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Sample records for brazil trends regional

  1. Ischaemic heart disease deaths in Brazil: current trends, regional disparities and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cristina P; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Sabbag, Ary Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Olandoski, Marcia; Franco, Oscar H; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2013-09-01

    To quantify the trend of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) deaths in Brazil during the last decade (2000-2010) for various population characteristics and to forecast the upcoming mortality trends across regions in Brazil until the year 2015. Nationwide comparative observational study. The population studied encompassed all adult residents (≥ 20 years) living in five Brazilian regions between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, economic and mortality data were obtained from Brazilian National Mortality Data System and National Applied Economics Research Institute. Subnotified deaths were redistributed proportionally to IHD deaths. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex and region, were calculated employing a standard Brazilian population and constructing multivariate regression models to quantify and to project temporal trends. Absolute numbers of death due to IHD and region-specific death rates in Brazil by age and sex. During the study period, 627 786 men and 452 690 women died due to IHD in Brazil. ASMR trends across all regions for men and women converged, driven by a declining trend in the South and Southeast and an opposite incline in the North and Northeast (p < 0.05). Future projections demonstrated potential widening of the observed North-South gap in coming years. The IHD death trend in Brazil has changed from a decline to a stagnant state. However, a significant discrepancy in mortality trends exists between the northern and southern regions, which is likely to widen further. Reappraisal of the public health policies tailored to populations with diverse socioeconomic structures is urgently required.

  2. Trends in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence region

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    Combes, Vincent; Matano, Ricardo P.

    2014-12-01

    Observations show abrupt changes in the oceanic circulation of the southwestern Atlantic. These studies report a southward drift of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence (BMC) and a change in the spectral characteristics of the Malvinas Current (MC) transport. We address the cause of these changes using the result of a high-resolution numerical experiment. The experiment, which is consistent with observations, shows a southward BMC displacement at a rate of 0.62°/decade between 1993 and 2008, and a shift of the spectral characteristics of the MC transport after 1999. We find that these changes are driven by a weakening of the northern branch of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which translates to a weakening of the MC transport and a southward BMC drift. The drift changes the spectral characteristics of the MC transport, which becomes more influenced by annual and semiannual variations associated with the BMC.

  3. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

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    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  4. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women.

  5. Analysis of the female mortality trend due to assault in Brazil, States and Regions.

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    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Fávero, Juliana Lopes; Santos, Andréia Soprani Dos; Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze time trend of female mortality due to assault in Brazil, regions and states from 2002 to 2012. This is an ecological times series study with secondary data from women aged 20-59 years who died due to assault. Mortality rates were analyzed by simple linear regression and stratified by region, Gini Index and Human Development Index (HDI). The trend of female rate of mortality due to assault was stable in the country, with differences between states and regions. The Midwest had the highest rates and stagnation trend. There was an increased trend in the North, Northeast and South and a decreased trend in the Southeast. The states of the tertile with the highest HDI evidenced a declining trend and stabilization in the first and second tertiles. An increased mortality rate was recorded in states with greater social inequality. Notwithstanding the national stabilization behavior, results point to the need for social policies appropriate to the specificities of states and regions.

  6. Trend of annual temperature and frequency of extreme events in the MATOPIBA region of Brazil

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    Salvador, Mozar de A.; de Brito, J. I. B.

    2017-06-01

    During the 1980s, a new agricultural frontier arouse in Brazil, which occupied part of the states of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia. Currently, this new frontier is known as the MATOPIBA region. The region went through intense transformations in its social and environmental characteristics, with the emergence of extensive areas of intensive agriculture and large herds. The purpose of this research was to study the climatic variabilities of temperature in the MATOPIBA region through extreme climate indexes of ClimAp tool. Data from 11 weather stations were analyzed for yearly air temperature (maximum and minimum) in the period of 1970 to 2012. To verify the trend in the series, we used methods of linear regression analysis and Kendall-tau test. The annual analysis of maximum and minimum temperatures and of the temperature extremes indexes showed a strong positive trend in practically every series (with p value less than 0.05). These results indicated that the region went through to a significant heating process in the last 3 decades. The indices of extreme also showed a significant positive trend in most of the analyzed stations, indicating a higher frequency of warm days during the year.

  7. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Moura, Lenildo de; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-06-27

    To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. Descrever a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil e regiões, antes e após as correções por sub-registro de óbitos, redistribuição de causas mal definidas e causas inespecíficas. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos por câncer de pulmão da população de 30 a 69 anos, notificados ao Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre 1996 e 2011, corrigidos para sub-registro de óbitos, declaração de sexo e idade ignorados e causas com códigos mal definidos e inespecíficos segundo sexo, idade e região. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade para dados brutos e corrigidos. Realizou-se análise da tendência temporal da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão por meio do modelo de regressão com erros autorregressivos. O câncer de pulmão no Brasil apresentou taxas mais elevadas em homens que em mulheres e a região Sul foi a que apresentou maior risco de morte em 1996 e

  8. Time trends for prostate cancer mortality in Brazil and its geographic regions: An age-period-cohort analysis.

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    Braga, Sonia Faria Mendes; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2017-10-01

    In the 1980s, an increase in mortality rates for prostate cancer was observed in North America and developed European countries. In the 1990s, however, mortality rates decreased for these countries, an outcome related to early detection of the disease. Conversely, an upward trend in mortality rates was observed in Brazil. This study describe the trends in mortality for prostate cancer in Brazil and geographic regions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Central-West) between 1980 until 2014 and analyze the influence of age, period, and cohort effects on mortality rates. This time-series study used data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The effects on mortality rates were examined using age-period-cohort (APC) models. Crude and standardized mortality rates showed an upward trend for Brazil and its regions more than 2-fold the last 30 years. Age effects showed an increased risk of death in all regions. Period effects showed a higher risk of death in the finals periods for the North and Northeast. Cohort effects showed risk of death was higher for younger than older generations in Brazil and regions, mainly Northeast (RR Adjusted =3.12, 95% CI 1.29-1.41; RR Adjusted =0.28, 95% CI 0.26-0.30, respectively). The increase in prostate cancer mortality rates in Brazil and its regions was mainly due to population aging. The differences in mortality rates and APC effects between regions are related to demographic differences and access of health services across the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant mortality due to perinatal causes in Brazil: trends, regional patterns and possible interventions

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    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Brazilian infant and child mortality levels are not compatible with the country's economic potential. In this paper, we provide a description of levels and trends in infant mortality due to perinatal causes and malformations and assess the likely impact of changing intermediate-level determinants, many of which are amenable to direct interventions through the health or related sectors. TYPE OF STUDY: Review paper. METHODS: Two main sources of mortality data were used: indirect mortality estimates based on censuses and surveys, and rates based on registered deaths. The latter were corrected for under-registration. Combination of the two sources of data allowed the estimation of cause-specific mortality rates. Data on current coverage of preventive and curative interventions were mostly obtained from the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Other national household surveys and Ministry of Health Statistics were also used. A thorough review of the Brazilian literature on levels, trends and determinants of infant mortality led to the identification of a large number of papers and books. These provided the background for the analyses of risk factors and potential interventions. RESULTS: The indirect infant mortality rate estimate for 1995-97 is of 37.5 deaths per thousand live births, about six times higher than in the lowest mortality countries in the world. Perinatal causes account for 57% of all infant deaths, and congenital malformations are responsible for 11.2% of these deaths. Mortality levels are highest in the Northeast and North, and lowest in the South and Southeast; the Center-West falls in between. Since surveys of the North region do not cover rural areas, mortality for this region may be underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: A first priority for the further reduction in infant mortality in Brazil is to improve equality among regions, since the North and Northeast, and particularly rural areas, still show very high death rates. Further

  10. Gastric adenocarcinoma trends in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil: what has changed in 25 years?

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    Alexandre Rampazzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Its incidence varies greatly by geographic region. The highest rate is in Eastern Asia, mainly in Japan and China. In Brazil, gastric cancer is the third most common cancer in males and the fifth most common cancer in females. Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, has similar figures. The main histological type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends of this cancer over 25 years in a reference center in central Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: We reviewed the records of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, RS, between 1986 and 2010. We evaluated the incidence, age and gender distribution, anatomical subsite and histological subtype of gastric cancer throughout this 25-year period. RESULTS: We identified histologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma in 335 (1.6% of the 20,521 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during the study period. The mean age of patients was 62.4 (± 13.0 years, and 67.8% were male (a male: female ratio of 2.0:1. Cardia cancer accounted for 14.3% of the cases, and non-cardia cancer accounted for 85.7%. According to Lauren's classification, 48.1% were intestinal subtype and 40.9% were diffuse subtype. There were no differences in mean age or gender distribution by anatomical location or histological subtype. There was also no difference in the proportions of histological subtypes by anatomical location. Over the 25-year period, there was no change in the anatomical distribution of tumors, but there was a significant decrease in the intestinal subtype and a steady increase in the diffuse subtype (P = 0.02. The subset of 39 patients (11.6% who presented at < 45 years of age was more likely to be female and to have tumors of the diffuse subtype than was the total series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over this 25-year period, there were no

  11. Region of Southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  12. [Trends on anophthalmic socket repair in Brazil].

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    Sousa, Roberta Lilian Fernandes de; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Zornoff, Denise de Cássia Moreira; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most common approach to repair the anophthalmic socket in Brazil, and to compare the data with the trends in other countries. Exploratory study using electronic questionnaire sent by Internet to ophthalmologists members of the Brazilian Orbit and Oculoplastic Society (SBCPO). The received answers were analyzed by adhesion analysis, using Chi-square test. We received 75 answered questionnaires. Fifty-three per cent of the respondents frequently treat anophthalmic socket and use the 18 mm diameter polymethylmethacrylate sphere in the majority of the surgeries, mainly covered by sclera (92%). Only seven interviewees had used integrated implants with pegging procedure. Eighty-two per cent of the ophthalmologists use the dermolipid graft to reconstruct the anophthalmic socket. They also follow the patients bi-annually. The treatment of anophthalmic socket in Brazil generally involve polymethylmethacrylate sphere with 18 mm diameter. Pegging procedure is uncommon between us.

  13. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

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    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  14. Consistent declining trends in stroke mortality in Brazil: mission accomplished?

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    Valéria M. A. Passos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stroke mortality rates are declining in Brazil, but diferences among regions need to be better investigated. The age-adjusted stroke mortality trends among adults (30-69 years-old from Brazilian regions were studied between 1996 and 2011. Method Data were analyzed after: 1 reallocation of deaths with non-registered sex or age; 2 redistribution of garbage codes and 3 underreporting correction. A linear regression model with autoregressive errors and a state space model were fitted to the data, aiming the estimation of annual trends at every point in time. Results Although there were high values, a steady decrease of rates was observed. The decreasing trends among all regions were statistically significant, with higher values of decline among the Northeast and Northern regions, where rates were the highest. Conclusion Standardized methodology use is mandatory for correct interpretation of mortality estimates. Although declining, rates are still extremely high and efforts must be made towards prevention of stroke incidence, reduction of case-fatality rates and prevention of sequelae.

  15. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

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    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies.

  16. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

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    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Rosa, Islene Ferreira; Aguiar, Ada Cristina Pontes

    2013-09-01

    The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026) in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010). With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05) as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  17. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil

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    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026 in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010. With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05 as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  18. Time trend of the male proportion at birth in Brazil, 1979-2004.

