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  1. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

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    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  2. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil.

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    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil.This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR.A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 -an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93-with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24-20.92, inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51-3.15, Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55-4.67 and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71-15.36, low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72-44.55 and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14-4.74 were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90, as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase. Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year and low birth weight (-1.43% decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year.Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care

  3. Recent precipitation trends, flash floods and landslides in southern Brazil

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    Ávila, Alvaro; Justino, Flavio; Wilson, Aaron; Bromwich, David; Amorim, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the rising number of flash floods and landslides in the densely populated region of southeastern Brazil, this study analyzes the spatial and temporal changes in precipitation from 1978 to 2014. We focus on the sensitivity of mountainous regions, specifically the Rio de Janeiro (RJMR) and Santa Catarina (SCMR) regions. Daily rainfall observations are aggregated into annual and seasonal indexes, and RClimdex is used to evaluate a suite of precipitation and extreme event indexes. Results show positive annual and seasonal precipitation trends during all seasons except for the winter season in the RJMR. Diverse change points in their time series, spatial differences in the trends at individual stations, and trends associated with elevation suggest that despite the close proximity of these two regions, climate impacts are not uniform across all of southeastern Brazil. The majority of precipitation-related indexes present positive trends, especially in the extreme precipitation indexes (PRCPTOT, RX1day, Rx5day and R30 mm). Statistically significant positive correlations are discovered between landslides/flash floods events and annual maximum 1-day and 5-day consecutive precipitation, and these indexes may be useful indicators of natural hazard events for this region.

  4. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

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    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  5. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

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    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Rosa, Islene Ferreira; Aguiar, Ada Cristina Pontes

    2013-09-01

    The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026) in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  6. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil

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    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026 in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010. With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05 as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  7. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

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    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  8. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

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    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  9. [The growth and distribution of the population of Brazil: recent trends].

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    Martine, G; Camargo, L

    1984-01-01

    Population trends underwent profound changes in Brazil during the last few decades. An important decrease in the rate of population growth was registered in the 1970s. This decrease is attributable to a decline in the level of fertility, which was observed in all regions and in both urban and rural areas. In order to explain this decline, it is necessary to analyze both structural and circumstantial factors related to the political, economic, and social context of the times. Main trends in population redistribution during the 1970s can be regrouped in terms of interregional exchanges and rural-urban migration. A growing convergence between these 2 types of patterns is observed in that population is increasingly being concentrated in densely populated areas of intense economic activities. The implications of these trends for public action are analyzed in the final section.

  10. Scientometric trends of freshwater benthic invertebrates studies in Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Brandimarte

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this paper is to analyze trends in the literature concerning benthic invertebrates in Brazil, mainly the number of published papers and approaches used. Methods The Ph.D. database of the Lattes Platform (CNPq was used as the source of information for the period 1970-2014. We searched for the terms “benthos”, “macroinvertebrates”, and “zoobenthos” in the titles and keywords of the papers listed on the platform. Papers were classified into the following categories: Systematics, Life History, Ecology, and Divulgation. These categories were further divided into subcategories. The percentage of papers in every major category and subcategory was calculated. Results The search introduced 1,573 papers, which were mainly related to Ecology and Systematics. From 1970 to 2009, the number of papers published per decade increased exponentially, and the upward trend continues. The number of papers concerning Systematics, especially in Taxonomy, is increasing. Of the papers in Ecology category, those about Structure, Dynamics, and Distribution of the fauna have been increasing since the 1980s, and there has been an evident increase in the production of papers related to environmental damage in the last decade. The rate of production of papers concerning the role of invertebrates in ecosystems and the effects of different Spatial Scales has been increasing since the 2000s. Conclusion There is a clear tendency towards the increased continuity of paper production concerning freshwater benthic invertebrates, and relatively new approaches as Conservation and Exotic Species are becoming relevant.

  11. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil

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    Graciete O. Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in breastfeeding indicators in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, and to identify population characteristics that might have influenced this trend. METHODS: Three methodologically comparable cross-sectional surveys performed in 1996, 2001, and 2009 were analyzed. These involved 2,159, 2,319, and 1,471 children younger than 1 year of age who were vaccinated in national multivaccination campaigns in the respective years. A standardized questionnaire was used, containing closed questions on consumption of breast milk and other foods on the day before the survey, along with questions regarding the characteristics of the population. RESULTS: The annual growth of the breastfeeding indicators was 2.1% for breastfeeding in the first hour of life (from 52.2% to 68.9%; 1.1% for breastfeeding among children aged 9 to 12 months (from 45% to 59.6%; and 0.8% for exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than 6 months (from 36.9% to 47.4%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 52.3 to 84.3 days, and overall breastfeeding from 278 to 376 days. Some changes in the characteristics of the population were observed, which may have positively influenced the evolution of the breastfeeding indicators (better schooling level among the mothers, less use of dummies/pacifiers, and lower proportions of adolescent mothers, or negatively (greater proportions of primiparous mothers and cesarean deliveries, and lower frequency of births in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. CONCLUSION: There were significant advances in breastfeeding indicators, although they are still far from ideal. Changes observed in population characteristics may have positively or negatively influenced this evolution.

  12. Federal funding of health policy in Brazil: trends and challenges

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    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Federal funding of health policy in Brazil in the 2000s, focusing on the Ministry of Health’s budget implementation. Federal spending on health was less unstable between 2000 and 2002 and has expanded since 2006. However, it fluctuated as a share of both the Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Revenue. Federal intergovernmental transfers increased, exceeding 70% in 2007. Meanwhile, the proportion of Federal investments remained low, varying from 3.4% to 6.3%. The highest absolute amount of spending was on specialized outpatient and hospital care. The decade showed a proportionally greater increase in spending on pharmaceutical care. The growing allocation of Federal funds to States in the North and Northeast, especially for primary care and epidemiological surveillance, failed to offset the sharp regional inequalities in per capita Federal spending. The main characteristics of health funding limit Federal health policy governance and pose several challenges for the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

  13. Muscle injury: current perspectives and trends in Brazil,

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    Diego Costa Astur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the management, procedures and perspectives of sports physicians and orthopedists in Brazil with regard to diagnosing and treating muscle injuries.Methods:A questionnaire containing 20 questions relating to the topic of muscle injury was applied to sports physicians and orthopedists during the Second Brazilian Congress of Arthroscopy and Sports Traumatology, in 2013.Results:Completely answered questionnaires were received from 168 sports physicians and orthopedists. Doctors from all regions of Brazil with a mean of 11 years of experience of treating muscle injuries were interviewed. Lower limbs were affected in 97% of the cases, particularly the quadriceps, adductor and sural triceps. The injury occurred during the eccentric phase in 62% of the interviews; 39% underwent ultrasound examination and 37% magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for the injury to be diagnosed. Medication, rest and cryotherapy during the acute phase (87.5% and medication, rest and physiotherapy during treatment of the injury (56% were the prevalent options. The criteria for returning to sports were very subjective and disparate among the options presented, and most of the interviewees had already used some therapy that was adjuvant to traditional methods.Conclusion:The number of muscle injuries treated per year was greater than 30, independent of whether in the public or private sector. These injuries occurred mainly at the muscle–tendon junction, in the lower limbs and during the eccentric phase of muscle contraction. Ultrasound was the examination most performed, while MRI was considered ideal. For most of the interviewees, the preferred treatment involved rest, medication and physiotherapy. In addition, 52% believed that platelet-rich plasma was an efficient treatment and 42% said that they had already used it.

  14. Impacts of Climate Trends and Variability on Livestock Production in Brazil

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    Cohn, A.; Munger, J.; Gibbs, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cattle systems of Brazil are of major economic and environmental importance. They occupy ¼ of the land surface of the country, account for over 15 billion USD of annual revenue through the sale of beef, leather, and milk, are closely associated with deforestation, and have been projected to substantially grow in the coming decades. Sustainable intensification of production in the sector could help to limit environmental harm from increased production, but productivity growth could be inhibited by climate change. Gauging the potential future impacts of climate change on the Brazilian livestock sector can be aided by examining past evidence of the link between climate and cattle production and productivity. We use statistical techniques to investigate the contribution of climate variability and climate change to variability in cattle system output in Brazil's municipalities over the period 1974 to 2013. We find significant impacts of both temperature and precipitation variability and temperature trends on municipality-level exports and the production of both milk and beef. Pasture productivity, represented by a vegetation index, also varies significantly with climate shocks. In some regions, losses from exposure to climate trends were of comparable magnitude to technology and/or market-driven productivity gains over the study period.

  15. Mortality and case fatality due to visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: a nationwide analysis of epidemiology, trends and spatial patterns.

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    Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a significant public health problem in Brazil and several regions of the world. This study investigated the magnitude, temporal trends and spatial distribution of mortality related to VL in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a study based on secondary data obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We included all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which VL was recorded as cause of death. We present epidemiological characteristics, trend analysis of mortality and case fatality rates by joinpoint regression models, and spatial analysis using municipalities as geographical units of analysis. RESULTS: In the study period, 12,491,280 deaths were recorded in Brazil. VL was mentioned in 3,322 (0.03% deaths. Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.15 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants and case fatality rate 8.1%. Highest mortality rates were observed in males (0.19 deaths/100,000 inhabitants, <1 year-olds (1.03 deaths/100,000 inhabitants and residents in Northeast region (0.30 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. Highest case fatality rates were observed in males (8.8%, ≥ 70 year-olds (43.8% and residents in South region (17.7%. Mortality and case fatality rates showed a significant increase in Brazil over the period, with different patterns between regions: increasing mortality rates in the North (Annual Percent Change--APC: 9.4%; 95% confidence interval--CI: 5.3 to 13.6, and Southeast (APC: 8.1%; 95% CI: 2.6 to 13.9; and increasing case fatality rates in the Northeast (APC: 4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8 to 7.4. Spatial analysis identified a major cluster of high mortality encompassing a wide geographic range in North and Northeast Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Despite ongoing control strategies, mortality related to VL in Brazil is increasing. Mortality and case fatality vary considerably between regions, and surveillance and control measures should be prioritized in high-risk clusters. Early diagnosis and treatment

  16. REGIONAL TRENDS IN RURAL SULFUR CONCENTRATIONS

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    This paper presents an analysis of trends in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO,) and particulate sulfate (SO42-) at rural monitoring sites in the Clean Air Act Status and Trends Monitoring Network (CASTNet) from 1990 to 1999. A two-stage approach is used to estimat...

  17. Differential trends in mortality from AIDS in men and women in Brazil (1984-1995)

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    Lowndes, Catherine M.; Bastos, Francisco Inácio Pinkusfeld Monteiro; Giffin, Karen M.; Reis, Ana C.G. Vaz dos; d'Orsi,Eleonora; Alary, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse trends in AIDS mortality in men and women in Brazil, for the period 1984±1995. Design and methods: National statistics on yearly numbers of reported deaths by cause, in conjunction with census population counts and inter-censory estimates, were used to calculate age- and sex-specic AIDS mortality rates for Brazil as a whole and for São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, the two largest cities in Brazil, and those most affected by the AIDS epidemic to date. Re...

  18. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

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    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey, we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making

  19. Pulmonary Embolism Mortality in Brazil from 1989 to 2010: Gender and Regional Disparities

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    Eduardo Sahade Darze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:A significant variation in pulmonary embolism (PE mortality trends have been documented around the world. We investigated the trends in mortality rate from PE in Brazil over a period of 21 years and its regional and gender differences.Methods:Using a nationwide database of death certificate information we searched for all cases with PE as the underlying cause of death between 1989 and 2010. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. We calculated age-, gender- and region-specific mortality rates for each year, using the 2000 Brazilian population for direct standardization.Results:Over 21 years the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR fell 31% from 3.04/100,000 to 2.09/100,000. In every year between 1989 and 2010, the ASMR was higher in women than in men, but both showed a significant declining trend, from 3.10/100,000 to 2.36/100,000 and from 2.94/100,000 to 1.80/100,000, respectively. Although all country regions showed a decline in their ASMR, the largest fall in death rates was concentrated in the highest income regions of the South and Southeast Brazil. The North and Northeast regions, the lowest income areas, showed a less marked fall in death rates and no distinct change in the PE mortality rate in women.Conclusions:Our study showed a reduction in the PE mortality rate over two decades in Brazil. However, significant variation in this trend was observed amongst the five country regions and between genders, pointing to possible disparities in health care access and quality in these groups.

  20. Tendências teórico-metodológicas na pesquisa em educação: o caso do Mestrado em Educação da Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB, Santa Catarina, Brasil/Theoretical-methodological trends in education research: the case of the Master in Education Course of Blumenau Regional University (FURB, Santa Catarina state, Brazil

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    Daniela Santini Araújo

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo da presente pesquisa consiste em abordar essas tendências na produção de Dissertações de Mestrado no Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação (PPGE da Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A pesquisa é de caráter quali-quantitativo e fundamenta-se no estudo de 44 Dissertações de Mestrado em Educação da FURB relacionadas ao Ensino de Ciência, Filosofia e Epistemologia da Educação. Pode-se observar uma importante influência das perspectivas filosóficas de Paulo Freire e de Thomas S. Kuhn nas Dissertações que têm com foco a Filosofia e Epistemologia da Educação. Já nas Dissertações que têm como problemática de pesquisa o Ensino de Ciências, a maior fundamentação está em Ubiratan D´Ambrósio e Fritjof Capra. Em ambos o caso, prevalece a pesquisa qualitativa. A metodologia de pesquisa utilizada aparece no capítulo introdutório. Observa-se que as Dissertações sobre o Ensino de Ciências colocam de forma mais explícita os autores utilizados na definição da Metodologia da Pesquisa. As tendências teórico-metodológicas da produção de Dissertações do Mestrado em Educação da FURB manifestam a crescente preocupação em refletir sobre os fundamentos da Pesquisa em Educação e sua cientificidade. The main objective of this research is to address these trends in the production of Dissertations in the Masters Program for Post-graduate diploma in Education (PPGE Regional at the University of Blumenau (FURB, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The search is character-quality quantitative and based on the study of 44 Dissertations of Master in Education of FURB related to the Teaching of Science, Philosophy and Epistemologia Education. You can see a significant influence of philosophical perspectives of Paulo Freire and Thomas S. Kuhn in Dissertations have with the focus Epistemologia Philosophy and Education. Already in Dissertations that are problematic to

  1. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

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    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  2. Status and future trends of radiation processing in Brazil

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    Lugão, A. B.; Andrade, E.; Silva, L. G.

    1998-06-01

    Electron-beam and gamma irradiation of polymers are widely applied in Brazil today. The main applications are: - radio-induced crosslinking of wire and cable for automobile and appliance industry; - heat shrinkable tubes for appliance, automobile and electronic; - heat shrinkable packing for food processing industry; - sterilization of medical supplies and so on. Nevertheless, there are only a few industrial facilities about 20 years old in full operation at present and there are some new low energy machines for food packing. The reason for such absence of investment in this area was studied and the relation between automobile and appliance production with radiation processing was fully demonstrated for Brazil case. In conclusion, it was shown that the industry of radiation processing of polymers is likely to experience a strong growth based on the continuous increase in the production of automobiles and appliances. The R&D activities of IPEN are an important support for developing the necessary technology and developing the necessary confidence in the radiation as tool for economical and social growth.

  3. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

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    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  4. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

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    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  5. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  6. [Trends in the AIDS epidemic in groups at highest risk in Brazil, 1980-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Júnior, Aristides; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; Souza Júnior, Paulo Borges de

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to present the trends in the AIDS epidemic in the population groups at highest risk in Brazil. Discriminant analysis was used to reclassify cases with unknown risk into one of the three groups: IDU (injecting drug users), MSM (men who have sex with men), and heterosexuals. AIDS incidence rates by gender and exposure category were estimated for the period 1980-2004. In 1980-1988, 63.6% of AIDS cases were homosexual or bisexual males and 10% were females. Since 1988, there has been a decrease in the proportion of MSM and an increase in the other categories. Despite the incidence trends observed by exposure category, when the incidence rates were compared, the risk was much higher among MSM as compared to heterosexuals. Analysis of the AIDS epidemic dynamics in Brazil emphasizes the importance of MSM and male IDU as higher-risk groups.

  7. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane F. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. METHODS: This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually, while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females. CONCLUSIONS: The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis.

  8. A regional-scale Ocean Health Index for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Cristiane T; Longo, Catherine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hardy, Darren; Scarborough, Courtney; Best, Benjamin D; Pinheiro, Tiago; Dutra, Guilherme F

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has one of the largest and fastest growing economies and one of the largest coastlines in the world, making human use and enjoyment of coastal and marine resources of fundamental importance to the country. Integrated assessments of ocean health are needed to understand the condition of a range of benefits that humans derive from marine systems and to evaluate where attention should be focused to improve the health of these systems. Here we describe the first such assessment for Brazil at both national and state levels. We applied the Ocean Health Index framework, which evaluates ten public goals for healthy oceans. Despite refinements of input data and model formulations, the national score of 60 (out of 100) was highly congruent with the previous global assessment for Brazil of 62. Variability in scores among coastal states was most striking for goals related to mariculture, protected areas, tourism, and clean waters. Extractive goals, including Food Provision, received low scores relative to habitat-related goals, such as Biodiversity. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Ocean Health Index at a regional scale, and its usefulness in highlighting existing data and knowledge gaps and identifying key policy and management recommendations. To improve Brazil's ocean health, this study suggests that future actions should focus on: enhancing fisheries management, expanding marine protected areas, and monitoring coastal habitats.

  9. Mortality related to tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011: epidemiological patterns and time trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricélia da Silveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract: Co-infection of tuberculosis (TB-HIV/AIDS is a persistent public health problem in Brazil. This study describes epidemiological patterns and time trends of mortality related to TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Based on mortality data from 2000-2011 (almost 12.5 million deaths, 19,815 deaths related to co-infection were analyzed. The average age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.97 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest mortality rates were found among males, those in economically productive age groups, black race/color and residents of the South region. There was a significant reduction in the mortality coefficient at the national level (annual average percent change: -1.7%; 95%CI: -2.4; -1.0, with different patterns among regions: increases in the North, Northeast and Central regions, a reduction in the Southeast and a stabilization in the South. The strategic integration of TB-HIV/AIDS control programmes is fundamental to reduce the burden of mortality related to co-infection in Brazil.

  10. [Trends in mortality rates from non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Southeast Brazil, 1980-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Laércio Lima; Mattos, Inês Echenique

    2011-07-01

    Mortality rates from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have declined in many countries in recent decades. However, mortality estimates for Brazil indicate an increase in these rates. This study aimed to analyze NHL mortality trends for 1980-2007 in individuals 20 years and older in State capitals in Southeast Brazil. Population data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Health Statistics Division of the Unified National Health System (DATASUS). Age-related mortality trends were analyzed using polynomial regression models. In the 60 and older age group, a statistically significant upward linear trend was observed for Belo Horizonte and São Paulo in 1980-2007. When analyzed in two different periods, 1980-1995 and 1996-2007, statistically significant increases in NHL mortality rates were only observed in the former period. These results suggest that the increase in 1980-2007 may have resulted from the rising mortality rates from 1980 to 1995, since no statistically significant trends were observed in the latter period.

  11. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  12. [Gender and health: profile and trends of the scientific production in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Estela M L

    2006-08-01

    The differences in health between men and women have been object of great interest, but interpretations tend to be naturalized and essentialists. Gender-oriented studies have criticized this literature and offered new analythical alternatives. The present study was intended to describe the profile and trends of scientific production on gender and health in Brazil. Data sources comprised the Research Groups Directory of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (National Research Council), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) Thesis Bank, and four journals available in SciELO--Scientific Eletronic Library Online. Fifty-one groups with at least one line of research in the subject were identified, with regional and institutional concentrations. The results confirmed the marked growth of scientific production in this field as 98 master and 42 doctoral dissertations and 665 articles on gender and health were retrieved. Women authored 86.0% and 89.0% of doctoral and master dissertations respectively, and 70.5% of the articles. Most were published in the 2000s when diversification of the studied topics was also seen. The studied subjects can be divided into five subgroups: reproduction and contraception; gender and violence; sexuality and health with emphasis on STD/AIDS; work and health, including domestic and night work; other emergent or less explored topics. There are major political, epistemological and methodological challenges for strengthening these advancements. The gender perspective offers possibilities for enlightment of theoretical dilemmas in public health. Furthermore, it can be added to other intellectual and political efforts towards understanding health and its determinants and fighting against inequalities and for social justice.

  13. Trends in radiopharmaceutical dispensing in a regional nuclear pharmacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Johnston, J.; Barker, K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals at a regional nuclear pharmacy over a 51-month period were studied. dispensing records of a regional nuclear pharmacy were analyzed with a forecasting procedure that uses univariate time data to produce time trends and autoregressive models. The overall number of prescriptions increased from 3500 to 5500 per quarter. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear cardiology studies increased from less than 0.1% to 17.5% of total prescriptions dispensed, while radiopharmaceuticals used for brain imaging showed a steady decline from 29% to 11% of total prescriptions dispensed. The demand for other radiopharmaceuticals increased in areas such as renal studies, bone studies, lung studies, liver-function studies, and /sup 67/Ga tumor-uptake studies, and declined slightly for static liver studies. Changes in dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals will continue as the practice of nuclear medicine concentrates more on functional studies and as newer imaging techniques become used for other purposes.

  14. Regional trends amongst Danish specialist farmland breeding birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    the period. Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra showed significant declines in the East of Denmark in contrast to stable trends in the Central and Western regions, but was declining everywhere since 2003. The results underline the need to understand how individual farmland species exploit specific crops and micro...

  15. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  16. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  17. Economic integration, poverty and regional inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of how trade integration can affect poverty and income distribution in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through a static General Equilibrium and Microsimulation Model of Brazil, calibrated with the PNAD 2001 data. The model comprises 112,055 Brazilian households and 263,938 adults, distinguishing 42 activities, 52 commodities, and 27 regions. The FTAA formation is simulated, and its impacts upon poverty and income distribution in Brazil analyzed. Results point to the fact that even a large shock like the one simulated wouldn't have a strong impact on poverty reduction in Brazil, although the results are concentrated on the poorest households.Este trabalho analisa os efeitos potenciais da formação da ALCA sobre os níveis de pobreza e distribuição de renda no Brasil. A análise é conduzida através de um Modelo Aplicado de Equilíbrio Geral e de Micro-simulação estático, calibrado com os dados da PNAD 2001. O modelo distingue na sua estrutura 112.055 domicílios e 263.938 adultos, 42 atividades produtivas, 52 produtos, e 27 regiões. Os resultados apontam para o fato de que mesmo mudanças tarifárias grandes como as aqui simuladas não trariam um forte impacto sobre a pobreza no Brasil, embora os resultados estejam concentrados nos domicílios mais pobres.

  18. Trends in death from circulatory diseases in Brazil between 1979 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Antonio de Padua

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trends in mortality due to circulatory diseases in men and women aged > or = 30 years in Brazil from 1979 to 1996. METHODS: We analyzed population count data obtained from the IBGE Foundation and mortality data obtained from the System of Information on Mortality of the DATASUS of the Ministry of Health. RESULTS: Circulatory diseases, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were the major causes of death in men and women in Brazil. The standardized age coefficient for circulatory disease in men aged > or = 30 years ranged from 620 to 506 deaths/100,000 inhabitants and in women from 483 to 383 deaths/100,000 inhabitants for the years 1979 and 1996, respectively. In men, the mean coefficient for the period was 586.25 deaths with a significant trend towards a decrease (P<0.001 and a decline of 8.25 deaths/year. In women, the mean coefficient for the period was 439.58 deaths, a significant trend towards a decrease (P<0.001 and a rate of decline of 7.53 deaths/year. The same significant trend towards a decrease in death (P<0.001 was observed for ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Risk of death from these causes was always higher for men of any age group (P<0.001. Cerebrovascular disease was the primary cause of death in women. CONCLUSION: Although circulatory diseases have been the major cause of mortality in men and women in the Brazilian population, with a greater participation by cerebrovascular diseases, a trend towards a decrease in the risk of death from these causes is being observed.

  19. Trends and variability of droughts over the Indian monsoon region

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    Ganeshchandra Mallya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought characteristics for the Indian monsoon region are analyzed using two different datasets and standard precipitation index (SPI, standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI, Gaussian mixture model-based drought index (GMM-DI, and hidden Markov model-based drought index (HMM-DI for the period 1901–2004. Drought trends and variability were analyzed for three epochs: 1901–1935, 1936–1971 and 1972–2004. Irrespective of the dataset and methodology used, the results indicate an increasing trend in drought severity and frequency during the recent decades (1972–2004. Droughts are becoming more regional and are showing a general shift to the agriculturally important coastal south-India, central Maharashtra, and Indo-Gangetic plains indicating higher food security and socioeconomic vulnerability in the region.

  20. Trends in Mortality Rate from Cardiovascular Disease in Brazil, 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Favarato, Desidério

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have questioned the downward trend in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Brazil in recent years. Objective to analyze recent trends in mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in the Brazilian population. Methods Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using as reference the world population of 2000. We analyzed trends in mortality from CVD, IHD and stroke in women and men in the periods of 1980-2006 and 2007-2012. Results there was a decrease in CVD mortality and stroke in women and men for both periods (p < 0.001). Annual mortality variations for periods 1980-2006 and 2007-2012 were, respectively: CVD (total): -1.5% and -0.8%; CVD men: -1.4% and -0.6%; CVD women: -1.7% and -1.0%; DIC (men): -1.1% and 0.1%; stroke (men): -1.7% and -1.4%; DIC (women): -1.5% and 0.4%; stroke (women): -2.0% and -1.9%. From 1980 to 2006, there was a decrease in IHD mortality in men and women (p < 0.001), but from 2007 to 2012, changes in IHD mortality were not significant in men [y = 151 + 0.04 (R2 = 0.02; p = 0.779)] and women [y = 88-0.54 (R2 = 0.24; p = 0.320). Conclusion Trend in mortality from IHD stopped falling in Brazil from 2007 to 2012. PMID:27223642

  1. Meat consumption in Sao Paulo-Brazil: trend in the last decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey years. Data were collected from adolescents, adults, and elderly using a representative, complex, multistage probability-based survey in 2003 and in 2008 in São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. SUBJECTS: 2631 Brazilians were studied in 2003 and 1662 in 2008. RESULTS: Daily mean of red and processed meat consumption was 100 g/day in 2003, and 113 g/day in 2008. Excessive red and processed meat consumption was observed in almost 75% of the subjects, especially among adolescents in both surveys. Beef represented the largest proportion of meat consumed, followed by poultry, pork and fish in both surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Daily red and processed meat consumption was higher in 2008 than in 2003, and almost the entire population consumed more than what is recommended by World Cancer Research Fund. Public health strategies are needed, in order to reduce red and processed meat consumption to the recommended amounts, for a healthy diet.

  2. Trends and responses to global change of China's arid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weixi YANG

    2009-01-01

    Ⅰ analyzed and elaborated the trends in and responses to global change in arid regions of China, from the perspective of nine variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation, river runoff, melting glaciers, water level of lakes, wind power and evaporation, vegetation, oases, and desertification. The climate and hydrology data Ⅰ citedrepresent many years of observations. Ⅰ conclude that, since the 1980s, the climate in arid regions of China has clearly changed with rising temperatures and precipitation in most areas. Wind power and the number of galestorm days have continuously decreased, which resulted in an improvement of humid conditions and increases in river discharge and water levels of lakes. Simultaneously, vegetation also has improved and the process of deserti-fication has essentially been arrested. Although there are some unfavorable developments, such as decreased river flows or flow interruptions and downstream oases have suffered from degradation, these incidental cases should not distract our attention from the generally favorable trends during the middle and late 20th century. These discordant phenomena are not consequences of climate change but rather of unsuitable human activities. Despitea substantial increase in precipitation, the level of the original precipitation was so small that any increase in precipitation was still small. As a result, none of the fundamental conditions such as a scarcity of water resources and precipitation nor the landscape of drought-ridden deserts in the arid regions will change. The vulnerability of the eco-environmental system in the arid regions will not change fundamentally either in the near future.

  3. Pediatric Chronic Dialysis in Brazil: Epidemiology and Regional Inequalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Konstantyner

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature estimating the epidemiologic characteristics of pediatric chronic dialysis. These patients have impaired physical growth, high number of comorbidities and great need for continuous attention of specialized services with high demand for complex and costly procedures.The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates and describe the characteristics of children and adolescents undergoing chronic dialysis treatment in a Brazilian demographic health survey.A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of dialysis centers (nc = 239 that was established from the 2011 Brazilian Nephrology Society Census (Nc = 708. We collected data encompassing the five Brazilian macro-regions. We analyzed the data from all patients under 19 years of age. The sample population consisted of 643 children and adolescents who were on chronic dialysis program anytime in 2012. Data collection was carried out in the dialysis services by means of patients' records reviews and personal interviews with the centers' leaders.We estimated that there were a total of 1,283 pediatric patients on chronic dialysis treatment in Brazil, resulting in a prevalence of 20.0 cases per million age-related population (pmarp (95% CI: 14.8-25.3 and an incidence of 6.6 cases pmarp in 2012 (95% CI: 4.8-8.4. The South region had the highest prevalence and incidence rates of patients under dialysis therapy, 27.7 (95% CI: 7.3-48.1 and 11.0 (95% CI: 2.8-19.3 cases pmarp, respectively; the lowest prevalence and incidence rates were found in the North-Midwest region, 13.8 (95% CI: 6.2-21.4, and in the Northeast region, 3.8 (95% CI: 1.4-6.3 cases pmarp, respectively.Brazil has an overall low prevalence of children on chronic dialysis treatment, figuring near the rates from others countries with same socioeconomic profile. There are substantial differences among regions related to pediatric chronic dialysis treatment. Joint

  4. Sustainable management of natural forests in pantanal region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region in Brazil has an area of 140,000 km², with approximately 30 % of natural forests distributed as deciduous, semideciduous, and forested savannas. The subregion of Nhecolandia represents 19 % of this area. There is constant concern about the sustainability of these forested areas, as there is a constant demand for wood for farm maintenance, mainly for making fence poles. The objective of this article is to indicate sustainable forest management practices in the Pantanal region of Nhecolandia. The methodology of this novel approach consisted of the recovery and organization of the available information to calculate the sustainable allowable cut per hectare, considering: cutting cycle, wood stock, periodic annual increment (PAI in percentage of volume from the commercial or interesting species and the stand structure. For forested savannas, the diameter at breast height (DBH of 529 trees per hectare were estimated as follows: 28 % with a DBH lower than 10 cm, 36 % from 10 to 20 cm, 21 % from 20 to 30 cm, 10 % from 30 to 40 cm and only 4 % greater than 40 cm. The estimated total volume per hectare was 84.2 m³ and the estimated basal area was 18.6 m². The forested areas of the Pantanal region present potential for sustainable use. However, due to regional characteristics and the lack of available information, an enhancement in research is recommended to establish a basic management guide to ensure its perpetuation for future generations.

  5. Regional differences and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Hoban, Daryl J; Sahm, Daniel F; Badal, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, although representing a small percentage of Gram-negative bacilli isolates in intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs), is frequently multidrug-resistant (MDR) and can pose difficult therapeutic challenges. From 2011 to 2014, 2337 A. baumannii were collected from IAIs and UTIs at 453 hospital sites in 48 countries as part of the SMART ongoing surveillance initiative. Current susceptibility and multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to at least three of the tested drug classes, were determined in a subset of 1011 isolates from 2013 to 2014. A. baumannii comprised 0.7-4.6% of all aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated in six global regions. MDR rates were lowest in North America (47%) and highest in Europe and the Middle East (>93%), with higher rates in ICUs than in non-ICU wards in almost all regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles varied by region but resistance was high everywhere, with no drug inhibiting >70% of A. baumannii isolates in any region. Susceptibility to imipenem was highest in North America (64%) and lowest in Europe and the Middle East (≤11%). Amikacin overall was the most active of the studied agents, including against MDR isolates (of which 11-38% were susceptible). Trend analysis of only those countries that contributed isolates in each study year (2011-2014) demonstrated an increasing trend in MDR rates in the Middle East as well as decreasing susceptibility to several single antimicrobial agents in Africa, Europe and the Middle East. These patterns and trends can help direct antimicrobial therapy and infection control efforts.

  6. New species of Polycentropodidae (Trichoptera: Annulipalpia) from Northeast Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarino, Albane; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-08-26

    Three new species of Polycentropodidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Northeast Region of Brazil are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Polycentropus brevicornutus n. sp. of the Polycentropus gertschi Group can be diagnosed mainly by its much reduced, almost vestigial intermediate appendages, and by the inferior appendages, which are deltoid and very linear in lateral aspect. The two new species of Polyplectropus are P. anchorus n. sp. and P. auriplicatus n. sp. in the P. annulicornis and P. bredini Groups, respectively. Polyplectropus anchorus n. sp. is very similar to P. annulicornis Ulmer 1905, but can be distinguished from its congener mainly by the endothecal spines without setae and with their apices directed dorsolaterad. Polyplectropus auriplicatus n. sp. resembles P. brasilensis but can be distinguished mainly by the shorter and deltoid intermediate appendages, the straighter dorsolateral processes of the preanal appendages, and the inferior appendages each with its mesoventral branch more developed and rounded.

  7. Metallomic study of mercury in fish from Amazon region - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes P. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary findings for a metallomics study of mercury in the muscle of the fish from Amazonas regionBrazil, after protein separation by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and subsequent evaluation of mercury by Thermal Decomposition and Amalgamation Coupled with Atomic Absorption (TTA-CAAS. It was found that mercury is present in 18 protein spots of “dourada” muscle (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii and 9 protein spots of “pacu” muscle (Myleussp.. The protein spots in which they were determined the presence of mercury present molecular weight of 13.5 and 21.4 kDa and isoelectric point of 3.8 and 9.2, respectively.

  8. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy. Trends and Regional Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA (United States); Sumner, Jenny [Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  9. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy: Trends and Regional Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, Pennsylvania

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  10. [The AIDS epidemic in Brazil and differences according to geographic region and health services supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Castilho, Euclides Ayres de

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify different profiles in the AIDS epidemic in Brazil by relating them to the health sector's organization, situations involving increased risk of infection, and the degree of implementation of the response by health services. The Brazilian municipalities (counties) were grouped according to the magnitude of the epidemic and its trends from 2002 and 2006, and were then studied using indicators obtained from secondary databases. Municipalities with large epidemics (39%) displayed more situations associated with risk of infection, and those with an upward trend in incidence (11.5%) showed a lower degree of response. Cities with large epidemics but with downward or stable trends had 68.6% of all the anonymous testing centers and 75.8% of the outpatient clinics, and performed 81.4% of all the HIV antibody tests in the health system. Preventive measures in schools and primary health services showed low coverage rates. Differences were observed between geographic regions. Inequalities in the degree of implementation of the response to HIV may contribute to different profiles in the epidemic around the country.

  11. Trends in burnout syndrome and emotional factors: an assessment of anesthesiologists in Southern Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Patrícia Larrosa; Trentin, Jessica Puchalski; de Avila Quevedo, Luciana

    2016-01-28

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) is the result of chronic stress at work, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low professional accomplishment. Anesthesiologyis a stressful profession. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of burnout as well as the sociodemographic and working characteristics associated with this syndrome's emotional factors, in anesthesiologists from Southern Brazil. We assessed burnout severity, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem using the Maslach burnout inventory, the Beck depression inventory, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. Of the 198 anesthesiologists included in this study, 48.7% were positive for burnout, 26.9% for EE, 41.3% for DP and 32.7% for low personal accomplishment. Trends in BOS was associated with a younger age, difficulty to conciliate family and work demands, low self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

  12. Trends and factors associated with dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil

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    Enny Santos Paixão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Studies that generate information that may reduce the dengue death risk are essential. This study analyzed time trends and risk factors for dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil from 2001 to 2011.METHODS:Time trends for dengue mortality and fatality rates were analyzed using simple linear regression. Associations between the dengue mortality and the case fatality rates and socioeconomic, demographic, and health care indicators at the municipality level were analyzed using negative binomial regression.RESULTS:The dengue hemorrhagic fever case fatality rate increased in Brazil from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.67; p=0.036, in patients aged 0-14 years (β=0.48; p=0.030 and in those aged ≥15 years (β=1.1; p<0.01. Factors associated with the dengue case fatality rate were the average income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.038 and the number of basic health units per population (MRR=0.89; p<0.001. Mortality rates increased from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.350; p=0.002.Factors associated with mortality were inequality (RR=1.02; p=0.001 high income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.005, and higher proportions of populations living in urban areas (MRR=1.01; p<0.001.CONCLUSIONS:The increases in the dengue mortality and case fatality rates and the associated socioeconomic and health care factors, suggest the need for structural and intersectoral investments to improve living conditions and to sustainably reduce these outcomes.

  13. Importance of ensembles in projecting regional climate trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, Raymond; Daniel, Ariele; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    We have performed an ensemble of simulations using RegCM4 to examine the ability to reproduce observed trends in precipitation intensity and to project future changes through the 21st century for the central United States. We created a matrix of simulations over the CORDEX North America domain for 1950-2099 by driving the regional model with two different global models (HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M, both for RCP8.5), by performing simulations at both 50 km and 25 km grid spacing, and by using three different convective parameterizations. The result is a set of 12 simulations (two GCMs by two resolutions by three convective parameterizations) that can be used to systematically evaluate the influence of simulation design on predicted precipitation. The two global models were selected to bracket the range of climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 models: HadGEM2-ES has the highest ECS of the CMIP5 models, while GFDL-ESM2M has one of the lowestt. Our evaluation metrics differ from many other RCM studies in that we focus on the skill of the models in reproducing past trends rather than the mean climate state. Trends in frequency of extreme precipitation (defined as amounts exceeding 76.2 mm/day) for most simulations are similar to the observed trend but with notable variations depending on RegCM4 configuration and on the driving GCM. There are complex interactions among resolution, choice of convective parameterization, and the driving GCM that carry over into the future climate projections. We also note that biases in the current climate do not correspond to biases in trends. As an example of these points the Emanuel scheme is consistently "wet" (positive bias in precipitation) yet it produced the smallest precipitation increase of the three convective parameterizations when used in simulations driven by HadGEM2-ES. However, it produced the largest increase when driven by GFDL-ESM2M. These findings reiterate that ensembles using multiple RCM configurations and driving GCMs are

  14. Multiple trends of tertiarization: A comparative input–output analysis of the service sector expansion between Brazil and United States

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    Kênia Barreiro de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The service sector expansion has shown to be a multiple trend process, producing distinct sectorial compositions. The present paper aims to make a comparison between two large economies in different stages of development with an extensive service sector (Brazil and United States, by focusing on final and intermediary demand changes and sectorial productivity as well. Input–output matrices for Brazil and United States were used and two applications were carried out: structural decomposition analysis and total factor productivity. Main results are as follows. Firstly, the growth in services was fostered by several factors, among which household consumption assumes an important role for both countries. Second, inter-industrial linkages play a major role only for United States. Thirdly, there is now evidence of cost disease for Brazil. Finally, productivity is lower in Brazil, nonetheless labor productivity increased above the average in some service sectors.

