improved reform measurement and evidence from the healthcare sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    The main contribution of this paper is the development of a novel and versatile methodology to identify economic reforms. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and validation of the structural breaks identified using de jure evidence of reforms. The procedure

  18. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new…

  19. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  20. The core to regulatory reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Orders 436, 500, and 636, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, Public Utility Holding Company Act reform, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act all can have significant effects on an LDC's operations. Such changes in an LDC's environments must be balanced by changes within the utility, its marketplace, and its state regulatory environment. The question is where to start. For Columbia Gas Distribution Cos., based in Columbus, OH, the new operating foundation begins with each employee. Internal strength is critical in designing initiatives that meet the needs of the marketplace and are well-received by regulators. Employees must understand not only the regulatory environment in which the LDC operates, but also how their work contributes to a positive regulatory relationship. To achieve this, Columbia initiated the COntinuing Regulatory Education program, or CORE, in 1991. CORE is a regulatory-focused, information-initiative program coordinated by Columbia's Regulatory Policy, Planning, and Government Affairs Department. The CORE programs can take many forms, such as emerging issue discussions, dialogues with regulators and key parties, updates on regulatory fillings, regulatory policy meetings, and formal training classes. The speakers and discussion facilitators can range from human resource department trainers to senior officers, from regulatory department staff members to external experts, or from state commissioners to executives from other LDCs. The goals of CORE initiatives are to: Support a professional level of regulatory expertise through employee participation in well-developed regulatory programs presented by credible experts. Encourage a constructive state regulatory environment founded on communication and cooperation. CORE achieves these goals via five program levels: introductory basics, advanced learning, professional expertise, crossfunctional dialogues, and external idea exchanges

  1. Reforming Brazil's offshore oil and gas safety regulatory framework: Lessons from Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Pietro A.S.; Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We propose reforming the Brazilian regulatory safety framework (BRSF) for offshore oil and gas production and drilling operations. Brazil has emerged as a leading offshore producer with extensive proven reserves yet to be exploited. However, the BRSF has not been updated since 2007, and there are now major concerns about the industry's safety, particularly after the BP Deepwater Horizon accident, along with the technical challenges due to extreme conditions under which Brazil's resources are located. Drawing on experiences from three leading offshore oil and gas producers (Norway, the UK, and the US), we recommend the adoption of three best practices: the UK's ‘safety case’ approach (where operators are expected to provide convincing and valid arguments that a system is sufficiently safe for a given application in a specific environment), Norway's ‘barrier management’ (evidence that there are at least two tested and independent barriers to avoid accidents) and greater investment in safety research and development, as suggested by the US's National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling. We discuss implications for policy reform and how best practices can be applied within the Brazilian context. - Highlights: • Description of the Brazilian regulatory safety framework (BRSF). • Comparison between BRSF and regulatory frameworks of leading offshore oil and gas jurisdictions (Norway, UK and US). • Recommendations for BRSF to include the safety case, barrier management and increased investment in safety technology

  2. Improvements of reforming performance of a nuclear heated steam reforming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko

    1996-10-01

    Performance of an energy production process by utilizing high temperature nuclear process heat was not competitive to that by utilizing non-nuclear process heat, especially fossil-fired process heat due to its less favorable chemical reaction conditions. Less favorable conditions are because a temperature of the nuclear generated heat is around 950degC and the heat transferring fluid is the helium gas pressurized at around 4 MPa. Improvements of reforming performance of nuclear heated steam reforming process were proposed in the present report. The steam reforming process, one of hydrogen production processes, has the possibility to be industrialized as a nuclear heated process as early as expected, and technical solutions to resolve issues for coupling an HTGR with the steam reforming system are applicable to other nuclear-heated hydrogen production systems. The improvements are as follows: As for the steam reformer, (1) increase in heat input to process gas by applying a bayonet type of reformer tubes and so on, (2) increase in reforming temperature by enhancing heat transfer rate by the use of combined promoters of orifice baffles, cylindrical thermal radiation pipes and other proposal, and (3) increase in conversion rate of methane to hydrogen by optimizing chemical compositions of feed process gas. Regarding system arrangement, a steam generator and superheater are set in the helium loop as downstream coolers of the steam reformer, so as to effectively utilize the residual nuclear heat for generating feed steam. The improvements are estimated to achieve the hydrogen production rate of approximately 3800 STP-m 3 /h for the heat source of 10 MW and therefore will provide the potential competitiveness to a fossil-fired steam reforming process. Those improvements also provide the compactness of reformer tubes, giving the applicability of seamless tubes. (J.P.N.)