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    Gibson, Gerusa; Costa, Luciana Scarlazzari; Koifman, Sergio

    2009-08-01

    Several studies suggest that exposure to environmental endocrine disrupters can reduce the number of male births, and therefore, the male proportion at birth (also denominated birth ratio or sex ratio at birth) can be used as a sentinel health indicator. This work aimed to analyze the trend of male births in Brazil, according to their distribution by states and capitals. An ecological descriptive time series was carried out using polynomial regression, showing a declining trend for male proportion at birth in Brazil (1979-1994), followed by an upward trend until 2004. A decline on the proportion of male births was observed in Brazil between 1979 and 1993, followed by a subsequent rise of this ratio between 1995 and 2004, wherein the mean proportion of male births in Brazil rose from 51.05 to 51.18, representing a relative increase of 0.25%. The states of São Paulo (Southwest region) and Acre (Western Amazon), as well as some capitals-Cuiabá (Western Region), Palmas (Amazon) and Rio Branco (Amazon)-showed increasing trends, which suggests the influence of socio-demographic changes. In contrast, a declining trend in the State of Ceará State (Northeast region), with a 0.35% yearly decrease was observed. As a whole, these results suggest the influence of different environmental factors (demographic changes, public health services distribution, and population exposure to endocrine disruptor substances) influencing the time trend of birth ratio in the Brazilian population during the last decades.

  19. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

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    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  20. The privatization of medical education in Brazil: trends and challenges.

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    Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R

    2015-12-17

    Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader

  1. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

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    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  2. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

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    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  3. Reliability of regional climate model trends

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. van Oldenborgh; Doblas Reyes, F. J.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Hawkins, Ed

    2013-01-01

    A necessary condition for a good probabilistic forecast is that the forecast system is shown to be reliable: forecast probabilities should equal observed probabilities verified over a large number of cases. As climate change trends are now emerging from the natural variability, we can apply this concept to climate predictions and compute the reliability of simulated local and regional temperature and precipitation trends (1950–2011) in a recent multi-model ensemble of climate model simulation...

  4. Dentistry in Brazil: its history and current trends.

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    Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Diniz, Diego Garcia

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this article are to provide a short history of dentistry and dental education in Brazil and to analyze the nature of its development to date. The databases consulted are those provided by the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry, Brazilian Ministry of Health, Brazilian Ministry of Education, National Institute of Studies and Educational Research Anísio Teixeira, and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Formal dental education in Brazil started in the late nineteenth century with the creation of courses annexed to existing schools of medicine in Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. Today, there are 191 institutions of higher education nationwide granting degrees in dentistry (137 private [71.7 percent] and fifty-four public [28.3 percent]), with a total of 17,157 student positions offered annually. These schools graduate around 10,000 professionals per year-one of the highest rates in the world. Both the distribution of schools of dentistry and of dentists varies among the regions of the country, with the greatest concentrations in major metropolitan centers with high population density, resulting in limited coverage in the more deprived regions. A review of epidemiological data for oral health and distribution of dentists in Brazil indicates that there is a lack of systematic planning for the allocation of the dental workforce and a lack of consideration of regional needs in the development of dental training programs in Brazil today.

  5. Trends of teenage pregnancy in Brazil, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Raquel Ferreira; Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of teenage pregnancy in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011, in all five Brazilian macroregions and age groups (10-14 and 15-19 years), correlating it with the human development index (HDI). Descriptive epidemiological study, with cross-sectional design, performed by searching the database of the National Health System (Datasus), using information from the Information System (Sinasc). There was a decrease in the percentage of live births (LB) from teenage mothers (10-19 years) in Brazil (23.5 % in 2000 to 19.2 % in 2011). This reduction was observed in all Brazilian macroregions in the group of mothers aged 15 to 19 years. The number of LB increased by 5.0% among mothers aged 10-14 years (increase in the North and Northeast and decline in the other macroregions). The proportion of LB shows an inversely proportional trend to HDI score, with the Southeast having the highest HDI and the lowest proportion of LB to teenage mothers in the country. Brazil shows a decline in the percentage of LB to adolescent mothers, tending to be inversely related to HDI score. It is important to empower strategies to address the problem, so that teenage pregnancy is seen as a personal decision rather than the result of a lack of policies targeting adolescent health.

  6. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  7. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil

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    Ricardo Eccard da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1 the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2 the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1 the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP and 2 Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC. Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011. Type 2 diabetes (26.0% and breast cancer (20.5%-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1 a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2 good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3 a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects.

  8. Trends in Cancer Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Nathalie Vieira; de Souza Reis, Rejane; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Pinto Oliveira, Julio; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups. To identify significant changes in the trends, we performed joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates per million were 54 deaths in those aged 15-19 years, 61 deaths in those aged 20-24 years, and 88 deaths in those aged 25-29 years. Leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system (CNS) tumors occurred at high rates in all age groups. Rates of cervical cancer were highest in those aged 25-29 years. There were significant increases in mortality trends in the North and Northeast regions for all tumor groups, especially CNS tumors. A small decrease in the mortality rate from lymphomas was observed in the South and Southeast regions. Mortality in Brazilian AYA was slightly higher than in other studies conducted throughout the world. When separated by tumor type, Brazil presents a specific pattern, with high mortality from cervical cancer.

  9. Time trend of asthma in children and adolescents in Brazil, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2012-04-01

    To analyze the trends in asthma prevalence in children and adolescents between 1998 and 2008 in Brazil. Data on asthma prevalence from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 National Household Sample Surveys were analyzed. The sample was comprised of 141,402, 144,443 and 134,032 individuals in 1998, 2003 and 2008, respectively, and the analysis was adjusted for the sample design. Trends in asthma prevalence were described for sex, Brazilian regions and place of residence of children (zero to nine years of age) and adolescents (ten to 19 years of age). The prevalence of asthma in children was 7.7% in 1998, 8.1% in 2003 and 8.5% in 2008, with an annual increase of 1%. The highest annual increase was observed in the Southeast and North regions (1.4%). Among adolescents, the prevalence of asthma was 4.4% in 1998, 5.0% in 2003 and 5.5% in 2008, with an increase of 2.2% per year. In the Northeast region, the annual increase in the prevalence of asthma was 3.5%. The greatest increases were observed in boys and in residents of rural areas. Although asthma has decreased in some developing countries, the results found in Brazil point to an increase in this disease in children and adolescents between 1998 and 2008, especially in rural areas.

  10. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

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    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  11. Global and Regional Trends in Child Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong

    2015-01-01

    Nguyen and Wodon suggest that better measurement of child marriage can be obtained by adopting the techniques used for the measurement of poverty. The objective of this article is to use that approach to provide estimates of global and regional trends over time in the extent of child marriage – not only its incidence, but also what we refer to as the child marriage gap and the squared child marriage gap, two measures that take into account how young girls are when they marry.

  12. Social geography of AIDS in Brazil: identifying patterns of regional inequalities

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    Tatiana Rodrigues de Araujo Teixeira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards decline and stabilization of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil should be analyzed carefully, since aggregate data can mask regional or local inequalities in such a large and diverse country. The current study reevaluates the epidemic’s spatial dissemination and the AIDS-related mortality pattern in Brazil. The study considered all AIDS cases diagnosed in individuals over 18 years of age and living in Brazil, as well as AIDS deaths recorded in 1998-2008. Three-year moving average rates were estimated, and a spatial analysis was conducted using a local empirical Bayesian method. The epidemic was only found to be expanding in the North and Northeast regions, while declining in the rest of the country, especially in the Southeast. According to the findings, the apparent stabilization of AIDS mortality tends to mask regional disparities. Social determinants of health and regional disparities should be taken into account in program development and policymaking.

  13. Federal funding of health policy in Brazil: trends and challenges

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    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Federal funding of health policy in Brazil in the 2000s, focusing on the Ministry of Health’s budget implementation. Federal spending on health was less unstable between 2000 and 2002 and has expanded since 2006. However, it fluctuated as a share of both the Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Revenue. Federal intergovernmental transfers increased, exceeding 70% in 2007. Meanwhile, the proportion of Federal investments remained low, varying from 3.4% to 6.3%. The highest absolute amount of spending was on specialized outpatient and hospital care. The decade showed a proportionally greater increase in spending on pharmaceutical care. The growing allocation of Federal funds to States in the North and Northeast, especially for primary care and epidemiological surveillance, failed to offset the sharp regional inequalities in per capita Federal spending. The main characteristics of health funding limit Federal health policy governance and pose several challenges for the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

  14. Scientometric trends of freshwater benthic invertebrates studies in Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Brandimarte

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this paper is to analyze trends in the literature concerning benthic invertebrates in Brazil, mainly the number of published papers and approaches used. Methods The Ph.D. database of the Lattes Platform (CNPq was used as the source of information for the period 1970-2014. We searched for the terms “benthos”, “macroinvertebrates”, and “zoobenthos” in the titles and keywords of the papers listed on the platform. Papers were classified into the following categories: Systematics, Life History, Ecology, and Divulgation. These categories were further divided into subcategories. The percentage of papers in every major category and subcategory was calculated. Results The search introduced 1,573 papers, which were mainly related to Ecology and Systematics. From 1970 to 2009, the number of papers published per decade increased exponentially, and the upward trend continues. The number of papers concerning Systematics, especially in Taxonomy, is increasing. Of the papers in Ecology category, those about Structure, Dynamics, and Distribution of the fauna have been increasing since the 1980s, and there has been an evident increase in the production of papers related to environmental damage in the last decade. The rate of production of papers concerning the role of invertebrates in ecosystems and the effects of different Spatial Scales has been increasing since the 2000s. Conclusion There is a clear tendency towards the increased continuity of paper production concerning freshwater benthic invertebrates, and relatively new approaches as Conservation and Exotic Species are becoming relevant.

  15. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil

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    Graciete O. Vieira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in breastfeeding indicators in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, and to identify population characteristics that might have influenced this trend. METHODS: Three methodologically comparable cross-sectional surveys performed in 1996, 2001, and 2009 were analyzed. These involved 2,159, 2,319, and 1,471 children younger than 1 year of age who were vaccinated in national multivaccination campaigns in the respective years. A standardized questionnaire was used, containing closed questions on consumption of breast milk and other foods on the day before the survey, along with questions regarding the characteristics of the population. RESULTS: The annual growth of the breastfeeding indicators was 2.1% for breastfeeding in the first hour of life (from 52.2% to 68.9%; 1.1% for breastfeeding among children aged 9 to 12 months (from 45% to 59.6%; and 0.8% for exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than 6 months (from 36.9% to 47.4%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 52.3 to 84.3 days, and overall breastfeeding from 278 to 376 days. Some changes in the characteristics of the population were observed, which may have positively influenced the evolution of the breastfeeding indicators (better schooling level among the mothers, less use of dummies/pacifiers, and lower proportions of adolescent mothers, or negatively (greater proportions of primiparous mothers and cesarean deliveries, and lower frequency of births in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. CONCLUSION: There were significant advances in breastfeeding indicators, although they are still far from ideal. Changes observed in population characteristics may have positively or negatively influenced this evolution.