  15. Cancer burden trends in Umbria region using a joinpoint regression

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    Giuseppe Michele Masanotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer is an important tool to control and evaluate the outcomes of primary and secondary prevention, the effectiveness of health care and, in general, all cancer control activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The aim of the this paper is to analyze the cancer mortality in the Umbria region from 1978 to 2009 and incidence from 1994-2008. Sex and site-specific trends for standardized rates were analyzed by "joinpoint regression", using the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER software. RESULTS. Applying the jointpoint analyses by sex and cancer site, to incidence spanning from 1994 to 2008 and mortality from 1978 to 2009 for all sites, both in males and females, a significant joinpoint for mortality was found; moreover the trend shape was similar and the joinpoint years were very close. In males standardized rate significantly increased up to 1989 by 1.23% per year and significantly decreased thereafter by -1.31%; among females the mortality rate increased in average of 0.78% (not significant per year till 1988 and afterward significantly decreased by -0.92% per year. Incidence rate showed different trends among sexes. In males was practically constant over the period studied (not significant increase 0.14% per year, in females significantly increased by 1.49% per year up to 2001 and afterward slowly decreased (-0.71% n.s. estimated annual percent change − EAPC. CONCLUSIONS. For all sites combined trends for mortality decreased since late '80s, both in males and females; such behaviour is in line with national and European Union data. This work shows that, even compared to health systems that invest more resources, the Umbria public health system achieved good health outcomes.

  16. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    NOGUEIRA AFONSO C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.

  17. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  18. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella: current perspectives and trends in Brazil1,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating medial patellofemoral lesions (MPFL of the knee in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella.Materials and methods:A questionnaire comprising 15 closed questions on topics relating to treating MPFL of the knee following acute dislocation of the patella was used. It was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2012.Results:106 knee surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them were from the southeastern region of Brazil. The majority (57% reported that they perform fewer than five MPFL reconstruction procedures per year. Indication of non-surgical treatment after a first episode of acute dislocation of the patella was preferred and done by 93.4% of the sample. Only 9.1% of the participants reported that they had never observed postoperative complications. Intraoperative radioscopy was used routinely by 48%. The professionals who did not use this tool to determine the point of ligament fixation in the femur did not have a statistically greater number of postoperative complications than those who used it (p > 0.05.Conclusions:There are clear evolutionary trends in treatments and rehabilitation for acute dislocation of the patella due to MPFL, in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  19. Testing Kuznets’ Hypothesis for Russian Regions: Trends and Interpretations

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    James R. Alm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper established a number of "stylized facts", one of which is a confirmation of the S. Kuznets’ hypothesis of the nonlinear dependence between the degree of inequality in income distribution and welfare economic systems on the example of a group of Russian regions for the period 2002–2012. It is shown that, for a given sample, the welfare and economic growth factors amplify their influence on inequality in income distribution in the post-crisis period. The monotonous growth of income inequality which was observed before the crisis of 2008 is slowing in the process of raising the per capita gross regional product (GRP during the post-crisis period, and for the foreseeable future, in some regions, its direction can be reversed, while maintaining a trend of socio-economic development. Despite the persistence over time of a convex nature of S. Kuznets’ curve for Russian regional data, its parameters changed during the reporting 2002–2012 period. The maximum point of the curve shifts to the left, its convexity increases. These facts indicate that the income inequality growth of the Russian regions’ as a result of growth of per capita GRP is slowing. For some regions in the post-crisis period, the income inequality does not grow with the growth of per capita GRP, or it even reduces. This fact can be attributed to the implementation of the Russian federal socially oriented projects and programs in recent years. The results can be used for the development of regional economic policy in order to regulate the level of income distribution inequality in the regions of Russia.

  20. Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular and Hypertensive Diseases in Brazil Between 1980 and 2012

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    Paolo Blanco Villela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective: To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods: We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD, cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD, and hypertensive diseases (HD. We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC, external causes (EC, and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD. Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS. We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results: With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion: Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension.

  1. Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular and Hypertensive Diseases in Brazil Between 1980 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension. PMID:27355586

  2. A study of the behavior of labor industrial productivity in the regions of Brazil during the period 1996 to 2010

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    Edileuza Vital Galeano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an empirical study of the behavior of labor industrial productivity in the regions of Brazil during the period 1996 to 2010 by groups of technology intensity. It was used the shift-share method. The results indicated that in the groups of sectors that showed positive growth rates were the competitive advantages inherent to each region that explained, in most cases, the growth of labor productivity. There was predominance of technology absorbing sectors in prejudice of sectors that generate technological spillovers. The growth of labor productivity in the extractive industry showed a upward trend, while the manufacturing industry showed downward trend, evidencing a stagnation of labor productivity at the national level. There are evidences of a reprimarization process of industrial activities through the specialization in commodities.

  3. Trend Analysis of Small Business in the Donetsk Region

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the trends of development of small business in the Donetsk region in 2006–2010. Identified priority economic activities of small enterprises in order to develop them further. Proposed the measures to improve the performance of small businesses in the Donetsk region.В статье проанализированы тенденции развития малого предпринимательства в Донецкой области за 2006–2010 гг. Выделены приоритетные виды экономической деятельности малых предприятий с целью их дальнейшего развити...

  4. [Research on food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2000 to 2005: trends and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Shirley Donizete; Gugelmin, Silvia Angela; de Mattos, Rubem Araújo; Silva, Juliana Klotz; Olivares, Priscila Dos Santos Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Discussion of Research on Food and Nutritional Security (FNS) in Brazil started with the Directory of Brazilian Research Groups from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Searches using the expression 'food security' allowed the identification of 72 groups in 2005. Proportions between researchers and students suggest little dynamism and consolidation of such research. Groups in the area of Food Science and Technology, and those concerned with food quality are predominant; then there is the Nutrition area, mainly discussing the nutritional state of population groups; in the field of Humanities there is a small number of groups discussing political, economic and social aspects within FNS's national and regional scopes. It seems that investments in the integration between food and nutrition components of research on FNS are necessary, in order to attenuate differences between the economic (food security) and the social focus (human rights to a healthy nutrition).

  5. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  6. Luminescence properties of feldspars from the Northeast region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, S T; Khoury, H J; Sullasi, H L; Guzzo, P L, E-mail: sergiotsantana@hotmail.co

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) and infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) properties of three types of feldspars from the districts of Solonopole and Parelhas located in the Northeast region of Brazil in order to propose a preheat procedure to minimize the anomalous fading effect in these materials. The feldspar samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The XRD analysis showed that the feldspar from Solonopole and one of the samples from the Parelhas district were classified as microcline (K-feldspar). The other sample from Parelhas was classified as albite (Na-feldspar) mixed with low concentration of muscovite and quartz. Studies of the fading effects in TL and IRSL signals for 30 days and preheating effects from 50 to 250{sup 0}C for 10 minutes were carried out with these samples. The results show that preheating at 125{sup 0}C is sufficient to avoid the 30 days fading. The TL and IRSL dose responses for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation were studied in the range of 1 to 400 Gy. The results showed a linear response in the range of 1 to 100 Gy for the two types of Parelhas feldspars and from 50 to 400 Gy for the Solonopole feldspar. The low sensitivity showed by the feldspar from Solonopole is discussed in relation to its mineralogical composition. It is concluded that the TL and IRSL sensitivities are not associated with K- and Na- types of feldspar. The results of this paper will contribute to a standardized moderate annealing treatment for retrospective dosimetry and dating.

  7. [Work and education in health in Brazil: trends in scientific output between 1990-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos; Esperidião, Monique Azevedo; Silva, Iracema Viterbo; Soares, Catharina Matos; Santos, Liliana; Fagundes, Terezinha de Lisieux Quesado; Viana, Solange; da Silva, Vinício Oliveira; dos Anjos, Davllyn Santos Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the characteristics of scientific literature on work and education in health in Brazil from 1990 to 2010. A synthetic study was conducted from abstracts published in Brazilian journal articles selected from the SCIELO and LILACS databases. Five hundred and thirty-two articles were selected, categorized according to their origin, year of publication, theme, and type of study. The publication of these scientific articles increased during the period analyzed, particularly from 2007 onwards. The main areas researched were education and training of health professionals, and the majority of works in these areas examine curriculum reform, methods of learning and teaching, and teaching in-service experiences. Besides these issues, others questions were addressed such as the labor market configuration and trends in health, and characteristics of the work process in several areas, like primary healthcare units. It was also observed that there are only a small number of studies related to policy, planning and management of work in public and private health institutions, as well as a scarcity of studies presenting reflections on theoretical and conceptual aspects of this theme.

  8. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997-2012): Correlates, time trends and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick; Duran, Ana Clara; Tainio, Marko; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥ 9 h of cycling per day). Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  9. A DECADE TREND OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Puga, Fernanda Guioti; Moya, Maria Janete; Andrea, Mauro; Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Viude

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this retrospective study was to review all the notified cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in São Paulo State (Brazil), as well as to describe and discuss the clinical, microbiological and radiologic aspects in a single reference center, within the same state, from 2000 to 2012. There were 1,097 notifications of MDR-TB in São Paulo State over this period, 70% affecting men aged on average 38 years (10-77). There was a significant fall in the MDR-TB mortality rate from 30% to 8% (2000-2003 versus 2009-2012). The same trend was observed in the cases studied at the reference center. The number of notified cases increased and death rate reduced from 37.5% (2000-2005) to 3.4% (2006-2012). Among the 48 drug-resistant TB cases, 17 non-tuberculous Mycobacteria were isolated in the sputum culture of nine patients, without any clinical significance. TB and fungus co-infection was diagnosed in 15% (7/48) of these cases: three with confirmed chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and four with positive serological markers for paracoccidioidomycosis. Overall, the reports show that MDR-TB diagnosis and cure rates have increased, while the mortality rate has decreased significantly in São Paulo State including in the studied reference center.

  10. Sex Differences in Diabetes Mellitus Mortality Trends in Brazil, 1980-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thainá Alves Malhão

    Full Text Available To investigate the hypothesis that the change from the female predominance of diabetes mellitus to a standard of equality or even male preponderance can already be observed in Brazilian mortality statistics.Data on deaths for which diabetes mellitus was listed as the underlying cause were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the years 1980 to 2012. The mortality data were also analyzed according to the multiple causes of death approach from 2001 to 2012. The population data came from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The mortality rates were standardized to the world population. We used a log-linear joinpoint regression to evaluate trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR.From 1980 to 2012, we found a marked increment in the diabetes ASMR among Brazilian men and a less sharp increase in the rate among women, with the latter period (2003-2012 showing a slight decrease among women, though it was not statistically significant.The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus in Brazil has changed from a pattern of higher mortality among women compared to men to equality or even male predominance.

  11. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  12. Trends in seasonal temperatures over the Indian region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nilesh K Wagholikar; K C Sinha Ray; P N Sen; P Pradeep Kumar

    2014-06-01

    An investigation has been carried out to identify the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures and temperature range over the Indian land mass during the winter (January, and February), premonsoon (March–May), southwest monsoon (June–September) and post-monsoon (October–December) seasons by using high resolution daily gridded data set prepared by India Meteorological Department for the period of 1969–2005. It has been observed that the maximum temperatures over the west coast of India show rising trend in winter, southwest monsoon and post-monsoon seasons but the maximum temperatures do not show any significant trend over the other parts of the country. Minimum temperatures show increasing trend over the North Indian states in all seasons and they show an increasing trend over the west coast of India in winter and southwest monsoon seasons. Mean temperature shows an increasing trend over the west coast of India during winter and southwest monsoon seasons. Decreasing trend is observed in the temperature range over North India in all seasons due to increasing trend in minimum temperature.

  13. Review of developments in corneal transplantation in the regions of Brazil - Evaluation of corneal transplants in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hirlana Gomes; Hida, Richard Yudi; Kara-Junior, Newton

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in corneal donation and transplantation among the regions of Brazil. A transversal and retrospective study was specifically conducted using data from the Brazilian Transplant Registry collected by the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation between January 2002 and December 2014. The collected data were processed using descriptive statistical methods, and p<0.05 was the rate of rejection of the null hypothesis. From 2002 to 2014, there was an increase in the absolute number of corneal transplants, the annual rate of transplants per million people and the percentage of needed transplants performed in each of the five regions of Brazil. Family refusal and medical contraindication were the most frequent reasons for a lack of corneal donation. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in each of the five Brazilian regions, health professionals’ lack of preparation to approach families with donation requests at the death of a family member appears to be the main obstacle to increasing the number of corneal donations. Thus, the present study suggests the implementation of public policies to make corneal transplants more effective, particularly given that there are considerable disparities in the effectiveness with which regional needs are met and in health professionals’ ability to perform transplants among the Brazilian regions, with higher rates in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions and lower rates in the North and Northeast regions. PMID:27652836

  14. Review of developments in corneal transplantation in the regions of Brazil - Evaluation of corneal transplants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirlana Gomes Almeida

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in corneal donation and transplantation among the regions of Brazil. A transversal and retrospective study was specifically conducted using data from the Brazilian Transplant Registry collected by the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation between January 2002 and December 2014. The collected data were processed using descriptive statistical methods, and p<0.05 was the rate of rejection of the null hypothesis. From 2002 to 2014, there was an increase in the absolute number of corneal transplants, the annual rate of transplants per million people and the percentage of needed transplants performed in each of the five regions of Brazil. Family refusal and medical contraindication were the most frequent reasons for a lack of corneal donation. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in each of the five Brazilian regions, health professionals’ lack of preparation to approach families with donation requests at the death of a family member appears to be the main obstacle to increasing the number of corneal donations. Thus, the present study suggests the implementation of public policies to make corneal transplants more effective, particularly given that there are considerable disparities in the effectiveness with which regional needs are met and in health professionals’ ability to perform transplants among the Brazilian regions, with higher rates in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions and lower rates in the North and Northeast regions.

  15. Review of developments in corneal transplantation in the regions of Brazil - Evaluation of corneal transplants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hirlana Gomes; Hida, Richard Yudi; Kara, Newton

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify inequalities in corneal donation and transplantation among the regions of Brazil. A transversal and retrospective study was specifically conducted using data from the Brazilian Transplant Registry collected by the Brazilian Association of Organ Transplantation between January 2002 and December 2014. The collected data were processed using descriptive statistical methods, and ptransplants, the annual rate of transplants per million people and the percentage of needed transplants performed in each of the five regions of Brazil. Family refusal and medical contraindication were the most frequent reasons for a lack of corneal donation. Although remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in each of the five Brazilian regions, health professionals' lack of preparation to approach families with donation requests at the death of a family member appears to be the main obstacle to increasing the number of corneal donations. Thus, the present study suggests the implementation of public policies to make corneal transplants more effective, particularly given that there are considerable disparities in the effectiveness with which regional needs are met and in health professionals' ability to perform transplants among the Brazilian regions, with higher rates in the South, Southeast and Midwest regions and lower rates in the North and Northeast regions.

  16. The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in a semi-arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Ivanilza Moreira de; Mayo,Simon Joseph; Silva, Maria Francilene Souza; Sousa,Danilo José Lima de; Matias,Lígia Queiroz; Ribeiro,Thales Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study consists of a taxonomic treatment of the Araceae of Ceará, a state lying within Brazil's semi-arid region. The aroid flora shows greater similarity to those of central Brazil and Amazonia than to the Atlantic forest. Most species occur in humid forest fragments - the "florestas serranas". Geophytes are also found in caatinga and dry forest (Taccarum ulei) and lithophytes on rock outcrops in dry forest (Philodendron acutatum). Floating aquatics occur in ponds and lakes throughout the...

  17. U.S.-Brazil Workshop on Global and Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    MERCOSUR   (Common  Market   of   the   South)   following   the   impeachment   of   President   Lugo   and   the...issues   such   as   MERCOSUR   and   UNASUR,   which   they   saw   as   demonstrating  that  Brazil  was  a  consolidated

  18. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio

    2013-09-01

    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries.

  19. Trends and Prospects of the Textile Industry Development in the Depressed Region (Ivanovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Yakovenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Russian economy at the present stage is uneven and depends on many factors that determine the potential for the development of regions, and in particular, the depressed regions such as the Ivanovo region. Nowadays exploitation of extractive industries capacities should be transformed into a strategy of economic growth in manufacturing industries. The article deals with the current trends in industrial development of depressed region, due to the structural changes in city-forming industry - textile industry. They are linked to the colossal raw dependence, physical and technological obsolescence of equipment, lack of competitiveness of domestic enterprises, the strong growth of dependence on imports of raw materials and finished products, the actual lack of export activity, insufficient development of civilized trade formats, abundance of forms of unfair competition. The purpose of the research is a retrospective analysis of the textile industry development in the Ivanovo region and the search for ways to overcome the adverse inertial processes at the present stage. The object of the research is the textile industry in the Ivanovo region. The subject of the research is scientific and methodological issues related to the diversification and the need to improve the sustainability of the enterprises of this economic sector. Strengthening the positions of the textile industry in accordance with the dynamics of economic development of Russia is expressed now in the directions of diversification of the textile industry. The formation of textile industrial cluster in the Ivanovo region is a mechanism for increase in use efficiency of industrial, scientific, educational potentials and one of the priorities of increasing the competitiveness of the regional economy.

  20. The 2014 southeast Brazil austral summer drought: regional scale mechanisms and teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Caio A. S.; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Reboita, Michelle Simões; Carpenedo, Camila Bertoletti; Campos, José Leandro Pereira Silveira; Tomaziello, Ana Carolina Nóbile; Pampuch, Luana Albertani; Custódio, Maria de Souza; Dutra, Lívia Marcia Mosso; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Rehbein, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The southeast region of Brazil experienced in austral summer 2014 a major drought event leading to a number of impacts in water availability for human consumption, agricultural irrigation and hydropower production. This study aims to perform a diagnostic analysis of the observed climate conditions during this event, including an inspection of the occurred precipitation anomalies in the context of previous years, and an investigation of possible relationships with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation patterns. The sea surface temperature analysis revealed that the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean region near the coast of southeast Brazil showed strong negative association with precipitation over southeast Brazil, indicating that increased sea temperatures in this ocean region are consistent with reduced precipitation as observed in summer 2014. The circulation analysis revealed prevailing anti-cyclonic anomalies at lower levels (850 hPa) with northerly anomalies to the west of southeast Brazil, channeling moisture from the Amazon towards Paraguay, northern Argentina and southern Brazil, and drier than normal air from the South Atlantic Ocean towards the southeast region of Brazil. This circulation pattern was found to be part of a large-scale teleconnection wave train linked with the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific, which in turn was generated by an anomalous tropical heat source in north/northeastern Australia. A regional Hadley circulation with an ascending branch to the south of the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific was identified as an important component connecting the tropical and extratropical circulation. The ascending branch of this Hadley circulation in the south Pacific coincided with an identified Rossby wave source region, which contributed to establishing the extratropical component of the large-scale wave train connecting the south Pacific and the Atlantic

  1. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hua Liang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abundant, whereas Oncaea spp and mollusc eggs were heavily preyed in Winter. There was a clear trend of increasing prey size with the developmental stage.O estudo dos hábitos alimentares das espécies de Chaetognatha foi realizado a partir da análise do trato digestivo de 9466 indivíduos dos estágios 0 - IV. Os quetógnatos foram coletados ao largo da região de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, com o auxílio da rede Bongo (Malha 0,200 mm e 0,303 mm, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987. Dos 9466 tratos digestivos analisados, 7119 estavam vazios e 2347 apresentaram de 1 a 3 presas. Grande quantidade de material amorfo e semi-digerido também foram detectados. A dieta esteve constituída basicamente de copépodos (Calanoida e Poecilostomatoida, cladóceros, ovos de moluscos, náuplios de crustáceos, apendiculárias e poliquetos, entre outros. O canibalismo foi observado a partir do estágio I, porém com baixa frequência. Os estágios jovens (0-1 mostraram preferência por presas de tamanho pequeno como náuplios e copépodos do gênero Oncaea, enquanto que os estágios maduros por presas maiores como Temora stylifera, Corycaeus sp e Eucalanus pileatus.

  2. Tax war in Brazil: aspects and trends; Competicao fiscal no Brasil: aspectos e tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Fabio Martins; Oliveira, David Brandao de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper issue aspects of tax war since the origin in Brazil until your apply after the tax reform with destiny principle. This work introduce with historical of tax system in Brazil. Besides approach the tax war with the game theory and practical examples to explain the advantage and disadvantage under fiscal responsibility law. Finally, we will discuss if will be continue the tax war developed in possible scenario the tax reform charging on the destiny state (author)

  3. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  4. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  5. RAPD identification of Varroa destructor genotypes in Brazil and other regions of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J C V; Issa, M R C; Carneiro, F E; Strapazzon, R; Moretto, G

    2010-01-01

    The mite Varroa destructor is the main pest causing damage to apiculture worldwide. In Brazil and other parts of the world, where bees of African origin and their hybrids predominate, the bees can survive these mites without treatment. Studies have shown a correlation between the various genotypes of the mite and its fertility in different geographical regions. Information about mite genotype could be helpful in understanding the diverse effects and relationships of the mite with bees in different regions of the world. DNA analysis by RAPD technique has permitted identification of three distinct genotypes in the mite V. destructor, namely Russian, Japanese and Papua New Guinea. We found predominance of the Russian genotype in Brazil, along with other parts of South America, and in Cuba and Mexico. The Japanese genotype was exclusively found on Fernando de Noronha Island in Brazil.

  6. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  7. Mortality due to cutaneous melanoma in south region of Brazil: a spatial approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. The South region of Brazil has the highest death rates by melanoma per 100,000 inhabitants of the country. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this malignancy in southern Brazil. Objectives Identify the spatial patterns of deaths from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil, using geoprocessing tools. Methods This is an ecological and exploratory study of death information by cutaneous melanoma obtained from portal Datasus, for Brazil's southern region, from January 2008 to December 2012. Deaths were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and Kernel maps, using TerraView software. It was adopted an alpha = 5%. Results There were data on 2378 deaths from cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the northern and littoral regions of Rio Grande do Sul; the northeast of Santa Catarina; and west of Paraná - for the total population, with minor differences detected and indicated regarding gender. The global Moran index presented p-values of 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively, for male, female and overall deaths. All the micro-regions that showed high priority for intervention were detected in the Rio Grande do Sul. Conclusion Spatial clusters of micro-regions with high death rates from cutaneous melanoma in South region of Brazil were identified, serving as an important tool for health managers. PMID:27579737

  8. Suicide trends and characteristics among persons in the Guaraní Kaiowá and Nandeva communities--Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-12

    Suicide rates among indigenous communities around the world vary substantially; in many nations these groups have the highest suicide risk of any identifiable cultural or ethnic group. Mato Grosso do Sul is a state in the southwest corner of Brazil that borders Bolivia and Paraguay. In 2004, the Guaraní, an indigenous ethnic group in the region, accounted for 2.6% of Mato Grosso do Sul's population (approximately 2,230,702). During 1975-2000, the infant mortality rate decreased, and overall life expectancy increased in Mato Grosso do Sul; however, suicide increased as a proportion of overall mortality among the Kaiowá and Nandeva communities of the Guaraní population. In 2000, the National Health Foundation (FUNASA) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMH) initiated a study of suicide trends and characteristics in these two Guaraní communities; data were collected during 2000-2005, and epidemiologic assistance was provided by CDC. This report summarizes the results of that study, which suggested that the suicide rate among Guaraní was 19 times higher than the national rate in Brazil and 10 times higher than the rate in Mato Grosso do Sul and that suicides disproportionately affected Guaraní adolescents and young adults. To decrease suicide rates, BMH initiated research and prevention programs among the Guaraní, and the Guaraní initiated measures to increase their economic self-sufficiency.

  9. The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2011-01-01

    Based on pre-DNA racial/color methodology, clinical and pharmacological trials have traditionally considered the different geographical regions of Brazil as being very heterogeneous. We wished to ascertain how such diversity of regional color categories correlated with ancestry. Using a panel of 40 validated ancestry-informative insertion-deletion DNA polymorphisms we estimated individually the European, African and Amerindian ancestry components of 934 self-categorized White, Brown or Black Brazilians from the four most populous regions of the Country. We unraveled great ancestral diversity between and within the different regions. Especially, color categories in the northern part of Brazil diverged significantly in their ancestry proportions from their counterparts in the southern part of the Country, indicating that diverse regional semantics were being used in the self-classification as White, Brown or Black. To circumvent these regional subjective differences in color perception, we estimated the general ancestry proportions of each of the four regions in a form independent of color considerations. For that, we multiplied the proportions of a given ancestry in a given color category by the official census information about the proportion of that color category in the specific region, to arrive at a “total ancestry” estimate. Once such a calculation was performed, there emerged a much higher level of uniformity than previously expected. In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South. We propose that the immigration of six million Europeans to Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries - a phenomenon described and intended as the “whitening of Brazil” - is in large part responsible for dissipating previous ancestry dissimilarities that reflected region-specific population histories. These findings, of both clinical and sociological importance for Brazil, should also be

  10. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 case

  11. Regional sustainability contrasts in Brazil as indicated by the Compass of Sustainability – CompasSus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.P.; Bursztyn, M.; Brouwer, F.M.; Debortoli, N.; Castro, de V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The current need for assessing sustainable processes and states is a driving assumption for this article, having as objective to present preliminary results of a new assessment approach, the Compass of Sustainability (CompasSus), applied to administrative regions of Brazil. Its methodological approa

  12. Spatiotemporal trends of mercury in walleye and largemouth bass from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Bruce A; Staples, David F; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Holsen, Thomas M; Schrank, Candy S; Moses, Sara K; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Backus, Sean M; Williams, Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    The risk of mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife from fish consumption has driven extensive mercury analysis throughout the Great Lakes Region since the 1970s. This study compiled fish-Hg data from multiple sources in the region and assessed spatiotemporal trends of Hg concentrations in two representative top predator fish species. Walleye (Sander vitreus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were chosen for the trend analysis because they had more Hg records (63,872) than other fish species that had been sampled from waters throughout the region. Waterbody types were inland lakes (70%), the Great Lakes, impoundments, and rivers. The compiled datasets were analyzed with a mixed effects statistical model having random effects of station, year, and fish length; and fixed effects of year, tissue type, fish length, habitat, and season. The results showed a generally declining temporal trend in fish-Hg for the region (1970-2009), with spatial trends of increasing Hg concentration from south to north and from west to east across the region. Nonlinearity was evident in the general downward trends of Ontario walleye, with a shift to an upward trend beginning in the 1990s. Only ongoing monitoring can reveal if this upward shift is an oscillation in a long-term decline, a statistical anomaly, or a sustained declining temporal trend in regional fish-Hg concentrations.

  13. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  14. Astronomy in the Curriculum Proposals of Southern Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Evonir; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-08-01

    Astronomy is a science that has attracted attention and fascination of different people. Because it is a subject that arouses curiosity, Astronomy has been the subject of several studies related to the area of education. In this respect, this article presents partial results of an ongoing Doctoral research. The objective is to analyze and compare the contents related to Astronomy present in curricular proposals that guide the Basic Education in Southern Brazil. The methodological approach followed the assumptions of qualitative research. We used content analysis to make the comparison between the astronomical content present in the curriculum proposals from the states of Parana, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The reading of the proposals has possible to reorganize the content into categories. As a result the category is displayed Earth and its analysis, which shows the lack of clarity and specificity in the presentation of the contents of the curriculum proposals. This finding may be an indicator that affect the integration of astronomical content in the curriculum of schools.

  15. Potential oilseed crops from the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R S; Oliveira, A F M; Silva, S I

    2009-12-01

    The caatinga semi-arid ecosystem of northeastern Brazil is characterized by a dry, spiny and predominantly deciduous shrub/forest vegetation, and many species there are potential sources of renewable resources for the oleochemical industry. The present research determined the oil content and fatty acid profiles of seeds from eight caatinga species. Seed oils were extracted in a Soxhlet system, and their fatty acid content identified by GC-MS. Oil content varied between 20.2% in Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) and 46.4% in Barnebya harleyi (W.R. Anderson & B. Gates) Malpighiaceae. Anemopaegma laeve DC. (Bignoniaceae) had the highest oleic acid content (63.4%), while high levels of linoleic acid were found in Banisteriopsis pubipetala (Juss.) Cuatrec. (42.8%) and B. harleyi (31.9%) (both Malpighiaceae). Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid (50%) in Hippocratea volubilis (L.) (Celastraceae). High levels of linoleic and linolenic acids were found in Croton adamantinus Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), averaging 44.2% and 45.2% respectively. Gadoleic acid in was the most abundant fatty acid in the oil produced by Serjania lethalis A. St. Hill. (Sapindaceae), averaging 69.6%. B. pubipetala, B. harleyi, C. adamantinus, and H. volubilis were identified as promising species for cultivation.

  16. Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

  17. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  18. Trends bodybuilding development in Ukraine and Kharkov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the features of bodybuilding and Ukraine in Kharkiv region. Material and Methods: results conducted on the basis of archival materials and records of events, publications and other sources. Incrementally conducted research of bodybuilding Ukraine and Kharkiv from the first event to modern times. Results: bodybuilding – a sport that can be practiced at any age. This makes bodybuilding common among different population groups. Conclusions: every year in Ukraine, the growing number of athletes and their level of preparedness. Athletes of Ukraine and the Kharkiv region show good results in international competitions.

  19. Current trends in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors from around the world: focus on cardiac rehabilitation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Trimer, Renata; Cipriano, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a program composed of structured exercise training, comprehensive education and counseling to positively impact functional, psychological, social, and quality of life aspects in these patients. However, the delivery of formal CR programs is limited to major metropolitan centers in Brazil and does not exist in much of the national territory, specifically in the North and Northeast regions. Barriers to the inclusion of qualified patients are lack of referral by the health professionals, as well as transportation difficulties, low income, lack of insurance coverage, and low educational level. Government efforts to implement CR programs on a broader scale, to reach a larger portion of the CVD population, are imperative. Additional research must be focused on the assessment of CR referral and adherence patterns as well as the effectiveness of different CR delivery models.

  20. Analysis of the Time Trends of Precipitation over Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Lazri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time trends of precipitation in the north of Algeria from meteorological radar are analysed. A probabilistic approach presented here proposes to study the evolution of the rainfall phenomenon in two distinct study areas, one located in sea and other located in ground. A decision criterion is established and based on radar reflectivity in order to classify the precipitation events located in both areas. At each radar observation, a state of precipitation is classified, either convective (heavy precipitation or stratiform (average precipitation both for the "sea" and for the "ground". In all, a time series of precipitation composed of three states; no raining, stratiform precipitation and convective precipitation, is obtained for each of the two areas. Thereby, we studied and characterized the behavior of precipitation in time by a Markov chain of order one with three states. Transition probabilities are calculated. The results show that rainfall is well described by a Markov chain of order one with three states. Indeed, the stationary probabilities, which are calculated by using the Markovian model, and the actual probabilities are almost identical.

  1. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  2. Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shanghai Mode Lingerie continually strives to underline its status as a veritable reference on the fashion scene: an opportunity to explore trends, interpret key directions and gain an in-depth overview of lines to follow.

  3. Detecting trends in 10-day rainfall amounts at five sites in the state ofSão Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution of the rainfall events within a crop growing season plays a crucial role on the crop yield. In this way, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of climate trends in the 10-day rainfall totalsobtained from five weather stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (1951-2012.The autocorrelation function, the Run test and the Durbin-Watson test indicateda lack of significant serial correlation in theseseries. The wavelet analysis revealed no conclusive evidence of periodicities in the temporal variability of this variable. According to the Mann-Kendall test, most of the 10-day rainfall amounts obtained from the five weather stations shows no significant trends. However, for the locations of States Campinas, Pindorama and Ribeirão Preto, the significant decreasing trends observed during the 2nd and 3rd ten days of October suggests a possible change in the climatic patterns of these locations, which may be linked to a delay in the return of the rainy season.

  4. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

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    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  5. HIV and HCV coinfection: prevalence, associated factors and genotype characterization in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  6. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection, a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3% and 3 (41.7%. The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  7. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

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    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  8. Traffic Related Air Quality Trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    An air quality based approach is used to determine pollutant-trends of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), ozone (O3) and particle matter (PM10) mostly from road transport sources in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) for the years 2000-2013. Road transport sources included flex (gasoline and ethanol) cars and motorcycles and diesel trucks and buses. Air pollutant concentrations for the transport sources were measured and related with the fuel sales by the emission factors (EFs) expressed in grams of pollutant per kilometer driven or unit of fuel consumed. Over the 14- year time period, pollutant concentrations of NOX, CO and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37 and 0.71% month-1, respectively. Oppossitely during this time, fuel sales of gasoline, ethanol and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96 and 0.38% month-1. Flex engines are the prevalent road source of CO, oppositely to diesel ones which appear to be the major source of NOX and PM10. Decrease in air pollutants are partially offset by the increment of fuel sales and related transport activity. For CO, there have been steep decreases in pollutant concentrations (rate of -5 parts per billion, ppb, month-1) for gasoline and ethanol engines between 2000 and 2013. Similarly, diesel related NOX and PM10 concentrations decreased but at slower time rates (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1). Rates uncertainties are larger for diesel pollutants (coefficient of determination R of -0.47 and -0.41) than for gasoline and ethanol related CO (R equal to -0.72). This paper led to the following conclusions: (1) concentrations of gasoline and ethanol related CO, estimated by air quality network measurements, decreased at steeper rate than diesel pollutants NOX and PM10, (2) transport source contributions to the O3 formation differ significantly through the time period focus of this work, with higher contributions coming from gasoline and ethanol engines at the beinning of the reviewed period (2000-2007) and from diesel engines

  9. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  10. USING LANDSAT 8 IMAGE TIME SERIES FOR CROP MAPPING IN A REGION OF CERRADO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bendini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  11. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

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    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  12. Prevalence of anti-p: Falciparum sporozoite antibodies in adults in the amapa region of Brazil

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    Virgílio Do Rosario

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available 17 of 20 adult sera from the Amapa region of Brazil were active in the inhibition of P. falciparum sporozoite invasion (ISI assay which has been correlated with protective antibodies. In contrast 11 sera were positive in IFA tests and 6 were positive in CSP tests. These results suggest that the ISI assay will be useful for evaluating naturally acquired protective anti-sporozoite antibodies in endemic areas, particularly during vaccine efficacy studies using sporozoite-based vaccines.

  13. Land-cover classification in a moist tropical region of Brazil with Landsat TM imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; MORAN, EMILIO; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to improve land-cover classification accuracy in a moist tropical region in Brazil by examining the use of different remote sensing-derived variables and classification algorithms. Different scenarios based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data and derived vegetation indices and textural images, and different classification algorithms – maximum likelihood classification (MLC), artificial neural network (ANN), classification tree analysis (CTA), and object-based clas...

  14. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

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    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  16. Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions

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    J. Bremer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected.

    The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995 modifies the estimated mean foE trend.

  17. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009

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    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  18. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  19. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-10-06

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution.

  20. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

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    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  1. Regional Labor Market Differences in Brazil and Search Frictions: Some Structural Estimates

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    Paulo Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate an equilibrium job search model for six metropolitan areas located in different regions of Brazil. Two mechanisms of wage determination are considered: wage posting by monopsony firms and Nash bilateral bargaining. In order to estimate the model, we use the non-parametric method developed by Bontemps, Robin, & van den Berg [2000. Equilibrium search with continuous productivity dispersion: Theory and nonparametric estimation. International Economic Review, 41(2, 305-358]. There is significant heterogeneity among the estimated structural parameters for these regions. We succeed in rationalizing some well-known regional differences in wages, unemployment rates and productivity prevalent in Brazilian labor markets, thus offering new interpretations. Metropolitan regions in the Northeast have much lower λ0 (arrival rate of wage offers for unemployed workers andλ1 (arrival rate of wage offers for employed workers vis a vis areas in the South or Southeast regions. This is a new, and much more precise, result worth considering on the regional inequality debate in Brazil. Regional inequality in wages, besides being an outcome of its regional human capital distribution, can be rationalized as inequality of search frictions brought by differences inλ1. We found a key (indirect role for search frictions when analysing productivity differences as well. Since search frictions impact simultaneously on monopsony power as well as on productivity, in order to understand better regional productivity differences we must deepen our analysis on how these structural parameters are differentiated by regions. Labor market frictions add important insights into the regional debate, something not captured by more traditional econometric reduced form approaches.

  2. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital......, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative...

  3. Trend in GHG Emissions from Northeast and West Coast Regions of India

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    Tongdimenba Jamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs has emerged as a serious global environmental issue. An attempt has been made to assess the GHG emissions in two geographical regions of India i.e. the Northeast Region (NER and the West coast Region (WCR during the period of 1980-2005. The analysis reveals an increasing trend in GHG emissions from the study regions except for CH4, which shows a decreasing trend in Goa and Kerala.  As far as state wise GHG emissions are concerned; Assam ranks first in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the NER. Konkan ranks first in CO2 and CH4 emissions, while Kerala ranks first in N2O emissions representing the WCR. Analysis of the compounded annual growth rate reveals higher for the WCR in CO2 and CH4 emissions except N2O where the NER remains the highest. In order to find the association between GHG emissions and climatic response, the mean air temperature for 26 stations in both regions were subjected to trend analysis. The findings show warming trends in the mean air temperature over a majority of the stations indicating a possible role by increased GHGs. Further, the analysis reveals a positive correlation of population and GHG emissions significantly at 99% for both the regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2739

  4. MRSA from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: intriguing epidemiological differences compared to other Brazilian regions

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    Alessandro C.O. Silveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA is one of the most frequently isolated agents in both nosocomial and community settings. It is a constant challenge for antibacterial therapy. Therefore, it becomes essential to understand the epidemiology of MRSA isolates in the institution and/or region to guide empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA isolates in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and determine if there is a clonal spread. We evaluated 124 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various anatomical sites from patients in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by Etest and broth macrodilution. SCCmectypes were determined by multiplex PCR and the clonal relationship among isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobials that have demonstrated lower rates of resistance were tetracycline (20.2%, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (20.2% and chloramphenicol (12.9%. We did not detect any resistance to glycopeptides, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. SCCmectype III was predominant (54%, followed by type II (21.8%, consistent with other Brazilian studies. Twenty-six clones were observed grouping 72 (58% isolates and no clonal relationship was observed between our isolates and the major epidemic clones circulating in Brazil. An intriguing distinct MRSA epidemiology was observed in Santa Catarina, compared to other Brazilian regions.