  3. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  4. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  5. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  6. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  7. Carbon dioxide management by chemical conversion to methanol: HYDROGENATION and BI-REFORMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesberg, Igor L.; Medeiros, José Luiz de; Alves, Rita M.B.; Coutinho, Paulo L.A.; Araújo, Ofélia Q.F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of carbon dioxide conversion to methanol by two chemical routes. • HYDROGENATION: conversion via catalytic hydrogenation at high pressure. • BI-REFORMING: conversion via syngas from bi-reforming of natural gas. • HYDROGENATION is viable for hydrogen price inferior to 1000 US$/t. • BI-REFORMING is unable to avoid emissions; viable only if gas price is very low. - Abstract: Chemical conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol has the potential to address two relevant sustainability issues: economically feasible replacement of fossil raw materials and avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions. However, chemical stability of carbon dioxide is a challenging impediment to conversion requiring severe reaction conditions at the expense of increased energy input, therefore adding capital, operation and environmental costs, which could result in partial or total override of its potential sustainability as feedstock to the chemical and energy industries. This work investigates two innovative chemical destinations of carbon dioxide to methanol, namely a direct conversion through carbon dioxide hydrogenation (HYDROGENATION), and an indirect via carbon dioxide conversion to syngas through bi-reforming (BI-REFORMING). Process simulation is used to obtain mass and energy balances needed to support assessment of economic and environmental performance. A business scenario is considered where an industrial source of nearly pure carbon dioxide exists and an investment decision for utilization of carbon dioxide is faced. Due to uncertainties in prices of the raw materials, hydrogen (HYDROGENATION) and natural gas (BI-REFORMING), the decision procedure includes the definition of price thresholds to reach profitability. Sensitivity analyses are performed varying costs with greater uncertainty, i.e., carbon dioxide and methanol, and recalculating maximum allowable prices of raw materials. The analyses show that in a Brazilian scenario, BI-REFORMING is unlikely

  8. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  9. Tort reform: an issue for nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutz, Diane L

    2004-02-01

    To inform nurse practitioners (NPs) about the issues related to tort reform and its relationship to malpractice insurance costs. Current journals, newspapers, professional newsletters, and Internet sites. NPs are paying more for their malpractice premiums, and many are losing their places of employment as clinics close due to the increased cost of premiums. One method proposed for curbing the flow of monies spent on premiums and litigation is tort law reform. California serves as an example; its Medical Injury Compensation Reform Act (MICRA) tort reform law was passed 25 years ago, and it has maintained stable malpractice premiums. Other states have proposed similar laws, but some have not had similar success. To curb litigation costs, not only should tort laws be reformed, but NPs and physicians should keep abreast of current practice standards in order to provide quality medical care. Like physicians, NPs are affected directly by tort laws. These laws hold NPs accountable at the same level as physicians. In addition, many states limit NPs' practice to delegation of authority by a physician. Liability is therefore transferred from the NP to the physician and vice versa in cases of injury or wrongful act. In addition, many NPs are finding it increasingly difficult to locate insurers who will write policies for medical liability.

  10. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  12. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  13. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  14. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS, Palmeiras (SP and Vasco (RJ, were not efficient in any period under analysis. Others, such as Guarani (SP and Guaratinguetá (SP, were efficient in all of years under consideration. With the Tobit regression model, we were able to determine that winning titles and the elite status of a given club are decisive factors in achieving efficiency. Included among the strategies that allow for greater efficiency in Brazilian clubs are the better utilization of stadiums and club assets, maximization of the financial worth of player popularity, and joining these with titles and a place in the A Series. Finally, the results of this study contribute to the strategic development of the football business, highlighting the positive effects that efficiency yields for clubs, thus supporting the growing body of research on sports management in Brazilian academia.

  15. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  16. Arbitration Institute of Modernization in Contemporary Scene From the Perspective of New Brazilian Civil Procedure Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano Alcides Dias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of contemporary society has led to the existence of conflicts in excessive degree of legalization, resulting from a demandista culture coupled with the inefficiency and delays in the provision of state judicial services. This traditional model of conflict resolution is the result of a mistaken reading of the constitutional guarantee of access to justice that took, long, a monopolistic feature, turning the Brazilian Judiciary in a multiport system to receive any kind of demand. However, not every conflict of interest claims the provocation of state jurisdiction, worth observing the democratic dimension of access to justice established by the new Civil Procedure Code, referring to arbitration as an appropriate means of conflict resolution in private. In this context, the new legislation reforming and updates the Law of Arbitration, the expectation is modernizing its institute of court, without state intervention.

  17. Aspects of financial history in Romania. Reform and reformers. The financial tax reform accomplished BY Nicolae Titulescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief history of the financial reform designed by Nicolae Titulescu at the beginning of the 1920’s. His tax reform law was formulated after thorough research of other European tax systems. He tried to implement it while he was Minister of Finance. Even though the law was adopted, it was never enacted. It met a certain amount of controversy in the Assembly of Deputies. The analysis made also tries to explain the cedular tax system.

  18. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Education and public awareness technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society was created in 1987 as Soil Science teaching commission at that time. In the 90's of the last century the commission was very active and realized three national symposia in the years 1994 to 1996: in Viçosa, Minas Gerais; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul and Pato Branco, Paraná. The following symposium scheduled to happen in Brasilia, 1997 could not be realized and was followed by a weakening and reduction of the involved group. Those three symposia were focused on the aspects of soil science taught at the university educational level, mainly in agrarian sciences. The concern about what was going on at basic education and perception by society was not much present. The commission was revitalized in 2005 and in 2007 realized its first meeting at the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul. At that meeting it was already an urge to assume the approach of soil education instead of soil science teaching, within a major concern how society consider soils. It was accepted and adequate under the structural reorganization undergone by the national society following the IUSS main lines. The commission was renamed and got two new mates at the newly created Division IV, Soils, Environment and Society, of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: Soils and Food Safety and History, Epistemology and Sociology of Soil Science. The national symposia were relaunched to happen biannually. An inventory of the soil education experiences around the country started and the geographic distribution of the future symposia intended to rescue and bring together experiences in different parts of the country that would not be known by other means. Three symposia were already realized: Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 2008 (southeast); Curitiba, Paraná, 2010 (south) and Sobral, Ceará, 2012 (northeast). The next is planned to happen in Recife, Pernambuco in April 2014. The scope of the

  19. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  20. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C

    2013-01-01

    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.