  16. Trends in breastfeeding indicators in a city of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Graciete O; Reis, Mariana R; Vieira, Tatiana O; Oliveira, Nelson F; Silva, Luciana R; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate trends in breastfeeding indicators in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, and to identify population characteristics that might have influenced this trend. Three methodologically comparable cross-sectional surveys performed in 1996, 2001, and 2009 were analyzed. These involved 2,159, 2,319, and 1,471 children younger than 1 year of age who were vaccinated in national multivaccination campaigns in the respective years. A standardized questionnaire was used, containing closed questions on consumption of breast milk and other foods on the day before the survey, along with questions regarding the characteristics of the population. The annual growth of the breastfeeding indicators was 2.1% for breastfeeding in the first hour of life (from 52.2% to 68.9%); 1.1% for breastfeeding among children aged 9 to 12 months (from 45% to 59.6%); and 0.8% for exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than 6 months (from 36.9% to 47.4%). The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding increased from 52.3 to 84.3 days, and overall breastfeeding from 278 to 376 days. Some changes in the characteristics of the population were observed, which may have positively influenced the evolution of the breastfeeding indicators (better schooling level among the mothers, less use of dummies/pacifiers, and lower proportions of adolescent mothers), or negatively (greater proportions of primiparous mothers and cesarean deliveries, and lower frequency of births in Baby-Friendly Hospitals). There were significant advances in breastfeeding indicators, although they are still far from ideal. Changes observed in population characteristics may have positively or negatively influenced this evolution. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Impacts of Climate Trends and Variability on Livestock Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, A.; Munger, J.; Gibbs, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cattle systems of Brazil are of major economic and environmental importance. They occupy ¼ of the land surface of the country, account for over 15 billion USD of annual revenue through the sale of beef, leather, and milk, are closely associated with deforestation, and have been projected to substantially grow in the coming decades. Sustainable intensification of production in the sector could help to limit environmental harm from increased production, but productivity growth could be inhibited by climate change. Gauging the potential future impacts of climate change on the Brazilian livestock sector can be aided by examining past evidence of the link between climate and cattle production and productivity. We use statistical techniques to investigate the contribution of climate variability and climate change to variability in cattle system output in Brazil's municipalities over the period 1974 to 2013. We find significant impacts of both temperature and precipitation variability and temperature trends on municipality-level exports and the production of both milk and beef. Pasture productivity, represented by a vegetation index, also varies significantly with climate shocks. In some regions, losses from exposure to climate trends were of comparable magnitude to technology and/or market-driven productivity gains over the study period.

  18. MONITORING FOR POLICY-RELEVANT REGIONAL TRENDS OVER TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term trend describes the continuing directional change in the value of an indicator, generally upward or generally downward. Many policy questions concern trend across a number of sites, such as lakes in a region, rather than trend at a single site. Power to detect regional t...

  19. Regional Governance in Brazil's Unified Health System: a conceptual essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Tavares; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-04-01

    This article is a conceptual essay aimed at supporting analyses of the regionalization processes implemented in Brazil's Unified Health System, from the perspective of regional governance. The authors conducted a literature review in the social sciences, public administration, and critical geography, focusing on the concepts of governance, territorial governance, and regional governance in the debate on development. In dialogue with these contributions to the analysis of recent regulation and implementation of health sector regionalization in Brazil, with special reference to use of the Organizational Contract for Public Action (COAP) in the country's health regions, the article concludes that the research on governance as a modern approach to linking public policies highlights the timeliness of developing methodologies and critical reflection on the relevant national processes in Brazil for future health sector proposals, thereby pointing to a new stage in the improvement of the Unified Health System.

  20. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

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    Thiago Hérick de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey, we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making

  1. Pulmonary Embolism Mortality in Brazil from 1989 to 2010: Gender and Regional Disparities

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    Eduardo Sahade Darze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:A significant variation in pulmonary embolism (PE mortality trends have been documented around the world. We investigated the trends in mortality rate from PE in Brazil over a period of 21 years and its regional and gender differences.Methods:Using a nationwide database of death certificate information we searched for all cases with PE as the underlying cause of death between 1989 and 2010. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. We calculated age-, gender- and region-specific mortality rates for each year, using the 2000 Brazilian population for direct standardization.Results:Over 21 years the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR fell 31% from 3.04/100,000 to 2.09/100,000. In every year between 1989 and 2010, the ASMR was higher in women than in men, but both showed a significant declining trend, from 3.10/100,000 to 2.36/100,000 and from 2.94/100,000 to 1.80/100,000, respectively. Although all country regions showed a decline in their ASMR, the largest fall in death rates was concentrated in the highest income regions of the South and Southeast Brazil. The North and Northeast regions, the lowest income areas, showed a less marked fall in death rates and no distinct change in the PE mortality rate in women.Conclusions:Our study showed a reduction in the PE mortality rate over two decades in Brazil. However, significant variation in this trend was observed amongst the five country regions and between genders, pointing to possible disparities in health care access and quality in these groups.

  2. Pulmonary Embolism Mortality in Brazil from 1989 to 2010: Gender and Regional Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darze, Eduardo Sahade; Casqueiro, Juliana Borges; Ciuffo, Luisa Allen; Santos, Jessica Mendes; Magalhães, Iuri Resedá; Latado, Adriana Lopes

    2016-01-01

    A significant variation in pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality trends have been documented around the world. We investigated the trends in mortality rate from PE in Brazil over a period of 21 years and its regional and gender differences. Using a nationwide database of death certificate information we searched for all cases with PE as the underlying cause of death between 1989 and 2010. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We calculated age-, gender- and region-specific mortality rates for each year, using the 2000 Brazilian population for direct standardization. Over 21 years the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) fell 31% from 3.04/100,000 to 2.09/100,000. In every year between 1989 and 2010, the ASMR was higher in women than in men, but both showed a significant declining trend, from 3.10/100,000 to 2.36/100,000 and from 2.94/100,000 to 1.80/100,000, respectively. Although all country regions showed a decline in their ASMR, the largest fall in death rates was concentrated in the highest income regions of the South and Southeast Brazil. The North and Northeast regions, the lowest income areas, showed a less marked fall in death rates and no distinct change in the PE mortality rate in women. Our study showed a reduction in the PE mortality rate over two decades in Brazil. However, significant variation in this trend was observed amongst the five country regions and between genders, pointing to possible disparities in health care access and quality in these groups.

  3. Trends in Regional Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in Regional Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Centre. M.A Lamina. Abstract. BACKGROUND: Most caesarean sections were previously performed under general anaesthesia but there has been an increasing trend worldwide in the use of regional anaesthesia as the preferred method ...

  4. Energy trends and the water-energy binomium for Brazil

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    Gisele O. Da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands of energy saving and carbon emission reduction, the water vs. energy nexus has become a major concern worldwide. Brazil occupies a singular position in the global energy system. A major portion of the Brazilian occupancies has electricity and the energy system expansion that, at first, possesses adequate means for supporting the economic growing may experience some turnovers. The Brazil determination through alternative fuels was a natural choice, given its large hydropower potential and land agricultural base. In the transportation sector Brazil has developed its energy matrix towards an important rate of ethanol and biodiesel. Although those fuels are low carbon emitter, they may probably not be an affordable alternative regarding land use, food security and water footprint. In this way, considering the recent advances in the exploration of oil from Pre-salt (9-15 million barrels and the discovery of shale gas wells up to 245 tcf, together to unfavorable social and environmental issues associated to biofuels, the Brazilian energy matrix might turn back to the fossil fuels again. These represent challenges to the Brazilian policymakers and how they will be solved will reflect not only in Brazil but also to the world at large.

  5. Energy trends and the water-energy binomium for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Gisele O; Dos Anjos, Jeancarlo P; De Andrade, Jailson B

    2015-01-01

    According to the demands of energy saving and carbon emission reduction, the water vs. energy nexus has become a major concern worldwide. Brazil occupies a singular position in the global energy system. A major portion of the Brazilian occupancies has electricity and the energy system expansion that, at first, possesses adequate means for supporting the economic growing may experience some turnovers. The Brazil determination through alternative fuels was a natural choice, given its large hydropower potential and land agricultural base. In the transportation sector Brazil has developed its energy matrix towards an important rate of ethanol and biodiesel. Although those fuels are low carbon emitter, they may probably not be an affordable alternative regarding land use, food security and water footprint. In this way, considering the recent advances in the exploration of oil from Pre-salt (9-15 million barrels) and the discovery of shale gas wells up to 245 tcf, together to unfavorable social and environmental issues associated to biofuels, the Brazilian energy matrix might turn back to the fossil fuels again. These represent challenges to the Brazilian policymakers and how they will be solved will reflect not only in Brazil but also to the world at large.

  6. Climate trends in a non-traditional high quality wine producing region

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    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global warming may put pressure over some world's highest quality wine producing regions. This fact indicates the need to evaluate the presence of climate change in non-traditional wine producing regions of the Globe. Therefore, the goals of this study were to detect trends in rainfall and air temperature series obtained from three locations of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (a non-traditional high quality wine producing region and to evaluate the effect of the detected climate trends on agrometeorological indices frequently used to indicate suitable areas for wine production. The trend analyses were applied to maximum and minimum air temperature series, rainfall series and to the following agrometeorological parameters: heliothermal index, cool night index and growing degree-days. These three indices were selected due to their previous use in studies that address the effect of regional climate conditions on the general wine style. The analyses took into account the grape phenological aspects for both summer and winter growing seasons. The results found in this study support the hypothesis of the presence of climate trends in the wine producing regions of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo-Brazil. These trends are mostly linked to changes in the minimum air temperature. The results also reveal a shortening in the duration of grapevines phenological phases and a change to warmer conditions during the ripening Months. These changes are consistent with the climate changes observed in other wine producing regions of the world and may negatively affect the wine production of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo.

  7. Characteristics and Trends of Luxury Commerce in Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Costa Da Silva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the consolidation of consumption as prime stage of the production process and the diffusion of new forms of commerce in the city, as foundations for analyzing the urban space reproduction process in the contemporary period. Having as research place the metropolis of Sao Paulo - Brazil, we conducted an analysis and some thoughts on the place of commerce and consumption of luxury goods in the urban space reproduction process, analyzed from the perspective of the exten...

  8. Câncer em mulheres idosas das regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil: Evolução da mortalidade no período 1980 - 2005 Cancer in elderly women in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil: mortality trends in the 1980- 2005 period

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    Denise Vianna Basílio

    2008-06-01

    South and Southeast regions of Brazil present the highest rates of cancer mortality and are inhabited by the greatest number of elderly people. OBJECTIVE: To analyze patterns of mortality for selected cancer sites in the female population of 60 years of age or older in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil, in the 1980-2005 period. METHOD: Population and mortality data for all cancers and for esophageal, gastric, colon/rectal, pancreas, breast, and uterine cervix cancer, by year of the study period, were obtained from the Ministry of Health/DATASUS. Regression models were estimated to analyze trends in mortality rates for three age groups: 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and 80 years or more. RESULTS: Mortality rates for colon-rectal, pancreas, lung and breast cancer showed significantly rising trends in all age groups in both regions. A significant decreasing trend was observed for gastric cancer in the three age groups, both in the South and in the Southeast region, while significantly decreasing trends were observed for esophageal cancer only in the Southeast region CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of cancer mortality in elderly women of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil follow world-wide trends and important changes in these trends occurred during the study period. Mechanisms involved in the behavior of cancer mortality in aging individuals, still unknown to a large extent, and regional and generational differences in the prevalence of risk and protective factors for cancer could partially explain some of the patterns observed. Further studies on cancer mortality in aging individuals are needed to extend our present knowledge.

  9. Stillbirth prevalence in Brazil: an exploration of regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Taiana Silva; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Doyle, Pat

    2017-08-09

    Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  11. Trends and new challenges in journalism research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Virgínia Moreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article is a cross section analysis of Brazilian communication research produced by postgraduate level (doctor and master programs of the Journalism Department, School of Communication and Art (ECA of the São Paulo State University (USP, Brazil, between 1989 and the beginning of 2004. ECA/USP is one of the most ancient and in infuential school of journalism inBrazil. An analysis of its production may reveal an illustration of journalism research in the country. In the first three decades of ECA’s existence, the field of journalism studies accounted for around 22% of the School’s production of theses and dissertations. The second part of the article presents some data – mostly quantitative and partially qualitative – based on a content analysis of the journal Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Comunicação. The period considered ranges from January 2000 to December 2004 (five years, ten issues.