  5. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases.

  6. Multi-decadal variations of atmospheric aerosols from 1980 to 2009: sources and regional trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Chin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol variations and trends over different land and ocean regions during 1980–2009 are analyzed with the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART model and observations from multiple satellite sensors and ground-based networks. Excluding time periods with large volcanic influences, the tendency of aerosol optical depth (AOD and surface concentration over polluted land regions is consistent with the anthropogenic emission changes. The largest reduction occurs over Europe, and regions in North America and Russia also exhibit reductions. On the other hand, East Asia and South Asia show AOD increases, although relatively large amount of natural aerosols in Asia makes the total changes less directly connected to the pollutant emission trends. Over major dust source regions, model analysis indicates that the dust emissions over the Sahara and Sahel respond mainly to the near-surface wind speed, but over Central Asia they are largely influenced by ground wetness. The decreasing dust trend in the tropical North Atlantic is most closely associated with the decrease of Sahel dust emission and increase of precipitation over the tropical North Atlantic, likely driven by the sea surface temperature increase. Despite significant regional trends, the model-calculated global annual average AOD shows little changes over land and ocean in the past three decades, because opposite trends in different regions cancel each other in the global average. This highlights the need for regional-scale aerosol assessment, as the global average value conceals regional changes, and thus is not sufficient for assessing changes in aerosol loading.

  7. Long-term trends in Aerosol Optical Depth over Indian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. Suresh; Krishna Moorthy, K.

    The anthropogenic activities associated with modernization, industrialization and urbanization have been leading to a sustained increase in the amounts of aerosols (suspended particles in the atmosphere) and trace gases emitted into the atmosphere.With a view to address this issue, over the south-Asian region, a carefully planned activity has been taken up under the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) by setting up a national network of aerosol observatories, known as ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India Network), being established in a phased manner over a period of years.This activity, with the long-term objective of generating an aerosol database over the Indian sub-continent, initiated in mid 1980s has now matured well with a network consisting of 35 observatories spread over the mainland and adjoining oceans. Statistically significant and consistent increasing trends in AOD are seen at most of the locations, especially where the data goes back to 1980s.Examining the recent values of turbidity coefficients with those reported from sun photometric measurements ~ 50 years ago revealed that the trend has been consistent over the decades and a phenomenal increase in aerosol loading has taken place.Seasonally, the rate of increase is consistently high during the dry months (December to March) over the entire region where as the trends are rather inconsistent and weak during the pre-monsoon (April to May) and summer monsoon period (June to September). The trends in the spectral variation of AOD reveal the significance of anthropogenic activities on the increasing trend in AOD. Examining these with climate variables such as seasonal and regional rainfall, it is seen that the dry season depicts a decreasing trend in the total number of rainy days over the Indian region. The insignificant trend in AOD observed, over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), a regional hot spot of aerosols, during the pre-monsoon and summer monsoon season is mainly attributed to the

  8. Trends, patterns, and determinants of regional mortality in Belarus, 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Shkolnikov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We report analyses of regional trends in overall and cause-specific mortality in Belarus for the period 1990-2007. We explore the respective spatial patterns and attempt to determine the factors responsible for the regional mortality variation. The results show that inter-regional mortality differentials tend to rise, mainly because of the growing advantage of the capital over other regions. The increasing variation is associated with diverging trends in mortality from external causes of death. Mortality tends to be higher in the eastern part of the country. Regional data show that changes in mortality are largely explained by alcohol and socio-economic conditions, as measured by unemployment and poverty rates. Cardiovascular and external-cause mortality are strongly associated with alcohol and unemployment, while poverty is an important predictor of suicide and homicide mortality. Clusters of elevated mortality from certain cancers located in the contaminated zone point to the possible impact of the Chernobyl accident.

  9. Bovine herpesvirus 6 in buffaloes (Bubalus bulalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; de Oliveira, Fernanda Gonçalves; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; Galinari, Grazielle Cossenzo Florentino; Lima, Graciela Kunrath; Fonseca, Antônio Augusto; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel Figueiredo; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the first description of Bovine herpesvirus 6 (BoHV-6) that was isolated from buffaloes of Amazon region in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the BoHV-6 Brazilian strains clustered with the sequence of BoHV-6 from elsewhere available at the GenBank. It was observed in some buffaloes with lymphoproliferative disease in one herd, thus the animals were also tested for Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which has been associated to lymphoma in bovines. All animals were negative to BLV. These results indicate that BoHV-6 is present in buffaloes in Brazil, but the importance and impact of this infection and its association with any illness is still undefined.

  10. Quinine levels in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the plasmatic concentrations of quinine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of the Amazon region in Brazil in a prospective clinical trial, in which a standard three-day course of oral quinine plus doxycycline was used. We measured the quinine in the plasma samples on days 0 and 3by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of quinine was 6.04 ±2.21 µg/mL in male patients and 5.98 ±1.95 µg/mL in female patients. No significant differences in quinine concentration were observed between these two groups. All samples collected before starting treatment were negative for quinine. This information could help in the development of strategies for the rational use of antimalarial drugs in Brazil.

  11. A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu; Pereira Filho, Gentil Alves; Silva Vieira, Kleber; Silva Souto, Wedson Medeiros; Mendonça, Lívia Emanuelle Tavares; Montenegro, Paulofernandoguedespereira; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Silva Vieira, Washington Luiz

    2012-07-30

    The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region. In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil and analyse the implications on conservation that are related to the interactions between people and reptiles in this region. Taxonomic keys to identifying recorded reptiles are provided. Records of humans interacting with 38 reptile species that belong to 31 genuses and 16 families have been found. The groups with the largest numbers of recorded species were snakes (18 species), and this group was followed in number by lizards (13), chelonians (4), and crocodilians (3). The reptiles that were recorded may be used for the following purposes: medicinal purposes (24 species), food (13 species), ornamental or decorative purposes (11 species), in magical/religious practices (10 species), and as pets (10 species). Some species (n = 16) may have multiple uses. Furthermore, more than half of the species (n = 19) are commonly killed because they are considered potentially dangerous. Strategies for conserving the reptiles of the Brazilian semi-arid region must reconcile and integrate human and conservation needs.

  12. Analysis of seasonal and annual rainfall trends in the northern region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Rahman, M. Tauhid Ur; Hoque, Muhammad Azizul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate 50 years (1964-2013) of seasonal and annual rainfall trends and their fluctuation over time in northern Bangladesh. After testing the autocorrelation, non-parametric Mann-Kendall test along with Sen Slope estimator was used to examine rainfall trends and their magnitudes. The sequential Mann-Kendall test was used to identify any fluctuations in the trends over time and to detect the possible points of change in the rainfall series. We found that pre-monsoon and post-monsoon rainfall is increasing in most of the rainfall stations. The only decrement in pre-monsoon rainfall was found for Ishurdi (1.28 mm/year). However, the sequential Mann-Kendall test detected decreasing pre-monsoon rainfall trend after early the 1990s. Monsoon rainfall showed a decreasing trend in the majority of the area studied. The maximum decrement in monsoon rainfall was found for Sylhet station (8.10 mm/year) and minimum in Mymensingh (1.53 mm/year). An upward monsoon rainfall trend was found for Rangpur (2.02 mm/year). Annual rainfall followed the monsoon rainfall trend. However, all of the positive and negative trends were found statistically non-significant at 95% confidence limit with the only exception for monsoon and annual rainfall at Rajshahi station. Rajshahi station was the only region where the monsoon and annual rainfall has a significant negative trend at 95% confidence limit. The sequential Mann-Kendall test detected several non-significant points of change for seasonal and annual rainfall at most of the stations. Periodic fluctuations were also detected. We observed that there were decreasing seasonal rainfall trend after early the 1990s for the majority of the stations.

  13. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

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    Fernández-Navarro Pablo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying

  14. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts.

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    Marcel Viana Pires

    Full Text Available The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement.

  15. Nitrogen-Use Efficiency, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Cereal Production in Brazil: Current Trends and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel Viana; da Cunha, Dênis Antônio; de Matos Carlos, Sabrina; Costa, Marcos Heil

    2015-01-01

    The agriculture sector has historically been a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. Although the use of synthetic fertilizers is one of the most common widespread agricultural practices, over-fertilization can lead to negative economic and environmental consequences, such as high production costs, depletion of energy resources, and increased GHG emissions. Here, we provide an analysis to understand the evolution of cereal production and consumption of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in Brazil and to correlate N use efficiency (NUE) with economic and environmental losses as N2O emissions. Our results show that the increased consumption of N fertilizers is associated with a large decrease in NUE in recent years. The CO2 eq. of N2O emissions originating from N fertilization for cereal production were approximately 12 times higher in 2011 than in 1970, indicating that the inefficient use of N fertilizers is directly related to environmental losses. The projected N fertilizer forecasts are 2.09 and 2.37 million ton for 2015 and 2023, respectively. An increase of 0.02% per year in the projected NUE was predicted for the same time period. However, decreases in the projected CO2 eq. emissions for future years were not predicted. In a hypothetical scenario, a 2.39% increase in cereal NUE would lead to $ 21 million savings in N fertilizer costs. Thus, increases in NUE rates would lead not only to agronomic and environmental benefits but also to economic improvement. PMID:26252377

  16. Climate change projections over three metropolitan regions in Southeast Brazil using the non-hydrostatic Eta regional climate model at 5-km resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Andre; Tavares, Priscila; Chou, Sin Chan; Sueiro, Gustavo; Dereczynski, Claudine; Sondermann, Marcely; Silva, Adan; Marengo, José; Giarolla, Angélica

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work is to assess changes in three metropolitan regions of Southeast Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santos) based on the projections produced by the Eta Regional Climate Model (RCM) at very high spatial resolution, 5 km. The region, which is densely populated and extremely active economically, is frequently affected by intense rainfall events that trigger floods and landslides during the austral summer. The analyses are carried out for the period between 1961 and 2100. The 5-km simulations are results from a second downscaling nesting in the HadGEM2-ES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations. Prior to the assessment of the projections, the higher resolution simulations were evaluated for the historical period (1961-1990). The comparison between the 5-km and the coarser driver model simulations shows that the spatial patterns of precipitation and temperature of the 5-km Eta simulations are in good agreement with the observations. The simulated frequency distribution of the precipitation and temperature extremes from the 5-km Eta RCM is consistent with the observed structure and extreme values. Projections of future climate change using the 5-km Eta runs show stronger warming in the region, primarily during the summer season, while precipitation is strongly reduced. Projected temperature extremes show widespread heating with maximum temperatures increasing by approximately 9 °C in the three metropolitan regions by the end of the century in the RCP8.5 scenario. A trend of drier climate is also projected using indices based on daily precipitation, which reaches annual rainfall reductions of more than 50 % in the state of Rio de Janeiro and between 40 and 45 % in São Paulo and Santos. The magnitude of these changes has negative implications to the population health conditions, energy security, and economy.

  17. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  18. Trends in risk factors chronic diseases, according of health insurance, Brazil, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Oliveira, Martha

    2015-04-01

    This article aims to compare the trends for risk and protective factors for NCD in the population with and without health insurance. Analysis of temporal trends of the Vigitel phone survey, collected annually in adult population. Were used analyzed the temporal series of variables referent to risk and protective factors for NCD, from 2008 to 2013. Variables were compared according to the possession or not of health insurance using simple linear regression model. There was a reduction in the prevalence of smoking in the population with and without health insurance, in 0.72% and 0,69% per year respectively. The consumption of fruits and vegetables grew 0,8% and 0.72% per year respectively among the population with and without health insurance. Physical activity in leisure time increased 1.17% and 1.01% per year among population with and without health insurance. Excess weight increased in 1.03% and obesity in 0.74% p.y in the population with health insurance and 1.53% and 0.95% p.y without health insurance. Mammography increased 2.4% in the population without health insurance. Vigitel monitoring showed improvement in the indicators in the population with and without health insurance.

  19. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  20. Regional soil moisture simulation for Shaanxi Province using SWAT model validation and trend analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The soil moisture in Shaanxi Province,a region with complex topography,is simulated using the distributed hydrological model Soil Water Assessment Tool(SWAT).Comparison and contrast of modeled and observed soil moisture show that the SWAT model can reasonably simulate the long-term trend in soil moisture and the spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture in the region.Comparisons to NCEP/NCAR and ERA40 reanalysis of soil moisture show that the trend of variability in soil moisture simulated by SWAT is more consistent with the observed.SWAT model results suggested that high soil moisture in surface soil layers appears in the southern Shaanxi with high vegetation cover,and the Qinling mountainous region with frequent orographic precipitation.In deeper soil layers,high soil moisture appears in the river basins and plains.The regional soil moisture showed a generally decreasing trend on all soil layers from 1951 to 2004,with a stronger and significant decreasing trend in deeper soil layers,especially in the northern parts of the province.

  1. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

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    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. The data were analyzed for maximum temperature increases and the trends were confirmed statistically using Spearman’s nonparametric test. Temperature trends were correlated with the mortality information related with extreme heat events in the region. The results showed a clear trend of increasing maximum temperatures during the months of June, July, and August for five of the six cities and statically confirmed using Spearman’s rho values. Las Vegas was the only city where the temperature increase was not confirmed using Spearman’s test, probably because it is geographically located outside of the Sonoran Desert or because of its proximity to the Hoover Dam. The relationship between mortality and temperature was analyzed for the cities of Mexicali, Mexico and Phoenix. Arizona.

  2. Future trends of snowfall days in northern Spain from ENSEMBLES regional climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M. R.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    In a previous study Pons et al. (Clim Res 54(3):197-207, 2010. doi: 10.3354/cr01117g) reported a significant decreasing trend of snowfall occurrence in the Northern Iberian Peninsula since the mid 70s. The study was based on observations of annual snowfall frequency (measured as the annual number of snowfall days NSD) from a network of 33 stations ranging from 60 to 1350 m. In the present work we analyze the skill of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to reproduce this trend for the period 1961-2000 (using both reanalysis- and historical GCM-driven boundary conditions) and the trend and the associated uncertainty of the regional future projections obtained under the A1B scenario for the first half of the twenty-first century. In particular, we consider the regional simulation dataset from the EU-funded ENSEMBLES project, consisting of thirteen state-of-the-art RCMs run at 25 km resolution over Europe. While ERA40 severely underestimates both the mean NSD and its observed trend (-2.2 days/decade), the corresponding RCM simulations driven by the reanalysis appropriately capture the interannual variability and trends of the observed NSD (trends ranging from -3.4 to -0.7, -2.1 days/decade for the ensemble mean). The results driven by the GCM historical runs are quite variable, with trends ranging from -8.5 to 0.2 days/decade (-1.5 days/decade for the ensemble mean), and the greatest uncertainty by far being associated with the particular GCM used. Finally, the trends for the future 2011-2050 A1B runs are more consistent and significant, ranging in this case from -3.7 to -0.5 days/decade (-2.0 days/decade for the ensemble mean), indicating a future significant decreasing trend. These trends are mainly determined by the increasing temperatures, as indicated by the interannual correlation between temperature and NSD (-0.63 in the observations), which is preserved in both ERA40- and GCM-driven simulations.

  3. Satellite-based analysis of recent trends in the ecohydrology of a semi-arid region

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    M. Gokmen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a regional framework for an integrated and spatiotemporally distributed assessment of human-induced trends in the hydrology and the associated ecological health of a semi-arid basin where both human activities (i.e. agriculture and natural ecosystems are highly groundwater dependent. To achieve this, we analysed the recent trends (from year 2000 to 2010 in precipitation, evapotranspiration (actual and potential and vegetation greenness (i.e. NDVI using a combination of satellite and ground-based observations. The trend assessment was applied for the semi-arid Konya Basin (Turkey, one of the largest endorheic basins in the world. The results revealed a consistent increasing trend of both yearly evapotranspiration (totally 63 MCM yr−1 from croplands and mean NDVI (about 0.004 NDVI yr−1 in irrigated croplands, especially concentrating in the plain part of the basin, while no significant trends were observed for the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration variables. On the contrary, a consistent decreasing trend of both yearly evapotranspiration (totally −2.1 MCM yr−1 and mean NDVI (−0.001 NDVI yr−1 was observed in the wetlands, which also cannot be explained by trends in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. The emerging picture suggest that the greening trend of the vegetation and increasing of evapotranspiration in the plain are related to land cover changes (i.e. conversion into irrigated croplands and to the intensification of the supplementary irrigation for agriculture, which in turn caused drying out of some wetlands and the natural vegetation which mostly depend on the groundwater, the main source of irrigation water as well. Our study presented an example of the utility of spatially and temporally continuous RS data in assessing the regional trends in hydrological and ecological variables and their interactions in a spatially distributed manner in a semi-arid region, which can also be adapted to

  4. Historical trends in the epidemiology of candidaemia: analysis of an 11-year period in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil

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    Marcos Paulo Wille

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI. To evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects of two cohorts {1994-1999 [period 1 (P1 ]; 2000-2004 [period 2 (P2 ]} of candidaemic patients, we performed a retrospective analysis from a laboratory-based survey. A total of 388 candidaemias were identified, with an incidence of 0.20/1,000 patient-days and a significant increase in P2 vs. P1 (0.25 vs. 0.15, p = 0.04. Cancer and prior antibiotic use were frequent and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species found (42.4%. Resistance to fluconazole was found in 2.47% of the strains. No differences were observed in the species distribution of Candida during the study periods. In the P2 cohort, there were higher prevalence of elderly individuals, cardiac, pulmonary and liver diseases, renal failure, central venous catheters and antibiotic therapy. In P1, there were higher prevalence of neurological diseases and chemotherapy. The crude mortality was 55.4%. In conclusion, our incidence rates remained high. Furthermore, the distribution pattern of Candida species and the fluconazole resistance profile remained unchanged. Moreover, we found a clear trend of higher prevalence of candidaemia among the elderly and among patients with comorbidities. Finally, it is necessary to discuss strategies for the prevention and control of Candida BSI in Brazil.

  5. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

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    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  6. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  7. Haplotype diversity in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region in a population of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, C; Gonzalez, R S; Pereira, A C; Cardena, M M S G

    2014-07-01

    Brazilian population derives from Native Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. Southeastern Brazil is the most populous region of the country. The present study intended to characterize the maternal genetic ancestry of 290 individuals from southeastern (Brazil) population. Thus, we made the sequencing of the three hypervariable regions (HV1, HV2, and HV3) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The statistical analyses were made using Arlequin software, and the median-joining haplotype networks were generated using Network software. The analysis of three hypervariable regios showed 230 (79.3 %) unique haplotypes and the most common haplotype was "263G" carried by 12 (4.1 %) individuals. The strikingly high variability generated by intense gene flow is mirrored in a high sequence diversity (0.9966 ± 0.0010), and the probability of two random individuals showing identical mtDNA haplotypes were 0.0068. The analysis of haplogroup distribution revealed that 36.9 % (n = 107) presented Amerindian haplogroups, 35.2 % (n = 102) presented African haplogroups, 27.6 % (n = 80) presented European haplogroups, and one (0.3 %) individual presented East Asian haplogroup, evidencing that the southeastern population is extremely heterogeneous and the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with three different phylogeographic origins. The genetic diversity found in the mtDNA control region in the southeastern Brazilian population reinforces the importance of increased national database in order to be important and informative in forensic cases.

  8. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk from different regions of São Paulo state--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santili, Ana Beatriz Nappi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Nunes, Raquel de Syllos Rosa; da Gloria, Eduardo Micotti; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A total of 635 raw milk samples from 45 dairy farms, from three regions of São Paulo state - Brazil, were evaluated during 15 months for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. AFM1 was detected (>0.003 µg kg(-1)) in 72.9%, 56.3% and 27.5% of the samples from Bauru, Araçatuba and Vale do Paraíba regions, respectively. The mean AFM1 contamination considering all the samples was 0.021 µg kg(-1). Furthermore, the concentration of AFM1 was quite different among Bauru (0.038 µg kg(-1)), Araçatuba (0.017 µg kg(-1)) and Vale do Paraíba (<0.01 µg kg(-1)) regions. Only three samples (0.5%) had higher contamination than the tolerated limit in Brazil (0.50 µg kg(-1)) and 64 samples (10.1%) had a higher contamination than the maximum limit as set by the European Union (0.050 µg kg(-1)). The estimated AFM1 daily intake was 0.358 and 0.120 ng kg(-1) body weight per day for children and adults, respectively.

  9. [Tuberculosis transmission in the triple border region: Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, José Ueleres; Herrero, Maria Belén; Cuellar, Célia Martinez de

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a public health problem in South America, but numerous control strategies have proven ineffective in settings with intense transmission. This study aimed to determine whether the triple border region between Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay is an area of high tuberculosis transmission. An ecological study was conducted with incidence data and population estimates for the three countries. Mean incidence rates were calculated for 2001 to 2007. Spatial analysis techniques identified high-incidence areas in the region using maps with Bayesian smoothing of rates and spatial averages. During the target period, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, had the highest incidence, followed by Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, and Puerto Iguazú in Argentina. The analysis showed a spatial cluster of municipalities with high tuberculosis risk in the triple border region. Tuberculosis in the tri-border area shows increasing or stable incidence rates and municipalities with incidence rates above the State average. The area has high tuberculosis incidence and therefore heavy transmission of the disease.

  10. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Junior, Olival Freire; Moreira, Ildeu C; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democratic institutions put an end to the race. Thus regional and national interests in addition to the establishment of democracies in Latin America have been responsible for the building of trust between the two countries. Meaningful international initiatives are once again needed in the framework of worldwide cooperation. This cooperation is better developed when democratic regimes are in place.

  11. Identification of long-term trends in vegetation dynamics in the Guinea savannah region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmadewa, Babatunde A.; Wessollek, Christine; Karrasch, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The availability of newly generated data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) covering the last three decades has broaden our understanding of vegetation dynamics (greening) from global to regional scale through quantitative analysis of seasonal trends in vegetation time series and climatic variability especially in the Guinea savannah region of Nigeria where greening trend is inconsistent. Due to the impact of changes in global climate and sustainability of means of human livelihood, increasing interest on vegetation productivity has become important. The aim of this study is to examine association between NDVI and rainfall using remotely sensed data, since vegetation dynamics (greening) has a high degree of association with weather parameters. This study therefore analyses trends in regional vegetation dynamics in Kogi state, Nigeria using bi-monthly AVHRR GIMMS 3g (Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies) data and TAMSAT (Tropical Applications of Meteorology Satellite) monthly data both from 1983 to 2011 to identify changes in vegetation greenness over time. Analysis of changes in the seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and climatic drivers was conducted for selected locations to further understand the causes of observed interannual changes in vegetation dynamics. For this study, Mann-Kendall (MK) monotonic method was used to analyse long-term inter-annual trends of NDVI and climatic variable. The Theil-Sen median slope was used to calculate the rate of change in slopes between all pair wise combination and then assessing the median over time. Trends were also analysed using a linear model method, after seasonality had been removed from the original NDVI and rainfall data. The result of the linear model are statistically significant (p <0.01) in all the study location which can be interpreted as increase in vegetation trend over time (greening). Also the result of the NDVI trend analysis using Mann-Kendall test shows an increasing

  12. Precipitation variability, extremes and uncertainties over southeastern Brazil projected by the Eta regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema; Silveira, Virginia; Chan, Chou; Marengo, Jose Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Southeastern Brazil is an area affected by extreme precipitation, mainly in the austral summer, associated with frontal systems or the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Flooding and landslides have occurred in the region with serious impact on society and economy. The region has many vulnerable areas, therefore, projections of precipitation and extremes in the future for the region are important to provide information that can be used in adaptations and management decisions. Results of regional models in South America have been analyzed to assess the future climate changes with higher resolution than global models. In this study the Regional Eta model is used with resolution of 40 and 20 Km to analyze the projections of precipitation changes and extremes over Brazil and mainly over the southeastern region. Simulations and projections obtained from four integrations of the Regional Eta model are analyzed to investigate the model behavior during the period of 1961-1990 and the projections in the near (2011 to 2040) and more distant future (2041 to 2100). Results from four integrations with resolution of 40 km with different lateral boundary conditions from the HadCM3 Global Model and one integration with resolution of 20 km are used to give a confidence interval and the related uncertainty. The first analysis was to verify changes in the main mode of precipitation variability in the future projections, compared to the base period. There is a change in the main centers of extremes variability over South America, which was comparable to changes projected in CMIP5 models. The second analysis was related to changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. Specific locations in southeastern Brazil were analyzed regarding indices of extremes, such as SDII (mean precipitation of rainy days), SDII_10 (mean precipitation of rainy days >=10 mm/day), R10mm (number of days with precipitation >= 10 mm/day), CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days), CWD (maximum number

  13. Regional validity of the parameters of a distributed runoff-erosion model in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRINIVASAN Vajapeyam Srirangachar; PAIVA Fernanda Maria de Lima

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the validity of the application of a distributed rainfall-runoff-erosion model on a regional basis in a semi-arid region of Brazil.The model tested is known as WESP (Water Erosion Simulation Program) developed by Lopes (1987).The model simulates the hydrograph and the sedi-ment graph for individual events and thus, the model when properly calibrated can serve as a predic-tive tool for runoff and soil erosion on an individual or a continuous basis.The possibility of the exis-tence of regionally applicable values for the parameters of the model WESP would be very interesting from the point of view of predictability of runoff and soil erosion from ungauged basins in the region.For this purpose, data collected in several experimental units in the experimental basin of Sume as well as in the experimental basin of Sao Joao de Cariri have been used.The model was calibrated and validated in each of the experimental units (consisting of erosion plots and micro-basins) and the av-erage value from all of the units for each of the parameters was considered to be the regional value.With these average values, all the events in all the experimental units were simulated.The results show that the runoff and erosion values simulated with this single parameter set were very good in all the units, being well within the acceptable deviations.

  14. Regional validity of the parameters of a distributed runoff-erosion model in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRINIVASAN; Vajapeyam; Srirangachar; PAIVA; Fernanda; Maria; de; Lima

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the validity of the application of a distributed rainfall-runoff-erosion model on a regional basis in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The model tested is known as WESP (Water Erosion Simulation Program) developed by Lopes (1987). The model simulates the hydrograph and the sediment graph for individual events and thus, the model when properly calibrated can serve as a predictive tool for runoff and soil erosion on an individual or a continuous basis. The possibility of the existence of regionally applicable values for the parameters of the model WESP would be very interesting from the point of view of predictability of runoff and soil erosion from ungauged basins in the region. For this purpose, data collected in several experimental units in the experimental basin of Sumé as well as in the experimental basin of So Joo de Cariri have been used. The model was calibrated and validated in each of the experimental units (consisting of erosion plots and micro-basins) and the average value from all of the units for each of the parameters was considered to be the regional value. With these average values, all the events in all the experimental units were simulated. The results show that the runoff and erosion values simulated with this single parameter set were very good in all the units, being well within the acceptable deviations.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES AND TRENDS IN TWO REGIONS OF NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEINEDDINE N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify extreme precipitation, we use the “Standardized Precipitation Index” (SPI method designed to determine periods of climatic drought. This research attempts to assess the synchronization of cycles of precipitation and trends in two regions of the Mediterranean basin, the Soummam Valley (north - east of Algeria and the Cap Bon which forming a peninsula in north-east Tunisia. The results show a severe climate drought observed in these regions from the late eighties and a rainfall return observed at end of the series ( but more confirmed in the Cap Bon region.

  16. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  17. Radioactive pegmatites of the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Preliminary investigation on radiominerals and radioactive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DINOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Serra da Borborema, in Northeast Brazil, along the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, is known for comprising thousands of pegmatitic bodies and it is called Borborema Pegmatite Province. The pegmatites are exploited for gems and non-metallic ores and also for metallic by-products. Many of these bodies are mined for radiominerals and radioactive minerals in so-called garimpos, illegal mines, with dangerous and insalubrious working conditions. In order to locate the sources of commercial batches of columbite-tantalite (coltan) ores, exported between 2000 and 2004, were made radiometric surveys in these mines in the region of the city of Parelhas and radioactive samples collected from the batches were analyzed for uranium, thorium, niobium, and tantalum. The gamma radiation was measured in the pegmatites, also from their enclosing rocks and from the surrounding soil. The results indicate that uraninite has been mixed with coltan ores, but these minerals themselves show considerable contents of uranium and thorium. Chemical analyses indicate four distinct trends for uranium, possibly correlated with previously and already observed four structural features which control the pegmatites, and also evidencing four magmatic-metasomatic events of their emplacement. Regarding the working conditions in the mines, the sparsely presence of uranium minerals does not necessarily represent a hazard for the workers. Laboring risks are much higher than any kind of radioactive risk. (author)

  18. Airborne Geophysical Surveys in the North-Central Region of Goias (Brazil): Implications for Radiometric Characterization of Subtropical Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, S N P; Justo, J S

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present progress obtained in analysis airborne geophysical survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil). The results obtained indicate that most of the subtropical soil types are characterized by Uranium contents of greater than one parts per million (ppm). Only ultisol and oxisol soils are found to have Uranium contents lower than one ppm. Thorium and Potassium abundances also display trends similar to those of Uranium. The K/U ratios fall in the expected range of values for common soils while the Th/U ratios are higher than normal. This latter observation may indicate a characteristic feature of subtropical soils. Alternatively it may be considered as indicative of disequilibrium conditions in radioactive series and consequent underestimation of Uranium in soil layers of the study area. In this context we point out the possibility of using results of radiometric surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in subtropical env...

  19. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  20. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in chagasic and nonchagasic patients from the same geographical region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among chagasic and non-chagasic subjects as well as among the subgroups of chagasic patients with the indeterminate, cardiac, digestive, and cardiodigestive clinical forms. METHODS: The evaluated subjects were from the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chagasic patients showed positive reactions to the conventional serological tests used and were classified according to the clinical form of their disease. Immunoglobulin G antibodies specific to H. pylori were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS: The overall H. pylori prevalence was 77.1% (239/310 in chagasic and 69.1% (168/243 in non-chagasic patients. This difference was statistically significant even after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.42; p = 0.04 in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of infection increased with age in the non-chagasic group (p = 0.007, χ2 for trend, but not in the chagasic group (p = 0.15, χ2 for trend. H. pylori infection was not associated with digestive or other clinical forms of Chagas disease (p = 0.27. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that chagasic patients have a higher prevalence of H. pylori compared to non-chagasic subjects; a similar prevalence was found among the diverse clinical forms of the disease. The factors contributing to the frequent co-infection with H. pylori and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its effects on the clinical outcome deserve further study.

  1. Study of the shallow convection over the Belem region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi Marinho Pires, Luciana; Suselj, Kay; Rossato, Luciana; Teixeira, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The largest forest of the world, the Amazon, presents an interesting and very complex system mixing forests, various topographies, sites of deforestation, cities, and regions close and far from the coast, which influence the climatology of the region. This study was focused in the region of Belem which is considered the rainiest region in the eastern Amazon with precipitation around 2000 mm/year. Belem is the capital of Para state, which is located in northern Brazil, 2,146 kilometers from Brasilia with an area of about 1,059,458 km² and a population of 1,432,844 inhabitants with 26% of the area of the Brazilian Amazon and having 49% of its natural attractions, according to the Organization of American States. Shallow convection and deep convection are among the main components of the local energy balance. An analysis of the performance of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory /NASA model of shallow convection parameterization in a framework of the single column model (SCM) in relation to the cluster of cumulus clouds formed in the coastal region of the Amazon forest due to squall lines is provided. To achieve this purpose infrared images from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), visible images from the GOES-12/METEOSAT satellites, and data obtained by the "Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)" - CHUVA - campaign, during the month of June of 2011, were used. Results demonstrated that the parameterizations performed well in the case where only a core of clouds was observed.

  2. Building an Entrepreneurial University in Brazil: The Role and Potential of University-Industry Linkages in Promoting Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marcelo; Ferreira, Andre; Teodoro, Pitias

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a broader research project, conducted by the Triple Helix Research Group--Brazil, focusing on university-industry-government linkages in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The case study reported here is that of the Regional University of Volta Redonda: the aim was to develop an understanding of how a regional university can be…

  3. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978–2004: a joinpoint regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrinelli Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness. Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Methods Mortality data for the periods 1978–1993 and 1994–2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. Results For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Conclusion Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers

  4. Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

    Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

  5. Improvement of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Trends Derived from all Altimetry Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary

    2012-07-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993 using data from satellite altimetry missions. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 is increasing with a global trend of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL Aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from +/- 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend uncertainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in Sea Level Essential Climate Variable Project in the frame of the Climate Change Initiative, an ESA Programme, in addition to activities performed within the SALP/CNES, strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections allowing us to link regional time series together better. These improvements are described at global and regional scale for all the altimetry missions.

  6. Estudo temporal das doenças associadas à AIDS no Brasil, 1980-1999 Temporal trends in AIDS-associated opportunistic infections in Brazil, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estimadas as incidências de condições associadas (CA à AIDS/100 casos de AIDS em adultos (> 12 anos, a nível nacional, de 1980 a maio de 1999. A análise incluiu qui-quadrado e regressão linear simples. As CA analisadas foram candidíase (CD, tuberculose (TB, pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii (PCP, neurotoxoplasmose(NT, Herpes, Sarcoma de Kaposi (SK, meningite criptocócica (MC e infecções por protozoários (IP. As incidências acumuladas/100 casos de AIDS foram: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, Herpes = 12, SK = 5, MC = 4 e IP = 4. A tendência anual indicou queda estatisticamente significativa em todas as CA. Entretando, houve aumento na incidência de TB (b = 0,39 e NT (b = 0,20, para as regiões Nordeste e Centro-Oeste, respectivamente. TB apresentou maior incidência entre aqueles com baixa escolaridade (Trends in annual incidence of reported AIDS-associated opportunistic infections (OI/100 adults > 12 years old among AIDS cases were estimated at the national level in Brazil from 1980 through May 1999. The analysis included chi-square and linear regression modeling. The opportunistic infections included: candidiasis (CD, tuberculosis (TB, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP, neurotoxoplasmosis (NT, Kaposi sarcoma (KS, cryptococcal meningitis (CM, and protozoa infections (PI. The overall cumulative incidence rates/100 reported AIDS cases were: CD = 59, TB = 26, PCP = 23, NT = 15, KS = 5, CM = 4, and PI = 4. Annual trends indicated a statistically significant decline in all OIs. However, in the Northeast and Central-West regions there were increases in TB (b = 0.39 and NT (b = 0.20, respectively. TB showed a higher incidence among individuals with less schooling (< 8 years, while PCP and KS had higher incidence rates among those with 8 or more years of schooling, despite similar downward trends. Access to antiretroviral therapy and OI prophylaxis may partially explain these results. However, data reliability

  7. Genetic divergence of sugarcane varieties collected in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, L E V; Bruzi, A T; Nunes, J A R; Andrade, L A de B; Lopes, M F; Sales, L R; Mourão, M M

    2015-10-30

    Genetic diversity among local accessions and varieties subsidize plant breeding programs, allowing the utilization of existing variability in plants that have already adapted to local climate conditions. An alternative to studying genetic variability is the study of diversity. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among sugarcane accessions and varieties used for the production of craft-distilled cachaça (distilled sugarcane alcohol) in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using a one-way design, an experiment was conducted in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais to evaluate 35 regional accessions derived from germplasm collection expeditions and four varieties. Using morphological descriptions of 46 multicategorical sugarcane characteristics, dissimilarity and Tocher cluster method analyses were performed. Based on the results, it was concluded that genetic diversity exists among the accessions evaluated for the target traits.

  8. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  9. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional economy of activation processes of activity of global trade networks; examples of cooperation in geo-space direction are given; the role of regional marketing technologies is determined in provision of complex long-term cross-border effect of cooperation of Chernivtsi and Suceava as regional centres of Bukovyna.

  10. Foreign trade infrastructure of a frontier region: structure, role and development trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Filippovich Saliychuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the main factors influencing the efficiency of foreign trade in the region. One of the main factors is described in a more detailed way - the infrastructure of the region's foreign trade. The definition of foreign trade infrastructure is given, it's structure (institutional, material and normative subsystem is determined. The main purpose of foreign trade and infrastructure problems are indicated, the solution of which contributes to the presence of the optimal balance of foreign trade infrastructure in the region. The main factors influencing the development of infrastructure in today's conditions are: transfer of customs registration and formalisation into border regions as well as establishment of the Customs Union within the EurAsEC. Practical issues of foreign trade infrastructure are considered on the example of Kurgan region. The author identifies some trends in the development of infrastructure and describes priority areas for infrastructure development of foreign trade.

  11. Brazil and regional integration in South America: lessons from the EU's crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lazarou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the idea of the EU as a 'model' of regional integration, linking it to the literature on Europe as a normative power. The second part discusses the influence of the EU model on regional cooperation and integration in South America. In particular, it focuses on the discursive use of the model in Brazilian foreign policy during the two tenures of President Luis Inacio Lula da Silva as a dominant rhetoric for the promotion of regional integration, especially in the case of the Mercado Común del Sur(Common Market of the South, MERCOSUR and the Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (Union of South American Nations, UNASUR. The last part looks at the impact of the financial crisis on the 'deconstruction' of this ideal model of European integration and attempts to discern how this will influence the future discourse on regional cooperation integration in South America, and primarily in Brazil. To illustrate the shift that has occurred in Brazilian views of regionalism, this part also discusses the Brazilian support of a new form of regional integration, as embodied in the creation of CELAC, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.