  12. THE REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Tatiani Sobrinho Del Bianco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability indicators provide elements that facilitate the assessment of progress in the regions and also the fulfillment of the objectives / goals to produce human well-being both in line with a sustainable ecosystem. Thus, this paper analyzes the Sustainable Regional Development of the Southern region of Brazil, from the preparation of Sustainable Development Indicator (IDRS, which in addition to economic and social variables incorporates environmental variables. In 2010, there were 99.2% of the municipalities in transition and 0.67% in laggard stage. Thus, it is concluded that only 0:08% of the municipalities studied were classified as advanced stage in both years analyzed. The IDRS of southern Brazil was a result of the performance of the variable formal employment sector electricity consumption, residential energy consumption, expenditure on health, education, sports, leisure, welfare and assistance, properties and areas of natural and artificial forests, green area per inhabitant and risk of housing. The result of IDRS in southern Brazil showed that in 2000 there were 95.5% of the municipalities in transition and 4.45% in laggard stage. Thus, these data represent an optimized tool for the design of public policies and actions for sustainable development in regional, state and municipal.

  13. Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

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    Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

  14. A study of some climate change scenarios in northeastern region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Silva, V. P.; Santos, D. N.; Silva, R. A.; Almeida, R. S. R.

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the current climate conditions in northeastern region of Brazil and to obtain same climatic scenarios for the 2050 and 2100 years. It was used time series of mean air temperature and rainfall to the 1961 and 2007 period of 89 stations in study region. Also, the annual time series of data observed at surface of global solar radiation and class A pan evaporation for two stations located in the semi-arid area of studied region were analyzed. The non-parametric test of Mann-Kendall was used to assess the statistical significance level of the analyzed time series. Also, the software SEVAP was performed to determine potential evapotranspiration, humidity index, aridity index and hydric index. Results showed an increasing trend in the time series of air temperature which were statistically significant by Mann-Kendall test for the current period and for the 2050 and 2100 scenarios. Mean air temperature has highest rate for current period and for the 2050 scenario and a reduction between from 2050 to 2100 scenarios. The aridity and hydric indexes indicated an increased trend, but the humidity index showed a reduction for two analyzed scenarios in northeastern region of Brazil, principally on the semi-arid area. Results also indicate that observed data in global solar radiation and class A pan evaporation at Petrolina, PE, and Juazeiro, BA, presented an accentuate decrease though study period statistically significant at 1 and 5% significance levels by Mann-Kendall test.

  15. Burden of disease in Brazil and its regions, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Iuri da Costa; Valente, Joaquim Gonçalves; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Santos, Maria de Fátima; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Mota, Jurema Corrêa da

    2015-07-01

    The current study estimated DALY (disability-adjusted life years), an indicator of burden of disease, for Brazil in 2008. The North and Northeast regions showed higher burden of disease. Chronic noncommunicable diseases predominated in all regions of the country, especially cardiovascular diseases, mental disorders (particularly depression), diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study also showed a high burden of homicides and traffic accidents. Brazil's epidemiological profile appears even more complex when one considers the non-negligible burden of communicable diseases, maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies. The analyses allowed a more detailed understanding of the Brazilian's population's health status, underscoring the need for crosscutting actions beyond specific health sector policies and greater attention to the quality of information on morbidity and mortality.

  16. Regional Industrial Deconcentration In Brazil (1985 – 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    Aurílio Sérgio Costa Caiado

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based on the statement that in the process of productive deconcentration in Brazil – specially of the industrial one, between 1970 and 1985 – the State actions were structuring, in the sense that it, and not only intensified the productive integration of the national market (1962/1985), but also made possible a larger “soldering” between the movement of the different regional economies and the general movement of the national economy accumulation dynamics. The abandonment of the ...

  17. Meat Consumption in Sao Paulo – Brazil: Trend in the Last Decade

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Martins de Carvalho; Chester Luiz Galvão César; Regina Mara Fisberg; Dirce Maria Marchioni

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey ...

  18. Trends in the Prevalence of Live Macrosomic Newborns According to Gestational Age Strata, in Brazil, 2001-2010, and 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Pereira, Daniele Francine; Lopata, Calliana; Oliveira, Carina Ladeia Flores; Moura, Ariane Arruda de; Mattos, Maria Júlia da Silva; Silva, Lucas Saraiva da

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To describe the trends in the prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4,000 g) according to gestational age in Brazil in the periods of 2001-2010 and 2012-2014. Methods Ecological study with data from the Brazilian Live Birth Information System (SINASC, in the Portuguese acronym) regarding singleton live newborns born from 22 gestational weeks. The trends in Brazil as a whole and in each of its five regions were analyzed according to preterm (22-36 gestational weeks) and term (37-42 gestational weeks) strata. Annual Percent Changes (APCs) based on the Prais-Winsten method and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to verify statistically significant changes in 2001-2010. Results In Brazil, the prevalence of macrosomic births was of 5.3% (2001-2010) and 5.1% (2012-2014). The rates were systematically higher in the North and Northeast Regions both in the preterm and in term strata. In the preterm stratum, the North Region presented the highest variation in the prevalence of macrosomia (+137.5%) when comparing 2001 (0.8%) to 2010 (1.9%). In the term stratum, downward trends were observed in Brazil as a whole and in every region. The trends for 2012-2014 were more heterogeneous, with the prevalence systematically higher than that observed for 2001-2010. The APC in the preterm stratum (2001-2010) showed a statistically significant trend change in the North (APC: 15.4%; 95%CI: 0.6-32.3) and South (APC: 13.5%; 95%CI: 4.8-22.9) regions. In the term stratum, the change occurred only in the North region (APC:-1.5%; 95%CI: -2.5--0.5). Conclusion The prevalence of macrosomic births in Brazil was higher than 5.0%. Macrosomia has potentially negative health implications for both children and adults, and deserves close attention in the public health agenda in Brazil, as well as further support for investigation and intervention. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  19. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  20. A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE CREATIVE ECONOMY IN BRAZIL

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    Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto

    Full Text Available Abstract In a knowledge-based economy, initiatives based on the Creative Economy framework are supposed to promote regional economic diversification in developing countries. In Brazil, policy initiatives have focused on those activities with a view to design public policies oriented to reducing socio-economic and regional inequalities, as well as spreading those activities throughout the territory, especially towards less favored regions. Based on the Brazilian experience, this article discusses whether the pre-existing regional distribution of various types of creative activities favors or hinders the reduction of regional inequalities as a result of a policy focused on promoting creative activities and what actions could be adopted to achieve this result. Specifically, the paper discusses whether this expansion can promote an effective reduction of regional inequalities in terms of the number and quality of jobs and wage levels associated with those activities. The analysis suggests that the regional decentralization of creative activities towards less developed regions has been relatively limited in Brazil, as the more developed regions have remained more specialized in trades with higher digital and technological content, while the less developed regions have remained relatively more specialized in activities related to the cultural heritage. To reduce this imbalance, the support of local institutions and S&T infrastructure related to creative activities appears to be very important, which points out to the relevance of comprehensive policies well-adapted to very diverse local realities. This effort should have the impact of new digital-based technologies converge with the strengthening of economic potential of local and regional cultural heritage, by enhancing professional qualification of workers devoted to those activities.

  1. Childhood leukemia incidence in Brazil according to different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Reis, Rejane; de Camargo, Beatriz; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; de Oliveira, Juliana Moreira; Azevedo Silva, Fernanda; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2011-01-01

    Resource-rich countries tend to have a higher incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas lower rates are seen in more deprived countries. This study describes the incidence of childhood acute leukemia in Brazil, an upper middle-income country, based on data from 16 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs). Data were examined from 16 PBCRs in Brazilian cities located in five geographical regions during the period from 1997 to 2004. Incidence rates were analyzed according to gender, age, and type of leukemia. The Wilcoxon test was performed to evaluate for gender-age based difference between by leukemia type. The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of leukemia in children aged 0-14 years old was 53.3 per million. A different AAIR was found regarding ALL and myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) that ranged from 24.8 to 76.84 per 1,000,000 children. Manaus, although located in a poor area of Brazil, exhibited the highest AAIR (56.6 per million) of ALL. Goiania had the highest AAIR (24.5 per million) of MPD. The median age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) for the 16 Brazilian PBCRs demonstrated a marked peak in incidence of ALL at age 3 years old, in both genders. This population-based study of childhood leukemia demonstrates that substantial regional differences exist regarding the incidence of acute leukemia in Brazil, which warrants further ecological study.

  2. [Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latado, Adriana Lopes; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; Guedes, Rodrigo; Santos, Alessandra B; Andrade, Marianna; Moura, Simone

    2005-11-01

    To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF) in Salvador--Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9) 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador) were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Mortality rates (/100,000) were total or per gender and age, and gross or adapted per age (straight standardization). Mortality rates due to HF had a progressive reduction in the period of time assessed, for both genders, especially up to 1992. From then and up to 1995, there was an apparent stabilization of the curves. Gross mortality rate went from 25.0/10(5), in 1979, to 16.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995 (a decrease of 34.4%). The reduction was 34.0% (23.3/10(5), in 1979, to 15.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995) for male sex and 35.2% (26.7/10(5), in 1979, to 17.3/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995), for female sex. The same trend took place in several age ranges, including the population > or = 40 years old, which has a greater risk for HF. After adaptation per age (standard population of 1979), it is observed that relative reductions in the rates were even greater. Mortality due to HF, in Salvador-Bahia, decreased from 1979 to 1992, becoming stable from then to 1995.

  3. Banking and regional inequality in Brazil: an empirical note

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    Marcos Lima Marcelo Resende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a neglected aspect of regional inequality in Brazil, namely regional inequalities related to financial flows. A synthetic regional financial inequality index is proposed and calculated in a semester basis over the 02-1994/02-2000 period. The inequality measure attempts to capture to what extent deposits in a given state translate into credit operations in that locality. Two main results emerge. First, non-negligible inequality patterns emerge when one considers the segment of private banks and those are consistent with an important proportion of states with a predominantly exporting pattern, for which deposits surpasses loans in that locality. Second, if one focus on the segment of public banks, an opposite pattern appears, that is consistent with decision patterns that might have, in part, a regional development motivation.

  4. Regional trends amongst Danish specialist farmland breeding birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    be related to their respective specializations. Generally, few species showed differences in regional population trends, despite the increasing concentration of mixed (mainly pastoral) agriculture in the West and predominantly arable cultivation in the East. Most grassland and arable specialists were...... the period. Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra showed significant declines in the East of Denmark in contrast to stable trends in the Central and Western regions, but was declining everywhere since 2003. The results underline the need to understand how individual farmland species exploit specific crops and micro...