  12. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  13. Acute leukemias in Piauí: comparison with features observed in other regions of Brazil

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    Rego M.F.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in age and sex distribution as well as FAB (French-American-British classification types have been reported for acute leukemias in several countries. We studied the demographics and response to treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL between 1989 and 2000 in Teresina, Piauí, and compared these results with reports from Brazil and other countries. Complete data concerning 345 patients (230 ALL, 115 AML were reviewed. AML occurred predominantly in adults (77%, with a median age of 34 years, similar to that found in the southeast of Brazil but lower than the median age in the United States and Europe (52 years. FAB distribution was similar in children and adults and FAB-M2 was the most common type, as also found in Japan. The high frequency of FAB-M3 described in most Brazilian studies and for Hispanics in the United States was not observed. Overall survival for adults was 40%, similar to other studies in Brazil. A high mortality rate was observed during induction. No clinical or hematological parameter influenced survival in the Cox model. ALL presented the characteristic peak of incidence between 2-8 years. Most of the cases were CD10+ pre-B ALL. In 25%, abnormal expression of myeloid antigens was observed. Only 10% of the patients were older than 30 years. Overall survival was better for children. Age and leukocyte count were independent prognostic factors. These data demonstrate that, although there are regional peculiarities, the application of standardized treatments and good supportive care make it possible to achieve results observed in other countries for the same chemotherapy protocols.

  14. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

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    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  15. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  16. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

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    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  17. Regional assessment of trends in vegetation change dynamics using principal component analysis

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    Osunmadewa, B. A.; Csaplovics, E.; R. A., Majdaldin; Adeofun, C. O.; Aralova, D.

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation forms the basis for the existence of animal and human. Due to changes in climate and human perturbation, most of the natural vegetation of the world has undergone some form of transformation both in composition and structure. Increased anthropogenic activities over the last decades had pose serious threat on the natural vegetation in Nigeria, many vegetated areas are either transformed to other land use such as deforestation for agricultural purpose or completely lost due to indiscriminate removal of trees for charcoal, fuelwood and timber production. This study therefore aims at examining the rate of change in vegetation cover, the degree of change and the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data spanning from 1983-2011. The method used for the analysis is the T-mode orientation approach also known as standardized PCA, while trends are examined using ordinary least square, median trend (Theil-Sen) and monotonic trend. The result of the trend analysis shows both positive and negative trend in vegetation change dynamics over the 29 years period examined. Five components were used for the Principal Component Analysis. The results of the first component explains about 98 % of the total variance of the vegetation (NDVI) while components 2-5 have lower variance percentage (Vegetation Index. The result of the land use data shows changes in land use pattern which can be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as cutting of trees for charcoal production, fuelwood and agricultural practices. The result of this study shows the ability of remote sensing data for monitoring vegetation change in the dry-sub humid region of Nigeria.

  18. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

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    Priscila Pereira-Coltri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  19. Assessing regional differences in contraceptive discontinuation, failure and switching in Brazil

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    Gupta Neeru

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive prevalence is relatively high in Brazil (55% among women of reproductive age. However, reversible methods account for less than half of the method mix and widespread differences persist across regions and social groups. This draws attention to the need for monitoring family planning service-related outcomes that might be linked with quality of care. The present study examines the factors associated with method discontinuation, failure and switching among current contraceptive users, with a focus on sub-national assessment. Methods Data for the analysis are drawn from the Brazil Demographic and Health Survey, notably the calendar module of reproductive events. Multilevel discrete-time competing risks hazard models are used to estimate the random- and fixed-effects on the probability of a woman making a specific transition after a given duration of contraceptive use. Results Contraceptive continuation was found to be highest for the contraceptive pill, the most popular reversible method. Probabilities of abandonment while in need of family planning and of switching to another method were highest for injections. Failure, abandonment and switching were each higher among users in the Northeast region compared to the more prosperous Southeast and South. Conclusion Findings point to seemingly important disparities in the availability and quality of family planning and reproductive health care services across regions of the country. Expanding access to a range of contraceptive methods, improving knowledge among health agents of contraceptive technologies and increasing medical supervision of contraceptive practice may be considered key to expanding quality reproductive health care services for all.

  20. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

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    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  1. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Matos, Guacira Corrêa de; Rozenfeld, Suely; Martins, Monica

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%), diseases of the digestive system (17.5%) and circulatory system (16%). Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services), length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37), adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

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    Ricardo Ishak

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

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    Ishak Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  4. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

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    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  5. Use of passive samplers to detect organochlorine pesticides in air and water at wetland mountain region sites (S-SE Brazil).

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    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Khairy, Mohammed; Targino, Admir Créso; Galvão, Petrus Magnus Amaral; Torres, Joåo Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were deployed in upland surface waters and the overlying atmosphere during May and June 2012, to determine the transport and trends of freely dissolved and gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along altitudinal gradients in mountain regions in south and southeast Brazil. Gaseous OCP concentrations were dominated by hexachlorobenzene (3.0-29 pg m(-3)) and endosulfans (Ʃ = α-endosulfan + β-endosulfan + endosulfan sulphate, 170-260 pg m(-3)), whereas freely dissolved endosulfans were significantly higher than all other OCPs (p pesticides at the highest elevation sites indicated their efficient high-altitude transport from regional sources. Air-water exchange gradients indicated net deposition of most volatile and recently banned OCPs (e.g., HCB, endosulfan) over Brazilian mountains. Moreover, the exposure of these sites to large-scale continental airflows with varying source contributions may partly explain the atmospheric deposition of selected OCPs over upland freshwaters at tropical and subtropical mountains sites in Brazil. These findings, coupled with LDPE passive air and water sampling measurements, point out the potential inputs from distant sources of semi-volatile chemicals to the two high-altitude sites.

  6. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  7. Neospora spp. antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Anderson Barbosa de Moura

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine occurrences ofNeospora spp. IgG antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and identify risk factors for infection. Analyses were performed on 615 samples using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:50. Out of the 615 samples, 25 (4.1% were positive for Neospora spp. The titers for Neospora spp. were distributed as follows: 1:50 (13, 1:100 (eight, 1:200 (three and 1:400 (one. Out of the 311 samples taken in the mountain region, eight were positive (2.6%. Among the samples from the coastal region (304, 17 had Neospora spp. antibodies, thus indicating occurrence of 5.6%. Although no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.06704, the prevalence among animals of the coast was 2.2 times higher than that of the mountain region. Contact with dogs and/or cattle (P = 0.007596 were identified as risk factor forNeospora spp. infection.

  8. Neospora spp. antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; da Silva, Márcio Orides; Farias, Juliana Antunes; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Fonteque, Joandes Henrique; Bunn, Silvério

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine occurrences of Neospora spp. IgG antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and identify risk factors for infection. Analyses were performed on 615 samples using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:50). Out of the 615 samples, 25 (4.1%) were positive for Neospora spp. The titers for Neospora spp. were distributed as follows: 1:50 (13), 1:100 (eight), 1:200 (three) and 1:400 (one). Out of the 311 samples taken in the mountain region, eight were positive (2.6%). Among the samples from the coastal region (304), 17 had Neospora spp. antibodies, thus indicating occurrence of 5.6%. Although no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.06704), the prevalence among animals of the coast was 2.2 times higher than that of the mountain region. Contact with dogs and/or cattle (P = 0.007596) were identified as risk factor for Neospora spp. infection.

  9. Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005-trends at regional, biome and local scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N; Wilske, B; John, R; Chen, J [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ni, J, E-mail: nan.lu@utoledo.ed, E-mail: burkhard.wilske@utoledo.ed, E-mail: jni@ibcas.ac.c, E-mail: ranjeet.john@utoledo.ed, E-mail: jiquan.chen@utoledo.ed [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A43, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    This study investigated the climate change in Inner Mongolia based on 51 meteorological stations from 1955 to 2005. The climate data was analyzed at the regional, biome (i.e. forest, grassland and desert) and station scales, with the biome scale as our primary focus. The climate records showed trends of warmer and drier conditions in the region. The annual daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature increased whereas the diurnal temperature range (DTR) decreased. The decreasing trend of annual precipitation was not significant. However, the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) increased significantly. On the decadal scale, the warming and drying trends were more significant in the last 30 years than the preceding 20 years. The climate change varied among biomes, with more pronounced changes in the grassland and the desert biomes than in the forest biome. DTR and VPD showed the clearest inter-biome gradient from the lowest rate of change in the forest biome to the highest rate of change in the desert biome. The rates of change also showed large variations among the individual stations. Our findings correspond with the IPCC predictions that the future climate will vary significantly by location and through time, suggesting that adaptation strategies also need to be spatially viable.

  10. Variation trends of meteorological variables and their impacts on potential evaporation in Hailar region

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    Jin-liang REN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation, which is an important factor in the water balance at the basin scale, is a critical variable in the determination of local available water resources. Since the potential evaporation is mainly influenced by meteorological variables, it is necessary to investigate the extent to which different meteorological variables affect the potential evaporation. The aim of this study was to explore the variation trends of different meteorological variables, and their impacts on the potential evaporation. This study selected the Hailar Meteorological Station of the Hailar region, which is situated in a cold, semi-arid, and sub-humid region, as a case study site. Based on observed daily meteorological data from 1951 to 2009, the potential evaporation was calculated with the Penman formula, and the variations of meteorological variables were investigated with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The correlation between the potential evaporation and each meteorological variable at annual and seasonal scales was also analyzed. The results show that the annual and seasonal potential evaporation and air temperature present increasing trends, whereas the wind speed, sunshine duration, and relative humidity present decreasing trends. Among the meteorological variables, the air temperature and relative humidity are the key factors that affect potential evaporation at different time scales, and the impacts of other meteorological variables on the potential evaporation are not significant and vary with time scales.

  11. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

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    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  12. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

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    B. Mijling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°. The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007–2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007–2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  13. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  14. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  15. Genetic diversity in populations of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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    Oliveira, D A; Melo Júnior, A F; Brandão, M M; Rodrigues, L A; Menezes, E V; Ferreira, P R B

    2012-03-08

    Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm of economic importance, widely distributed in natural forests from Mexico to Uruguay. We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of macaúba (A. aculeata) in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Young leaves from 10 macaúba individuals encompassing 49 genotypes of macaúba were collected from Montes Claros, Itacambira, Brasília de Minas, Mirabela, and Grão Mogol. After extraction and amplification of samples, the amplified fragments were separated by electrophoresis. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the populations. Genetic diversity indices were high, except in the Itacambira and Mirabela populations. Results show that Mirabela and Itacambira populations can require conservation strategies because they present lower values of genetic diversity.

  16. [Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole.

  17. Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n = 20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese.

  18. Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Agra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective a survey of the species of plants and their uses as medicinal, which are utilized for therapeutic purposes in Northeast region of Brazil. The area of study is recognized by a rich diversity of species of plants and habitats that ranges from Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, coastal dunes systems and mangroves, to dry forests and savannas. As results, a total of 650 species belonging to 407 genera and 111 families were recorded and also their ethnomedicinal information. The floristic diversity is dominated by higher plants and only five species belonging to the families Aspleniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Equisetaceae, Polypodiaceae and Selaginellaceae were reported belonging to the Ferns group, which correspond to less than 1 % of the total of the registered species. This study aims at emphasizing the greatest importance of investigation of those species that have not been subject of pharmacological study, although their popular uses have already been reported.

  19. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Filho Alberto Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25degreesC, 30degreesC, and 37degreesC for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  20. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (pAmazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified.

  1. Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Kokkalis, Alexandros; Bardarson, H.;

    2016-01-01

    representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social...... across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we...... evaluated the development of climate change related marine science by quantifying trends in number of publications, disciplinarity, and scientific focus of 1362 research articles published between 1990 and 2011. Our analysis showed a faster increase in publications within climate change related marine...

  2. Global competencies of regional stem cell research: bibliometrics for investigating and forecasting research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watatani, Kenji; Xie, Zhongquan; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sengoku, Shintaro

    2013-09-01

    We employed a bibliometric approach to examine regional stem cell research in the USA, the UK, Japan and China based on publications from 2007 to 2011 with a co-citation clustering analysis to identify region-specific clusters of global competencies. We observed that there are clear differences in the number and interdisciplinary spread of competencies across regions: the USA retains the largest capacity and capability for pursuing medical and pharmaceutical applications; China has shown substantial growth through fusion approaches with chemistry and material sciences; Japan has been pursuing basic biology and is currently seeking further growth; and the UK has shown considerable growth and quality with a focus on medical research and the widest interdisciplinary spread. Furthermore, we discuss policy implications from these results in terms of industrial and clinical applications. These findings provide a rational way of evaluating research policies and forecasting research trends.

  3. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-term precipitation series (since 1928) of 1-min precipitation from the Fabra Observatory, as well as a shorter (1996-2011) but more extensive precipitation series (43 rain gauges) of 5-min precipitation. Both series have been used to characterise the degree of convective contribution to rainfall, introducing the β parameter as the ratio between convective precipitation versus total precipitation in any period. Information about flood events was obtained from the INUNGAMA database (a flood database created by the GAMA team), with the aim of finding any potential links to convective precipitation. These flood data were gathered using information on damage where flood is treated as a multifactorial risk, and where any trend or anomaly might have been caused by one or more factors affecting hazard, vulnerability or exposure. Trend analysis has shown an increase in flash flood events. The fact that no trends were detected in terms of extreme values of precipitation on a daily scale, nor on the associated ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) extreme index, could point to an increase in vulnerability, an increase in exposure, or changes in land use. However, the summer increase in convective precipitation was concentrated in less torrential events, which could partially explain this positive trend in flash flood events. The β parameter has been also used to characterise the type of flood event according to the features of the precipitation. The highest values

  4. Massive post-fire flowering events in a tropical mountain region of Brazil: high episodic supply of floral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Vellozia sincorana L.B.Sm. & Ayensu is key to biodiversity conservation in the tropical mountain region of Brazil. The massive post-fire flowering of this endemic species provides a large, episodic supply of floral resources, mostly nectar, to animals.

  5. Aggregation studied by laser diffraction in relation to plowing and liming in the Cerrado region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, R.; Buurman, P.; Griethuysen, van C.; Ayarza, M.; Vilela, L.; Zech, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the Cerrado savanna region in Brazil, the effects of different land use on axisol aggregation were studied using laser diffraction grain size analyses. The topsoil of plowed systems had significantly lower amount of macroaggregates (2000-194 μm) and a significantly higher amount of soil in the mi

  6. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  7. Karyotype Patterns of Hypsolebias antenori (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: An Endangered Killifish of the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Silva do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual fish which belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes constitute an excellent model for evolutionary studies. their short life cycle, distribution in ecologically dynamic environments, and low agility make them favorable for genetic analyses. The species Hypsolebias antenori (Rivulidae, encountered in seasonal pools located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, has been the object of surveys with a view to study its ecological and behavioral aspects. This study reports on the karyotype patterns of this species, which represents the first contribution to the cytogenetics of this genus. The karyotype of this species is composed of 2n = 48 chromosomes (6m + 4sm + 36st; NF = 96; the heterochromatic regions are located in centromeric or pericentromeric position and are more pronounced in the nucleolar organizer regions. Two sites Ag-NORs/CMA+/DAPI were identified in the short arms of pairs 2 (metacentric and 21 (subtelocentric. Unlike the other species of this family which show an evolution modulated by events of centric fusions, H. antenori shows the maintenance of a basal diploid number and the large number of bibrachial elements indicates karyotypic diversification derived by pericentric inversions. Cytogenetic analyzes in this species will provide new taxonomic markers capable of being utilized in conservation issues and systematics.

  8. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  9. [Factors associated with overweight in students from tri-border region: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Elto; Legnani, Rosimeide Francisco Santos; Filho, Valter Cordeiro Barbosa; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Muhamed; de Campos, Wagner; da Silva, Sergio Gregório; Lopes, Adair da Silva

    2010-12-01

    The Tri-Border Region has several social and health problems among young people, however, there are no data about the overweight between adolescents. This study investigated the prevalence of overweight and associated factors in students from Tri-Border Region: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Study participants were 1.183 students, ages from 15 to 18 years. The overweight was identified according to body mass index cut-off points proposed by the World Health Organization. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire was used to identify sociodemographic (gender and age) and behavioral factors (physical activity outside of school, commuting to school, time watching TV and fruits, vegetables, sweet, and salty snack consumption) associated with overweight in adolescents. It was used the descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, chi-square and binary logistic regression, adopting p < 0.05. Thirteen percent of students were overweight. Boys were approximately two times more likely to have overweight than girls, independently of nationality. Brazilian students that realized passive commuting to school and Argentineans students with low consumption of vegetables (< 1 time/day) were 2.2 and 2.9 times more likely to have overweight than their counterparts who performed active commuting to school and consumed vegetables daily, respectively. These results suggest that public policies to combat overweight should attention on promoting healthy lifestyle among young people from Tri-Border Region.

  10. Regional overview of maternal and child malnutrition: trends, interventions and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djazayery, A

    2004-11-01

    The proportions of underweight, wasted, and stunted children, as well as the infant and under-5 mortality rates, have all exhibited downward trends in the Region over the past 2 decades. This is in part attributable to maternal and child nutrition intervention programmes, especially those in which women were actively involved. Programmes which support and promote breastfeeding, such as the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, have also contributed to this trend, although the number of baby friendly hospitals varies considerably between countries. Available information also shows that anemia is quite common among women, many of whom also have a low weight and stature and seem to suffer from osteoporosis. In several countries of the Region a number of micronutrient deficiency control programmes are in progress, such as iron supplementation for pregnant women, fortification of flour and iodization of salt. Iodine deficiency disorders are under control in 2 countries of the Region and legislation for salt iodization is in place in 17 countries. Prevalence of severe malnutrition in children is much lower than that of milder levels, thus, promotion of the nutrition status of mildly to moderately malnourished children could lead to a sizeable reduction in child mortality.

  11. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  12. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  13. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.

  14. [Significance of trends in infant mortality rates in the municipality of São Paulo, SP (Brazil) in the last 30 years (1950-1979)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C A

    1982-02-01

    The possible correlations between infant mortality statistics and those statistics related to the real value of the legal minimum salary and those on the extent of the public water supply system for the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil over the last 3 decades were studied with a view to determining the relationship between the historical trends in infant mortality rates and in the quality of life. The abovementioned factors, salary and water supply, are taken as factors of lesser and greater relevance for the overall picture of the living conditions among this population. The mortality decline in the 1950s and the increase in the 1960s were found significantly related to the trends in the real value of the legal minimum salary. However, the trend in mortality in the 1970s, with a notable fall from 1974, was found to be specifically related to the trends in water supply extension. One might conclude that during the 1950-79 period the implications relating to the quality of life to be drawn from infant mortality trends are diverse. It would seem erroneous to affirm that the reversal in high mortality from 1974 might signify an identical reversal of the deterioration of living conditions which led to the increase of mortality in the preceding period. (author's modified)

  15. Sources of atmospheric acidity in an agricultural-industrial region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, G. O.; Franco, A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Surface-based measurements of atmospheric formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and nitric acid (HNO3) were made in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between April 1999 and March 2000. Mean concentrations were 9.0 ppb (HCOOH), 1.3 ppb (CH3COOH), 4.9 ppb (SO2), 0.3 ppb (HCl), and 0.5 ppb (HNO3). Concentrations in sugar cane burning plumes were 1160-4230 ppb (HCOOH), 360-1750 ppb (CH3COOH), 10-630 ppb (SO2), 4-210 ppb (HCl), and 14-90 ppb (HNO3). Higher ambient concentrations of SO2, HCl and HNO3 were measured during the burning season (May-November). Concentrations of SO2 and HCl increased during the evening, and of HCOOH and CH3COOH were lowest in the morning, with peak levels in the afternoon. Ratios obtained between different species showed either nighttime maxima (SO2/HCOOH, SO2/CH3COOH, SO2/HNO3, CH3COOH/HNO3, SO2/HCl and HCOOH/HNO3), daytime maxima (HCOOH/HCl, CH3COOH/HCl and HNO3/HCl), or no clear trends (HCOOH/CH3COOH). Correlation analysis showed that SO2 and HCl were primary emissions from biomass burning and road transport; HCOOH, HNO3 and CH3COOH were products of photochemistry; HCOOH and CH3COOH were emitted directly during combustion as well as from biogenic sources. Biomass burning affected atmospheric acidity on a regional scale, while vehicular emissions had greater impact in urban and adjacent areas. Atmospheric ammonia levels were insufficient to neutralize atmospheric acidity, which was mainly removed by deposition to the surface.

  16. Holocene environmental changes in the São Francisco de Paula region, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Bauermann, Soraia Girardi; Pereira Neves, Paulo César

    2001-11-01

    Holocene paleoenvironments have been interpreted from a radiocarbon dated pollen and charcoal record of the São Francisco de Paula region on the southern Brazilian highland. Today the region is characterized by pastureland and small patches of disturbed Araucaria forest. The region receives 2450 mm per annum. This is the highest precipitation rate in southern Brazil. Studied surface samples represent the modern pollen analog of the anthropogenic influenced vegetation. Pollen analytical studies of the 84 cm long core, collected from a small basin with clay, organic matter and peat deposits, show that pollen and spores of the lower core section (84 and 46 cm depth) have been almost destroyed. This period between ca. 7500 and 4000 14C yr BP was too dry for conservation of pollen and spores in the basin. Climate must have been markedly drier than today during early and mid Holocene times. After 4000 14C yr BP, preserved pollen grains reflect wetter conditions than before and indicate the predominance of campos (grassland) vegetation with small areas of Araucaria forest in the study region. Forest expansion is documented since 1060 14C yr BP and expansion of Araucaria angustifolia trees itself since 850 14C yr BP. During the last 1000 yr, rainfall must have been much more intensive with no or only short dry periods such as the modern climate. The results confirm the vegetational and climatic changes documented from the Araucaria forest region of Santa Catarina and Paraná State. Concentration and accumulation rates of carbonized particles are somewhat higher during the last 850 14C yr BP than before, indicating an increased fire frequency.

  17. Comparison of temporal trends from multiple soil moisture data sets and precipitation: The implication of irrigation on regional soil moisture trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianxiu; Gao, Quanzhou; Wang, Sheng; Su, Zhenrong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, soil moisture trend during 1996-2010 in China was analyzed based on three soil moisture data sets, namely microwave-based multi-satellite surface soil moisture product released from European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis, and in-situ measurements collected from the nationwide agro-meteorological network. Taking the in-situ soil moisture as reference, it is found that ESA CCI generally captured soil moisture trend more accurately than ERA-Interim/Land did. From the spatial distribution of trend analysis results, it is seen that significant decreasing trend for summer soil moisture in northwestern China and northern Inner Mongolia, as well as the significant increasing trend for autumn soil moisture in northern China were identified by both ESA CCI and ERA-Interim/Land. This is in alignment with results from gauge-based precipitation provided by Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) and satellite-based precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, disagreements in derived trends between ESA CCI, ERA-Interim/Land and IGSNRR were observed in the southwest and north of China, especially in major irrigation regions, such as the oases in northern Xinjiang and large areas in Sichuan province. Prominent difference between soil moisture and precipitation exhibited in the extensively irrigated Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The spatial coincidence between significantly wetting areas (identified by ESA CCI) and heavily irrigated areas, as well as the grid-based Student's t-test sampling from various irrigation levels revealed that the observed discrepancy was caused by massive anthropogenic interference in this region. Results indicate that, for regions with great magnitude of human interference, modules considering actual irrigation practice are crucial for successful modeling of soil moisture and capturing the long-term trend. Furthermore, results could

  18. A dipole-like SST trend in the Somalia region during the monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; deCastro, M.; Días, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    SST trends measured in the Somalia region during the southwest monsoon season over the period 1982-2013 have shown the existence of a warming-cooling dipole. The positive spot, with a warming trend on the order of 0.37°C dec-1, is centered around 5.1°N-50.3°E and the negative one, with a trend on the order of -0.43°C dec-1, around 11.1°N-52.2°E. The migration of the Great Whirl (GW) over the last three decades at a speed of -0.3°C dec-1 in longitude and -0.6°C dec-1 in latitude was considered as the possible origin of the SST dipole. The displacement of the GW produces changes in the geostrophic currents which, in turn, generate changes in the amount of advected water from and to coast.

  19. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633

  1. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

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    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  3. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

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    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  4. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

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    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  5. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Meri Bordignon Nogueira; Vanessa Stella; Juliano Bordignon; Weber Cheli Batista; Luana de Borba; Luis Hildebrando Pereira da Silva; Federico Guillermo Hoffmann; Christian Macagnan Probst; Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast ...

  6. Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of Eimeria species affecting sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil. Fecal samples of native sheep were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The degree of infection was determined by counting oocysts per gram (OPG of feces, and the morphometric method was used for species identification. Oocysts were found in all the properties assessed, in which 68.3% of the animals were infected. The prevalence of oocysts was influenced by the season and animal category (P<0.05. It was higher during the rainy season than the dry season (80.2% vs. 55.8% and highest in young animals than the adults animals (68.2% vs. 39.6%. The OPG was lower during the dry season (1,269 ± 312 vs. 4,400 ± 1,122. Ten species were found; of these, E. ovinoidalis, E. granulosa, E. faurei, and E. crandallis were the most frequent. E. ovinoidalis and E. crandallis were found in all properties, with their prevalences being 19.4% and 13.6% respectively. The high prevalence of pathogenic species shows that eimeriosis is a risk for animals raised extensively in the semiarid region.

  7. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  8. Sugar markers in aerosol particles from an agro-industrial region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Queiroz, M. E. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to better understand how aerosol particles from sugar cane burning contribute to the chemical composition of the lower troposphere in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) affected by sugar and ethanol fuel production. During a period of 21 months, we collected 105 samples and quantified 20 saccharides by GC-MS. The average concentrations of levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), and galactosan (G) for 24-h sampling were 116, 16, and 11 ng m-3 respectively. The three anhydrosugars had higher and more variable concentrations in the nighttime and during the sugar cane harvest period, due to more intense biomass burning practices. The calculated L/M ratio, which may serve as a signature for sugar cane smoke particles, was 9 ± 5. Although the total concentrations of the anhydrosugars varied greatly among samples, the relative mass size distributions of the saccharides were reasonably constant. Emissions due to biomass burning were estimated to correspond to 69% (mass) of the sugars quantified in the harvest samples, whereas biogenic emissions corresponded to 10%. In the non-harvest period, these values were 44 and 27%, respectively, indicating that biomass burning is an important source of aerosol to the regional atmosphere during the whole year.

  9. Leptospirosis in native mixed-breed sheep slaughtered in a semiarid region of Brazil

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    Diego Figueiredo da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sheep breeding is an economic activity of great value for the Brazilian livestock industry, and infectious diseases can significantly compromise its productivity. The aim of this study was to detect Leptospira spp. in mixed breed sheep from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. In total, 49 blood and renal tissue samples, as well as 25 urine samples, were collected from 49 sheep in the slaughter line. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT was used to verify the presence of anti -Leptospira spp. antibodies in blood samples. Renal tissue and urine samples were analyzed by both PCR and bacterial culture. Sero reactivity was observed in 8.2% (4/49 of animals. Three renal samples were positive for leptospiral DNA by PCR although all urine samples were negative. No leptospires in pure culture were recovered from the samples tested. Low prevalence of Leptospira spp. observed by serology and PCR suggested that the rusticity of the mixed-breed sheep may have contributed to the low occurrence of leptospirosis in the semiarid region investigated.

  10. Trends in temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    By characterizing the patterns of temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 extreme temperature indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold extremes significantly decreased but warm extremes significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum temperature (TNn) and maximum daily maximum temperature (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in temperature extremes across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.

  11. Trends of Future Heavy Snowfall and Accumulated Freezing Indexes in Japanese Snowy Cold Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Matsuzawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    To achieve sufficient, effective winter road maintenance, it is important that long-term snow and ice hazard mitigation plans be examined and formulated by taking into consideration the influence of climate change. In this study, we have developed a method of predicting more accurately the indexes of heavy snowfall events that occur over short periods of time and future projections of winter temperatures based on the relationship of observed data to the climate model predicted values. The indexes for heavy snowfall were the maximum 24-hour snowfall and the frequency of 10-cm or more snowfall within a maximum 6-hour period. Indexes for cold weather were the accumulated freezing index in winter and the number of days of freeze-thaw days. Subsequently, we have applied this methodology for Japanese snowy cold regions, in order to clarify the trends for near future and century-end future period changes. The results indicate that current measures to mitigate the effects of extremely heavy snowfall in inland areas of Hokkaido may require enhancement of operational procedures. In addition, the possibility of pavement and concrete damage in the colder regions is expected to increase due to the increment in the number of freeze-thaw days. Based upon the results of this study, we will identify the road management issues associated with climate change using the recent trends and predictions for the near future and century-end future climate periods.

  12. Trends of analgesic nephropathy in two high-endemic regions with different legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, P; de Schepper, P

    2001-03-01

    Analgesic abuse is related to a specific form of interstitial nephritis, but the exact nature of the causal agent remains controversial and this has resulted in differences in regulation. In Flanders, the free sale of phenacetin was banned, but the consumption of other combined analgesics remained free. In New South Wales, phenacetin was also banned, but 2 yr later the sales of all combined analgesics were also prohibited. This study compared the evolution of end-stage renal disease as a result of analgesic nephropathy (AN) in these two high-endemic regions with different legislation. In both regions, the time trend of the age-specific incidence of end-stage renal disease as a result of AN is similar in the age group 45 to 54 yr. In all age groups combined, the time trend of the percentage of AN among the patients admitted for renal replacement therapy is also similar. This finding does not support the hypothesis that non-phenacetin mixed analgesics play a significant role in the occurrence of AN.

  13. Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

  14. Kinematic characterization of a NNE-trending transcurrent shear zone, marked in the evolution of its syntectonic granitic magmatism in the region of Camboriu, SC

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    Amós Martini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Corre-mar Granite (GCM is located in the region of Itapema-Camboriu, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in the northeastern part of Dom Feliciano Belt. A subvertical NNE-trending shear zone controls its emplacement, and a subvertical S-C fabric is generated with sinistral shear sense. The S-planes (magmatic strike NE-SW and are marked mainly by the orientation of feldspar crystals and xenoliths, while the C-planes (shearing, strike NNE-SSW, marked by mineral stretching, tails of asymmetric recrystallization in feldspars, and inflection of the structures previously oriented along S. Low-temperature deformation zones parallel to the GCM local C-foliation, best developed near the contacts with the host rocks, do not extend more than a few meters into the country rocks. The GCM bodies have a systematic variation in thickness, where wider zones show the least developed foliations. Microstructures indicative of progressive deformation under decreasing temperature are represented by chessboard-pattern subgrains in quartz, and granoblastic K-feldspar grains. These are overprinted by lower temperature microstructures, such as fine-grained recrystallized quartz, frequently by bulging, sealing of fractures in larger K-feldspar grains by the finely recrystallized matrix, and neoformation of fine grains around the feldspar crystals. The integration of structural and petrological data indicate that the GCM was positioned when the NNE-trending shear zone was active, and its geometry indicates an opening component along the NE direction, typical of transtensional regimes. The transtensional structure is compatible with its positioning in a low-strain zone of the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt, situated between the higher strain zones represented by the Major Gercino and Itajai shear zones, both active in the post-collisional stages of Brasiliano Cycle in southern Brazil.

  15. Ameloblastoma in the Northeast region of Brazil: A review of 112 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago de Santana; Piva, Marta Rabello; Andrade, Emanuel Sávio de Souza; Vajgel, André; Vasconcelos, Ricardo José de Holanda; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ameloblastomas are benign tumors of the jaws with locally invasive capacity. Aim: The aim of this study was to review 112 cases of ameloblastoma seen over an 18-year period (1992-2009) at the Pernambuco Dental School, University of Pernambuco and at Federal University of Sergipe, in the northeast region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: The following data were selected for analysis: age, gender, race, site distribution, radiographic appearance, association with an impacted tooth, size, presence of symptoms, clinicopathologic subtypes and recurrence. Settings and Design: In this retrospective study, Pearson's χ2 test and t-test were employed. The critical level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients at presentation was 35.1 ± 16.8 years with a slight female preference. The peak prevalence was in the 11- to 20-year age group and declined with increasing age. Total 75 patients were black and 37 were white, for a 2:1 black: white ratio. The location of the ameloblastomas showed a marked predominance in the mandible (84.8%) and 69% of the cases presented with a multilocular radiographic appearance. The tumor was associated with an embedded tooth in 14 cases (12.7%): nine unilocular and five multilocular ameloblastomas. The maximum radiological extension of the lesions on panoramic radiographs was 0.5-20 cm (mean ± SD: 5.2 ± 3.3 cm) and most cases were symptom-free (75.9%). Solid/multicystic ameloblastoma was the most common clinicopathologic subtype. There was an association between the clinicopathologic subtypes and radiographic appearance (P < 0.001). Recurrence was observed in 13.3% of cases. Conclusion: We propose that racial factors may have strong influence on the incidence of ameloblastomas in the northeast region of Brazil, since most people have African descent. Data related to gender, location, radiographic appearance, size, symptoms, clinicopathologic subtypes and recurrence were similar to previous studies

  16. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

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    Érida Zoé Lustosa Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3% had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7% of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20 with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015, with no health insurance (p < 0.002 and from the countryside (p < 0.001 were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this

  17. Monthly values of the standardized precipitation index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: trends and spectral features under the normality assumption

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe monthly series of the Standardized Precipitation Index obtained from four weather stations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were carried out by evaluating the normality assumption of the SPI distributions, the spectral features of these series and, the presence of climatic trends in these datasets. It was observed that the Pearson type III distribution was better than the gamma 2-parameter distribution in providing monthly SPI series closer to the normality assumption inherent to the use of this standardized index. The spectral analyses carried out in the time-frequency domain did not allow us to establish a dominant mode in the analyzed series. In general, the Mann-Kendall and the Pettitt tests indicated the presence of no significant trend in the SPI series. However, both trend tests have indicated that the temporal variability of this index, observed at the months of October over the last 60 years, cannot be seen as the result of a purely random process. This last inference is due to the concentration of decreasing trends, with a common beginning (1983/84 in the four locations of the study.

  18. Assessing Long-Term Trend of Particulate Matter Pollution in the Pearl River Delta Region Using Satellite Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lin, Changqing; Lau, Alexis K H; Liao, Chenghao; Zhang, Yongbo; Zeng, Wutao; Li, Chengcai; Fung, Jimmy C H; Tse, Tim K T

    2015-10-06

    Serious particulate matter (PM) pollution problems in many polluted regions of China have been frequently reported in recent years. Long-term exposure to ambient PM pollution is significantly associated with adverse health effects. Characterizing the long-term trends and variation in PM pollution is a basic requirement for evaluating long-term exposure and for guiding future policies to reduce the effects of air pollution on health. However, long-term, ground-based PM measurements are only available at a few fixed stations. In this study, an algorithm is developed and validated to estimate PM concentrations based on the satellite atmospheric optical depth with 1 km spatial resolution. The long-term trends of PM10 concentrations in the entire Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and different cities are quantified and discussed. From 2001 to 2013, the PM10 pollution of the entire PRD region was dominated by a decreasing trend of -0.15 ± 0.23 μg/m(3)·yr. This decreasing PM10 trend was apparent over 75% of the PRD area, with the most significant decreases observed in the center of the region. However, the remaining 25%, mostly located in the outskirts of the region, showed an increasing PM10 trend. This overall decreasing trend indicates the effectiveness of the control measures applied in the past decade for the primary pollutants.

  19. The effects of rainfall and vegetation on litterfall production in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M C A; Araújo, V F P; Vasconcellos, A

    2015-08-01

    Litterfall has a strong influence on biodiversity and on the chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. Its production can be quite variable over time and space, and can be influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. We evaluated litterfall production and its relationship with rainfall, species richness, and the densities of the arboreal vegetation. Thirty litter traps were constructed with 1.0 m2 nylon mesh (1.0 mm) and randomly installed within a 2000 m × 500 m area of arboreal/shrub Caatinga (dryland) vegetation. Litter samples were collected monthly from November/2010 to June/2012, and the collected material was classified, dried, and weighted. Species richness and tree densities were determined by conducting phytosociological surveys in 20 m × 20 m plots surrounding each of the litter traps. The litterfall accumulation rate was 3.673 Mgha-1yr-1, similar to values from other seasonally dry tropical forests. Litterfall production was continuous, and principally accompanied the rainfall rate, but with a time interval of 2 to 3 months, with the greatest accumulation at the beginning of the dry season and the least during the rainy season. The different fractions of materials demonstrated distinct accumulation rates, with leaves being the principal category. Litterfall production was found to be related to tree density, but no link was found to species richness. The observed temporal heterogeneity of litterfall production demonstrated a strong link between rainfall and the dynamics of nutrient cycling in the semiarid region of Brazil.

  20. False-color L-band image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 46th orbit. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the image are the Solimoes and Rio Negro River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. Blue areas show low returns at VV poloarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro, a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north toward a tributary or Rio Negro. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43895.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world.

  2. Avian influenza virus (H11N9 in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen de Araujo

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR. The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres, that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.

  3. Ion input via rainwater in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Francine Neves Calil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion input via rainfall alone and after interception by the forest canopy, constitutes an important path ofbiochemical cycling, although few studies have provided information on the subject so far. The objective of this work is toquantify ion inputs, via rainfall, in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten rain gauges were mountedin a field area. The quantification of stored water volume, along with sample collection for determination of nitrate, nitrite,ammonium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents, was done fortnightly fromSeptember 2006 to August 2008. Local annual average precipitation in the relevant period was 1,588.3 mm. The concentrationof chemical elements in rainwater was found to vary throughout, being inversely correlated with the increase in rainfall, whilepotassium, ammonium, phosphate, sulfate, chloride and sodium were found to have a significant mutual correlation (p <0.01.Based on the annual amount of nutrient input via rainwater, it can be inferred that rainfall is an important source of chemicalelement input into the forest system.

  4. Transient convection over the Amazon-Bolivia region and the dynamics of drought over Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, J.; Leitedasilvadias, P.; Moura, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    A two layer, nonlinear, equatorial beta-plane model, in p-coordinates is used to study the atmospheric response to a large scale prescribed heat source varying in time. The heat source is meant to represent a convective burst with total duration of approximately 48 hours over the Amazon/Bolivia region. The boundary conditions used are meridional velocity zero at 60 deg S, omega w = 0 at the top and zero geometric velocity at the lower boundary. Sensitivity study was done which includes initial state at rest, compared with realistic initial flow. The scale of the heat source is 1500 km in latitude and longitude and it is centered at 10 deg S. Special attention is paid to the distribution and intensity of the induced vertical motion. The model is integrated for two days and the preliminary results show agreement with the observed 200 mb flow. Of interest is the establishment of a trough and descending motion to the northeast of the heat source. A conjucture is thus made that the Amazon heat source and its fluctuations bear some relationship with the drought problem over Northeast Brazil.