  5. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Franciane F; Zandonade, Eliana; Zouain-Figueiredo, Glaucia P

    2014-01-01

    Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually), while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females) and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females). The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of childhood leukemia mortality trends in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010

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    Franciane F. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leukemias comprise the most common group of cancers in children and adolescents. Studies conducted in other countries and Brazil have observed a decrease in their mortality.This study aimed to evaluate the trend of mortality from leukemia in children under 19 years of age in Brazil, from 1980 to 2010. METHODS: This was an ecological study, using retrospective time series data from the Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010. Calculations of mortality rates were performed, including gross, gender-specific, and age-based. For trend analysis, linear and semi-log regression models were used. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Mortality rates for lymphoid and myeloid leukemias presented a growth trend, with the exception of lymphoid leukemia among children under 4 years of age (percentage decrease: 1.21% annually, while in the sub-group "Other types of leukemia", a downward trend was observed. Overall, mortality from leukemia tended to increase for boys and girls, especially in the age groups 10-14 years (annual percentage increase of 1.23% for males and 1.28% for females and 15-19 years (annual percentage increase of 1.40% for males and 1.62% for females. CONCLUSIONS: The results for leukemia generally corroborate the results of other similar studies. A detailed analysis by subgroup of leukemia, age, and gender revealed no trends shown in other studies, thus indicating special requirements for each variable in the analysis.

  7. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

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    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  8. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  9. Mortality related to tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011: epidemiological patterns and time trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricélia da Silveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract: Co-infection of tuberculosis (TB-HIV/AIDS is a persistent public health problem in Brazil. This study describes epidemiological patterns and time trends of mortality related to TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Based on mortality data from 2000-2011 (almost 12.5 million deaths, 19,815 deaths related to co-infection were analyzed. The average age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.97 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest mortality rates were found among males, those in economically productive age groups, black race/color and residents of the South region. There was a significant reduction in the mortality coefficient at the national level (annual average percent change: -1.7%; 95%CI: -2.4; -1.0, with different patterns among regions: increases in the North, Northeast and Central regions, a reduction in the Southeast and a stabilization in the South. The strategic integration of TB-HIV/AIDS control programmes is fundamental to reduce the burden of mortality related to co-infection in Brazil.

  10. Pressure prediction and hydraulic continuity - Regional trends and local anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of hydraulic continuity of reservoirs and faults and the lack thereof on the occurrence of local pore fluid pressure conditions deviating from previously established regional trends. The hydrodynamic-based approaches will be illustrated with case studies from the

  11. Recent warming trend in the coastal region of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Saleem, Ayman; Sadr, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze long-term temperature-related phenomena in the eastern portion of the Middle East, focusing on the coastal region of Qatar. Extreme temperature indices were examined, which were defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, for Doha, Qatar; these indices were then compared with those from neighboring countries. The trends were calculated for a 30-year period (1983-2012), using hourly data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The results showed spatially consistent warming trends throughout the region. For Doha, 11 of the 12 indices studied showed significant warming trends. In particular, the warming trends were represented by an increase in the number of warm days and nights and a decrease in the number of cool nights and days. The high-temperature extremes during the night have risen at more than twice the rate of their corresponding daytime extremes. The intensity and frequency of hot days have increased, and the minimum temperature indices exhibited a higher rate of warming. The climatic changes in Doha are consistent with the region-wide heat-up in recent decades across the Middle East. However, the rapid economic expansion, increase of population since the 1990s, and urban effects in the region are thought to have intensified the rapidly warming climate pattern observed in Doha since the turn of the century.

  12. The next mesothelioma wave: mortality trends and forecast to 2030 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algranti, Eduardo; Saito, Cézar Akiyoshi; Carneiro, Ana Paula Scalia; Moreira, Bruno; Mendonça, Elizabete Medina Coeli; Bussacos, Marco Antonio

    2015-10-01

    There are limited data on mesothelioma mortality in industrializing countries, where, at present, most of the asbestos consumption occurs. To analyze temporal trends and to calculate mortality rates from mesothelioma and cancer of the pleura in Brazil from 2000 to 2012 and to estimate future mortality rates. We retrieved records of deaths from mesothelioma (ICD-10C45) and cancer of the pleura (ICD-10C38.4) from 2000 to 2012 in adults aged 30 years and over. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) were calculated. Rate ratios of mean crude mortality for selected municipalities were compared to the Brazilian rate. A regression was carried out of the annual number of deaths against asbestos consumption using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM). The best model was chosen to estimate the future burden and peak period of deaths. There were 929C45 and 1379 C38.4 deaths. The ratio of men to women for C45 was 1.4. A positive trend in C45 numbers was observed in Brazil (p=0.0012), particularly in São Paulo (p=0.0004) where ASMRs presented an increasing linear trend (p=0.0344). Selected municipalities harboring asbestos manipulation presented 3.7-11 fold rate ratios of C45 compared to Brazil. GAM presented best fits for latencies of 34 years or more. It is estimated that the peak incidence of C45 mortality will occur between 2021 and 2026. The observed ASMRs and the gender ratio close to 1 suggest underreporting. Even so, deaths are increasing and mesothelioma clusters were identified. Compared to industrialized countries Brazil displays a 15-20 year lag in estimated peak mesothelioma mortality which is consistent with the lag of asbestos peak consumption in the country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Anie Savi; Moretti, Gustavo Pasquali; Serafim, Guilherme Savi; Niero, Cintia Vieira; da Rosa, Maria Inês; Pires, Maria Marlene de Souza; Simões, Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, psyphilis at pregnancy (69.8 new cases per 100,000 births, p=0.001), and whose partner did not undergo treatment for syphilis (53.1 new cases per 100,000 births, p=0.001). The population of the present study mostly consisted of adult black women with low educational levels who attended prenatal care, who were diagnosed with syphilis during pregnancy, and whose partners were not treated for syphilis. Based on these results, actions are recommended to reduce the incidence of this disease, which is preventable by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The present was merely an ecological study; therefore, further investigations are necessary to elucidate the causes of these findings.

  14. Sub-national assessment of inequality trends in neonatal and child mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Angelica

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Brazil's large socioeconomic inequalities together with the increase in neonatal mortality jeopardize the MDG-4 child mortality target by 2015. We measured inequality trends in neonatal and under five mortality across municipalities characterized by their socio-economic status in a period where major pro poor policies were implemented in Brazil to infer whether policies and interventions in newborn and child health have been successful in reaching the poor as well as the better off. Methods Using data from the 5,507 municipalities in 1991 and 2000, we developed accurate estimates of neonatal mortality at municipality level and used these data to investigate inequality trends in neonatal and under five mortality across municipalities characterized by socio-economic status. Results Child health policies and interventions have been more effective in reaching the better off than the worst off. Reduction of under five mortality at national level has been achieved by reducing the level of under five mortality among the better off. Poor municipalities suffer from worse newborn and child health than richer municipalities and the poor/rich gaps have increased. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of monitoring progress on MDGs at sub-national level and measuring inequality gaps to accurately target health and inter-sectoral policies. Further efforts are required to improve the measurement and monitoring of trends in neonatal and under five mortality at sub-national level, particularly in developing countries and countries with large socioeconomic inequalities.

  15. Pediatric Chronic Dialysis in Brazil: Epidemiology and Regional Inequalities.

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    Tulio Konstantyner

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature estimating the epidemiologic characteristics of pediatric chronic dialysis. These patients have impaired physical growth, high number of comorbidities and great need for continuous attention of specialized services with high demand for complex and costly procedures.The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates and describe the characteristics of children and adolescents undergoing chronic dialysis treatment in a Brazilian demographic health survey.A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of dialysis centers (nc = 239 that was established from the 2011 Brazilian Nephrology Society Census (Nc = 708. We collected data encompassing the five Brazilian macro-regions. We analyzed the data from all patients under 19 years of age. The sample population consisted of 643 children and adolescents who were on chronic dialysis program anytime in 2012. Data collection was carried out in the dialysis services by means of patients' records reviews and personal interviews with the centers' leaders.We estimated that there were a total of 1,283 pediatric patients on chronic dialysis treatment in Brazil, resulting in a prevalence of 20.0 cases per million age-related population (pmarp (95% CI: 14.8-25.3 and an incidence of 6.6 cases pmarp in 2012 (95% CI: 4.8-8.4. The South region had the highest prevalence and incidence rates of patients under dialysis therapy, 27.7 (95% CI: 7.3-48.1 and 11.0 (95% CI: 2.8-19.3 cases pmarp, respectively; the lowest prevalence and incidence rates were found in the North-Midwest region, 13.8 (95% CI: 6.2-21.4, and in the Northeast region, 3.8 (95% CI: 1.4-6.3 cases pmarp, respectively.Brazil has an overall low prevalence of children on chronic dialysis treatment, figuring near the rates from others countries with same socioeconomic profile. There are substantial differences among regions related to pediatric chronic dialysis treatment. Joint

  16. Pediatric Chronic Dialysis in Brazil: Epidemiology and Regional Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantyner, Tulio; Sesso, Ricardo; de Camargo, Maria Fernanda; de Santis Feltran, Luciana; Koch-Nogueira, Paulo Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There are few reports in the literature estimating the epidemiologic characteristics of pediatric chronic dialysis. These patients have impaired physical growth, high number of comorbidities and great need for continuous attention of specialized services with high demand for complex and costly procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates and describe the characteristics of children and adolescents undergoing chronic dialysis treatment in a Brazilian demographic health survey. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of dialysis centers (nc = 239) that was established from the 2011 Brazilian Nephrology Society Census (Nc = 708). We collected data encompassing the five Brazilian macro-regions. We analyzed the data from all patients under 19 years of age. The sample population consisted of 643 children and adolescents who were on chronic dialysis program anytime in 2012. Data collection was carried out in the dialysis services by means of patients' records reviews and personal interviews with the centers’ leaders. Results We estimated that there were a total of 1,283 pediatric patients on chronic dialysis treatment in Brazil, resulting in a prevalence of 20.0 cases per million age-related population (pmarp) (95% CI: 14.8–25.3) and an incidence of 6.6 cases pmarp in 2012 (95% CI: 4.8–8.4). The South region had the highest prevalence and incidence rates of patients under dialysis therapy, 27.7 (95% CI: 7.3–48.1) and 11.0 (95% CI: 2.8–19.3) cases pmarp, respectively; the lowest prevalence and incidence rates were found in the North-Midwest region, 13.8 (95% CI: 6.2–21.4), and in the Northeast region, 3.8 (95% CI: 1.4–6.3) cases pmarp, respectively. Conclusion Brazil has an overall low prevalence of children on chronic dialysis treatment, figuring near the rates from others countries with same socioeconomic profile. There are substantial differences

  17. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL FORESTS IN PANTANAL REGION, BRAZIL

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region in Brazil has an area of 140,000 km², with approximately 30 % of natural forests distributed as deciduous, semideciduous, and forested savannas. The subregion of Nhecolandia represents 19 % of this area. There is constant concern about the sustainability of these forested areas, as there is a constant demand for wood for farm maintenance, mainly for making fence poles. The objective of this article is to indicate sustainable forest management practices in the Pantanal region of Nhecolandia. The methodology of this novel approach consisted of the recovery and organization of the available information to calculate the sustainable allowable cut per hectare, considering: cutting cycle, wood stock, periodic annual increment (PAI in percentage of volume from the commercial or interesting species and the stand structure. For forested savannas, the diameter at breast height (DBH of 529 trees per hectare were estimated as follows: 28 % with a DBH lower than 10 cm, 36 % from 10 to 20 cm, 21 % from 20 to 30 cm, 10 % from 30 to 40 cm and only 4 % greater than 40 cm. The estimated total volume per hectare was 84.2 m³ and the estimated basal area was 18.6 m². The forested areas of the Pantanal region present potential for sustainable use. However, due to regional characteristics and the lack of available information, an enhancement in research is recommended to establish a basic management guide to ensure its perpetuation for future generations.