  5. Hepatitis B and C prevalences among blood donors in the south region of Brazil

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    H. C. F. F. Vasconcelos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection has been determined in a seroepidemiological survey among blood donors from the south of Brazil (Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina. These markers has also been correlated with the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, a surrogate marker to prevent post-transfusion hepatitis. Sera from 5000 donors were randomly collected in the period of April to November 1991. The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were respectively 0.78, 7.02 and 13.98. The anti-HCV prevalence after confirmation testing with line immunoassay (LIA, was 1.14. Normal values of ALT ( = 70 U/ml in 2.48. The positivity of anti-HCV antibodies increased with the elevation of ALT levels. This correlation was not observed in relation to HBsAg. There exists a diversity in the recognition of HCV epitopes among HCV positive donors. Via the confirmation test used, we could observe that 94.7 of donors recognize the structural core antigen. Besides that, we observed that 5.26 of the HCV reactive sera recognized only epitopes located in the NS4 and/or NS5 region, indicating the importance of these epitopes for the improvement of assays.

  6. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  7. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

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    Camila Arguelo Biberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2% K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2% were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the blaKPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  8. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009. PMID:26273265

  9. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  10. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G; Colasso, Camilla G; Monteiro, Paula P; Pedreira Filho, Walter R; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk.

  11. Brazil in regional cooperation over the fight against violence and organised crime

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    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1980s, organised crime and urban violence were not considered a major political challenge in Brazil. This belief was encouraged by a great reluctance to introduce coercive police measures that might act as reminders of the repression experienced under the dictatorial government of the 1960s and 70s. At present, however, the collective strategy for the fight against transnational crime represents a fundamental challenge. Brazil’s domestic successes and its growing influence as a global actor could be tarnished if the country does not succeed in containing the presence of drug trafficking and related crime. The costs of insecurity, furthermore, are calling into question Brazil’s ability to constitute itself as a platform for South American development. The creation of Unasur and its South American Council on the World Drug Problem reflect South America’s commitment to support a forum for dialogue on the subject, and point to the way ahead: consolidating regional multilateralism. More than four years later, effective instruments are still being sought, but the successful experience of collaboration with Bolivia is being presented as a model for future actions. Strengthening coordination in Unasur will bring the added benefit of the ability to make progress in a more mature and balanced dialogue with the United States with respect to a joint hemispheric agenda.

  12. Students’ attitudes toward and knowledge about snakes in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans in various cultures have feared snakes, provoking an aversion and persecution that hinders conservation efforts for these reptiles. Such fact suggests that conservation strategies for snakes should consider the interactions and perceptions of the local population towards these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate students' perception of snakes and if attitudes and knowledge may differ according to gender and local residence (urban or rural). Methods Data was collected in the second half of 2012 and consisted of questionnaires applied to 108 students in the Basic Education School in the municipality of Sumé, located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Results The male respondents recognized more species than female did. Part of the students affirmed to have a fear of snakes, especially women. Nearly half of respondents (49%) showed negative behaviour towards these animals, reflecting the influence of potential risk and myths associated with snakes, and supported by a limited knowledge about these animals and their ecological and utilitarian role. We find that the rural students recognized significantly more species than the urban students. Conclusions Our results point to the need for educational interventions in order to increase knowledge about the positive aspects associated with snakes, seeking to minimize the influence of myths and beliefs that contribute to a strong aversion to snakes by the locals. Conservation strategies should therefore engage students but also teachers, who are key individuals in the process. PMID:24673877

  13. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

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    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The region has a higher salary for migrants, both for men and for women, consistent with the results already seen in the literature. Men have a higher salary, and the largest wage gap by gender occurs in the migrant population. By decomposing wage gap we detected discrimination by sex, which is higher among migrants. We also found the migration effect on wages, i.e. a wage gap caused by migration even after controlling by workers endowments: among women, about 15% of the pay gap comes from the migration status (favorable to migrants, and among men a difference of approximately 38% (favorable migrants.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  15. Occurrence of ectoparasites on dogs in rural regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Junior, Livio Martins; Rembeck, Karina; Mendonça, Filipe Lucas de Melo; Azevedo, Sandro Coelho; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Ribeiro, Mucio Flavio Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined occurrences of ectoparasites and identified them on dogs in rural regions in Brazil, and assessed the influence of climate on these parasites. Ectoparasites were randomly collected from 194 dogs living on farms located in Lavras (n = 92) and Nanuque (n = 102) during the dry season. During the subsequent rainy season, the same dogs in Lavras (n = 71) and Nanuque (n = 66) were resampled. During the experiment, fleas, ticks, lice and fly larvae were collected. The flea species Ctenocephalides felis was the most common ectoparasite collected from these dogs. The main tick species that infested the dogs in rural areas of Nanuque and Lavras was Amblyomma cajennense. In Lavras, the dogs had high levels of flea infestation (80.4 and 88.7% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and low levels of tick infestation (19.6 and 28.2% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively), without any significant differences in infestation rates between the seasons. In Nanuque, moderate levels of flea infestation (68.6 and 43.9% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) and A. cajennense (65.7 and 47.0% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively) were observed, with significantly lower prevalence in the rainy season (p < 0.05). The presence of ectoparasites was evident at both times of the year, but the different temperatures may have influenced the occurrences of parasites in Lavras and Nanuque.

  16. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

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    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  17. The circulation of human astrovirus genotypes in the Central West Region of Brazil

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    Paula Andreia Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Out of 1,588 faecal samples of children taken from three locations of the Central West Region of Brazil, 57 were positive for astroviruses (HAstVs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. They were genotyped by nested RT-PCR and/or genomic sequencing. HAstV-1 (42.8%, HAstV-2 (23.2%, HAstV-3 (3.6%, HAstV-4 (14.3% and HAstVs -5, -6, -7 and -8 (1.8% each were detected. In Goiânia and Campo Grande, HAstV-1 was the most frequently detected genotype while in Brasília (DF it was HAstV-2. Shifts in the circulation of astrovirus genotypes were observed in DF and Campo Grande. All samples collected by rectal swabs were viral negative. The astrovirus genotypes were detected in all age groups and there was no correlation between genotype and age group.

  18. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  19. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard

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    FABIO H.V. HAZIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h−1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (< 50 m vertical distribution for most of the monitoring period. While presenting the first data on tiger shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima C. T.; Sousa, Oscarina V.; Carvalho, Edirsana M. R.; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H. S. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  2. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off Northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Fábio H V; Afonso, André S; De Castilho, Pedro C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Rocha, Bruno C L M

    2013-09-01

    An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  3. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. Results The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000–2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Conclusions

  4. Trends of mortality from external causes in the Umbria region of Italy: 1994-2004

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    Tiziana Cassetti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present paper is to analyse the mortality from external causes in the Umbria region, from 1994 to 2004, in order to have an indication of the effectiveness of primary prevention interventions. Sex and cause-specific AADR (the age-adjusted death rates and YPLL rates (the age-adjusted rates of years of potential life lost up to 74 yrs time trends were analysed by means of joinpoint regression utilising SEER software.

    The expected annual percent change and its significance were also calculated. The cause groups examined were: all external causes, transport accidents, falls, accidental poisoning and exposure to noxious substances, intentional self-harm and assault. The age-adjusted death rates from the selected external causes showed, in both sexes, a decreasing trend. The joinpoint regression of AADR indicated that all statistically significant variations are declining. For the AADR cause group significant decreases were found in all external combined and poisoning causes for both sexes, transport accidents and falls for females.

    Among males the age-adjusted YPLL rates showed significant decreases for all external causes combined (EACP = -2.8%. This analysis provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions performed in the last decade and indicates that further assessment and monitoring are needed.

  5. Spatial analysis of rainfall trends in the region of Valencia (east Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luís, M.; Raventós, J.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Sánchez, J. R.; Cortina, J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper examines the spatial and temporal rainfall characteristics of the region of Valencia, Western Mediterranean Basin (east Spain), during the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) normal period 1961-1990. The study used a dense and homogeneous daily precipitation database comprising 97 rain-gauge stations. Total and monthly rainfall concentrations have been studied in the context of their mean values, interannual variability and spatial diversification. Trends have been analysed using both parametric and non-parametric tests. In order to establish the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns and to detect homogeneous areas with similar rainfall evolution, a statistic based on the Cramér-von Mises test is proposed. The kriging interpolation methods for characterizing the magnitude of observed changes is used.Areas with contrasting rainfall evolution are identified. In more humid areas, a significant decrease in annual rainfall associated with significant increases in interannual rainfall variability is observed. In inland zones, decreases in total annual rainfall and increases in interannual variability are less clear, but there are indications of an increase in monthly rainfall concentration. In these inland zones, where more forest and woodland areas are located and forest fires are frequent, the observed trends could greatly affect desertification through changes in the disturbance regime. In more arid areas, local variability in rainfall evolution is higher and no significant changes can be defined.

  6. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area.

  7. Trends and risk factors for syphilis infection in Piedmont Region, Italy, 2002-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Vigna-Taglianti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: This work aims to analyze trends of syphilis infections in the Piedmont Region (Italy between 2002 and 2008, and to evaluate risk factors for infection. Methods: Syphilis trends were described according to socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, condom use, number of partners and HIV infection. Independent risk factors for syphilis among men having sex with men (MSM, men having sex with women (MSW, and women were identified through logistic regression comparing cases with 12,773 negative patients. Results: Between 2002 and 2008, 1,046 cases of syphilis were diagnosed, with peaks in 2004 and 2007. The risk of a syphilis diagnosis was independently associated with being older than 24, having a low education level, homosexual behavior, HIV self-reported infection (for MSM and MSW, number of partners (for MSW and women and non- consistent condom use (for women. Conclusions: Recent outbreaks suggest that the attention to syphilis can’t be lowered. Screening, treatment of cases and notification of partners should be reinforced and integrated with sexual health education and counselling in high-risk environments. Surveillance data must be continuously collected.

  8. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  9. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  11. Cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil, 1981-2006 Evolução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, 1981-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil for the period 1981-2006. Cervical cancer mortality was corrected on the basis of proportional redistribution of the deaths from "malignant neoplasm of uterus, part unspecified". Time trends were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. After correction, cervical cancer ranked second among the leading causes of death from cancer in the female population up to 2005, with a downward trend for the country as a whole, a decline in the State capitals, and a stable trend in the municipalities in the interior. A downward trend was confirmed in the State capitals in all geographic regions of the country. In the municipalities in the interior, there was an increase in the North and Northeast regions, a decline in the Southeast and South, and a stable trend in the Central-West. Although uneven, the decline began to take consistent shape in the country. Even better results could be achieved by investing in the expansion of screening coverage, especially among the populations at greatest risk.Este estudo objetivou descrever a evolução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, entre 1981-2006. Foi efetuada correção da mortalidade por esse câncer com base na redistribuição proporcional dos óbitos por câncer do útero, "porção não especificada". A tendência temporal foi avaliada por meio de regressão linear simples. Após correção, as taxas de mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero passaram a ocupar o segundo lugar entre os principais cânceres na população feminina até 2005, com tendência decrescente para o país como um todo, queda nas capitais e estabilidade nos municípios do interior. Confirmou-se tendência decrescente nas capitais em todas as regiões do país. Já nos municípios do interior, houve aumento nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, declínio nas regiões Sudeste e Sul e estabilidade no Centro-oeste. A queda observada, mesmo

  12. Ehrlichia canis in dogs in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil: serology, molecular detection and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, A; Labruna, M B; Costa, A; Aguiar, D M; Justiniano, S V; Mendes, R S; Melo, A L T; Alves, C J; Azevedo, S S

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated infection by Ehrlichia spp. agents by PCR, immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), and by Giemsa-stained blood smears in 108 dogs from a semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Seventy-five (69.4%) of the 108 dogs were found to be seropositive to Ehrlichia canis, while only four dogs (3.7%) were positive in real-time PCR for E. canis. In six dogs (5.6%) E. canis-like morulae were observed in monocytes. Animals that stayed in environment whose floor was dried dirt, and dogs whose owners reported low frequency of cleaning the dog environment had higher (Pcanis. Increasing seropositivity was found in older dogs (P=0.012). This study provides the first molecular detection of E. canis in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

  13. Rural-urban focus of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans.

  14. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Alves Dias de Matos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative injecting drug users (IDUs in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149; six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19, followed by genotype A (2/19. These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.

  15. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, K.R.; Shelton, James L.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R; Shelton, Jennifer L; Dubrovsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices.

  17. Characterization of Fricke dosimeter developed at Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, Recife, PE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Cunha, Manuela S.; Santos, Carla D.A.; Figueiredo, Marcela D.C.; Rodrigues, Kelia R.G.; Melo, Roberto T.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: manusc06@hotmail.co, E-mail: daysebutterfly@hotmail.co, E-mail: keliareja@hotmail.co, E-mail: rtmelo@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) is a modified Fricke dosimeter system that was tested at the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), in Recife, Brazil. The Fricke dosimeter system has been used in our laboratory successfully. We decided to test the FXG in our laboratory because this dosimetric system presents some advantages in relation to the Fricke dosimeter, such as: easy preparation, more sensitivity for doses between 5 - 30 Gy, good reproducibility, tissue equivalence and multidimensional dose information. The dosimetric solution was synthesized with 0.392 g of ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.0060 g of sodium chloride, 0.0076 g of xylenol orange, 5.0 g of gelatine (270 bloom porcine) and 300 mul of sulphuric acid in 100 ml of water. First, the water-gelatin mixture was heated and continuously stirred with a magnetic stirrer while the others reagents were added and the temperature was raised to 45 deg C. Once the solution ready it was transferred to acrylic cuvettes and kept in dark under refrigeration at 5 deg C during 12 h. Characteristics such as absorption spectrum, stability and linearity were evaluated by spectrophotometry (Beckman DU-640 UV-visible spectrophotometer). The developed material presented a good performance: ferric ion concentration at 589 nm, after irradiation; linear dose-response curve between 5 and 30 Gy; and saturation region for doses higher than 30 Gy. One disadvantage of the FXG system is its poor storage stability, because the non-irradiated samples suffer a selfdegradation and this could be a limitation for the use of FXG system. (author)

  18. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  19. Photovoltaic plants of PRODEEM, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a proposal for regional organization; Instalacoes fotovoltaicas do PRODEEM - Sao Paulo e uma proposta de organizacao regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra; Campos, Ubirajara Sampaio de [Secretaria de Estado de Energia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Photovoltaic Systems for Water Pumping in Temporary Settlements in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil project, submitted for approval of the Brazilian PRODEEM (Program for the Energetic Development of States and Municipal Districts). This project aims the electric power viability for rural workers settlement in the Pontal do Parapanema region, providing the water supply for families and cattle.

  20. Geochemical Characterization of Rain Water Particulate Material on a Coastal Sub-Tropical Region in SE: Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, E. V.; Paiva, R. P.; WASSERMAN, J.C.; Lacerda,L. D.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne contamination has been of concern for a number of scientist in temperate regions. In the tropics, a very small amount of data is available. In this work, rain water particulate material was monitored in two sites in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil): the first (Sepetiba), subjected to high inputs of metals from industrial activities and the second (Iguaba), subjected to very mild contamination. Particulate material was obtained by filtration of rain water samples. The filters were analys...

  1. Household consumption of food: An analysis for Midwest Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Maria Schlindwein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Midwest has been increasing over time as an important food production area, both for domestic consumption and for export. However, it has been discussing in a little way about the dietary patterns of the population that live in this region. Meanwhile, the central objective of this study was to characterize the food consumption of households of people that live in the Brazilian Midwest region, as well as a comparison among the data for the Federative Units of that region. This study has na exploratory and descriptive feature, because it tried to describe the pattern characteristics household food consumption. Data from the Household Budget Surveys were used (POF from the period of 2002-03 and 2008-09, published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The results show that in the analyzed period, there has been a downward trend in the consumption of staple foods such as rice, beans and flour, while the rapid preparation of goods such as bread, soft drinks and juices, yoghurts and prepared food showed an increase in consumption.

  2. Tendências da epidemia de Aids no Brasil após a terapia anti-retroviral AIDS epidemic trends after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Dourado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A terapia anti-retroviral disponível no Brasil a partir de 1996, modificou o curso da epidemia de Aids, alterando sua evolução e tendências. Nesse sentido, o estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a epidemia da Aids no Brasil, nos seus aspectos epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado a partir de bases de dados do Ministério da Saúde que caracterizavam a evolução temporal da Aids nas macrorregiões brasileiras, de 1990 a 2003. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão exponencial, ajustados à série temporal de 1990 a 1996 e estimados valores esperados para toda a série. RESULTADOS: O percentual de internações não se modificou no tempo, mas ocorreu diminuição de hospitalizações entre os usuários de terapia anti-retrovial. Houve um incremento de 2,7 vezes no número de indivíduos em uso da terapia, de 1997 a 2003. Incidência e mortalidade apresentaram crescimentos uniformes até 1995, em todas as regiões. A partir de 1996, verificou-se uma redução progressiva da mortalidade, embora a incidência continue crescendo. Em todas as regiões, exceto a Norte, as incidências esperadas foram maiores do que as observadas nos últimos anos, embora as diferenças somente tenham atingido níveis de significância estatística nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças observadas no perfil de morbi-mortalidade da epidemia de Aids no Brasil poderiam ser explicadas pelo amplo acesso a terapia anti-retroviral. Tal fato representou um impacto importante sobre a mortalidade por HIV/Aids, porém, outros fatores devem ser considerados, como idade da epidemia, medidas de prevenção, conhecimento sobre HIV/Aids e anos de escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: Universal access to antiretroviral therapy starting from 1996 has changed HIV/AIDS epidemic profile in Brazil. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. METHODS: Indicators of temporal trends were developed for Brazilian regions

  3. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silva Dias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma.

  4. Local knowledge about fodder plants in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Alissandra Trajano; Paivade Lucena, Reinaldo Farias; Ferreira dos Santos, Mércia Virgínia; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated local knowledge of the fodder plants of the Caatinga in northeast Brazil (seasonal dry forest). Specifically, the goal was to catalog local knowledge regarding the use of native and exotic forage plants in two rural communities located in the state of Paraíba (northeast Brazil), to provide information for nutritional investigations and to verify how the knowledge of these resources is distributed. Methods The communities were followed for three consecutive year...

  5. Changing trend in congenital abdominal wall defects in Eastern region of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2002-09-01

    In the past six years, there have been reports from abroad of an unexplained rise in the birth prevalence rate of the congenital abdominal wall defect gastroschisis, while rates for the macroscopically similar anomaly omphalocoele have remained stable. The Dublin EUROCAT Registry of congenital anomalies monitors trends in the birth prevalence of birth defects in the eastern region of Ireland. We analysed births of children with omphalocoele and gastroschisis born in the period 1981-2000, with comparisons of a number of demographic and obstetric variables. During the 20 year period the birth prevalence rate for omphalocoele remained stable at 2.5\\/10,000 births, whereas the rate for gastroschisis increased significantly during the 1990s from 1.0\\/10,000 in 1991 to 4.9\\/10,000 in 2000. Most of the increase occurred among mothers under 25 years of age. Omphalocoele was associated with a relatively high proportion of other major congenital anomalies. This study showed that there has been an unexpected rise in the birth prevalence of gastroschisis in the region, similar to that experienced in other countries in the same time period and likely to have common aetiological features.

  6. MODELING FOR DEMOGRAPHIC AND REGIONAL PREVALENCE AND TRENDS OF SMOKING IN THAI MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.

  7. Evolution of Lava Sheets for LIPs: Types of Local and Regional Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmenkulova, I. F.; Sharapov, V. N.

    2011-12-01

    The North-Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP), the Permian-Triassic traps of the Siberian Platform (SP), and the volcanic shields of the Hawaiian Ridge can be regarded as the examples of local and regional trends for lava sheets evolution of LIPs. Complex statistical analysis for distribution functions of petrogenic and trace components showed that cyclicity and spatial asymmetry for melt compositions are typical for all lava sheets of LIPs. NAIP has the following features: 1) the formation of continental swell and its rifting; 2) the oceanic basin formation as a system of open basins at the east and the opening of the Central Atlantic to the north with the transverse volcanic zone of the Ferraro Ridge; 3) quick opening of the oceanic basin with the formation and accretion of lava sheet in the centre of the spreading zone (MOR). At the western NAIP part, during the sheet breakage, magnesian melts were forming, in the east - 'typical' trap tholeiitic association with thick lava profiles; oceanic part of the system contains various oceanic basalts. Iceland lava sheet passed through at least three subsequent formation stages with typical petrochemical igneous rock complexes. There are local petrochemical trends in the Iceland sheet: as the basalt crust thickens, acid melt amounts increase. The Permian-Triassic SP traps at the southern part of the Khatanga Rift (where the province started to develop spatially) have the following zones: layered profiles of tuffaceous rocks in the Tunguska Syncline, with various quantities of lava flows in the upper part of the profiles; to the south, within the holes between the net of fissure and central lava-breccia volcanic structures, reloaded tuff material is located; more to the south this structural zone changes to swarms of dyke-diatreme structures having typical near-vent depressions. The explosive coefficient within these zones increases from the north to the south. In the western part of trap zone there is a petrochemical zoning

  8. Climate trends of the North American prairie pothole region 1906-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, B.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is unique to North America. Its millions of wetlands and abundant ecosystem goods and services are highly sensitive to wide variations of temperature and precipitation in time and space characteristic of a strongly continental climate. Precipitation and temperature gradients across the PPR are orthogonal to each other. Precipitation nearly triples from west to east from approximately 300 mm/year to 900 mm/year, while mean annual temperature ranges from approximately 1°C in the north to nearly 10°C in the south. Twentieth-century weather records for 18 PPR weather stations representing 6 ecoregions revealed several trends. The climate generally has been getting warmer and wetter and the diurnal temperature range has decreased. Minimum daily temperatures warmed by 1.0°C, while maximum daily temperatures cooled by 0.15°C. Minimum temperature warmed more in winter than in summer, while maximum temperature cooled in summer and warmed in winter. Average annual precipitation increased by 49 mm or 9%. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) trends reflected increasing moisture availability for most weather stations; however, several stations in the western Canadian Prairies recorded effectively drier conditions. The east-west moisture gradient steepened during the twentieth century with stations in the west becoming drier and stations in the east becoming wetter. If the moisture gradient continues to steepen, the area of productive wetland ecosystems will shrink. Consequences for wetlands would be especially severe if the future climate does not provide supplemental moisture to offset higher evaporative demand.

  9. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little

  10. Cretaceous biota of the Triângulo Mineiro region (Brazil: A review of recent finds

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    Candeiro, C. R. A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Group (Adamantina, Uberaba, and Marília Formations crop out in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and yield a rich continental biota. Invertebrate and vertebrate taxa from underlying and overlying strata, as well as biostratigraphical correlations with other fossil sites in Argentina, suggest an Upper Cretaceous age for this biota. The diversity of the fossil assemblage recorded in these formations is summarized here and includes: frogs, lizards, crocodiles, titanosaurs, abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs. This fossil assemblage provides important clues to understand faunas from other southern landmasses, particularly those from the Cretaceous of the African continent.Los afloramientos del Grupo Bauru (formaciones Adamantina, Uberaba y Marília en la región del Triângulo Mineiro, Provincia de Minas Gerais, Brasil, posee un rico contenido de biota continental. Los taxa de invertebrados y vertebrados de estos estratos, así como las correlaciones biostratigráficas con otros yacimientos fósiles de Argentina, sugieren una edad del Cretácico Tardío. La diversidad de la asociación fósil registrada en las formaciones del Triângulo Mineiro se resume en el presente trabajo e incluye: sapos, lagartos, tortugas, cocodrilianos, titanosaurideos, dinosaurios abelisaurideos y carcharodontosaurideos. Esta asociación es importante para la comprensión de las faunas del sur de América y también de las del Cretácico de África.

  11. Radon origin in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita de O.; Oliveira, H. de [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear (PCTN/DEN), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Dias, Antonio F., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: antdias@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Malta, Ricardo S.V. [Engenharia e Consultoria - SEMC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main sources of radon concentration in buildings are the underground surrounding soil and bedrock, construction materials and underground water supply. However, the contribution from these sources to the indoor radon level depends on many factors, such as type of the building, geology and pedology of the site and also the floor level. Focusing on this concern, the present work outlines on the characterization of the radon concentration in two different kinds of buildings - slab-on-grade dwellings and apartments on the second floor and above - in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, which is located in a large part on granite embasement area, the Granitic Gnaissic Complex. The radon concentration in dwellings and apartments, measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, ranged from 18.5 to 1591.0 Bqm{sup -3} (mean value 114.7 {+-} 5.5 Bqm{sup -3}) and 3.7 to 185.0 Bqm{sup -3} (mean value 70.3 {+-} 6.7 Bqm{sup -3}), respectively. Thus, the highest radon concentration is present in dwellings not in apartments, suggesting that the enhanced radon concentration maybe was originated mainly from local geological settings instead of other sources. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the measurements of the soil gas radon concentration were carried out by using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO detector and {sup 226}Ra ({sup 214}Bi) and {sup 224}Ra ({sup 212}Pb) specific activity in construction materials were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector. These results confirmed the local geological setting as the main radon source. Moreover, radon concentration much higher than United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA action level 148Bq.m{sup -3} occurred only in slab-on-grade dwellings. (author)

  12. Genetic and antigenic analysis of Babesia bigemina isolates from five geographical regions of Brazil

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    Madruga Claudio R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular epidemiological study was performed with Babesia bigemina isolates from five geographical regions of Brazil. The genetic analysis was done with random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD, repetitive extragenic palindromic elements-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR that showed genetic polymorphism between these isolates and generated fingerprinting. In RAPD, ILO872 and ILO876 primers were able to detect at least one fingerprinting for each B. bigemina isolate. The amplification of B. bigemina DNA fragments by REP-PCR and ERIC-PCR gave evidence for the presence in this haemoprotozoan of the sequences described previously in microorganisms of the bacterial kingdom. For the first time it was demonstrated that both techniques can be used for genetic analysis of a protozoan parasite, although the ERIC-PCR was more discriminatory than REP-PCR. The dendogram with similarity coefficient among isolates showed two clusters and one subcluster. The Northeastern and Mid-Western isolates showed the greatest genetic diversity, while the Southeastern and Southern isolates were the closest. The antigenic analysis was done through indirect fluorescent antibody technique and Western blotting using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against epitopes on the merozoite membrane surface, rhoptries and membrane of infected erythrocytes. As expected, the merozoite variable surface antigens, major surface antigen (MSA-1 and MSA-2 showed antigenic diversity. However, B cell epitopes on rhoptries and infected erythrocytes were conserved among all isolates studied. In this study it was possible to identify variable and conserved antigens, which had already been described as potential immunogens. Considering that an attenuated Babesia clone used as immunogen selected populations capable of evading the immunity induced by this vaccine, it is necessary to

  13. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

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    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  14. Human papillomavirus in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas in the central region of Brazil

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    Guilherme Petito

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Molecular studies about carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx demonstrate the presence of human papilomavirus genome in these tumors, reinforcing the participation of human papilomavirus in oral carcinogenesis. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papilomavirus and genotype distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas, as well as their association with clinical characteristics of the tumors. Methods This is a retrospective study, with clinical data collected from 82 patients. Human papilomavirus detection was conducted on specimens of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas included in paraffin blocks. Patients were assisted in a cancer reference center, in the central region of Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and genotyping of human papilomavirus. Results Among the patients evaluated, 78% were male. The average age of the group was about 58 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (78% and alcohol consumption (70.8% were recorded for the group. HPV DNA was detected in 21 cases (25.6%; 95% confidence interval 16.9–36.6 of which 33.3% were HPV16 and 14.3% were HPV18. The presence of lymph node metastases and registered deaths were less frequent in human papilomavirus positive tumors, suggesting a better prognosis for these cases; however, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study, with respect to the presence of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, highlight the importance of human papilomavirus vaccination in the control of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas.

  15. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  16. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  17. Richness of ferns and lycophytes in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Carlos Rodrigo Lehn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the floristic survey of ferns and lycophytes occurring in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the study area, 29 species and 2 varieties were recorded. Dryopteridaceae and Pteridaceae were the richest families (8 and 5 species, respectively and Elaphoglossum and Blechnum were the richest genera (3 species each one. Preferably, the listed species occur within the forest (68%, they occupy the terrestrial substrate (77.4%, and they are hemicryptophyte (77.4% and rosulate (64.5%. We observed four species still not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul, which are Blechnum lanceola L., Elaphoglossum pachydermum (Fée T. Moore, Lindsaea lancea (L. Bedd var lancea, and Mickelia nicotianifolia (Sw. R. C. Moran et al., which has its southern limit of distribution in Brazil, in the study area.

  18. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

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    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  19. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

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    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  20. Prediction of nitrate contamination trends of groundwater in Al-Butana region of Sudan

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    Abdelmonem M. Abdellah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that the increase of population in a confined area increases the risk of nitrate ion (NO3- contamination where modern sewage system is absent and traditional latrine holes are spread. In this study the NO3- levels of 209 well water samples belonging to previous construction analyses (CA and a total of 121 well water samples belonging to the current study analyses (SA in Al-Butana region of Sudan were statistically analyzed and located using the geographical information system (GIS. Cross comparison among the CA and the SA data were investigated and graphed. The GIS-map indicated that the nitrate ion levels > 50 mg/l were found in the central and southern part of the study area. Nitrate ion levels in the CA revealed that only 4 boreholes (1.91% exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 50 mg/l set by SSMO, WHO and EEC standards and guidelines while none of the investigated boreholes in the SA exceeded the maximum adopted level (MAL of 50 mg/l. Depicted trend graphs revealed that NO3- increases, gradually, over time almost in all parts of the study area as a result of the wide spread of traditional latrine holes and septic tanks system. Some boreholes are expected to reach the MAL within few years. The gradual increase in NO3- indicates that NO3- contamination may constitute a real forthcoming problem and threatens groundwater quality of the aquifer(s of the study area.

  1. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

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    Ernesto Shimizu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB, a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR. A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011. By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism.

  2. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, Mariel M; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cowan, Melanie J;

    2011-01-01

    Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI.......Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI....

  3. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  4. Mercury speciation in fish of the Cabo Frio upwelling region, SE-Brazil

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    Carlos Alberto da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in marine biota. The impact of upwelling processes in this metal behavior has been overlooked. Data from literature are insufficient to evaluate the risks associated with the presence of mercury in the fish collected in upwelling areas and its consumers. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a study of mercury speciation in four fish species belonging to different trophic levels from Cabo Frio-Brazil upwelling region. The total mercury content vary of 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardine to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -striped weakfish and, with exception of the planktivorous fish, methylmercury levels reaches circa 90% of total mercury concentration.A distribuição de Mercúrio nos oceanos é controlada por um complexo ciclo biogeoquímico, resultando na retenção de pequenas quantidades na biota marinha. O impacto dos processos de ressurgência costeira no comportamento desse metal tem sido negligenciado. Dados da literatura são insuficientes para elucidar o risco associado com a presença de mercúrio em peixes capturados em áreas de ressurgência e seus consumidores. Portanto o objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um estudo de especiação de mercúrio em quatro espécies de peixes pertencentes a diferentes níveis tróficos da região de ressurgência de Cabo Frio-Brasil. O conteúdo total de mercúrio variou de 53 ng g-1 (Sardinella brasiliensis -sardinha to 1215 ng g-1 (Cynoscion striatus -pescada e, com exceção da espécie planctivora, os níveis de metilmercúrio atingem cerca de 90% da concentração total de mercúrio.

  5. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: I. distribution and abundance

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    Liang Tsui Hua

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of chaetognath species off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Brazil, was studied during a program of multidisciplinary research. Ten species belonging to the genera Sagitta, Krohnita and Pterosagitta were identified. S. enflata was the dominant species followed by S.friderici and S. hispida. The species S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata and JC pacifica were found in the Shelf water whereas S. serratodentata, S. minima, S. hexaptera and P. draco in the Tropical water. Only S. friderici was found associated to Coastal water. Hydrological conditions affected population structure, size of individuals and abundance.A ocorrência, distribuição, freqüência dos estágios de maturidade e comprimento total do corpo das espécies do filo Chaetognatha foram estudados. As amostras foram obtidas com o auxílio de rede Bongo, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987, durante o Projeto "Utilização Racional do Ecossistema Costeiro da Região Tropical Brasileira, Estado de São Paulo". Dez espécies foram identificadas, sendo Sagitta enflata, S. friderici e S. hispida as espécies mais abundantes. S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata e Krohnita pacifica estão associadas à água de Plataforma enquanto que S. serratodentata, S. hexaptera, S. minima e Pterosagitta draco à água Tropical. Apenas S. friderici mostrou preferência por água Costeira. Diferenças sazonais na estrutura da população, tamanho dos indivíduos, abundância e distribuição estão associados à hidrodinâmica local. Nos verões, os quetognatos apresentaram maior número de estágios maduros nas amostras examinadas, comprimentos maiores e baixa abundância como conseqüência da intrusão da água Central do Atlântico Sul que provocou uma estratificação térmica característica. Em contraposição, nestas amostras, nos invernos, a população é formada por indivíduos de estágios jovens, de comprimentos menores e grande

  6. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  7. The Evolving Genotypic Profile of HIV-1 Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Treatment in the North Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carmen Andréa F; Soares, Marcelo A; Falci, Diego R; Sprinz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV related mutations can be associated with decreased susceptibility to antiretrovirals and treatment failures. There is scarce information about HIV mutations in persons failing HIV treatment in North of Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate evolution of HIV subtypes and mutations patterns related to antiretroviral therapy in this region. We investigated HIV resistance profile in adults failing antiretroviral regimen in Northern Brazil from January, 2004, through December, 2013. Genotype data was evaluated through Stanford University algorithm. There were 377 genotypes from different individuals to evaluate. Resistance mutations were similar to worldwide reports and related to antiretroviral exposure. Most prevalent mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene were M184V (80.1%) and K130N (40.6%). Thymidine associated mutations were more frequent in multiexperienced patients. Most common protease mutations were M46I, V82A, I54V, L90M, I84V, M46L, and L76V. Subtype B was the most prevalent (90.7%). There were differences between subtypes B and non-B mutations. We documented for the first time subtypes and patterns of HIV associated mutations in Northern Brazil. A1 subtype was identified for the first time in this area. Depending on drug regimen and how experienced the patient is, an empirical switch of a failing antiretroviral treatment could be a reasonable option.

  8. The Evolving Genotypic Profile of HIV-1 Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Treatment in the North Region of Brazil

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    Carmen Andréa F. Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV related mutations can be associated with decreased susceptibility to antiretrovirals and treatment failures. There is scarce information about HIV mutations in persons failing HIV treatment in North of Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate evolution of HIV subtypes and mutations patterns related to antiretroviral therapy in this region. We investigated HIV resistance profile in adults failing antiretroviral regimen in Northern Brazil from January, 2004, through December, 2013. Genotype data was evaluated through Stanford University algorithm. There were 377 genotypes from different individuals to evaluate. Resistance mutations were similar to worldwide reports and related to antiretroviral exposure. Most prevalent mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene were M184V (80.1% and K130N (40.6%. Thymidine associated mutations were more frequent in multiexperienced patients. Most common protease mutations were M46I, V82A, I54V, L90M, I84V, M46L, and L76V. Subtype B was the most prevalent (90.7%. There were differences between subtypes B and non-B mutations. We documented for the first time subtypes and patterns of HIV associated mutations in Northern Brazil. A1 subtype was identified for the first time in this area. Depending on drug regimen and how experienced the patient is, an empirical switch of a failing antiretroviral treatment could be a reasonable option.

  9. Graduate programs in Public Health in Argentina and Brazil: historical origins and recent trends in quality assessment processes

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    Virginia Alonso Hortale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the uniqueness of methodologies used in the quality assessment of graduate studies programs in Public Health in two Latin American countries: Argentina and Brazil. The authors conducted a search in websites that addressed themes such as "public health training and education" and "quality assessment methodologies", besides reexamining documents and bibliography on the theme. The analysis took the following dimensions into account: the Latin American political and economic context during the previous ten years (1994-2004, reforms in the educational systems (emphasizing graduate studies, and the quality assessment methodologies implemented. The authors found similarities in the evaluation systems in effect in both countries, as well as shortcomings in these processes, namely, evaluation driven by supervision and control rather than redirection and reorientation of teaching, and the mandatory adjustment of courses to a standard model defined by experts.

  10. Trends in treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee in the public and private healthcare systems of Brazil

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    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Orthopedic surgery implies high costs for both public and private healthcare. The aim of this study was to better understand the differences between the public and private sectors regarding treatment of a damaged anterior cruciate ligament, which is a common knee injury. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted during the Brazilian Orthopedics Congress in Brasília. METHODS We applied questionnaires during the 2010 Brazilian Orthopedics Congress, with participation by 241 knee surgeons from 24 Brazilian states. This was followed by statistical analysis on the data that were obtained. RESULTS The orthopedic surgeons who were evaluated used different approaches and treatment options in different Brazilian states, comparing between the public and private systems. CONCLUSION Both in the public and in the private systems in Brazil, because of non-medical issues surrounding the treatment, the best medical decision is not always made. This may be harmful both to patients and to physicians.

  11. Reconnaissance for radioactive rocks in the Paulo Afonso Region, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Donald D.; Mau, Henry

    1958-01-01

    Ground and air traverses were made to the northwest, north and northeast of Paulo Afonso, Bahia, Brazil, covering Precambrian crystalline rocks and sedimentary rocks of the Jatoba series of Jurassic or Cretaceous age. No important radioactivity anomalies were found; samples from the two strongest anomalies had an equivalent uranium-oxide content of 0.002 percent and 0.006 percent.

  12. 78 FR 77370 - Importation of Beef From a Region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ....shtml . Historically, rinderpest virus has never become established in North America, Central America... measures in assessing the risk of importing the FMD virus in beef from Brazil. The biosecurity measures... been eradicated from Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Peru. There is a history...

  13. Groundwater status and trends for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Haynes, Jonathan V.; Waibel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Well information and groundwater-level measurements for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, were compiled from data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and seven other organizations. From the full set of about 60,000 wells and 450,000 water-level measurements a subset of 761 wells within the aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) then was used to develop a simple linear groundwater-level trend map for 1968–2009. The mean of the trends was a decline of 1.9 feet per year (ft/yr), with 72 percent of the water levels in wells declining. Rates of declines greater than 1.0 ft/yr were measured in 50 percent of wells, declines greater than 2.0 ft/yr in 38 percent of wells, declines greater than 4.0 ft/yr in 29 percent of wells, and declines greater than 8.0 ft/yr in 4 percent of wells. Water-level data were used to identify groups of wells with similar hydraulic heads and temporal trends to delineate areas of overall similar groundwater conditions. Discontinuities in hydraulic head between well groups were used to help infer the presence of barriers to groundwater flow such as changes in lithology or the occurrence of folds and faults. In areas without flow barriers, dissimilarities in response of well groups over time resulted from the formation of groundwater mounds caused by recharge from irrigation or regions of decline caused by pumping. The areas of focus for this analysis included the Umatilla area, Oregon, and the Palouse Slope/eastern Yakima Fold Belt in the Columbia Basin Ground Water Management Area (GWMA) consisting of Adams, Franklin, Grant, and Lincoln Counties, Washington. In the Umatilla area, water levels from 286 wells were used to identify multiple areas of high hydraulic gradient that indicate vertical and horizontal barriers to groundwater flow. These barriers divide the groundwater-flow system into several compartments with varying degrees of interconnection. Horizontal flow barriers commonly

  14. Regional powers as leaders or Rambos? The ambivalent behaviour of Brazil and South Africa in regional economic integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Meissner, K.L.; Muntschick, J.

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of regional powers towards their own regions is often volatile in the developing world, which leads to unstable integration processes. This article argues that this volatility is due to limited intra-regional gains from regional integration in developing regions, which implies that the

  15. Trends in mortality due to ischemic heart disease in the municipality of Goiania, Brazil, during the years between 1980 and 1994

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    Suzana Alves de Moraes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trends of specific, standardized coefficients of mortality due to ischemic heart disease according to sex and age during the years 1980 and 1994 in the municipality of Goiania, GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data on deaths were retrieved from the Information on Mortality System of the Ministry of Health; population data were obtained from the Foundation of the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The trends of the specific coefficients were analyzed by triennia of the historical series, including individuals of both sexes from 25 years of age on, partitioned into 6 age groups of ten years intervals. The population data corresponding to the year 1980 were used as the standard for the calculation of each age group coefficient. Analyses were carried out by straight linear regression. RESULTS: Coefficients were greater for males in each triennium of the series and increased with age in both sexes. The study of the trends of the specific age coefficients of both sexes revealed a stable pattern of evolution up to the age of 65-74 years (P>0.05. From 75 years on, a clear-cut decline in mortality due to ischemic heart disease was shown by both sexes. The standardized coefficients also showed a significant decline (p<=0.05. CONCLUSION: The municipality of Goiânia is at present in a stage of epidemiological transition similar to that of developed countries, even though the observed decline is predominantly influenced by the mortality of older individuals (75 years of age or older.

  16. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  17. Trends in HIV-1 prevalence and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania

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    Holm-Hansen Carol

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring dynamics in HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours is important in evaluating, adjusting and scaling up prevention programmes. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural village population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania using repeated population-based cross-sectional surveys. Methods Four rounds of HIV-1 sero-epidemiological and behavioural surveys were completed during 1991 to 2005 in the study village. House-to-house registrations of people aged 15–44 years with an address in the village were conducted before each survey. All consenting individuals were then interviewed for pertinent risk behaviours and tested for HIV-1 seropositivity. Results Participation proportions ranged from 73.0% to 79.1%. Overall, age and sex-adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.2% in 1991 to 5.6 % in 2005 (relative increase 75.0%; ptrend trends trend trends trend Conclusion The HIV-1 prevalence seems to have increased among older participants but remained stable among younger participants. Encouraging trends toward safer sex practices were observed among young participants, while only modest behavioural changes were seen among the older participants. Prevention efforts in rural areas need to be intensified and to address people of all ages.

  18. Social Marketing for Women's Health Campaigns: An Analysis in the Abc Region, Greater São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Edson Coutinho da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and evaluate the Social Marketing principles (and practices in women’s health programme in the ABC Region, located in the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. The Social Marketing orientation seeks to potentialise public health campaigns using five principles: customer focus; focus on the benefits to customers; endeavour to create value; involving the whole organisation in the process; being aware that customers are different. In methodological terms, this research is exploratory and descriptive through a single case study, the ABC region; nine interviews have been carried out with health managers of women's health programmes in the three cities of the region. The qualitative methods were used to report the results. The authors of this study verified that Social Marketing strategies are present in women's health campaigns, but, not all processes and in the expected way, by the proposed the Social Marketing plan. 

  19. Tobacco consumption in adolescence: Age and regional trends - The Young HUNT Study, Norway (1995-2008

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    Håvard Thoen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to describe the trends of smoking and snuff consumption in adolescents in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, in the period from 1995/97 to 2006/08, with special emphasize on regional and gender differences.Method: We used data from all three waves of the Young-HUNT study, the youth part (ages 13-19 yrs of the HUNT study, Nord- Trøndelag County, Norway. Young-HUNT 1 was conducted in 1995-97 (N=9131, 90% response rate, Young-HUNT 2 in 1999-2000 (N=2808, 80% response rate and Young-HUNT 3 in 2006-08 (N=8601.Results: Fewer adolescents had tried smoking in Young-HUNT 3 (40.6% compared to Young-HUNT 1 (56.5%, while the prevalence of adolescents who had tried snuff increased in the same period from 17.4% to 23.5%. The prevalence of adolescents who smoked daily or occasionally decreased between Young- HUNT 1 (girls 23.8%, boys 19.8% and Young-HUNT 3 (girls: 14.6%, boys: 12.1%, while the prevalence of daily or occasionally snuffing increased (girls: 3.4% to 13.0% and boys: 20.2% to 23.1%. This constitutes a fourfold increase of the number of young female snuff users in little more than a decade. Occasional snuff use increased most in girls while daily snuff use increased most in boys. The same tendency was seen inn all regions, but the prevalence of tobacco use varied.Conclusion: The results demonstrate a shift from cigarette smoking to snuff use in the adolescent population between 1995 and 2008. Although a decrease in cigarette smoking occurred, the increasing snuff use makes the total tobacco consumption nearly constant

  20. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

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    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  1. Regional impacts of global change: seasonal trends in extreme rainfall, run-off and temperature in two contrasting regions of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomsi, Kenza; Mahe, Gil; Tramblay, Yves; Sinan, Mohamed; Snoussi, Maria

    2016-05-01

    In Morocco, socio-economic activities are highly vulnerable to extreme weather events. This study investigates trends in mean and extreme rainfall, run-off and temperature, as well as their relationship with large-scale atmospheric circulation. It focuses on two Moroccan watersheds: the subhumid climate region of Bouregreg in the north and the semi-arid region of Tensift in the south, using data from 1977 to 2003. The study is based on a set of daily temperature, precipitation and run-off time series retrieved from weather stations in the two regions. Results do not show a homogeneous behaviour in the two catchments; the influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation is different and a clear spatial dependence of the trend analysis linked to the distance from the coast and the mountains can be observed. Overall, temperature trends are mostly positive in the studied area, while weak statistically significant trends can be identified in seasonal rainfall, extreme rainfall events, average run-off and extreme run-off events.

  2. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

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    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  3. Trends and variability of daily and extreme temperature and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.

    2013-05-01

    A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their daily surface temperature and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in daily and extreme temperature and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air temperature at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the daily minimum temperatures (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the daily maximum temperatures (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal temperature range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low temperatures by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, daily intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land temperature variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea temperatures.

  4. Trends in Cigarette Use Behaviors Among Adolescents by Region in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon-Woo; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Ki Su

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Understanding recent trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents is important in order to develop strategies to prevent cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to compare recent trends in cigarette smoking for adolescents living in rural areas, small towns and metropolitan cities in Korea. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2005 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis consid...

  5. Infant malnutrition and obesity in three population-based birth cohort studies in Southern Brazil: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Araújo, Cora L; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of nutritional deficits and overweight in one-year-old children from three birth cohorts started in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts and all children from 2004 were weighed and measured, and their mothers interviewed. Anthropometric deficits and overweight were assessed using both NCHS and WHO growth standards. A comparison of the existence of nutritional deficits showed that, after a decline between 1982 and 1993, its prevalence stabilized between 1993 and 2004. Across the whole period, a decrease in all deficits was observed. Obesity, on the other hand, increased. A deficit in the ratio of body length to age was found to be strongly associated with family income. The group with income below one minimum wage was the only to present a significant reduction of stunting during the study period. The most significant improvements in the reduction of nutritional deficits occurred in the first half of the study period, while social differentials remained. Fighting malnutrition is still necessary among the 40% of the population considered poor, and must be accompanied by efforts to combat overweight which is being observed in all social strata.

  6. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

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    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  7. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Brazil: what research is needed based on trends, surveillance, and control experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics account annually for several million cases and deaths worldwide. The high endemic level of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form correlates to extensive domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti and multiple viral serotype human infection. This study analyzed serial case reports registered in Brazil since 1981, describing incidence evolutionary patterns and spatial distribution. Epidemic waves followed the introduction of every serotype (DEN 1 to 3, and reduction in susceptible individuals possibly accounted for decreasing case frequency. An incremental expansion of affected areas and increasing occurrence of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form with high case fatality were noted in recent years. In contrast, efforts based solely on chemical vector control have been insufficient. Moreover, some evidence demonstrates that educational measures do not permanently modify population habits. Thus, as long as a vaccine is not available, further dengue control depends on potential results from basic interdisciplinary research and intervention evaluation studies, integrating environmental changes, community participation and education, epidemiological and virological surveillance, and strategic technological innovations aimed to stop transmission.

  8. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Brazil: what research is needed based on trends, surveillance, and control experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Teixeira

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics account annually for several million cases and deaths worldwide. The high endemic level of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form correlates to extensive domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti and multiple viral serotype human infection. This study analyzed serial case reports registered in Brazil since 1981, describing incidence evolutionary patterns and spatial distribution. Epidemic waves followed the introduction of every serotype (DEN 1 to 3, and reduction in susceptible individuals possibly accounted for decreasing case frequency. An incremental expansion of affected areas and increasing occurrence of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form with high case fatality were noted in recent years. In contrast, efforts based solely on chemical vector control have been insufficient. Moreover, some evidence demonstrates that educational measures do not permanently modify population habits. Thus, as long as a vaccine is not available, further dengue control depends on potential results from basic interdisciplinary research and intervention evaluation studies, integrating environmental changes, community participation and education, epidemiological and virological surveillance, and strategic technological innovations aimed to stop transmission.

  9. Long-term trends in hydrochemistry in the Paraíba do Sul River, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, A. R. C.; Silva, C. F.; Rezende, C. E.; Gatts, C. E. N.; Suzuki, M. S.; Figueiredo, R. O.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThe Paraíba do Sul watershed is an important hydrological resource for southeastern Brazil, that has undergone extensive land use changes related to industrial, agricultural and urban activities. Over 11 years, between 1997 and 2007, a long-term study was conducted to evaluate hydrochemical variation in the basin outlet through estimations of annual fluxes and identification of their controlling factors. River water was classified as Na-HCO3, with TDS ranging from 32 to 132 mg L-1. Variation between seasons was found: cations, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and chlorophyll "a" had increased values the during low discharge period, while concentrations of DOC, ammonium, nitrite, phosphate and SPM had increased values during the high discharge period. Chloride, sulfate, silica and pH showed no clear relationship with discharge. These patterns also were correlated with hydrological flow paths originating from different sources. Wavelet decomposition was used to characterize precipitation anomalies largely associated both with long-term climate factors (i.e. ENSO) and short-term climate responses from the two discharge periods that were studied. Distinct responses of fluvial hydrochemistry were observed including ENSO-induced fluctuation to be particularly strong for DOC, with annual flux varying approximately 60% around measured median value.

  10. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Pereira Xavier; Leonardo Pereira Siqueira; Fernando Antonio Chaves Vital; Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha; João Inácio Irmão; Glícia Maria Torres Calazans

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities,...

  11. A new species of Atractus (Reptilia: Ophidia: Colubridae: Dipsadinae) from the Amazon forest region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Prudente, A.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Three specimens of Atractus natans were found during fieldwork in the “Reserva Mamirauá”, Amazonas and a fourth one in the “Estação Científica Ferreira Penna”, Floresta de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. The specimens from Mamirauá were all collected in floating logs in várzea forest during the period of fl

  12. Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis

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    Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. Females from each locality were fed on an infected dog (~ 6 microfilariae/µl blood. A sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. These results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito. Fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rates were low in all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The mean number of infective larvae detected in the head and proboscis of these mosquitoes was 1-1.5. The vector efficiency, the number of microfilariae ingested/number of infective larvae, was low for all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the survival rate for all populations was high (range 50-75%. The survival rate of Aedes aegypti assayed simultaneously for comparison was low (24.7%, while the vector efficiency was much higher than for Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data suggest that the vector competence of all assayed populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus to D. immitis in Brazil is similar and that this species is a secondary vector due to its low susceptibility. Nevertheless, vector capacity may vary between populations due to differences in biting frequency on dogs that has been reported in Brazil.

  13. Food resources used by three species of fish in the semi-arid region of Brazil

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    Márcio J. da Silva

    Full Text Available Temporary and semi-permanent aquatic habitats in semi-arid Brazil have been reported as important sites supporting a diverse fish fauna. As such, they must be able to trophically sustain fish species that feed at different trophic levels. This study aims to describe the diets of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Hoplias malabaricus and Prochilodus brevis in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, providing evidence of the importance of these habitats as supporters of large consumers like fish. The diet of the three species studied was diverse, feeding on a range of food items, from microalgae to fish. Despite that, a few items were more important to each of the study species. These results and the relatively high rates of stomach fullness indicate that a diverse and abundant food range is available in the study sites, but species seem to select some food resources. The present study provides evidence that despite being highly variable, intermittent and semi-permanent aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil are able to trophically sustain large consumers.

  14. REGIONAL TRENDS IN THE WORKING-AGE POPULATION MORTALITY RATE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA) IN 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A A; Kakorina, E P; Timofeev, L F; Potapov, A F; Aprosimov, L A

    2015-01-01

    Regions of the Russian Federation differ in climatic-geographic, medical-demographic and social-economic situations. One of the regions with distinct peculiarities is the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Ranking first by the territory (3,103.2 thousand sq x km), Yakutia is on the 81th place by the population density among regions of the Russian Federation (0.3 people per 1 km2).Yakutia is one of the most isolated and inaccessible regions of the world: 90% of the territory lacks all-the-year-round transportation. Regions of the republic, as well, differ significantly in the climatic conditions and the levels of social-economic development, which influences the population health indicators, including mortality. This survey aimed to study the trends of mortality in the working-age population in different groups of regions. To do this, basing on the statistical data, we compared the levels, trends and structure of mortality in 1990-2012. It was established that the different groups of regions show a significant variation in the working-age population mortality, depending on the social-economic conditions. Since 2000, the Arctic group of regions has demonstrated higher mortality in working-age men and women, especially of cardiovascular and digestive system diseases, and external causes. Lying beyond the Arctic Circle, these regions have severe conditions and a relatively low level of social-economic development. As for the rural regions, despite the relatively favourabe situation, they also show a high level of mortality of external causes. The industrial regions are characterized by higher social-economic development, better transport infrastructure, a satisfactory material base of medical institutions. They also have sufficient resources of health institutions, including the staff and modern equipment for treatment and diagnostics, as well as, which is critical, the full range of medical specialists. Thus, these regions demonstrate lower population mortality; however

  15. Risk factors associated with hantavirosis fatality: a regional analysis from a case-control study in Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Antunes Willemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has a high lethality rate that varies by region. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with fatal hantavirosis. Methods: This study was a case-control study that included all laboratory confirmed cases of hantavirosis. The cases were stratified by the different Brazilian regions using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. “Cases” were patients who progressed to death, whereas “controls” were patients who were cured. The odds ratio (OR and the adjusted OR were calculated. Results: Overall, 158 cases and 281 controls were included in this study. In the Midwest region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with flank pain, and the time between the beginning of symptoms and death was shorter than the time between the beginning of symptoms and a cure. In the Southeast region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with thrombocytopenia or reside in rural areas compared to those who progressed to a cure. Additionally, the cases sought medical assistance, notification and investigation more quickly than the controls. In the Southern region, the cases that died were 70% less likely to be male compared to the controls. Conclusions: HCPS manifests with nonspecific symptoms, and there are few published studies related to the condition, so determining a patient's therapeutic strategy is difficult. This study presents findings from different Brazilian regions and highlights the need for further investigations to improve comprehension about regional risk factors associated with hantavirosis and to reduce morbimortality.

  16. Occurrence and risk factors assessment associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in chickens in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Sílvio G. de Sá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection and risk factors of this disease in three hundred serum samples from on 23 familiar agricultural properties in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. ELISA was used to study antibodies anti-Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The univariate analysis (chi-squared test or Fischer's exact test followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression were used to assess the risk factors with two variables: management and sanity of the poultry. It was detected a frequence of 53.33% (157/300 of the birds were positive for MG, with 100% foci. The risk factors confirmed by multivariate analysis, in the present study, were the presence of other poultry species on the property, including Numida meleagris (OR=2.22; p=0.005, parrots (OR=1.72; p=0.027, and of passerines (OR=1.88; p=0.007. These results showed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is endemic among backyard poultry in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco. These birds could be a source of infection for other wild or domestic poultry. . This is the first report of the occurrence of avian mycoplasmosis in backyard poultry in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. The risk factors identified should serve as a parameter for the health authorities to seek solutions related to controlling the disease.

  17. [Primary healthcare: a multidimensional study on challenges and potential in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SP, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Telesi Júnior, Emilio; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Fausto, Márcia Cristina Rodrigues; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; Kayano, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents some results of a case study in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (SP, Brazil) as part of a multicentric study conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The aim is to evaluate Primary Health Care (PHC) as a strategy to achieve integrated and universal healthcare systems. The methodological approach was based on five analytical dimensions: stewardship capability; financing; provision; comprehensiveness and intersectoral approach. The techniques included literature review, document analysis and interviews with key informants: policy makers; managers, experts, users and professionals. The results were organized in response to the challenges and possibilities of PHC as a structural system according to the five dimensions. The following emerged from the interviews: different interpretations on the concept and role of PHC and a consensus as the gateway to the system; weaknesses in funding; challenges in health workforce administration and the need for new legal-institutional design for regional management. The potential aspects were: broader coverage/universality, PHC as the basis for the organization of the system; connection with the territory and understanding specific population needs.

  18. Spatial variation in the structure and composition of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

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    KA. Silva

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid environments of the world, microhabitats serve as models for the structure of vegetation communities. The goal of this study was to identify differences in the structures of the herbaceous communities growing on a crystalline substrate and those growing on a sedimentary substrate in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. One hundred 1 × 1 m plots were established in each area for quantitative sampling, with 69 species recorded in the crystalline area and 76 in the sedimentary area. The average plant density was higher in the sedimentary area, and average diameters and heights were greater in the crystalline area. The families and species with a high Importance Value Index (IVI and a high Mixed Ecological Value Index (MEVI differed between the areas. Of the species with high densities, only four were found in both areas. Shannon-Weiner diversity index values in the crystalline (2.96 nats/ind.-1 and sedimentary (2.89 nats/ind.-1 areas were similar. Evenness values on both substrates were also similar (0.72 and 0.71 in the crystalline and sedimentary areas, respectively. This study shows that variations in plant establishment conditions between crystalline and sedimentary areas in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil should be considered as structure-modeling factors for the herbaceous community.

  19. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, S. [Sao Paulo State Gas Co. and Mackenzie Univ. (Brazil); Assuncao, J.V. de [Mackenzie Univ. and Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  20. Region-wide trends of nesting ospreys in northwestern Mexico: a three-decade perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Vera, Aradit Castellanos; Cartron, Jean-Luc E.

    2008-01-01

    We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico (coastal Baja California, islands in the Gulf of California, and coastal Sonora and Sinaloa). With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benitos islands along the Pacific coast of Baja California (all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog), this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993, allowing for estimates of regional population trends. The minimum population estimate for the area we surveyed in 2006 was 1343 nesting pairs, an 81% increase since 1977, but only a 3% increase since 1992/1993. The population on the Gulf side of Baja California generally remained stable during the three surveys (255, 236, and 252 pairs, respectively). The population of the Midriff Islands (Gulf of California in the vicinity of 29°N latitude) remained similar from 1992/1993 (308 pairs) to 2006 (289 pairs), but with notable population changes on the largest two islands (Guardian Angel: 45 to 105 pairs [133% increase]; Tiburón: 164 to 109 pairs [34% decrease]). The minimum estimated Osprey population on the Sonora mainland decreased in a manner similar to adjacent Isla Tiburón, i.e., by 26%, from 214 pairs in 1993 to 158 pairs in 2006. In contrast, the population in coastal Sinaloa, which had increased by 150% between 1977 and 1993, grew again by 58% between 1993 and 2006, from 180 to 285 pairs. Our survey confirmed previously described patterns of rapid population changes at a local level, coupled with apparent shifts in spatial distribution. The large ground-nesting population that until recently nested on two islands in San Ignacio Lagoon ( Pacific Ocean side, Baja California) was no longer present on the islands in 2006, but an equivalent number of pairs were found to the north and south of the

  1. Trends in drug use among students in Brazil: analysis of four surveys in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 1997

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    Galduróz J.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of psychotropic drugs among Brazilian secondary school students was examined by comparing data from four surveys using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Students filled out the form in their classrooms without the presence of teachers. The target population consisted of 10-18-year-old students (on average, 15,000 students responded to each survey in Brazil's ten largest state capitals: Belém, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and São Paulo. Among the legal drugs, lifetime use (use at least once during life of tobacco was increased in seven cities (the exceptions were Brasília, Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro. There was also a significant increase in frequent use of alcohol (six times or more per month in 6 of the cities, from an average of 9.2% in 1987 to 15.0% in 1997. With respect to illegal drugs, there was a significant increase in lifetime use of marijuana (a 3-fold increase from 2.8% in 1987 to 7.6% in 1997. Cocaine use increased 4-fold over the survey period (0.5% in 1987 to 2.0% in 1997. Lifetime use of cocaine significantly increased in eight capitals (except Recife and Rio de Janeiro. However, frequent cocaine use increased in only three capitals (Belém, Fortaleza and Porto Alegre, from an average of 1.0% in 1987 to 3.6% in 1997. Lifetime use of medications such as anxiolytics and amphetamines increased 2-fold on average over the survey period. Comparing the four studies, the main conclusion is that there were significant increases in the frequencies for lifetime use, frequent use and heavy use of many drugs.

  2. MIGRATION AND POPULATION OUTBREAKS OF MILLIPEDES IN THE COFFEE PLANTATIONS, REGION OF ALTO PARANAIBA, MG, BRAZIL

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    Carlos Henrique Silva Penteado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations and population outbreaks of millipedes are phenomena that, due to their unpredictability, have attracted the attention of researchers in order to obtain information for a better understanding of this occurrence and for the adoption of efficient control methods when these arthropods cause damage to urban and cultivated areas.Cloudsley-Thompson (1949 reported that individuals of Fontariavirginensis spread over an area of 75 acres in West Virginia (USA farms in such large numbers that cattle were unable to graze and workers were nauseated by the odor exhaled by dead diplopods. At night and on cloudy days they moved in large numbers; most of them (a number estimated at 65 million animals were killed by the heat of the sun. Niijima e Shinohara (1988, in turn, reported that in Hungary in 1878, in France in 1900, and in Germany in 1906 and 1938, railroad tracks had to be covered with sand for train wheels to be able to adhere to them. In the same article, they pointed out that in Japan the millipede Parafontaria laminata became known by interrupting railroad traffic and emphasized that the population explosions of this millipede occurred at 7 to 8 year intervals and that most of the animals found were adults or sub-adults. This fact has raised speculations about the fact that mating could be a probable cause of such explosions. In Brazil, since the beginning of the 90’s, a population expansion of the millipede Plusioporus setiger (Brolemann, 1901 (Spirostreptida: Spirostreptidae has been observed in coffee plantations in the Alto Paranaíba region, MG (18º37´-19º00´S; 46º52´-47º30´W – a "cerrado" region that was deforested in the 70’s for coffee culture. The infestations probably started in the coffee plantations of the Macaúbas Farm – Patrocínio, and today reach coffee plantations in Monte Carmelo, Iraí de Minas and Ibiá. The phenomenon has been attributed to organic fertilization and irrigation of the coffee plantations

  3. Tendência da mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil, 1980 a 2004 Mortality trends due to tuberculosis in Brazil, 1980-2004

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    Ana Luiza Bierrenbach

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil atual e as tendências da mortalidade por tuberculose no Brasil, de 1980 a 2004. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de tuberculose como causa básica ou associada de óbito do Brasil. Foram utilizados dados secundários do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade. RESULTADOS: Houve redução inconstante do número e da taxa de mortalidade por tuberculose ao longo do período estudado, de 5,8 em 1980 para 2,8 por 100 mil habitantes, em 2004. Foi observada redução acentuada da mortalidade até 1985, mais evidente nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. Houve tendência de aumento da mortalidade por tuberculose em idades mais avançadas. Em 2004, foram notificados no Brasil 4.981 óbitos por tuberculose como causa básica, valor que aumentaria para 50% se fossem incluídos os óbitos por tuberculose como causa associada e por seqüela de tuberculose como causa básica. Em 2004, as maiores taxas padronizadas foram dos estados de Pernambuco (5,4 e Rio de Janeiro (5,0, e das capitais Recife (7,7 e Belém (5,8. CONCLUSÕES: Dada a conhecida associação entre tuberculose e Aids, a influência da epidemia de Aids reflete indiretamente nas tendências de mortalidade de tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the current profile and trends of tuberculosis mortality in Brazil between 1980 and 2004. METHODS: Descriptive study of tuberculosis as underlying or associate cause of death based on secondary data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. RESULTS: An irregular reduction in the number of tuberculosis deaths and mortality rates along the study period, from 5.8 in 1980 to 2.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004, was seen. An accelerated reduction in mortality trend was seen until 1985 mostly in the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. There was a trend towards mortality occurring in older ages. In 2004, 4,981 tuberculosis cases were notified as underlying cause of death in Brazil but it would increase by 50% if

  4. Environmental integrity and damselfly species composition in Amazonian streams at the "arc of deforestation" region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Investigated how the loss of environmental integrity affects damselfly species composition in nine sites with different levels of environmental integrity in a Cerrado-Amazon transition region known as "arc of deforestation" in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We also tested the influence of environmental variables on species composition. METHODS: We collected in transects of 100 m and used ordination (PCoA and simple linear regression. RESULTS: Species composition was strongly influenced by the environmental quality of sites, and the best model to explain species composition included variables related to channel morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These results are connected to the environmental homogenization and loss of environmental integrity as a result of extensive agricultural practices which alter stream communities of dragonflies in this region.

  5. TRENDS AND ACTUAL ISSUES CONCERNING SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA, STUDY CASE: THE NORTH EAST REGION OF DEVELOPMENT

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    Silviu BECIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Regions of Development are characterized by substantial social, economic, and territorial disparities. There also recorded large economic disparities between rural and urban areas. The Romanian rural areas includes: 2860 communes, 12,956 villages, representing around 90% of the Romanian territory and 45 % of its population. It has the main agricultural and forestry resources and over 9.6 million inhabitants. Of these, 506 communes and 2414 villages are located in the 6 counties of The North East Region of Development, one of the poorest regions of development within European Union. This paper is focused on the regional development issues in the rural areas of this region and is aimed to evaluate the resources that haven’t been enough capitalized in this region and to indentify solutions to improve the socio- economic situation in the next years, through a balanced development strategy.

  6. Age and regional differences in clinical presentation and risk of hospitalization for dengue in Brazil, 2000-2014

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    Marcelo N. Burattini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Dengue cases range from asymptomatic to severe, eventually leading to hospitalization and death. Timely and appropriate management is critical to reduce morbidity. Since 1980, dengue has spread throughout Brazil, affecting an increasing number of individuals. This paper describes age and regional differences in dengue’s clinical presentation and associated risk of hospitalization based on more than 5 million cases reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health from 2000-2014. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of ∼5,450,000 dengue cases, relating clinical manifestations and the risk of hospitalization to age, gender, previous infection by dengue, dengue virus serotype, years of formal education, delay to first attendance and the occurrence of dengue during outbreaks and in different Brazilian regions. RESULTS: Complicated forms of dengue occurred more frequently among those younger than 10 years (3.12% vs 1.92% and those with dengue virus 2 infection (7.65% vs 2.42%, with a delay to first attendance >2 days (3.18% vs 0.82% and with ≤4 years of formal education (2.02% vs 1.46%. The risk of hospitalization was higher among those aged 6-10 years old (OR 4.57; 95% CI 1.43-29.96 and those who were infected by dengue virus 2 (OR 6.36; 95% CI 2.52-16.06, who lived in the Northeast region (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.11-2.10 and who delayed first attendance by >5 days (composite OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.33-8.9. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, the occurrence of severe dengue and related hospitalization is associated with being younger than 10 years old, being infected by dengue virus 2 or 3, living in the Northeast region (the poorest and the second most populated and delaying first attendance for more than 2 days.

  7. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  8. Multiattribute Response of Maize Genotypes Tested in Different Coastal Regions of Brazil

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    Lúcio Borges de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work applies the three mode principal components analysis to analyze simultaneously the multiple attributes; to fit of models with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI models and the regressions models on sites (SREG models; to evaluate, respectively, the multivariate response of the genotype × environment interaction and the mean response of 36 genotypes of corn tested in 4 locations in Brazil. The results were presented by joint plots to identify the best genotypes for their adaptability and performance in the set of attributes.

  9. Infection with Mayaro virus in a French traveller returning from the Amazon region, Brazil, January, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Receveur, M C; Grandadam, M; Pistone, T; Malvy, D

    2010-05-06

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) disease is a mosquito-borne zoonosis endemic in humid forests of tropical South America. MAYV is closely related to other alphaviruses that produce a dengue-like illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. A French tourist developed high-grade fever and severe joint manifestations following a 15-day trip in the Amazon basin, Brazil, and was diagnosed with MAYV infection in January 2010. This case is the first reported in a traveller returning from an endemic South American country to Europe.

  10. ''State of art of power for telecommunications in Brazil: An overview of the impact in the market trends and R and D activities after the Telebras privatization''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarite, J.E. [Fundacao Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (Brazil); Univ. Paulista - UNIP (Brazil); Rosolem, M.F.N.C.; Beck, R. [Fundacao Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an idea about the main market players, its products and services and the R and D activities at Universities, R and D Centers, R and D Foundations and manufactory laboratories, as long as, an overview about trends for telecom energy products in Brazil after the strong change on market characteristics after the Telebras privatization process. CPqD's activities will be described. (orig.)

  11. Poverty in Maine: Recent Trends and Comparative Urban--Rural and Regional Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Joyce

    A structural approach which focuses on social and economic conditions under which poverty exists and which de-personalizes causes is used to study the extent and trends of poverty in general and Maine in particular. The 1980 Census reported that 13% of Maine's population was poor, but since income in Maine is generally low many people fall in and…

  12. Recent trends in urbanization in the ASEAN region: implications for health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteria, T S

    1987-01-01

    "This paper examines recent trends in urbanization in four selected ASEAN countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand--giving particular attention to the scale and pace of urbanization, the unique features of urban communities, and the health changes and adjustments that accompany urban development in these countries."

  13. Evolution of the sugarcane cultivation in the Midwest Region of Brazil

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    Martin Airton Wissmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of sugarcane cultivation in Midwestern Brazil (Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2003/04 and 2013/14. It classifies the mesoregions of each State according to the intensity of growth (expansion or retraction of planted area which is measured by growth rates quartiles calculations according to Feltre and Paulillo´s (2012 adapted methodology. The results reveal the existence of geographical proximity between mesoregions in Goiás and Mato Grosso with high growth rates, whereas two areas with negative or insignificant rates, one in Mato Grosso and the other in Mato Grosso do Sul, are located in areas subject to rules of Agri-Ecological Zoning of Sugarcane (ZAE-cana and therefore directly impacted by those regulations. In Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul, three mesoregions exhibit high or moderate growth, apparently explainable due to the proximity of the state of São Paulo, the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil.JEL-Code | O13; Q13; R11.

  14. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  15. Biological spectrum and dispersal syndromes in an area of the semi-arid region of north-eastern Brazil

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    Elimar Alves de Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological spectrum and diaspores dispersal syndromes of the species recorded in a stretch of vegetation in a semi-arid region within the Cariri Environment Protection Area, Boa Vista, Paraíba State (northeast Brazil, are described. Collections were made from fertile specimens, preferentially bearing fruit, over a 15-month period. Life forms and syndromes were determined by field observations using specialized literature. One hundred and sixty-six species, distributed into 123 genera and 41 families, were reported. Abiotic syndromes (autochory and anemochory represented 69.7% of all syndromes identified, whilst 30.3% of the species were classified as zoochory. In the life form spectrum therophytes represented 27.7% of species, followed by small- and medium-sized phanerophytes (23.5% and chamaephytes (22.3%. The occurrence of hemicryptophytes (9%, cryptophytes (0.6% and species that could not be classified according to their life forms was also recorded (16.9%. Results showed that the biological spectrum and the dispersal syndromes are highly relevant to understand the structure and function of this phytocenose, with subsidies for the development of other studies in the semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil.

  16. Evolução da mortalidade geral, infantil e proporcional no Brasil Trends in general, infant and proportional mortality in Brazil

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    João Yunes

    1974-06-01

    phisiographical regions. During the last 30 years the reduction of general mortality in Brazil was 47.5% and the biggest fall was noticed in the West-Center Region. In the last 10 years the rise of the rate in all Regions was observed starting in different years. This fact is due to the increase of infant mortality. When one compares general mortality in Brazil with that of developed countries, it can be considered high since 42% of the population in 14 years old, showing an insatisfactory health level. During the period of 30 years there was a reduction of the infant mortality rate to 46.2%. In the last 10 years a rising rate is observed, showing that the health level is worse and when we compare it with other countries the noticed difference is relevant. When we evaluate the proportional mortality (% of the total deaths of children with less than 1 year from 1940 to 1970 is remarkable on increasing of 16.3%. In the last 10 years it was higher in the west-center region (57.7% and South west (36.1%. When we compare the data of Brazil with the most developed State and City of Brazil (São Paulo we always see that these health indicators present itself as being higher in the country as a whole, refleting a worse health level. Among the principal conditionant reasons of the worsening health level in Brazil during the last ten years appears the economical one where the income distribution concentration increases, the real minimum wages fall by 20%. Consequently the worker's possibility of acquising wealth decreases. Adding to this, the increasing of the population without environmental health is growing.

  17. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2016-07-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  18. Tendência da transmissão vertical de Aids após terapia anti-retroviral no Brasil Trends in maternal-infant transmission of AIDS after antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

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    Ana Maria de Brito

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O crescimento de casos de Aids entre mulheres teve como conseqüência o aumento da transmissão vertical da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida. Medidas de controle dessa modalidade de transmissão foram implementadas a partir de 1996. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a tendência temporal da transmissão vertical de Aids em crianças brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo crianças nascidas entre 1990 e 2001 no Brasil. Utilizou-se o banco de casos notificados como Aids em menores de 13 anos, no período de 1990 a 2004. Modelos de regressão exponencial, ajustados à série temporal, forneceram as taxas de variação anual e os valores observados e esperados para todo o período. RESULTADOS: Observou-se tendência significativamente crescente para os casos com ano de nascimento no período anterior à introdução da terapia anti-retroviral, com taxa de crescimento em torno de 12% (tOBJECTIVE: the increase in the number of AIDS cases among women has lead to an increase in the maternal-infant transmission of human acquired immunodeficiency virus. Measures for the control of this type of transmission were implemented in Brazil in 1996. The aim of the present study was to analyze time trends in maternal-infant transmission of AIDS among Brazilian children. METHODS: The present study included children born in Brazil between 1990 and 2001. We used the database of notified AIDS cases in children 13 years of age or younger between 1990 and 2004. Exponential regression models adjusted to the time series provided the annual variation rates and observed and expected values for the period. RESULTS: We found a significant increasing trend for cases born prior to the year in which anti retroviral therapy was introduced, with an increase rate of about 12% (t<0.003 per year. Rates from different states ranged from 5.9% to 31%. The analysis of expected and observed cases for each of the country's five Regions showed a

  19. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) Maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth-Probe TOMS by the Modified-Residual Method. 1; Validation, Evaluation and Trends based on Atlantic Regional Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The well-known wave-one pattern seen in tropical total ozone [Shiotani, 1992; Ziemke et al., 1996, 1998] has been used to develop a modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amount from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) over the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992) and from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996- 1997). Nine- to sixteen-day averaged tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps, validated with ozonesondes, show a seasonality expected from dynamical and chemical influences. The maps may be viewed on a homepage: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares well with sondes (to within 6-7 DU) and with stratospheric ozone column derived from other satellites (within 8-10 DU). Validation of the TTO time-series is presently limited to ozonesonde comparisons with Atlantic stations and sites on the adjacent continents (Ascension Island, Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville); for the sounding periods, TTO at all locations agrees with the sonde record to +/-7 DU. TTO time-series and the magnitude of the wave-one pattern show ENSO signals in the strongest El Nifio periods from 1979-1998. From 12degN and 12degS, zonally averaged tropospheric ozone shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, e.g. from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980's), which shows a not statistically significant increase. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the so-called Convective-Cloud-Differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  20. Climatic trends in the North Atlantic region during the last 2,000 years in an orbitally forced AOGCM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

    2013-12-01

    The global coverage of temporal highly resolved proxy-based climate reconstructions is extending to cover the last 2,000 years. It is thus important to fully understand the effect of the orbital forcing at these time scales, as the imprint of the orbital forcing becomes clearer when analyzing climate on time scales longer than the last 1,000 years. The slow-varying orbital parameters affect the seasonal distribution of the incoming solar radiation. Although changes are not as pronounced compared to the mid-Holocene, still distinct differences exist, with lower insolation between February and May and higher insolation between July and October over the mid- and high northern latitudes 2,000 years ago compared to present. Here, we analyze a simulation with the coupled climate model ECHO-G forced only with changes in orbital variations for the last 2,000 years. Other factors such as solar activity and greenhouse gas changes are set to constant pre-industrial values. The modeled near-surface temperature trends reflect the expected orbitally induced insolation trends over the northern hemispheric continents and the Arctic, with increased temperatures during May and reduced temperatures during October. Over the North Atlantic Ocean, however SST trends are not directly consistent to changes in orbital forcing throughout the year, mostly showing little or slight uniform cooling trends. The strength of the maximum overturning circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean also shows no clear-cut trends that can be linked to changes in external forcings. Other variables related to oceanic convection and surface heat fluxes indicate, however, spatially heterogeneous trend patterns. For example, regions south of Greenland and off Labrador show increases in convection that compensate the decreases over the Labrador and the Norwegian Sea. This pattern varies in intensity and spatial extent between the different winter half year months. Changes in oceanic convection and surface heat

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique.