  18. [Epidemiology and regional differences of diabetic retinopathy in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarião, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Faria de; Figueiroa Filho, Natanael Cavalcanti; Urtiga, Ricardo de Deus; Florêncio, Telma Lúcia Tabosa; Arcoverde, Ana Lúcia de Andrade Lima

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy among patients cared for in a screening program in Pernambuco, Brazil, comparing regional differences between urban and rural zones. The charts of 2,223 diabetic patients (1,568 females and 655 males; mean age 59.3 +/- 12.0 years; mean duration of diabetes 8.1 +/- 6.3 years) that took part in a screening program for diabetic retinopathy at Altino Ventura Foundation from June 2004 to June 2005 were reviewed for the presence of the disease. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, patients living in Recife and the metropolitan area; group II, patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state. In group I, 477 (24.2%) patients had diabetic retinophathy, while in group II, 89 (39.4%) patients (pdescentralization actions are recommended for improvement of screening quality in patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state.

  19. Meat consumption in São Paulo-Brazil: trend in the last decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older.Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey years. Data were collected from adolescents, adults, and elderly using a representative, complex, multistage probability-based survey in 2003 and in 2008 in São Paulo, southeast of Brazil.2631 Brazilians were studied in 2003 and 1662 in 2008.Daily mean of red and processed meat consumption was 100 g/day in 2003, and 113 g/day in 2008. Excessive red and processed meat consumption was observed in almost 75% of the subjects, especially among adolescents in both surveys. Beef represented the largest proportion of meat consumed, followed by poultry, pork and fish in both surveys.Daily red and processed meat consumption was higher in 2008 than in 2003, and almost the entire population consumed more than what is recommended by World Cancer Research Fund. Public health strategies are needed, in order to reduce red and processed meat consumption to the recommended amounts, for a healthy diet.

  20. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy. Trends and Regional Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA (United States); Sumner, Jenny [Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  1. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy: Trends and Regional Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, Pennsylvania

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  2. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Damasceno, Karine A; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Carlos Mc; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-10-20

    The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  3. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairo H S De Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Results Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. Conclusions The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  4. Regional and Gender Differences and Trends in the Anesthesiologist Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew; Daugherty, Lindsay; Kumar, Krishna B; Arifkhanova, Aziza

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have long existed about potential shortages in the anesthesiologist workforce. In addition, many changes have occurred in the economy, demographics, and the healthcare sector in the last few years, which may impact the workforce. The authors documented workforce trends by region of the United States and gender, trends that may have implications for the supply and demand of anesthesiologists. The authors conducted a national survey of American Society of Anesthesiologists members (accounting for >80% of all practicing anesthesiologists in the United States) in 2007 and repeated it in 2013. The authors used logistic regression analysis and Seemingly Unrelated Regression to test across several indicators under an overarching hypothesis. Anesthesiologists in Western states had markedly different patterns of practice relative to anesthesiologists in other regions in 2007 and 2013, including differences in employer type, the composition of anesthesia teams, and the time spent on monitored anesthesia care. The number and proportion of female anesthesiologists in the workforce increased between 2007 and 2013, and females differed from males in employment arrangements, compensation, and work hours. Regional differences remained stable during this time period although the reasons for these differences are speculative. Similarly, how and whether the gender difference in work hours and shift to younger anesthesiologists during this period will impact workforce needs is uncertain.

  5. Cancer burden trends in Umbria region using a joinpoint regression

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    Giuseppe Michele Masanotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer is an important tool to control and evaluate the outcomes of primary and secondary prevention, the effectiveness of health care and, in general, all cancer control activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The aim of the this paper is to analyze the cancer mortality in the Umbria region from 1978 to 2009 and incidence from 1994-2008. Sex and site-specific trends for standardized rates were analyzed by "joinpoint regression", using the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER software. RESULTS. Applying the jointpoint analyses by sex and cancer site, to incidence spanning from 1994 to 2008 and mortality from 1978 to 2009 for all sites, both in males and females, a significant joinpoint for mortality was found; moreover the trend shape was similar and the joinpoint years were very close. In males standardized rate significantly increased up to 1989 by 1.23% per year and significantly decreased thereafter by -1.31%; among females the mortality rate increased in average of 0.78% (not significant per year till 1988 and afterward significantly decreased by -0.92% per year. Incidence rate showed different trends among sexes. In males was practically constant over the period studied (not significant increase 0.14% per year, in females significantly increased by 1.49% per year up to 2001 and afterward slowly decreased (-0.71% n.s. estimated annual percent change − EAPC. CONCLUSIONS. For all sites combined trends for mortality decreased since late '80s, both in males and females; such behaviour is in line with national and European Union data. This work shows that, even compared to health systems that invest more resources, the Umbria public health system achieved good health outcomes.

  6. Trends in burnout syndrome and emotional factors: an assessment of anesthesiologists in Southern Brazil, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Patrícia Larrosa; Trentin, Jessica Puchalski; de Avila Quevedo, Luciana

    2016-01-28

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) is the result of chronic stress at work, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low professional accomplishment. Anesthesiologyis a stressful profession. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of burnout as well as the sociodemographic and working characteristics associated with this syndrome's emotional factors, in anesthesiologists from Southern Brazil. We assessed burnout severity, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem using the Maslach burnout inventory, the Beck depression inventory, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. Of the 198 anesthesiologists included in this study, 48.7% were positive for burnout, 26.9% for EE, 41.3% for DP and 32.7% for low personal accomplishment. Trends in BOS was associated with a younger age, difficulty to conciliate family and work demands, low self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

  7. Trends and factors associated with dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil

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    Enny Santos Paixão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Studies that generate information that may reduce the dengue death risk are essential. This study analyzed time trends and risk factors for dengue mortality and fatality in Brazil from 2001 to 2011.METHODS:Time trends for dengue mortality and fatality rates were analyzed using simple linear regression. Associations between the dengue mortality and the case fatality rates and socioeconomic, demographic, and health care indicators at the municipality level were analyzed using negative binomial regression.RESULTS:The dengue hemorrhagic fever case fatality rate increased in Brazil from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.67; p=0.036, in patients aged 0-14 years (β=0.48; p=0.030 and in those aged ≥15 years (β=1.1; p<0.01. Factors associated with the dengue case fatality rate were the average income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.038 and the number of basic health units per population (MRR=0.89; p<0.001. Mortality rates increased from 2001 to 2011 (β=0.350; p=0.002.Factors associated with mortality were inequality (RR=1.02; p=0.001 high income per capita (MRR=0.99; p=0.005, and higher proportions of populations living in urban areas (MRR=1.01; p<0.001.CONCLUSIONS:The increases in the dengue mortality and case fatality rates and the associated socioeconomic and health care factors, suggest the need for structural and intersectoral investments to improve living conditions and to sustainably reduce these outcomes.

  8. Multiple trends of tertiarization: A comparative input–output analysis of the service sector expansion between Brazil and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Barreiro de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The service sector expansion has shown to be a multiple trend process, producing distinct sectorial compositions. The present paper aims to make a comparison between two large economies in different stages of development with an extensive service sector (Brazil and United States, by focusing on final and intermediary demand changes and sectorial productivity as well. Input–output matrices for Brazil and United States were used and two applications were carried out: structural decomposition analysis and total factor productivity. Main results are as follows. Firstly, the growth in services was fostered by several factors, among which household consumption assumes an important role for both countries. Second, inter-industrial linkages play a major role only for United States. Thirdly, there is now evidence of cost disease for Brazil. Finally, productivity is lower in Brazil, nonetheless labor productivity increased above the average in some service sectors.

  9. Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella: current perspectives and trends in Brazil1,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by knee surgeons in Brazil for treating medial patellofemoral lesions (MPFL of the knee in cases of acute traumatic dislocation of the patella.Materials and methods:A questionnaire comprising 15 closed questions on topics relating to treating MPFL of the knee following acute dislocation of the patella was used. It was applied to Brazilian knee surgeons during the three days of the 44th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2012.Results:106 knee surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them were from the southeastern region of Brazil. The majority (57% reported that they perform fewer than five MPFL reconstruction procedures per year. Indication of non-surgical treatment after a first episode of acute dislocation of the patella was preferred and done by 93.4% of the sample. Only 9.1% of the participants reported that they had never observed postoperative complications. Intraoperative radioscopy was used routinely by 48%. The professionals who did not use this tool to determine the point of ligament fixation in the femur did not have a statistically greater number of postoperative complications than those who used it (p > 0.05.Conclusions:There are clear evolutionary trends in treatments and rehabilitation for acute dislocation of the patella due to MPFL, in Brazil. However, further prospective controlled studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  10. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  11. LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A mesoscale network has been set up in the Santarem region of Para, Brazil. This network consists of eight meteorological stations named Belterra, Km 117 (Fazenda...

  12. LBA-ECO CD-03 Mesoscale Meteorological Data, Santarem Region, Para, Brazil: 1998-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A mesoscale network has been set up in the Santarem region of Para, Brazil. This network consists of eight meteorological stations named Belterra, Km 117...

  13. A data portal for regional climatic trend analysis in a Peruvian High Andes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, M.; Acuña, D.; Konzelmann, Th.; Rohrer, M.; Salzmann, N.; Serpa Lopez, B.; Silvestre, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of a Swiss-Peruvian climate change adaptation initiative (PACC), operational and historical data series of more than 100 stations of the Peruvian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) are now accessible in a dedicated data portal. The data portal allows for example the comparison of data series or the interpolation of spatial fields as well as download of data in various data formats. It is thus a valuable tool supporting the process of data homogenisation and generation of a regional baseline climatology for a sound development of adequate climate change adaptation measures. The procedure to homogenize air-temperature and precipitation data series near Cusco city is outlined and followed by an exemplary trend analysis. Local air temperature trends are found to be in line with global mean trends.

  14. Climatology and trend analysis of extreme precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. T.; Santos e Silva, C. M.; Lima, K. C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper aims of computing climatology and trend analysis of occurrence and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in subregions of Northeast Brazil (NEB). We used daily rainfall data of 148 rain gauges collected from the hydrometeorological network managed by the National Water Agency during 1972 to 2002 and used quantiles technique in order to select rainfall events. Defining heavy rainfall events as those when at least one rain gauge recorded rainfall above the 95th percentile, normal rainfall was between the 45th and 55th percentiles, and weak rainfall events were under the 5th percentile. The Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was used to calculate the linear trend of the quantity and intensity of rainfall events. The NEB was divided in five subregions using the cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance and Ward's method: Northern coast, Northern semiarid, Northwest, Southern semiarid, and Southern coast. The results suggest that the subregions are less influenced by El Niño and La Niña, and dry areas have higher variability, with the greatest number of intense events.

  15. Scientific Collaboration Along the Trinational Frontier of Brazil-Bolivia-Peru: Implications for Regional Land-Use in the MAP Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.

    2002-12-01

    High-speed road systems are connecting southwestern Amazonia (~1.5 million km2) to Pacific and Atlantic ports as well as providing greater access to Brazilian, Bolivian and Peruvian urban markets. Coupled with this increased accessibility are ambitious governmental plans to expand production of timber, non-timber forest products, and beef, all of which are likely to modify human migrations in the region. The heart of southwestern Amazonia lies in the trinational frontier region of Madre de Dios Department/Peru, eastern Acre State/Brazil and Pando Department/Bolivia (MAP region: ~200,000 km2, ~500,000 inhabitants). The MAP region composes a global hot spot of terrestrial biodiversity and has become an axis of integration for the three countries. Faced with rapid change in socioeconomic trends, regional environmental scientists and professionals have promoted collaborative projects to analyze land use trends and their forcing functions and to supply these results to local and regional societies. In addition, they have begun to develop a regional scientific community that bridges different nationalities and specialties. The projects are both international - as they involve three countries - and local/regional as they involve institutions that are within a radius of 300 km of the border. In the past two years, LBA-sponsored activities have helped bring over 100 professionals together in the region in five MAP-oriented workshops. The research results are now influencing public policy and are being incorporated into the regional school systems with the objective of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the adverse impacts of the changing socio-economic trends on land-use and development in the MAP region.