  2. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

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    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colonized, life forms and floristic similarity between areas and regions. In 2007 and 2008, we collected specimens from six forest sites, located from the north to the south of the Chapada Diamantina region. We identified a total of 205 infrageneric taxa. In comparison with the lower montane forests, the upper montane forests presented higher diversity and species richness, as well as greater numbers of substrates colonized, life form types, species of restricted geographic distribution and species typical of shaded areas. We also found low similarity in the species composition, the populations of the upper and lower montane forests forming two large and distinct groups. Although presenting relatively high floristic homogeneity among themselves, the Chapada Diamantina areas presented little similarity with those of the Atlantic Forest. This can be explained by the differences between the two regions in terms of environmental conditions, precipitation, seasonality, elevation and continentality.

  3. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

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    Gomes Marília B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years ( Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels Conclusions A majority of patients, mainly in the north/northeast and mid-west regions, did not meet metabolic control goals and were not screened for diabetes-related chronic complications. These results should guide governmental health policy decisions, specific to each geographic region, to improve diabetes care and decrease the negative impact diabetes has on the public health system.

  4. Natural history of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae in a Cerrado region of northeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Dal Vechio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt & Luetken, 1861 is a microteiid lizard widely distributed in the open areas of South America. Little is known about its ecology and reproductive biology. Here, we analyzed aspects of the natural history of a population of M. maximiliani from a Cerrado area in the state of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Our results suggest that the reproductive activity of M. maximiliani might be seasonal in the Cerrado, since reproductive females were observed only in the dry season, whereas reproductive males were present in both seasons. Vitellogenic follicles and oviductal eggs were found simultaneously in one female, suggesting that females may produce more than one clutch per season. Sexual dimorphism was observed in body shape, and individuals were mainly restricted to a typical savanna physiognomy. The diet consisted of small arthropods, including spiders, crickets and cockroaches as the most important items.

  5. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities, totaling 66 households. In each household two samples were collected, one from a tank and the other from a clay pot located inside the home, resulting in 132 samples (tank plus clay pot). Approximately 90% of samples were below the standard recommended by the current legislation, being considered unfit for human consumption. Part of this high microbiological contamination of drinking rainwater could be related to the lack of sanitary education and of an adequate sewerage sanitation system.

  6. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

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    Rogério Pereira Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities, totaling 66 households. In each household two samples were collected, one from a tank and the other from a clay pot located inside the home, resulting in 132 samples (tank plus clay pot. Approximately 90% of samples were below the standard recommended by the current legislation, being considered unfit for human consumption. Part of this high microbiological contamination of drinking rainwater could be related to the lack of sanitary education and of an adequate sewerage sanitation system.

  7. Potential for attenuation of a stream in a subtropical region - Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

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    Denise Peresin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study and knowledge of the depuration capacity of the water resources, is necessary to preserve them. This study was objective identify the attenuation capacity of the Belo stream - Caxias do Sul - RS / Brazil, through the evaluation of physicochemical parameters, distance and slope between 4 points located along the stream. Were collected five samplings, bimonthly. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA "one way", Tukey’s test e Pearson’s correlation. The results showed that there is an improvement in the quality of water resources from upstream to downstream of the stream. However, despite the stream have a high attenuation potential, is necessary the development of control actions to input of industrial and domestic effluents, to prevent the ecological impairment of the same.

  8. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  9. Racial inequalities and perinatal health in the southeast region of Brazil

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    L.M. Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies are available about racial inequalities in perinatal health in Brazil and little is known about whether the existing inequality is due to socioeconomic factors or to racial discrimination per se. Data regarding the Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, whose mothers were interviewed from June 1, 1978 to May 31, 1979 were used to answer these questions. The perinatal factors were obtained from the birth questionnaire and the ethnic data were obtained from 2063 participants asked about self-reported skin color at early adulthood (23-25 years of age in 2002/2004. Mothers of mulatto and black children had higher rates of low schooling (£4 years, 27.2 and 38.0% and lower family income (£1 minimum wage, 28.6 and 30.4%. Mothers aged less than 20 years old predominated among mulattos (17.0% and blacks (14.0%. Higher rates of low birth weight and smoking during pregnancy were observed among mulatto individuals (9.6 and 28.8%. Preterm birth rate was higher among mulattos (9.5% and blacks (9.7% than whites (5.5%. White individuals had higher rates of cesarean delivery (34.9%. Skin color remained as an independent risk factor for low birth weight (P < 0.001, preterm birth (P = 0.01, small for gestational age (P = 0.01, and lack of prenatal care (P = 0.02 after adjustment for family income and maternal schooling, suggesting that the racial inequalities regarding these indicators are explained by the socioeconomic disadvantage experienced by mulattos and blacks but are also influenced by other factors, possibly by racial discrimination and/or genetics.

  10. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Mariane Angélica; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Barros Filho, Ivan Roque de; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the agent for toxoplasmosis, has worldwide distribution. Horses normally play a secondary role in its life cycle, but movement around urban areas, feeding on grass and the increasing use of carthorses for gathering recyclable material in some urban areas of Brazil may increase their exposure to T. gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, PR. IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) (titers ≥ 64). Seventeen (17.0%) of the 100 horses sampled were seropositive. There were no statistical differences in relation to sex (p = 0.28) or age (p = 0.15). Our findings suggest that carthorses are exposed to T. gondii infections and that no associations with age or sex exist.

  11. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments related to Gondwana glaciation in Batovi and Suspiro regions, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazelli, Luiz José; Soliani, Enio

    1997-07-01

    Sedimentary facies were produced by Late Paleozoic Gondwana ice sheets in the Batovi and Suspiro regions, Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The glaciogenic sediments, assigned to the Itararé Group of Paraná Basin, are the result of processes related to the subglacial, supraglacial and proglacial (ice-contact, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine) environments of the glacial depositional system. Several features developed by the action of glaciers were identified in the studied outcrops: striated and grooved pavements; striated, polished and faceted stones; finely laminated rhythmites bearing dropstones (varvites); erratic clasts and deposits exhibiting deformational structures such as folds, normal and reverse faults, and beds with abnormal dips. The available evidence suggests that the glacial episodes took place in a terrestrial (continental) context, far from direct marine influence.

  12. Analysis of a general circulation model product. I - Frontal systems in the Brazil/Malvinas and Kuroshio/Oyashio regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzoli, Silvia L.; Garraffo, Zulema; Podesta, Guillermo; Brown, Otis

    1992-01-01

    The general circulation model (GCM) of Semtner and Chervin (1992) is tested by comparing the fields produced by this model with available observations in two western boundary current regions, the Brazil/Malvinas and the Kuroshio/Oyashio confluences. The two sets of data used are the sea surface temperature from satellite observations and the temperature field product from the GCM at levels 1 (12.5 m), 2 (37.5 m), and 6 (160 m). It is shown that the model reproduces intense thermal fronts at the sea surface and in the upper layers (where they are induced by the internal dynamics of the model). The location of the fronts are reproduced in the model within 4 to 5 deg, compared with observations. However, the variability of these fronts was found to be less pronounced in the model than in the observations.

  13. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariane Angélica Finger

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, the agent for toxoplasmosis, has worldwide distribution. Horses normally play a secondary role in its life cycle, but movement around urban areas, feeding on grass and the increasing use of carthorses for gathering recyclable material in some urban areas of Brazil may increase their exposure to T. gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, PR. IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT (titers ≥ 64. Seventeen (17.0% of the 100 horses sampled were seropositive. There were no statistical differences in relation to sex (p = 0.28 or age (p = 0.15. Our findings suggest that carthorses are exposed to T. gondii infections and that no associations with age or sex exist.

  14. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Superintendency of Biodiversity and Protected Areas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources of Maranhão (SEMA), Brazil janainnadantas@gmail.com (Brazil); Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Castro, Jonatas da Silva [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima [Degree in Biological Sciences, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres [Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Federal University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  15. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Maria T.S. Frade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry

  16. Trends in atmospheric heavy metals abundances over the Russian part of EMEP region in 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Konkova, Elizaveta S.

    2016-04-01

    The European part of Russia is covered by two atmospheric environment monitoring networks established in the 1970s-1980s to monitor and evaluate anthropogenic pollution of regional/background natural environment. These are EMEP - European Monitoring and Evaluation Program of transboundary atmospheric pollutant transmission (under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution) and IBMoN - Integrated Background Monitoring Network of environmental toxic pollution (prior to 1990 under the UNEP/GEMS supervision, mostly for East European countries). IGCE laboratories operate as analytical centers for both networks. Historically, IBMoN was partly implemented at EMEP sites to support this international program with additional (optional) data. IBMoN datasets were selected for analysis of atmospheric heavy metal trends in the Russian territory of EMEP region for the last twenty three years due to more intensive operation up to now [1, 2]. Atmospheric heavy metals are collected at the remote sites with the air samples of atmospheric aerosols deposited on Petryanov's cellulose acetate filters through high-volume pumping during 24 hours. To measure lead and cadmium content, filters are transferred into the solution to determine total amounts by the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) with flameless atomization. Precipitation samples (collected monthly with acidic preserving) are directly injected into the AAS detection module after filtering. The sampling procedure, special processing and analytical techniques allow us to measure concentrations at substantially low levels [3, 2]. In this study we investigate the long term trends of lead and cadmium in air and precipitation at two stations, viz. Astrakhan Biosphere Reserve (46°N, 49°E) and Danki (Oka-Terrace Biosphere Reserve, 54.9°N, 37.8°E). Following the EMEP general recommendations, the evaluation was done for two continuous periods covering 1990-2001 and 2002-2012, respectively. We apply the common

  17. Ectoparasite Infestations and Canine Infection by Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araes-Santos, Ana Isabel; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Peixoto, Renata M; Spolidorio, Mariana G; Azevedo, Sérgio S; Costa, Mateus M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Mauricio C

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs and their ectoparasites from rural and urban areas of two municipalities, Petrolina and Juazeiro, within a semiarid region (Caatinga biome) of northeastern Brazil, by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 12.1% (61/504) and 23.0% (116/504) of canine plasma samples had antibodies reactive to Rickettsia spp. and E. canis. E. canis DNA was detected by PCR in 8.3% (42/504) of canine blood samples, whereas no blood sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. The infection by E. canis was determined by PCR in 4.9% (14/285) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks and by Rickettsia felis in 1.1% (3/285) and 40.6% (74/182) ticks and fleas, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated statistically with the variables "to reside in Petrolina" and "presence of ectoparasites." Our results indicate that canine infection by E. canis might be endemic in the Caatinga biome as it is in other Brazilian biomes. Although no previous serosurvey for Rickettsia spp. has been conducted on dogs from the Caatinga biome, our values are much lower than the ones reported for rural dogs from other Brazilian biomes. These differences are likely related to the semiarid climate of the aatinga biome, which minimizes the exposure of rural dogs to Amblyomma spp. ticks, the most common vectors of Rickettsia spp. in Brazil. Considering that dogs are excellent sentinels for human exposure to Rickettsia spp., we can infer that the risks of human acquiring tick-borne rickettsiosis in the Caatinga region of the present study are low. The rickettsial infection rates in fleas and ticks were not related to canine seropositivity; i.e., areas with higher Rickettsia infection rates in fleas had the lowest canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp.

  18. Coadministration of nematophagous fungi for biological control over gastrointestinal helminths in sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Santos, Antonielson dos; Morais, Dayana Firmino de; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed to evaluate coadministration of Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in a sodium alginate matrix for controlling gastrointestinal helminths in young and adult sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. An area of 1ha was divided into two paddocks, in which two experimental groups (fungus and control) were formed, each consisting of six adult females and ten young males. In each group, two subgroups were formed in accordance with the animal category (adult or young). In the fungus group, each animal received 3g of pellets containing 0.6g of fungal mycelium, with 0.3g of D. flagrans and 0.3g of M. thaumasium for each 10 kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months. In the control group, each animal received 3g of pellets without fungus for each 10 kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months, serving as a witness group. Reductions in numbers of eggs per gram of feces of 76% among the adult sheep in the fungus group and 83% among the young sheep in the fungus group were observed, in comparison with their respective control subgroups. The groups that received these fungi needed less salvage deworming and presented better packed cell volume percentages, better weight gain and lower levels of L3/kg dry matter in their paddock than the control groups. Thus, it was concluded that coadministration of D. flagrans and M. thaumasium was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths of adults and young sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

  19. Trends in children’s employment and child labour in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2010-01-01

    The current report presents an overview of the child labour phenomenon in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region over recent years. It represents part of a broader effort to improve understanding of how child labour is changing over time in the region, and to ensure that policies relating to child labour adequately reflect these changes. The report draws on an accompanying set of country briefs on child labour developed for 15 countries in the LAC region.

  20. PROSPECTS AND TRENDS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INVESTMENT AND INNOVATION ACTIVITY OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko O. P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficient investment and innovation activity in the region is one of the key factors of its successful development. It is the process of implementation of the results of intellectual work in different types of property and intellectual values that have monetary value invested in the objects of entrepreneurial and other activities. The article considers the concept of the "investment and innovation policy" in the region. The importance of the investment and innovation potential of the region is substantiated. The factors that determine its state and development are considered. The approaches to the analysis of formation and implementation of the investment and innovation capacity in the region are defined. There was presented the legal framework regulating the investment and innovation activities of the Krasnodar Territory. The basic problems of the development of the innovative activity of the Krasnodar region, requiring the operative solutions were revealed. The basic foundations and organizations involved in the innovation of the Krasnodar region were presented. The main tool of the innovation policy of the Krasnodar region has been defined by the regional innovation center including the following elements of the infrastructure: a business- incubator of the innovative type, an engineering center and a center of prototyping. There was presented the characteristic of the main activities of the infrastructure of the Regional Innovation Centre. The information on the creation of the innovative Internet portal of the Krasnodar region and the creation of regional crowdfunding platforms on its base were cited. The dynamics of the main indicators of the innovative activity in the Russian Federation, the Southern Federal District and the Krasnodar region are given

  1. Incorporating climate trends in the stochastic modeling of extreme minimum air temperature series of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the hypothesis that the presence of climate trends in the annual extreme minimum air temperature series of Campinas (Tminabs; 1891-2010; 22º54'S; 47º05'W; 669 m may no longer be neglected, the aim of the work was to describe the probabilistic structure of this series based on the general extreme value distribution (GEV with parameters estimated as a function of a time covariate. The results obtained by applying the likelihood ratio test and the percentil-percentil and quantil-quantil plots, have indicated that the use of a time-dependent model provides a feasible description of the process under evaluation. In this non-stationary GEV model the parameters of location and scale were expressed as time-dependent functions. The shape parameter remained constant. It was also verified that although this non-stationary model has indicated an average increase in the values of the analyzed data, it does not allow us to conclude that the region of Campinas is now free from frost occurrence since this same model also reveals an increasing trend in the dispersions of the variable under evaluation. However, since the parameters of location and scale of this probabilistic model are significantly conditioned on time, the presence of climate trends in the analyzed time series is proven.

  2. Artroplastia unicompartimental do joelho: perspectivas e tendências atuais no Brasil Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: current perspectives and trends in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani

    2012-01-01

    questionnaire completely and became part of the sample analyzed. In this study, the majority of the surgeons performed fewer than five unicompartmental knee arthroplasty procedures/year (61.1% and between 5 and 15 high tibial osteotomy procedures/year (37.2%. Use of computerized navigation systems during surgery remains uncommon in our environment, since only 0.9% of the specialists were using it. 65.5% of the surgeons reported that they had chosen to use total knee arthroplasty rather than partial arthroplasty due to lack of familiarity with the surgical technique. When asked about the possibility that the number of unicompartmental prostheses used in Brazil would grow as surgeons in this country become increasingly familiar with the technique, 80.5% of the respondents believed in this hypothesis. In this sample, we found that the greater the surgeon's experience was, the greater the numbers of unicompartmental prostheses and tibial osteotomies performed annually were (r = 0.550 and r = 0.465, respectively; p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear evolutional trend towards treatment of unicompartmental osteoarthritis using partial knee arthroplasty in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefits of these trends.

  3. Borderlands in the diagnosis of regional enteritis: trends in overdiagnosis and value of therapeutic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Burrell, M I; Belleza, N A; Spiro, H M

    1978-04-15

    Our regional experience in the state of Connecticut indicates that Crohn's disease is being overdiagnosed. Six patients with disorders mimicking regional enteritis are presented, one of whom had an atypical clinical course and the remainder had atypical therapeutic responses. The radiologist should be aware of clinical responses and make reassessments if necessary, in order not to overlook surgically treatable conditions.

  4. Analysis of socio-economic impacts of sustainable sugarcane-ethanol production by means of inter-regional Input-Output analysis: Demonstrated for Northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herreras Martinez, S.D.; van Eijck, J.A.J.; Pereira da Cunha, M.; Guilhote, J.J.M.; Walter, A.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the socio-economic impacts in terms of value added, imports and employment of sugarcane-derived bioethanol production in Northeast (NE) Brazil. An extended inter-regional Input–Output (IO) model has been developed and is used to analyse three scenarios, all projected for 2020: a

  5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND TRENDS OF DRY DAYS IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mustakim Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall distribution in Bangladesh is not uniform and refl ecting topography. Hilly Sylhet region receives substantial rainfall every year compare to other regions of Bangladesh. Though Sylhet region is less vulnerable to drought but weather pattern is not constant and changing day by day. Hence as a part of drought an alysis, behavior of dry days is important. This study focuses on dry days pattern and associ ated changes from daily records of last 54 years for Sylhet region. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variations of dry days were analyzed to check for major changes. In order to inve stigate extreme dry events, time history of monthly dry days data were transformed into fre quency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Variability of dry days in tim e scale was also checked from filtered signals which is very useful for drought a nalysis, agricultural development and disaster management for the north-east region of Bangladesh.

  6. The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value

  7. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  8. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-11-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.

  9. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Codeço de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  10. Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Fernandes Druzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4% of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8% and with incomplete immunization (56.3%. Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months.

  11. Low titanium magmatism in northwest region of Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil: volcanological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The early Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalts (PCFB is considered as one of the largest volcanic provinces in the world. In Brazil, it completes the last sequence of the sedimentary Paraná Basin (Serra Geral Fm.. The geological unit is contemporary to desert sandstones of Botucatu Fm. and precedes the continental sediments of the Bauru Basin. This Large Igneous Province (LIP is divided into different types of geochemical magmas which basically are based on TiO2 content (higher – HTi or lower LTi than 2 wt.% in TiO2 and incompatible trace elements ratio. Therefore, we studied the magma LTi (TiO2 2 > 2.0 wt.%. Based on rheology data considering anhydrous environment and the composition of plagioclase (An(42–67 and clinopyroxene (Wo(30–40En(34–46Fs(17–32 showed that the LTi magma is hotter than HTi, with temperatures that range from 1069 °C to 1248 °C while for the second range from 1020 °C to 1201 °C.

  12. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  13. Assessing the Effects of Indigenous Migration on Zootherapeutic Practices in the Semiarid Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos Alberto Batista; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Souto, Wedson Medeiros Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2016-01-01

    Human migration implies adaptations to new environments, such as ways to benefit from the available biodiversity. This study focused on the use of animal-derived remedies, and we investigated the effects of migration on the traditional medical system of the indigenous Truká people. This ethnic group lives in Northeast Brazil and is currently distributed in four distinct villages. In these villages, the zootherapeutic knowledge of 54 indigenous people was determined through semi-structured questionnaires given from September 2013 to January 2014. The interviewees indicated 137 zootherapeutic uses involving 21 animal species. The variety of species and their uses have a higher similarity between villages that are closer to each other, which can be a reflection of geographic and environmental factors. However, even close villages showed a low similarity in the zootherapeutic uses recorded, which reflects a strong idiosyncrasy regarding the knowledge of each village. Hence, each village may be influenced by the physical environment and contact with other cultures, which may maintain or reduce the contact of younger villages with the original village.

  14. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  15. Pneumocystis and Histoplasma infections in wild animals from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Shaw, J J

    1975-01-01

    Routine examination of tissues from wild forest rodents from Amapá, north Brazil, revealed Pneumocystis carinii in lung smears from a newly captured Oryzomys capito (Cricetidae). Acute, fatal infections with this parasite are also recorded in a number of captive "coatimundis", Nasua narica (Carnivora: Procyonidae) and a sloth, Bradypus tridactylus (Edentata). Pneumocystis was also encountered in lung smears from a newly captured and apparently healthy sloth, Choloepus didactylus. The presence of infection in newly captured animals leads us to believe that the fatal, fulminating pneumocystosis seen in the captive Nasua and Bradypus was due to exacerbation of pre-existant infections acquired in their natural forest environment. Pneumocystis carinii is a well known cause of fatal, interstitial plasma-cell pneumonia in human infants and sometimes the weakened adult: the keeping of exotic pets such as the coatimundi is, therefore, not without some hazard in this respect. Histoplasma, another well known pathogen for man, was isolated from 4 rodents, Proechimys guyanensis (Echimyidae), all from virgin forest along the newly opened Trans Amazon Highway, Pará State, and from a single sloth, Choloepus didactylus, from near Belém, Pará. All these animals showed no symptoms of infection: isolation of the parasite was made by the inoculation of laboratory hamsters with saline suspensions of triturated liver and spleen.

  16. Trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, T.; Fujinami, H.; Oshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated trend and interannual variability of summer (June, July and August) precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region, with an emphasis on recent increase of those around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. Data used in this study are an archived precipitation data (PREC/L) and atmospheric re-analysis data (JRA-25, JRA-55). Previous studies have revealed a negative correlation in the summer atmospheric circulation pattern between the Lena and Ob river basins. However little is known about the atmospheric water cycles in the Arctic circumpolar region, including the Mackenzie river basin. Hence we compared the trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in three large North Eurasian river (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob) basins together with the Mackenzie basin. The analyzed results are as follows. 1) In the highest five-year summer precipitation in the Lena river basin during the period 1958 to 2012, the center of the cyclonic circulation shifted to the east, from the Kara and Barents Seas over the region across the Yenisei and Lena. In the years, significant cyclonic deviation was present. The deviation distribution of the height field and the atmospheric water vapor flux from the west to the Lena river basin were significantly increased, so as to form a positive deviation of summer precipitation. 2) Significant increases (positive trend) in the summer precipitation were detected from 1984 to 2011 in the Lena, Yenisei, and the Mackenzie river basins. However, summer precipitation showed significant decreases (negative trend) over Mongolia and Europe/Russia. This was because anticyclones dominated in these regions. 3) A significant enhancement of cyclonic circulation was detected from 2005 to 2008 on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean. However, anticyclones appeared over Mongolia. These probably increased the atmospheric water vapor convergence

  17. CD 123 - Wheat bread for white flour in cool regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar CD 123 is recommendable for the wheat-growing regions 1, 2 and 3 of the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. It is a white flour wheat destined for production in cooler regions. The mean potential yield is 3514 kg ha-1, exceeding that of the control cultivars by 5%.

  18. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  19. The Middle East in 2015: The Impact of Regional Trends in U.S. Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    inconsistent rela- tionships to accompany Israel’s military and economic superiority. The Israeli public is as interested in foreign policy as the...variation from state to state. In some states (for ex- ample, Kuwait and perhaps Dubai ) where the indigenous business community is relatively strong...by lowering the temperature of regional con- flicts and broadening the instruments for resolving them. Regional security would decrease the

  20. Near-Infrared Circular Polarization Survey in Star-Forming Regions: Correlations and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Jungmi; Hough, James H; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Lucas, Phil W; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kandori, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of ten sub-regions in six star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20 %, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star forming regions.

  1. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  2. Human milk POPs and neonatal risk trend from 1982 to 2009 in the same geographic region in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukavić, T; Vojinović Miloradov, M; Mihajlović, I; Ristivojević, A

    2013-04-01

    Three groups of POPs - DDT, HCH and PCBs were monitored in early human milk for 27 years (1982-2009), as a measure of environmental pollution in the same geographic region (South Bačka, Voyvodina, Serbia). Measurements were performed using ECD GC Varian 3400. Concetrations of DDT and HCH had general decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009. However, the concentrations of both groups of compounds showed small rises in 1994. Concentrations of PCBs had general decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009 - smooth and steep only till 1994 and with two small peaks in 2003 and 2009. The latest estimated daily intake of DDT and HCH was well below the EU upper limit for pesticides in food intended for infants and small children. Although the estimated daily intake of PCBs was far below the upper limit for daily milk products in Serbia, its increase in 2003 and 2009 is a clear indication of environmental influx of these compounds after the 1994 measurements. The likely explanation for such POP profiles in South Bačka could have been a series of negative environmental impacts escalating in 1999, after which four hot spots were identified in Serbia (Novi Sad, Pančevo, Bor and Kragujevac) by UNEP. The results of this monitoring showed that although a long standing environmental presence of POPs has a decreasing trend, their occasional output in the environment may cause bioaccumulation and biomagnification in human organisms which already start in the neonatal age through mother-child transfer via human milk.

  3. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool for conserva......To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...... are utilized. The proposed framework of this analysis has been proven to work well for assessing restoration prospects in the study area, and due to the generic design, the method is expected to be applicable for other areas of complex landscapes in the world to explore future trends of vegetation....

  4. Britain in Europe: international and regional comparisons of fertility levels and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D

    1993-01-01

    "This chapter compares fertility patterns and trends in Britain with those in other West European countries. Britain shares many features in common with the rest of Western Europe: fertility below the replacement level, late childbearing with births over age 30 becoming more common. Britain stands out, however, by having one of the highest birth rates in Europe and is one of the few European countries not facing population decline in the medium term. Average age at first marriage and first birth are relatively young. Britain also has one of the highest proportions (30 per cent) of births outside marriage...[with] at least a quarter of all children...likely to experience a single parent home or a reconstituted family before age 16." Some data for the rest of the United Kingdom are also discussed.

  5. Frequency of SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 in a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P N; Ferreira-Fernandes, H; de Oliveira, J S; Pereira, A C T C; Pinto, G R; Ferreira, G P

    2015-08-14

    Dendritic cells (DCs) mediate the initiation of the immune response against a variety of pathogens. The DC-SIGN receptor is encoded by the gene CD209 and is expressed on the surface of DCs. It binds to mannose-rich carbohydrates and enables the recognition of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 influences the expression of the DC-SIGN receptor. Several studies have associated this SNP with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and the development of more severe forms of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SNP -336A/G in a population from northeastern Brazil. We analyzed 181 individuals from the general population of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, of which 37% were men and 63% were women. SNP -336A/G was detected by polymerase chain reaction and treatment with the restriction enzyme MscI and visualized by electrophoresis on an 8% polyacrylamide gel stained with silver nitrate. Of the individuals analyzed, 116 (64.1%) were homozygous AA, 57 (31.5%) were heterozygous (AG), and 8 (4.4%) were homozygous GG. The allele frequency of -336G was 20.2%. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the frequency of the CD209 SNP -336A/G in a population in the State of Piauí. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between this SNP and the vulnerability of this population to major infectious diseases.

  6. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in traditional agricultural and agroforestry systems in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Amorim Silva do Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the semiarid region of Brazil, inadequate management of cropping systems and low plant biomass production can contribute to reduce soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N stocks; therefore, management systems that preserve C and N must be adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in soil C and N stocks that were promoted by agroforestry (agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral and traditional agricultural systems (slash-and-burn clearing and cultivation for two and three years and to compare these systems with the natural Caatinga vegetation after 13 years of cultivation. The experiment was carried out on a typical Ortic Chromic Luvisol in the municipality of Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. Soil samples were collected (layers 0-6, 6-12, 12-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm with four replications. The plain, convex and concave landforms in each study situation were analyzed, and the total organic C, total N and densities of the soil samples were assessed. The silvopastoral system promoted the greatest long-term reductions in C and N stocks, while the agrosilvopastoral system promoted the smallest losses and therefore represents a sustainable alternative for soil C and N sequestration in these semiarid conditions. The traditional agricultural system produced reductions of 58.87 and 9.57 Mg ha-1 in the organic C and total N stocks, respectively, which suggests that this system is inadequate for these semiarid conditions. The organic C stocks were largest in the concave landform in the agrosilvopastoral system and in the plain landform in the silvopastoral system, while the total N values were highest in the concave landform in the native, agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems.

  7. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  8. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Bordignon Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast Asia/South Pacific and III were identified. This recent co-circulation of different DENV-3 genotypes in South America may have implications for pathological and epidemiological dynamics.

  9. Growth trends, genotype-environment interaction and genetic gains in six-year-old rubber tree clones (Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Budwood from seven different clones of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] was planted in replicated trials in four different test sites in the plateau region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The clones represented a range of imported germplasm, whereas the locations were selected to represent a range of rubber growing areas. Girths were measured for six years consecutively, before the initiation of tapping for latex. Total number of latex vessel rings (lvr and bark thickness (bt were measured at six years. The largest average for all characters was observed in Matão. Overall means for girth, total number of latex vessel rings and bark thickness at six years were 35.26 cm, 11.30 units and 4.83 mm, respectively. Both the test sites and clones showed statistically significant differences in girth, lvr and bt values. There were significant clone x site interactions. Girth at one year was not a reliable predictor of future field performance. Broad sense heritability for girth was 0.16, and for lvr and bt it was 0.28 and 0.40, respectively, at six years. Repeatability was quite high, from 0.52 to 0.75 for all characters in all years. When two clones out of seven were selected, expected genetic gain in girth was about 2.0%; for lvr and bt it was 7.0% and 14.6%, respectively.

  10. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette;

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  11. Vestiges of a continental margin ophiolite type in the Novo Oriente region, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitombeira, João Paulo Araújo; Amaral, Wagner da Silva; Uchôa Filho, Evilarde Carvalho; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Parente, Clóvis Vaz; da Costa, Felipe Grandjean; Veríssimo, César Ulisses Vieira

    2017-01-01

    The Novo Oriente Group is a restricted well-preserved metasedimentary sequence, composed of two tectonic-stratigraphic sequences in the southwestern portion of the Ceará Central Domain, NE Brazil. The Bonsucesso Formation comprises mainly quartzite and metamafic rocks and the Caraúbas Formation is dominantly metapelitic, with chemical sedimentary contribution, metamafic and metaultramafic rocks. New integrated field, geochemical data and Sm-Nd isotopes of the metaultramafic and metamafic rocks of the two formations have been investigated in order to determine their tectonic setting. The metaultramafic rocks are dominantly composed of deformed and undeformed serpentinites, chloritites, actinolitites, talc-chlorite schists, serpentine-talc schists, talc-rich siliceous rocks and subordinated listwänites. Geochemical data indicate that the serpentinites correspond to rocks resulting from the alteration of dunites depleted in HREE, similar to the pattern presented by subduction-zone serpentinites generated from exhumed sub-continental peridotites and hydrated during ocean-continent transition (OCT) rifting. The metamafic rocks, represented by metagabbros, hornblende metagabbros and metabasalts, consist of basic rocks of basaltic and tholeiitic affinity with signatures between E- and N-MORB and variable contamination by crustal components similar to the rocks formed from the interaction between mantle plumes and heavily thinned continental crust. Isotopic analysis indicates crustal assimilation with negative ɛNd and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages. The data suggest that metaultramafic and metamafic rocks correspond, respectively, to continental sub-lithospheric mantle exhumed in an area of ocean-continent transition (OCT), and mafic magmatism associated with the development of a magma-poor passive margin generated by the break-up of the Rodinia Supercontinent, which was later dismembered by the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny collisional phase and preserved as a Continental

  12. Canine tungiasis: High prevalence in a tourist region in Bahia state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Tatiani Vitor; Heukelbach, Jorg; Assunção, Maíra Siles; Fernandes, Thalna Magalhães; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Carlos, Renata Santiago Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease neglected by authorities, health professionals, and the general population. Its occurrence is significantly associated with poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the prevalence of tungiasis, associated clinical signs and risk factors of the canine population at a tourist site in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia (northeast Brazil). All village households were visited and dogs inspected after authorization by owners. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Of the 114 dogs included in the study, 71 (62.3%) were infested; all of them had lesions on their pads. An ectopic lesion on the nose was observed in one dog (1.4%). The number of manipulated lesions outnumbered the number of vital and avital lesions with an average of 88.3%. Edema (95.8%) and hyperkeratosis (85.9%) were the most prevalent clinical signs. Behavioral disorders such as excessive licking (6/71; 8.5%), disobedience (1/71; 1.4%) and prostration (2/71; 2.8%) were reported. In the multi-variate analysis, semi-restricted condition of the dogs (adjusted OR=8.58; 95% CI=2.47-29.76) and the presence of sand on the compound (adjusted OR=14.23, 95% CI=2.88-70.28) were significantly associated with infestation. We concluded that, infestation with Tunga spp. is highly endemic in the canine population of the village. The low level of restrictions on dogs and the presence of sand in areas most frequented by the animals are perpetuating factors of infestation in the community, subject to integrated and multidisciplinary intervention measures.

  13. The Canastra Group in the type-area, Tapira region, southwest of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at describing the Neoproterozoic evolution of a Southern Brasília Fold Belt segment, in Tapira area(southwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, using detailed geologic mapping. This area, the Canastra Group type-area, hasshowed great tectonic and stratigraphic complexities unlike the simplicity suggested in previous works. From recognizingthe main tectonic discontinuities, it was possible to subdivide the area into some domains. In the west domain, they wereindividualized in tectonic sheet I, marked by pelitic rocks and pelitic-graphite rocks with psammitic intercalations, and II,pelitic rocks with psammitic and mafic-ultramafic intercalations overlapped by gneisses. In the east domain, a group ofthree tectonic sheets was defined, in which, in the two lower tectonic sheets, pelitic and pelitic-graphite rocks with psammiticrock intercalations prevailed, which is different in metamorphic conditions. The lower tectonic sheet is marked bymineralogical associations with muscovite + chlorite + quartz ± graphite ± albite, without biotite; however, the superior oneis with muscovite + quartz + garnet ± chlorite ± biotite ± chloritoid ± graphite ± albite. In the upper tectonic sheet, peliticrocks with local contributions of psammitic and ultramafics rocks occur. In the south domain, psammitic rocks basically occur with contributions of pelitics and rudaceous rocks, where the preservation of textures and sedimentary structures is common.Rocks of the several domains are interpreted as part of a passive continental margin basin, located in the western margin of the SãoFrancisco paleocontinent. Thus, the south domain rocks would represent the facies of proximal platform; rocks of the lower and middle tectonic sheets (east domain and of the tectonic sheet I (west domain are of facies distal platform; and the ones from the upper tectonic sheet (east domain and tectonic sheet II (west domain were acknowledged as deposited in an environment

  14. On the Economics of Regional Powers: Comparing China, India, Brazil, and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kappel, Robert

    2010-01-01

    As the conception of and debates on regional powers have been led by political science, this pa-per aims to contribute to the discussion from an economics perspective. Based on the discussion of different concepts of economic power - such as those of Schumpeter, Perroux, Predöhl, or Kindleberger - concepts of technological leadership, and the global value chain approaches, the paper develops a research framework for the economics of regional powers. This framework is then tested using descrip...

  15. TRENDS OF CURRENT DYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN THE SOILS OF ODESSA REGION

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    Bilanchyn Yaroslav

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of chemical processes’ dynamic studies of many years (1971-2011 in the soils of Odessa Region have been described. The most significant in the last 15-20 years have been changes of humus content and ecological & agrochemical status of black soils. In spite of some increase in the norm of fertilizers input for the last 5 years the negative balance of plant nutrition elements in soils is preserved. Ways of optimization of humus and ecological & agrochemical status of soils in the region and increase of their fertility have been proposed.

  16. The impact of water pollution on fish species in southeast region of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz S Silva, Sabrina; Dias, Aurélio Henrique C; Dutra, Elaine S; Pavanin, Alfredo L; Morelli, Sandra; Pereira, Boscolli B

    2016-01-01

    The rivers from the region of Catalão, Southeast Goiás State, Brazil, are exposed to intense anthropogenic influences including agricultural activities, industry, and urban waste. The aim of this study was to determine the severity of water pollution by conducting an experiment involving in situ biomonitoring of water constituents on genotoxicity in fish inhabiting these sites. The genotoxicity of three sites of the region were analyzed utilizing the micronucleus (MN) test. It was of interest to determine whether there were differences between sampling sites such as urban perimeter, agriculture, and fertilizer industry in control, and monitored species including Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax altiparanae, and Characidium fasciatum. Data demonstrated that the species at sites 1, 2, and 3 exhibited a marked increase in frequency of MN compared to fish from site 4. Significant elevation in frequency of MN occurred in erythrocytes of A. fasciatus and A. altiparanae at sites 1 and 2. At site 3 higher frequencies of MN were observed in C. fasciatum. MN induction in C. fasciatum was correlated with chromium levels in water and sediment, while A. fasciatum and A. altiparanae showed an association with zinc in water and sediment. Data suggest that benthic and nektonic fish species display different sensitivities in relation to anthropogenic contaminant influences.