  16. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  17. Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular and Hypertensive Diseases in Brazil Between 1980 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Blanco Villela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. Objective: To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. Methods: We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD, cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD, and hypertensive diseases (HD. We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC, external causes (EC, and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD. Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS. We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. Results: With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Conclusion: Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension.

  18. Trends in Mortality from Cerebrovascular and Hypertensive Diseases in Brazil Between 1980 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Paolo Blanco; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-07-01

    Cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases are among the main causes of death worldwide. However, there are limited data about the trends of these diseases over the years. To evaluate the temporal trends in mortality rates and proportional mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases according to sex and age in Brazil between 1980 and 2012. We evaluated the underlying causes of death between 1980 and 2012 in both sexes and by age groups for circulatory diseases (CD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD), and hypertensive diseases (HD). We also evaluated death due to all causes (AC), external causes (EC), and ill-defined causes of death (IDCD). Data on deaths and population were obtained from the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, DATASUS/MS). We estimated crude and standardized annual mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants and percentages of proportional mortality rates. With the exception of EC, the mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants of all other diseases increased with age. The proportional mortality of CD, CBVD, and HD increased up to the age range of 60-69 years in men and 70-79 years in women, and reached a plateau in both sexes after that. The standardized rates of CD and CBVD declined in both sexes. However, the HD rates showed the opposite trend and increased mildly during the study period. Despite the decline in standardized mortality rates due to CD and CBVD, there was an increase in deaths due to HD, which could be related to factors associated with the completion of the death certificates, decline in IDCD rates, and increase in the prevalence of hypertension.

  19. Trends in solar radiation in NCEP/NCAR database and measurements in northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da; Silva, Roberta Araujo e; Cavalcanti, Enilson Palmeira; Braga, Celia Campos; Azevedo, Pedro Vieira de; Pereira, Emerson Ricardo Rodrigues [Federal University of Campina Grande/Center of Technology and Natural Resources/Academic Unity of Atmospheric Sciences, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Bodocongo, 58109 970, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Singh, Vijay P. [Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., TX 77843-2117 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The database from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis project available for the period from 1948 to 2009 was used for obtaining long-term solar radiation for northeastern Brazil. Measurements of global solar radiation (R{sub s}) from data collection platform (DCP) for four climatic zones of northeastern Brazil were compared to the re-analysis data. Applying cluster analysis to R{sub s} from database, homogeneous sub-regions in northeastern Brazil were determined. Long times series of R{sub s} and sunshine duration measurements data for two sites, Petrolina (09 09'S, 40 22'W) and Juazeiro (09 24'S, 40 26'W), exceeding 30 years, were analyzed. In order to exclude the decadal variations which are linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, high-frequency cycles in the solar radiation and sunshine duration time series were eliminated by using a 14-year moving average, and the Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the long-term variability of re-analysis and measured solar radiation. This study provides an overview of the decrease in solar radiation in a large area, which can be attributed to the global dimming effect. The global solar radiation obtained from the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data overestimate that obtained from DCP measurements by 1.6% to 18.6%. Results show that there is a notable symmetry between R{sub s} from the re-analysis data and sunshine duration measurements. (author)

  20. Time trends in adult chronic disease inequalities by education in Brazil: 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Andrade, Flavia C D

    2016-11-17

    Socioeconomic differences in health in Brazil are largely driven by differences in educational attainment. In this paper, we assess whether educational gradients in chronic disease prevalence have narrowed in Brazil from 1998 to 2013, a period of a booming economy accompanied by major investments in public health in the country. Individual-level data came from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Brazilian National Household Survey and the 2013 National Health Survey. We first evaluate age-standardized prevalence rates of chronic disease by education and second, we predict the estimated prevalence rate between those in low vs. high education to assess if relative changes in chronic disease have narrowed over time. Third, we estimate the slope index of inequality (SII) that evaluates the absolute change in the predicted prevalence of a disease between those in low vs. high education. Finally, we tested for statistically significant time trends in adult chronic disease inequalities by education. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension have increased over the period, whereas the prevalence of heart disease decreased. Brazilian adults with no education had higher levels of diabetes, hypertension and heart disease than those with some college or more. Adjusted prevalence for hypertension and heart disease indicate some progress in reducing educational disparities over time. However, for diabetes, adjusted results show a continuously increasing educational disparity from 1998 to 2013. By 2013, individuals with no education had about two times higher diabetes prevalence than those with higher education with larger disparity among women. Results confirm findings from previous work that educational inequalities in health are large in Brazil but also provide evidence suggesting some improvement in narrowing these differentials in recent times. Recent policies aiming at reducing the prevalence of obesity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and increasing physical activity and consumption of

  1. [Research on food and nutritional security in Brazil from 2000 to 2005: trends and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Shirley Donizete; Gugelmin, Silvia Angela; de Mattos, Rubem Araújo; Silva, Juliana Klotz; Olivares, Priscila Dos Santos Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Discussion of Research on Food and Nutritional Security (FNS) in Brazil started with the Directory of Brazilian Research Groups from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). Searches using the expression 'food security' allowed the identification of 72 groups in 2005. Proportions between researchers and students suggest little dynamism and consolidation of such research. Groups in the area of Food Science and Technology, and those concerned with food quality are predominant; then there is the Nutrition area, mainly discussing the nutritional state of population groups; in the field of Humanities there is a small number of groups discussing political, economic and social aspects within FNS's national and regional scopes. It seems that investments in the integration between food and nutrition components of research on FNS are necessary, in order to attenuate differences between the economic (food security) and the social focus (human rights to a healthy nutrition).

  2. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008. The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM. The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country’s labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes and indirectly (losses in educational attainment. Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  3. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Marislei; Souza, André Portela Fernandes de; Sarti, Flávia Mori

    2015-05-01

    There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey) from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008). The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country's labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes) and indirectly (losses in educational attainment). Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  4. Daily birth numbers in Passo Fundo, South Brazil, 1997-1999: trends and periodicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikulecky

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Between October 6, 1997 and April 30, 1999, 5011 births (mean: 8.76 per day were registered in the city of Passo Fundo, South Brazil. The sequence of 572 daily birth numbers was not random (iteration test. Neyman distribution (m = ¥ showed the best fit. Clusters of days with higher birth numbers alternated with days with low numbers of births. Periodogram analysis revealed a significant periodicity of 6.98 days. The cosinor regression, testing 10 a priori supposed period lengths, found significant seasonality peaking in August-September and significantly highest birth numbers on Thursdays. Among the lunar and solar rotation cycles, the tropic lunar cycle and its 4th harmonic were most pronounced, in agreement with results concerning natality in Germany obtained by Svante Arrhenius in the 19th century. These findings confirm Derer-Halberg's concept of multiseptans. In addition to cycling, a significantly increasing linear trend with a daily increase of 0.0045 births was encountered. This documents a growth of the population in agreement with national statistical data.

  5. Sex Differences in Diabetes Mellitus Mortality Trends in Brazil, 1980-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thainá Alves Malhão

    Full Text Available To investigate the hypothesis that the change from the female predominance of diabetes mellitus to a standard of equality or even male preponderance can already be observed in Brazilian mortality statistics.Data on deaths for which diabetes mellitus was listed as the underlying cause were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the years 1980 to 2012. The mortality data were also analyzed according to the multiple causes of death approach from 2001 to 2012. The population data came from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The mortality rates were standardized to the world population. We used a log-linear joinpoint regression to evaluate trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR.From 1980 to 2012, we found a marked increment in the diabetes ASMR among Brazilian men and a less sharp increase in the rate among women, with the latter period (2003-2012 showing a slight decrease among women, though it was not statistically significant.The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus in Brazil has changed from a pattern of higher mortality among women compared to men to equality or even male predominance.

  6. Sex Differences in Diabetes Mellitus Mortality Trends in Brazil, 1980-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhão, Thainá Alves; Brito, Alexandre Dos Santos; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Cabral, Cristiane da Silva; Camargo, Thais Medina Coeli Rochel de; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that the change from the female predominance of diabetes mellitus to a standard of equality or even male preponderance can already be observed in Brazilian mortality statistics. Data on deaths for which diabetes mellitus was listed as the underlying cause were obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the years 1980 to 2012. The mortality data were also analyzed according to the multiple causes of death approach from 2001 to 2012. The population data came from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The mortality rates were standardized to the world population. We used a log-linear joinpoint regression to evaluate trends in age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR). From 1980 to 2012, we found a marked increment in the diabetes ASMR among Brazilian men and a less sharp increase in the rate among women, with the latter period (2003-2012) showing a slight decrease among women, though it was not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus in Brazil has changed from a pattern of higher mortality among women compared to men to equality or even male predominance.

  7. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997-2012): Correlates, time trends and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick; Duran, Ana Clara; Tainio, Marko; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Woodcock, James

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥ 9 h of cycling per day). Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  8. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  9. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Luciano Lima; Anamaria Cavalcante e Silva; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado,Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite,Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Cunha,Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; ...

  10. U.S.-Brazil Workshop on Global and Regional Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    MERCOSUR   (Common  Market   of   the   South)   following   the   impeachment   of   President   Lugo   and   the...issues   such   as   MERCOSUR   and   UNASUR,   which   they   saw   as   demonstrating  that  Brazil  was  a  consolidated

  11. Trends in Prevalence of Hypertension in Brazil: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Rafael V.; Fuchs, Flávio D.; Moreira, Leila B.; Riegel, Glaube; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension in emerging nations was scarcely described to date. In Brazil, many population-based surveys evaluated the prevalence in cities throughout the country. However, there is no population-based nationwide study of prevalence of hypertension. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of hypertension for the country and analyzed the trends for the last three decades. Methods Cross-sectional and cohort studies conducted from 1980 to 2010 were independently identified by two reviewers, without language restriction, in the PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Scielo electronic databases. Unpublished studies were identified in the Brazilian electronic database of theses and in annals of Cardiology congresses and meetings. In total, 40 studies were selected, comprising 122,018 individuals. Results Summary estimates of prevalence by the former WHO criteria (BP≥160/95 mmHg) in the 1980’s and 1990’s were 23.6% (95% CI 17.3–31.4%) and 19.6% (16.4–23.3%) respectively. The prevalence of hypertension by the JNC criteria (BP≥140/90 mmHg) in the 1980’s, 1990’s and 2000’s were 36.1% (95% CI 28.7–44.2%), 32.9% (29.9–36.0%), and 28.7% (26.2–31.4%), respectively (P<0.001). In the 2000’s, the pooled prevalence estimates of self-reported hypertension on telephone inquiries was 20.6% (19.0–22.4%), and of self-reported hypertension in home surveys was 25.2% (23.3–27.2%). Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension in Brazil seems to have diminished 6% in the last three decades, but it still is approximately 30%. Nationwide surveys by self-reporting by telephone interviews underestimate the real prevalence. Rates of blood pressure control decreased in the same period, corresponding currently to only one quarter of individuals with hypertension. PMID:23118964

  12. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hua Liang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abundant, whereas Oncaea spp and mollusc eggs were heavily preyed in Winter. There was a clear trend of increasing prey size with the developmental stage.O estudo dos hábitos alimentares das espécies de Chaetognatha foi realizado a partir da análise do trato digestivo de 9466 indivíduos dos estágios 0 - IV. Os quetógnatos foram coletados ao largo da região de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, com o auxílio da rede Bongo (Malha 0,200 mm e 0,303 mm, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987. Dos 9466 tratos digestivos analisados, 7119 estavam vazios e 2347 apresentaram de 1 a 3 presas. Grande quantidade de material amorfo e semi-digerido também foram detectados. A dieta esteve constituída basicamente de copépodos (Calanoida e Poecilostomatoida, cladóceros, ovos de moluscos, náuplios de crustáceos, apendiculárias e poliquetos, entre outros. O canibalismo foi observado a partir do estágio I, porém com baixa frequência. Os estágios jovens (0-1 mostraram preferência por presas de tamanho pequeno como náuplios e copépodos do gênero Oncaea, enquanto que os estágios maduros por presas maiores como Temora stylifera, Corycaeus sp e Eucalanus pileatus.