  17. Infection by Neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vilas Boas

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of Rondônia, northern Brazil. For this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. The overall herd prevalence of N. caninum antibodies among the farms (38/63; 60.31% showed that N. caninum are widespread among the dairy herds in this region, despite only infecting a small proportion of animals (66/621, 10.62%. Occurrences of abortion and birth of weak calves were the only variables that showed as risk factors for the presence of N. caninum. The result from the spatial lag model strongly indicated that birth of weak calves and presence of N. caninum are occurring on farms that are located close to each other, indicating aggregation of disease occurrence.

  18. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  19. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  20. Spatial characterization of Leptospira spp. infection in equids from the Brejo Paraibano micro-region in Brazil

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    Ruy Brayner Oliveira Filho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study, the first to spatially characterize Leptospira spp. infection among equids in the Brejo Paraibano micro-region of the Paraiba state in the northeast of Brazil, investigated 257 animals in 26 farms properties. Serum samples from 204 horses, 46 mules and seven donkeys were serologically diagnosed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. The distribution of Leptospira spp. was studied by employing specific antigens from 24 different Leptospira serovars. All farms were georeferenced and their distribution visualised on a map of the Brejo Paraibano micro-region. In addition, rainfall data were obtained from the same year, in which the sampling was performed. Among the 20 farms found to harbour animals with leptospirosis, 14 (70% exhibited low prevalence, five (25% medium prevalence and one (5%, high prevalence. Certain areas had a higher density of infected farms and required intervention to control the infection. Many serovars were widely distributed, while others were more common in particular areas. There was no significant association between the prevalence of Leptospira spp. infection and rainfall.

  1. Spatial characterization of Leptospira spp. infection in equids from the Brejo Paraibano micro-region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Ruy Brayner; Campos Malta, Karla; Assis Santana, Vania Lucia; Vance Harrop, Mabel Hanna; Tancler Stipp, Danilo; Friguglietti Brandespim, Daniel; Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo; Wilton Pinheiro Júnior, José

    2014-05-01

    The present study, the first to spatially characterize Leptospira spp. infection among equids in the Brejo Paraibano micro-region of the Paraiba state in the northeast of Brazil, investigated 257 animals in 26 farms properties. Serum samples from 204 horses, 46 mules and seven donkeys were serologically diagnosed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The distribution of Leptospira spp. was studied by employing specific antigens from 24 different Leptospira serovars. All farms were georeferenced and their distribution visualised on a map of the Brejo Paraibano micro-region. In addition, rainfall data were obtained from the same year, in which the sampling was performed. Among the 20 farms found to harbour animals with leptospirosis, 14 (70%) exhibited low prevalence, five (25%) medium prevalence and one (5%), high prevalence. Certain areas had a higher density of infected farms and required intervention to control the infection. Many serovars were widely distributed, while others were more common in particular areas. There was no significant association between the prevalence of Leptospira spp. infection and rainfall.

  2. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  3. Population ageing trends in Serbia from the beginning of the 21st century and prospects until 2061: Regional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 2011 Census confirm that Serbia is still among countries with the oldest population in Europe. Persons aged 65+ out­numbered those under the age of 15 by 20% (17.4% versus 14.4%, and the median age was 42.7 years. Population ageing has continued, but it was slower in the intercensal period of 2002-2011 than during the 1980s and 1990s. Population ageing in Serbia has not only continued but is also widespread at all territorial levels. According to the 2011 Census, in all four statistical regions (NUTS 2, people aged 65 or older outnumbered those under the age of 15 and, in comparison to 2002, regional differences in the key indicators of population ageing increased. Heterogeneity is more present at lower territorial levels (cities/municipalities with the least favourable age structure which will be pointed out. This paper also explores trends of components of population dynamics in the intercensal period 2002-2011, as well as causal relationship with the change of the age structure. Current demographic trends (low fertility, negative natural increase, net emigration and very old age structure severely limit the spectrum of future demographic changes both in the medium and especially in the short term. The situation is particularly influenced by the entrance of the large baby boom generation in the elderly ages. Explorations of future population trends are conducted based on the author’s own demographic projections for Serbia until 2061 (revision 2014. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47006: Investigation of demographic phenomena in the function of public policies in Serbia

  4. Recent Trends and Developments: Regional Co-operation in Population Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an outline of objectives and outcomes specific to curriculum development, materials development, professional training, research and assessment, management and monitoring, and an agenda for future consultative seminars, all formulated at the UNESCO-sponsored regional consultative seminar on population education during May 1990, in…

  5. National, Regional and International Learning Assessments: Trends among Developing Countries, 1960-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.; Benavot, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines annual changes in the participation of developing countries in three kinds of learning assessment activity over the past three decades. It specifically highlights, and provides initial explanations for, the worldwide spread of national and regional assessments since the mid-1990s. The paper argues that national learning…

  6. Changes to urban form and commuting patterns: trends in two Danish city regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares indicators of polycentricity in a monocentric (MUR) and a polycentric urban region (PUR) in Denmark at two points in time (1982 and 2002). It describes how population, jobs and commuting indicators of polycentricity develop and interact over time. Both the MUR and the PUR tend...

  7. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Jassir, Fiorella Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous estimates have highlighted a large global burden of stillbirths, with an absence of reliable data from regions where most stillbirths occur. The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) targets national stillbirth rates (SBRs) of 12 or fewer stillbirths per 1000 births by 2030. We es...

  8. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state, civil society and market.

  9. Aerosol and rainfall variability over the Indian monsoon region. Distributions, trends and coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R. [Maryland Univ., Baltimore County, MD (United States). Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Atmospheres; Hsu, N.C.; Lau, K.M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Lab. for Atmospheres; Kafatos, M. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing

    2009-07-01

    Aerosol solar absorption over the Indian monsoon region has a potential role of modulating the monsoon circulation and rainfall distribution as suggested by recent studies based on model simulations. Prior to the onset of the monsoon, northern India is influenced by significant dust transport that constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading over the Gangetic-Himalayan region. In this paper, a multi-sensor characterization of the increasing pre-monsoon aerosol loading over northern India, in terms of their spatial, temporal and vertical distribution is presented. Aerosol transport from the northwestern arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains and over the foothills of the Himalayas is found to be vertically extended to elevated altitudes (up to 5 km) as observed from the space-borne lidar measurements (CALIPSO). In relation with the enhanced pre-monsoon aerosol loading and the associated solar absorption effects on tropospheric temperature anomalies, this paper investigates the monsoon rainfall variability over India in recent past decades from an observational viewpoint. It is found that the early summer monsoon rainfall over India is on the rise since 1950s, as indicated by historical rainfall data, with over 20% increase for the period 1950-2004. This large sustained increase in the early summer rainfall is led by the observed strengthening of the pre-monsoon tropospheric land-sea thermal gradient over the Indian monsoon region as indicated by microwave satellite measurements (MSU) of tropospheric temperatures from 1979-2007. Combined analysis of changes in tropospheric temperatures and summer monsoon rainfall in the past three decades, suggest a future possibility of an emerging rainfall pattern of a wetter monsoon over South Asia in early summer followed by a drier period. (orig.)

  10. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imamovic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around −0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around −0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  11. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  12. Changing trends in nervous system diseases among hospitalized children in the Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zou; Nong Xiao; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing trends of nervous system diseases among hospitalized children and the risk factors of death. METHOD: The disease was statistically classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Health Problem (ICD10). The retrospective investigation includes demographic characteristics, as well as categories and fatality rates for nervous system diseases. All data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of nervous system diseases among inpatients in all wards was 2.4% (2 537/ 107 250) between January 1993 and December 1999, and 3.6% (6 082/170 619) between January 2000 and December 2006. The first ten patterns of various etiologic forms of nervous system diseases were identical-epilepsies and seizures, infections of the central nervous system, autoimmune and demyelination disorders, cerebral palsy, motor unit disorders, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, extra-pyramidal disorders, congenital abnormalities of nervous system, and headache. Epilepsies and seizures took first place in both year groups, with 29.4% and 35%, respectively. Bacterial infections were responsible for the majority of cranial infections in both year groups, with 78.9% and 63.6% respectively. The death rate in the year group January 2000 to December 2006 was significantly less than in the year group January 1993 to December 1999 (X2= 27.832, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Among all nervous system diseases, epilepsies and seizures were among the most common, with the lowest fatality rate.

  13. Solar radiation in Germany - observed trends and an assessment of their causes. Pt. 1; Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepert, B. (Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung); Fabian, P. (Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung); Grassl, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    The possible longterm variation of daily sums of global solar radiation (direct plus diffuse solar radiation) in West-Germany was analysed for twelve stations of the German Weather Service (DWD). The global solar radiation decreased remarkably at seven stations (List/Sylt, Norderney, Hamburg, Braunlage, Wuerzburg, Weihenstephan, Hohenpeissenberg) and showed no significant variations at the remaining five stations (Braunschweig, Bocholt, Gelsenkirchen, Trier and Freiburg). The average decline is 3.7[+-]1.3% per decade in the last 15 to 39 years. The locally varying causes for the decline are changes in cloud parameters, fog occurrence and tropospheric aerosol. In this part of the article some possible causes, such as solar variability, increased number of contrails, decreased surface reflectivity, increased volcanic aerosol load in the 1980's or increased water vapour column content could be excluded. With a more sophisticated statistical procedure the effect of changes in cloud parameters and the effect of changed clear sky turbidity could not only be separated for each month for Hohenpeissenberg and Wuerzburg but also made mainly responsible for the observed trend. In Part II (Grabbe, Grassl), more detailed observations of solar radiation hourly averages of Hamburg were analysed. (orig.)

  14. Biology of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey, 1867 (Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae in a continental shelf region of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Corrêa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the biology of C. bleekerianus from Paraná State coast, Brazil, assembling data about its abundance, size structure, diet and reproduction. Monthly collections were accomplished in 1999 and 2000 in the internal continental shelf, with trawl net. The catch-per-unit-effort did not vary significantly among the seasons. In the summer, the individuals were larger, followed by autumn, spring and winter. C. bleekerianus was predominantly planktivorous and the most frequent items in its diet were copepods followed by diatomaceous algae. Seasonal variation in the frequency values of the gonad maturation stages, gonadossomatic index and gonadal condition factor indicated that the reproductive period encompassed spring and summer. The mean total length at first maturity of females was estimated to be 76 mm.Este trabalho fornece dados sobre a biologia de C. bleekerianus do litoral do Estado do Paraná, reunindo dados sobre sua abundância, estrutura em tamanho, dieta e reprodução. Coletas mensais foram realizadas em 1999 e 2000 na plataforma continental interna, com rede de arrasto de fundo com portas. A captura por unidade de esforço não variou significativamente entre as estações do ano. No verão os indivíduos eram maiores, seguido do outono, primavera e inverno. C. bleekerianus é predominantemente planctívora, sendo copépodos seguidos de algas diatomáceas os itens alimentares mais freqüentes em sua dieta. As variações sazonais de valores da freqüência de estádios de maturação gonadal, do índice gonadossomático e do fator de condição gonadal indicam que o período reprodutivo compreende primavera e verão. O comprimento total médio de primeira maturação das fêmeas é estimado em 76 mm.

  15. Spatial clusters of violent deaths in a newly urbanized region of Brazil: highlighting the social disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Ana Lucia SS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents among youth are a public health issue worldwide. Studies of the complex network of cause and effect on this topic point to both poverty and health inequalities. Different investigational approaches to intentional and unintentional deaths combined with socioeconomic variables can help create a better understanding of the association between violence and socioeconomic conditions. This study analyzed the spatial distribution and potential clusters of risk for intentional and unintentional deaths among youths aged 15-24 years in Goiânia, a newly urbanized city in central Brazil. Methods Death data and residential addresses were extracted from the national Mortality Information System and validated by household visits. To detect all potential cases, we prospectively investigated every death classified as a transport accident, assault, legal intervention, intentional self-harm, unknown underlying cause, and undetermined intent according to the ICD-10. The Geographical Information System was used to plot residential addresses, and cases were interactively geocoded to the residential address level using a digital map of the municipality. Spatial scan statistic was applied (Poisson model to identify clusters of census tracts with high mortality due to intentional injuries and traffic accidents. The socioeconomic variables obtained using census data were compared between the most likely cluster and other areas of the municipality. Results The most violent deaths among young people were due to intentional injuries. Between August 2005 and August 2006, 145 addresses for cases of intentional injuries and traffic accidents were located and geocoded. No significant clusters for deaths due to traffic accidents were found within the municipality. One significant cluster (RR = 4.65; p = 0.029 composed of 14 cases of intentional deaths, mostly homicides, was detected in an emergent, populated, and

  16. The paradox of cooling streams in a warming world: regional climate trends do not parallel variable local trends in stream temperature in the Pacific continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy; Hockman-Wert, David

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamentally important driver of ecosystem processes in streams. Recent warming of terrestrial climates around the globe has motivated concern about consequent increases in stream temperature. More specifically, observed trends of increasing air temperature and declining stream flow are widely believed to result in corresponding increases in stream temperature. Here, we examined the evidence for this using long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-impacted sites located across the Pacific continental United States. Based on hypothesized climate impacts, we predicted that we should find warming trends in the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures, as well as increasing variability over time. These predictions were not fully realized. Warming trends were most prevalent in a small subset of locations with longer time series beginning in the 1950s. More recent series of observations (1987-2009) exhibited fewer warming trends and more cooling trends in both minimally and highly human-influenced systems. Trends in variability were much less evident, regardless of the length of time series. Based on these findings, we conclude that our perspective of climate impacts on stream temperatures is clouded considerably by a lack of long-termdata on minimally impacted streams, and biased spatio-temporal representation of existing time series. Overall our results highlight the need to develop more mechanistic, process-based understanding of linkages between climate change, other human impacts and stream temperature, and to deploy sensor networks that will provide better information on trends in stream temperatures in the future.

  17. Bibliometric analysis of public health research in Africa: The overall trend and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases in Africa can be prevented with appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess the bibliometric characteristics of public health related research articles published by researchers in African institutions from 1991 to 2005. Data used in this study were obtained from the online version of the ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded. Articles published between 1991 and 2005 that had the phrase ‘public health’ in the title, author keywords or abstract, and had at least one author whose contact address was in an African country, were selected for analysis. The annual number of public health related articles published by African researchers significantly increased from 28 articles in 1991 to 135 articles in 2005, a 382% increase. International collaboration also increased: from 45% of articles having international collaborators during 1991–1995, to 52% during1996–2000, and to 67% during 2001–2005. Collaborations were mostly with European and North American countries. Keywords, subject categories and collaboration patterns of articles varied across regions, reflecting differences in needs and collaboration networks. Public health related research output, as well as international collaborations, have been increasing in Africa. Regional variation observed in this study may assist policymakers to facilitate the advancement of public health research in different regions of Africa, and could be useful for international organisations in identifying needs and to allocate research funding. Future bibliometric analyses of articles published by African researchers, can consider conducting regional comparisons using standardised methods, as well as describing the overall patterns, in order to provide a more comprehensive view of their bibliometric characteristics.

  18. Variation and future trends in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Zhou, Xiuhua; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hua

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzed the changes in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region of China, and undertook a composite analysis of the atmospheric circulations in the troposphere, which included an analysis of the interannual and interdecadal variations. This paper examines in detail the circulation backgrounds of the wet and dry periods in summer and autumn and their correlations with the sea surface temperature. The results indicated that the summer and autumn precipitation across Yunnan has significantly decreased over the past 50 years. Furthermore, since the beginning of the century, the summer and autumn precipitation cycle has been in a low precipitation phase. The overlap of two extremely low rain phases has caused frequent droughts in the region. In addition, the atmospheric circulation fields during these wet and dry periods are very different. These are mainly shown as a meridional wind anomaly in eastern China in the low atmosphere, as a cross-equatorial airflow anomaly, a tropical zonal wind anomaly over the Indian Ocean, and as a related South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High. Further analysis suggested that the SST over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific warm pool critically affect the anomalous summer and autumn precipitation over Yunnan by impacting the monsoon circulations. Future projections for greenhouse gas warming suggest a potential anomalous circulation background between 2010 and 2020 which may result in less precipitation during the wet season or even drought events across the Yunnan region.

  19. The simulation of cutoff lows in a regional climate model: reliability and future trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grose, Michael R. [University of Tasmania, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Private Bag 80, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Pook, Michael J.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Risbey, James S. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR), Hobart, TAS (Australia); Bindoff, Nathaniel L. [University of Tasmania, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), Private Bag 80, Hobart, TAS (Australia); CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR), Hobart, TAS (Australia); University of Tasmania, Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS), Private Bag 129, Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2012-07-15

    Cutoff lows are an important source of rainfall in the mid-latitudes that climate models need to simulate accurately to give confidence in climate projections for rainfall. Coarse-scale general circulation models used for climate studies show some notable biases and deficiencies in the simulation of cutoff lows in the Australian region and important aspects of the broader circulation such as atmospheric blocking and the split jet structure observed over Australia. The regional climate model conformal cubic atmospheric model or CCAM gives an improvement in some aspects of the simulation of cutoffs in the Australian region, including a reduction in the underestimate of the frequency of cutoff days by more than 15 % compared to a typical GCM. This improvement is due at least in part to substantially higher resolution. However, biases in the simulation of the broader circulation, blocking and the split jet structure are still present. In particular, a northward bias in the central latitude of cutoff lows creates a substantial underestimate of the associated rainfall over Tasmania in April to October. Also, the regional climate model produces a significant north-south distortion of the vertical profile of cutoff lows, with the largest distortion occurring in the cooler months that was not apparent in GCM simulations. The remaining biases and presence of new biases demonstrates that increased horizontal resolution is not the only requirement in the reliable simulation of cutoff lows in climate models. Notwithstanding the biases in their simulation, the regional climate model projections show some responses to climate warming that are noteworthy. The projections indicate a marked closing of the split jet in winter. This change is associated with changes to atmospheric blocking in the Tasman Sea, which decreases in June to November (by up to 7.9 m s{sup -1}), and increases in December to May. The projections also show a reduction in the number of annual cutoff days by 67

  20. Structural Transformations of the Economy in the Pacific Region of Russia and Efficiency Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Yakovlevich Baklanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Russia is considered as an aqua-territorial macro-region entering the Far Eastern Federal Okrug and its adjacent water area within a 200-mile sea economic zone. The macro-region has the richest nature-resource potential of a dry land and the sea, the possibilities to use the sea transport for communications of Russia and Europe with the countries of the Asian-Pacific region. In Pacific Russia, two latitudinal zones are allocated: the northern and southern ones, consisting of the territories of the Far Eastern Federal Okrug of Russia. Combinations of activities by the subjects and by the latitudinal zones are considered as the territorial structures of economy. The distinctions of these latitudinal zones by their socio-economic potential and the level of development are shown. By the changes of homogeneous activities in the subjects and their ratios, measured in the shares of the added cost, the assessment of the structural transformation of economy was carried out in the latitudinal zones from 2004 to 2013. The tendencies of the transformation of the territorial structures of economy were revealed in the latitudinal zones. The greatest changes of the structures of economy occurred in the northern zone for this period. In the southern zone, the structural transformations of economy were a little less, except for Sakhalin. In this case, in both latitudinal zones, a share of processing manufactures reduced and that of the extracting industries increased. The generalized assessment of the changes in social and economic efficiency (by increased personal income, labor productivity, profits in correlation with the structural changes in the economy of the regions of Pacific Russia has been made. The authors note that an important premise for building a sufficiently sustainable system of interregional division of labor in Pacific Russia is the location of extractive industries and initial stages of the manufacturing industry activities in the

  1. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

  2. Semi-arid Northeast Brazil: integrated modelling of regional development and global change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Maarten S.; Fuhr, Dagmar; Döring, Andreas; Unruh, Jon D.; Krol, Maarten S.; Kliot, Nurit

    2004-01-01

    Societies in semi-arid areas in developing regions are amongst those most vulnerable to climate variability and potentially most vulnerable to climate change. The vulnerability to climate variability emerges from a combination of the level of availability of natural resources and the human dependenc

  3. DDT and HCH, two discontinued organochlorine insecticides in the Great Lakes region: isomer trends and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

    2014-08-01

    The uses of the insecticides 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene] (p,p'-DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) have been discontinued for several years, but they are still consistently detected in air samples collected on the shores of the Great Lakes. Although the agricultural uses of DDT have been restricted in the United States since 1972, DDT continued to be used to manufacture the miticide, dicofol, up until 2011. The use of the technical HCH mixture in North America was restricted in the 1970s, when it was replaced by one of its purified conformers, γ-HCH, also known as lindane. In this study, we have focused on isomer-specific data to gain insights on the temporal trends and possible sources of these compounds. In particular, we calculated ratios of the concentrations of p,p'-DDE+p,p'-DDD versus the sum of the concentrations of the three p,p' isomers. These ratios are about the same at all five of our sampling sites and are about the same as observed globally. We also calculated the ratio of the concentrations of o,p'-DDT versus the sum of concentrations of o,p'-DDT+p,p'-DDT. This ratio has increased significantly at all five sites over the last 15-20 years. We suggest that dicofol, which contained about 11% o,p'-DDT, may now be a significant, additional source of DDT to the Great Lakes. The average ratio of the concentration of γ-HCH (lindane) versus the sum of the concentrations of γ-HCH+α-HCH did not vary significantly with time, but it did show an urban signature, suggesting that cities may be more important sources of these compounds than previously suspected.

  4. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V.; Shelley, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of “vertical” line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  5. Regional trends of aerosol optical depth and their impact on cloud properties over Southern India using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K. Rama; Obul Reddy, K. Raja; Balakrishnaiah, G.; Arafath, S. MD.; Kumar Reddy, N. Siva; Rao, T. Chakradhar; Reddy, T. Lokeswara; Reddy, R. Ramakrishna

    2016-08-01

    Remote sensing of global aerosols has constituted a great scientific interest in a variety of applications related to global warming and climatic change. In the present study we investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and its impact on various properties of clouds over Southern India for the last ten years (2005-2014) by using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data retrieved from the onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. The spatial distributions of annual mean lowest Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) value is observed in Bangalore (BLR) (0.22±0.04) and the highest AOD value is noted in Visakhapatnam (VSK) (0.39±0.05). Similarly high Fine Mode Fraction (FMF) is noticed over VSK and Thiruvananthapuram (TVM), while lower values are observed in Anantapur (ATP), Hyderabad (HYD), Pune (PUNE) and BLR. From the results, a negative correlation was found between AOD and Cloud Top Temperature (CTT), Cloud Top Pressure (CTP) where as, a positive correlation was observed between AOD and Cloud Fraction (CF), Water Vapor (WV) over the selected regions. Monthly average AOD and FMF are plotted for analysis of the trends of aerosol loading in a long-term scale and both values showed statistically significant enhancing trend over all regions as derived from the MODIS measurements. Further, the annual variation of spatial correlation between MODIS and MISR (Multi - Angle Imaging Spectro Radiometer) AOD has been analyzed and the correlation coefficients are found to be higher in two of the regions VSK and PUNE (>0.8), and considerably lower for TVM (<0.7).

  6. Food Security - Global Trends and Region Perspective with Reference to East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ching-Cheng; Hsu, Shih-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    The sharp increase in global food prices during 2007‐2008 has triggered the awareness of food insecurity problems and their impacts on the low income, food‐deficit countries many of which are located in the East Asian countries. The food‐security situation was good in relative terms given that the percentage of carbohydrates consumed is slightly lower than the world average while proteins and fats consumption are higher than that of other regions. The food security in East Asia is largely dri...

  7. The (bi)literacy social practices in the border region between Brazil-Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Susel Gulart Antunes; Clara Dornelles; Valesca Brasil Irala

    2014-01-01

    The present work focuses on the Brazilian-Uruguayan border region at Aceguá/Aceguá in an attempt to describe the literacy activities carried out in one or more languages (BORTOLINI, 2009; HORNBERGER, 2004) by students and their relatives outside the school context, in their daily lives. This research articulated quantitative and qualitative methodological perspectives (cf. RAUEN, 2006), and made use of forms applied in interviews, observations and field notes. The results suggest that the man...

  8. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  9. High temperature garnet growth in New England: regional temperature-time trends revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, N.; Ostwald, C.; Chu, X.; Baxter, E. F.; Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    A series of localized ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)/high-temperature (HT) granulite facies regions have been identified within the regional amphibolite facies metamorphic zone of the Central Maine Terrane stretching from north-central New Hampshire, through central Massachusetts, and into northeastern Connecticut. Here, we aim to constrain the age and peak temperature of metamorphism at three localities within this region: Bristol, NH, Phillipston, MA and Willington, CT. Garnet-forming reactions are linked directly to peak metamorphic temperatures through thermodynamic modeling and/or Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Precise garnet geochronology allows us to identify the timing of these peak temperatures, as well as the duration of garnet growth. Geochronologic and thermodynamic work was done on 12 samples collected throughout a ~5 km2 metamorphic 'hotspot' previously identified in Bristol, NH (Chamberlain and Rumble, 1988; Journal of Petrology). The highest temperature assemblage within this hotspot is characterized by the presence of garnet + sillimanite + K-feldspar + cordierite and reached temperatures >820οC. The lowest temperature periphery of the hotspot is characterized by sillimanite + muscovite + K-feldspar + minor garnet and reached a maximum temperature of 650οC. Bulk garnet ages from samples within the hotspot range significantly from at least 400.0 × 2.5 Ma to 352.7 × 1.8 Ma with the youngest ages associated with the lower temperature samples. This collection of ages indicates a prolonged period (~50 Ma) of >650οC temperatures interspersed by period(s) of garnet growth. Zoned garnet geochronology will help reveal whether garnet growth and related heating was continuous or episodic. Further south, in Phillipston, MA, zoned garnet geochronology performed on a 2.5 cm diameter garnet porphyroblast indicates garnet growth spanning 389 - 363 Ma, reaching peak temperatures at the end of that time span of 920-940οC, followed by a younger event recorded in

  10. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

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    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  11. Tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe TOMS by the modified-residual method: Evaluation with sondes, ENSO signals, and trends from Atlantic regional time series

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    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1999-11-01

    The modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amounts from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is applied to the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992). These are available as digital data at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/˜tropo/14y_data.d The MR method has also been used to produce real-time maps of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996-1997). Evaluation of the TTO time series for 1979-1990 and 1997-1998 is presented here; it is limited to the few tropical ozonesonde stations operational during those years (Ascension Island; Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville). The standard deviation of the differences between TTO and the sondes is ±(6-7) Dobson units (DU), depending on location. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares favorably with sondes (to within 6-9 DU) and with stratospheric ozone inferred from other satellites (usually 8-15 DU lower than the latter). TTO time series and the magnitude of the tropospheric wave-one pattern show El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals during the period from 1979-1992. During 1997 the ENSO stands out at some stations, but not at others. Between 12°N and 12°S, zonally averaged TTO shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, for example, from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980s), which shows no significant trend. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the convective-cloud-differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  12. Regional trends in soil acidification and exchangeable metal concentrations in relation to acid deposition rates.

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    Stevens, Carly J; Dise, Nancy B; Gowing, David J

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of high levels of reactive nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), or the legacy of that deposition, remain among the world's most important environmental problems. Although regional impacts of acid deposition in aquatic ecosystems have been well documented, quantitative evidence of wide-scale impacts on terrestrial ecosystems is not common. In this study we analysed surface and subsoil chemistry of 68 acid grassland sites across the UK along a gradient of acid deposition, and statistically related the concentrations of exchangeable soil metals (1 M KCl extraction) to a range of potential drivers. The deposition of N, S or acid deposition was the primary correlate for 8 of 13 exchangeable metals measured in the topsoil and 5 of 14 exchangeable metals in the subsoil. In particular, exchangeable aluminium and lead both show increased levels above a soil pH threshold of about 4.5, strongly related to the deposition flux of acid compounds.

  13. Monitoring in the Western Pacific region shows evidence of seagrass decline in line with global trends.

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    Short, Frederick T; Coles, Robert; Fortes, Miguel D; Victor, Steven; Salik, Maxwell; Isnain, Irwan; Andrew, Jay; Seno, Aganto

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass systems of the Western Pacific region are biodiverse habitats, providing vital services to ecosystems and humans over a vast geographic range. SeagrassNet is a worldwide monitoring program that collects data on seagrass habitats, including the ten locations across the Western Pacific reported here where change at various scales was rapidly detected. Three sites remote from human influence were stable. Seagrasses declined largely due to increased nutrient loading (4 sites) and increased sedimentation (3 sites), the two most common stressors of seagrass worldwide. Two sites experienced near-total loss from of excess sedimentation, followed by partial recovery once sedimentation was reduced. Species shifts were observed at every site with recovering sites colonized by pioneer species. Regulation of watersheds is essential if marine protected areas are to preserve seagrass meadows. Seagrasses in the Western Pacific experience stress due to human impacts despite the vastness of the ocean area and low development pressures.

  14. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

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    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  15. Past and future trends of hydroclimatic intensity over the Indian monsoon region

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    Mohan, T. S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2017-01-01

    The hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT) is a single index that quantitatively combines measures of precipitation intensity and dry spell length, thus providing an integrated response of the hydrological cycle to global warming. The HY-INT index is a product of the precipitation intensity (PINT, intensity during wet days) and dry spell length (DSL). Using the observed gridded rainfall data sets of 1951-2010 period, the changes in HY-INT, PINT, and DSL over the Indian monsoon region have been examined in addition to changes in maximum consecutive dry days (MCD). We have also considered 10 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models for examining the changes in these indices during the present-day and future climate change scenarios. For climate change projections, the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario was considered. The analysis of observational data during the period 1951-2010 suggested an increase in DSL and MCD over most of central India. Further, statistically significant (95% level) increase in HY-INT is also noted during the period of 1951-2010, which is mainly caused due to significant increase in precipitation intensity. The CMIP5 model projections of future climate also suggest a statistically significant increase in HY-INT over the Indian region. Out of the 10 models considered, seven models suggest a consistent increase in HY-INT during the period of 2010-2100 under the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the projected increase in HY-INT is mainly due to increase in the precipitation intensity, while dry spell length (DSL) showed little changes in the future climate.

  16. Effects of climate change on phenological trends and seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ji, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic change on phenological phases of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) in oasis of arid regions may help optimize management schemes to increase productivity. This study assessed the impacts of climatic changes on the phenological phases and productivity of spring cotton. The results showed that climatic warming led the dates of sowing seed, seeding emergence, three-leaf, five-leaf, budding, anthesis, full bloom, cleft boll, boll-opening, boll-opening filling, and stop-growing become earlier by 24.42, 26.19, 24.75, 23.28, 22.62, 15.75, 14.58, 5.37, 2.85, 8.04, and 2.16 days during the period of 1981-2010, respectively. The growth period lengths from sowing seed to seeding emergence and from boll-opening to boll-opening filling were shortened by 1.76 and 5.19 days, respectively. The other growth period lengths were prolonged by 2-9.71 days. The whole growth period length was prolonged by 22.26 days. The stop-growing date was delayed by 2.49-3.46 days for every 1 °C rise in minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures; however, other development dates emerged earlier by 2.17-4.76 days. Rising temperatures during the stage from seeding emergence to three-leaf reduced seed cotton yields. However, rising temperatures increased seed cotton yields in the two stages from anthesis to cleft boll and from boll-opening filling to the stop-growing. Increasing accumulated temperatures (AT) had different impacts on different development stages. During the vegetative phase, rising AT led to reduced seed cotton yields, but rising AT during reproductive stage increased seed cotton yields. In conclusion, climatic warming helpfully obtained more seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions in northwest China. Changing the sowing date is another way to enhance yields for climate change in the future.

  17. Trends of ionospheric irregularities over African low latitude region during quiet geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungufeni, Patrick; Habarulema, John Bosco; Jurua, Edward

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence patterns of ionospheric irregularities during quiet geomagnetic conditions over the African low latitude region were analysed. GNSS-derived Total Electron Content of the ionosphere data during the period 2001-2012 were used. The data were obtained from Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.68°E, geographic, 8.05°S, magnetic), Mbarara, Uganda (0.60°S, 30.74°E, geographic, 10.22°S, magnetic), and Malindi, Kenya (2.99°S, 40.19°E, geographic, 12.42°S, magnetic). The rate of change of total electron content index greater than 0.5 TECU/Min were considered as severe ionospheric irregularities. For most of the time, the strength of ionospheric irregularities in March equinox were greater than those during September equinox over East Africa and an opposite observation was made over West Africa. These asymmetries might be due to the direction of the meridional winds during equinoxes over the different stations. Severity of ionospheric irregularity reduced from west towards the east. This might have been related to the decreasing geomagnetic field strength from east towards the west. This is the first study that reveals the equinoctial asymmetry is different in the West and East African sectors. Moreover, the importance of this study lies in the fact that it has used extensive data to examine the isolated and un-explained earlier observations of equinoctial asymmetry and longitudinal variation of ionospheric irregularities over the African low latitude region.

  18. Thermal discomfort and hypertension in bus drivers and chargers in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Assunção, Ada Ávila

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between perception of temperature inside the bus and hypertension among 1126 collective transportation workers in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Thermal discomfort was determined based on the perception of temperature inside the bus. Hypertension was determined if participant had a medical diagnosis of this disease. Prevalence ratios (PR) for hypertension and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The perceptions of temperature inside the bus were tolerable (26.5%), disturbs a little (28.6%), disturbs a lot (34.8%) and unbearable (10.2%). The prevalence of hypertension was 14.3%. The thermal discomfort categories of disturbs a lot (PR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02-1.95) and unbearable (PR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.16-2.63) were independently related to hypertension. Thermal discomfort was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. This finding should be considerate in new policies for public transportation.

  19. Levels of mannose-binding lectin in individuals with visceral leishmaniasis in the northeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E L; Campos Júnior, M; Monteiro, S G; Costa, G C; Magalhães, A L P; Santos, M D C; Caldas, A J M; Pimentel, M M G

    2015-12-29

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the seven priority endemic diseases in the world. The clinical outcome of many infections is not only dependent on the pathogenic organism, but also on the genetic variability of the host susceptibility to infection. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a protein that plays an important role in the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of MBL between healthy controls and carriers of VL. The VL cases were recruited randomly from the main hospitals and referral outpatient clinics for VL in São Luís, and from home visits. Determination of MBL protein levels was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 161 patients with VL and the 161 healthy controls, 60.9 and 67.1% had high levels of MBL, respectively. There was no significant difference in MBL levels between cases and controls. Low socioeconomic status and living conditions are conducive to the occurrence of VL. Owing to the small number of existing studies, it is extremely important to conduct further studies on MBL levels and susceptibility to VL, especially in regions where the disease is endemic, such as Maranhão, Brazil.

  20. [Adhering to or resisting tobacco cultivation? Stories of rural workers from a producing region in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Elida Azevedo

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to understand the standpoints of farming families who have resisted or abandoned tobacco cultivation and also the perceptions of State representatives, civil society organizations and the tobacco industry regarding the implementation and the continuity of this cultivation in a producing region in southern Brazil. In this ethnographic study, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming families and key informants. Besides that, participant observation was conducted. For those who abandoned tobacco cultivation, the main reason mentioned was indebtedness, and for those who have never planted, the main reasons alleged were fear of indebtedness, a limited workforce or religious issues. State representatives and civil society organizations highlighted illusory financial returns as the main reason for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco industry representatives insisted on the difficulty of commercializing the production and the low price of foodstuffs as a stimulus to adhere to the integrated system. It is therefore concluded that the formation of associations and the development of crop rotation plans are important strategies to be adopted to facilitate the change of cultivation in order to promote better working and living conditions for the rural population.

  1. Assessment of Copper and Zinc in Soils of a Vineyard Region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This soil acidification may increase the bioavailability of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils. The objective of this study was to verify the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of a vineyard region, including sample acidification, to simulate acid rain. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation, with an adjacent land having other crops grown, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The extracted solutions used to determine the available Cu and Zn forms were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, pH 7.3, and calcium chloride 0.01 M. The total forms were obtained by HNO3 digestion. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using DTPA were considered high in most of the samples and were greater in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had received fungicide applications for several decades. The total forms were higher in vineyard soils. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using CaCl2 did not have good correlation with vineyards or with other metals' forms. The results confirmed that the soil was enriched with Cu and Zn due to the management of the vineyards with chemicals for several decades.

  2. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  3. Genetic profile characterization of 10 X-STRs in four populations of the southeastern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joyce A; Costa, Jeane C; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; Gusmão, Leonor; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Carracedo, Angel; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2010-09-01

    Ten X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (DXS8378, DXS9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, GATA31E08 and DXS7423) were analyzed in four populations of the southeastern region of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Vitória and Belo Horizonte). No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for any of the analyzed loci in the four populations. The average diversity per locus varied between 68% for DXS8378, DXS7133, and DXS7423 and 83%, for DXS6809, with Rio de Janeiro being the most diverse population. Overall power of discrimination values in females varied between 0.99999999990 and 0.99999999997 and between 0.9999991 and 0.9999995 in males. These high values show the potential of this system for forensic application and relationships' testing in the studied groups. Genetic comparisons (exact tests of population differentiation and pairwise genetic distances) revealed significant differences between Brazilian and other populations from Europe, Latin America and Africa, as well as among different Brazilian populations.

  4. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  5. Prevalence of Chagas disease in blood donors at the Uberaba Regional Blood Center, Brazil, from 1995 to 2009

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    Laryssa Manso de Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A retrospective study was conducted to assess the occurrence of blood donations that were ineligible due to Chagas disease infection from 1995 to 2009 at the Uberaba Regional Blood Center (HRU, Brazil, verify the tendency of this ineligibility, and describe the epidemiologic profile of the donors. METHODS: Retrospective studies of serological ineligibility due to Chagas disease, statistical analysis by means of the chi-square test and odds ratio, study of the tendencies using a dispersion graph and the linear correlation coefficient (r were performed. RESULTS: In the period under study, a 0.2% serum prevalence of ineligibility due to Chagas disease was found, with a significant drop in ineligible donations from 2001 to 2009. Among the serum positive-donors, there was a significant predominance among those aged 30 years or above and non-single individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a rate of occurrence that is lower than that described in literature, as well as a progressive drop during the 15 years under assessment. Such results are a consequence of systematic combat of the vector since the 70s and the progressive and consistent increase of returning donors, resulting in a drop of the contamination risk factor by means of blood transfusion and in the improvement of the quality of hemotherapy practices in the HRU.

  6. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  7. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil

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    Daniela Dib Gonçalves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR between the 5S (rrf 23S (rrl rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species sh