  13. Trends and Prospects of the Textile Industry Development in the Depressed Region (Ivanovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Yakovenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Russian economy at the present stage is uneven and depends on many factors that determine the potential for the development of regions, and in particular, the depressed regions such as the Ivanovo region. Nowadays exploitation of extractive industries capacities should be transformed into a strategy of economic growth in manufacturing industries. The article deals with the current trends in industrial development of depressed region, due to the structural changes in city-forming industry - textile industry. They are linked to the colossal raw dependence, physical and technological obsolescence of equipment, lack of competitiveness of domestic enterprises, the strong growth of dependence on imports of raw materials and finished products, the actual lack of export activity, insufficient development of civilized trade formats, abundance of forms of unfair competition. The purpose of the research is a retrospective analysis of the textile industry development in the Ivanovo region and the search for ways to overcome the adverse inertial processes at the present stage. The object of the research is the textile industry in the Ivanovo region. The subject of the research is scientific and methodological issues related to the diversification and the need to improve the sustainability of the enterprises of this economic sector. Strengthening the positions of the textile industry in accordance with the dynamics of economic development of Russia is expressed now in the directions of diversification of the textile industry. The formation of textile industrial cluster in the Ivanovo region is a mechanism for increase in use efficiency of industrial, scientific, educational potentials and one of the priorities of increasing the competitiveness of the regional economy.

  14. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van, G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T-ann.max). Linear trends in T-ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly...

  15. CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM UNDER ECONOMIC TRANSITION: NATIONAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Guo, Rong; Wang, Qingbin

    2003-01-01

    China's Tourism industry, especially international tourism, has expanded rapidly since its market-oriented economic reform started in 1978. There has been limited information regarding the trends and regional disparities. This paper examines the national trends of China's international tourism since 1982 and analyzes the changes in regional disparities since 1995. While the trend analysis suggests that China's international tourism is likely to keep growing at a significant rate, the analysis...

  16. Investigation of regional trends and seasonal shifts in the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical trend and variability of river is investigated in 502 river flow gauging in 9 countries of the Southern African region with a view to document the special variability of the river flow regimes. The study identifies regions with strong evidence of declining or increasing trend in annual runoff and those with strong ...

  17. Region Evolution eXplorer - A tool for discovering evolution trends in ontology regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Victor; Hartung, Michael; Groß, Anika

    2015-01-01

    A large number of life science ontologies has been developed to support different application scenarios such as gene annotation or functional analysis. The continuous accumulation of new insights and knowledge affects specific portions in ontologies and thus leads to their adaptation. Therefore, it is valuable to study which ontology parts have been extensively modified or remained unchanged. Users can monitor the evolution of an ontology to improve its further development or apply the knowledge in their applications. Here we present REX (Region Evolution eXplorer) a web-based system for exploring the evolution of ontology parts (regions). REX provides an analysis platform for currently about 1,000 versions of 16 well-known life science ontologies. Interactive workflows allow an explorative analysis of changing ontology regions and can be used to study evolution trends for long-term periods. REX is a web application providing an interactive and user-friendly interface to identify (un)stable regions in large life science ontologies. It is available at http://www.izbi.de/rex.

  18. Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Moreno; Ricardo Ludwig Schmitt; Maria Gabriela Lang; Vanessa Gheno

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the w...

  19. Secular trends in age at menarche among Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil: 1930-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H P; Padez, C

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a large research project on growth, development, nutrition, and health of Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this paper is to analyze the age of menarche in adolescents (N=164) and adult women (219) in the studied populations. Caboclo are admixed rural, peasant groups that live along the Amazon river and its tributaries, and there are few previous studies about them. Probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median age at menarche of 12.29+/-1.76 years. The retrospective method was applied to recall data of the 77 post-menarcheal adolescents, yielding an average of 13.06+/-1.27 years. Number of children in the family did not show any statistical influence on age at menarche in any age group. In adult women, age at menarche decreased from 14.50 in those born in 1930 to 12.88 for those born in 1980 (F=4.371, P=0.001). The downward trend found was, on average, 0.237 year per decade in the study period. The median age at menarche in the adolescents (12.29 years) is one of the lowest values found for Central and South American populations. In the ecological context, a low age at menarche could be an adaptive advantage because it provides a greater chance for reproduction at a young age in an environment where, until recently, life expectancy was low. As has been reported for other developing countries, the change found in age at menarche in the women born from the 1930s to the 1980s is likely to be related to changes in health and nutritional factors that occurred in Brazil because this country experienced significant improvement in living standards related to education, vaccination, and health conditions, which, although not equally, reached all regions after the 1960s. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:83-92, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Trends in seasonal temperatures over the Indian region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An investigation has been carried out to identify the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures and temperature range over the Indian land mass during the winter (January, and February), premonsoon (March–May), southwest monsoon (June–September) and post-monsoon (October–December) seasons by ...

  1. Trends of temperature and precipitation extremes in the Loess Plateau Region of China, 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-xiang; Wang, Meng-ben; Fan, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Shi-zhong; Zhao, Tian-liang

    2017-08-01

    The spatial and temporal trends of 11 (7) temperature (precipitation) extreme indices are examined for the Loess Plateau Region (LPR) and its southeast and northwest sub-regions based on daily observations at 214 meteorological stations. Results show widespread significant warming trends for all the temperature extremes except for the diurnal temperature range (DTR) and the lowest daily maximum temperature in each year (TXn) during 1961-2010. When regionally averaged, a significant warming trend is detected for all the indices except for DTR and TXn in the past 50 years. Compared with the entire LPR, a significant warming trend is detected for all the indices except for DTR and TXn over the southeast sub-region of LPR; while it is observed for all the indices over the northwest. The trends for these indices are generally stronger in the northwest than in the southeast in the past 50 years. In contrast, for precipitation indices, only a small percentage of areas show significant drying or wetting trends and, when regionally averaged, none of them displays significant trends during the past 50 years. On the sub-regional scale, however, a larger percentage of areas show significant drying trends for precipitation indices generally over the southeast relative to the entire LPR, and noticeably, the sub-regional average heavy precipitation (R10mm) and wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT) display significant decreasing trends during the past 50 years; whereas only a slightly larger percentage of areas show significant wetting trends for these indices over the northwest compared with the entire LPR, and when sub-regionally averaged, none of the indices have significant trends during the past 50 years.

  2. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  3. Medicinal animals as therapeutic alternative in a semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Oliveira, Maria G G; Barboza, Raynner R D; Singh, Ranjay; Lopez, Luiz C S

    2009-10-01

    A number of animal species are offered by herbalists in markets throughout Brazil. Nevertheless, there is a general lack of information about this type of trade in the country. In this review, we report on the trade of medicinal animal species in a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. We gathered information from scientific articles on animal species used for medicinal purposes in that semi-arid region. The trade of medicinal animals comprises 59 species and the zootherapeutic products extracted from them, recommended for the treatment of 66 illnesses. Results demonstrate the existence of a multi-state trade network of medicinal animals. Some of the traded animals are listed in the Brazilian list of threatened species. This demonstrates the urgent need to consider zootherapy in the context of biodiversity conservation in Brazil. Our results reveal the importance of zootherapy as a therapeutic alternative and demonstrate the need of further studies on the subject. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Diversity patterns, research trends and mismatches of the investigative efforts to amphibian conservation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Felipe S; Brito, Daniel; Solé, Mirco

    2014-12-01

    The number of papers on biology of amphibians has increased in the recent years. A detailed overview of the publications on amphibians can be very useful in assessing the status of our knowledge about this taxonomic group. Due to the large number of articles published, we aimed to assess the scientific contribution of herpetological researches carried out between the years 2001 and 2010 on Brazilian amphibians, considering the diversity patterns, the threats and the research topics that have been published most often. We applied scientometric attention indexes in the reviewed studies from seven scientific databases. To examine the relationship between the numbers of species recorded locally and regionally at different spatial scales, we used an additive partitioning of diversity in three hierarchical levels (i.e., states, geographic regions and biomes). We evaluated 892 articles and 914 species, which showed that 65 % of the total diversity of Brazilian amphibian species was represented by the beta diversity among the biomes. We identified many differences in the allocation of research efforts for taxonomic groups, threats categories, geographic regions, and research topics, highlighting the main research trends conducted and the priority themes for investigation of further papers on Brazilian amphibians.

  5. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  6. [Trends in avoidable causes of infant mortality in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 1984 to 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Antônio Prates; França, Elisabeth; Perpétuo, Ignez Helena Oliva; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2005-02-01

    To analyze the infant mortality trend in a metropolitan area, from 1984 to 1998. The main focus was on avoidable causes of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. Sources of data were the Sistema de Informacoes em Mortalidade do Ministerio da Saude (SIM-MS) [Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health] and Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) [Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Foundation] (official live birth and death records) for the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, in the State of Minas Gerais. A simple linear regression model was used to evaluate time-trends of mortality rates. Statistical significance of the inclination of the regression curves was considered for the p<0.05 level. During the 15 year period in question, the infant mortality rate declined from 48.5 to 22.1/1,000 live births. However, the most accentuated decrease was observed during the last four years of the study period. The post-neonatal group was greatly responsible for this decline both in the capital and in the other districts within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Although a significant decrease in the infant mortality rate has been observed, particularly in the post-neonatal mortality, it is still larger than the rates found in developed countries. Deaths due to perinatal morbidities as well as the group of causes represented by diarrhea-pneumonia-malnutrition still present an important potential for reduction. The authors discuss the role of the health services in improving the rates of these avoidable causes of infant mortality.

  7. Regional sustainability contrasts in Brazil as indicated by the Compass of Sustainability – CompasSus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Lindoso, D.P.; Bursztyn, M.; Brouwer, F.M.; Debortoli, N.; Castro, de V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The current need for assessing sustainable processes and states is a driving assumption for this article, having as objective to present preliminary results of a new assessment approach, the Compass of Sustainability (CompasSus), applied to administrative regions of Brazil. Its methodological

  8. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000

  9. Effect of solar flare on the equatorial electrojet in eastern Brazil region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of solar flare, sudden commencement of magnetic storm and of the disturbances ring current on the equatorial electrojet in the Eastern Brazil region, where the ground magnetic declination is as large as 20∘W is studied based on geomagnetic data with one minute resolution from Bacabal during ...

  10. Assessing response of local moisture conditions in central Brazil to variability in regional monsoon intensity using speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Barbara E.; Wong, Corinne I.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; McGee, David; Montañez, Isabel P.; Troy Rasbury, E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Sharp, Warren D.; Glessner, Justin J. G.; Santos, Roberto V.

    2017-04-01

    Delineating the controls on hydroclimate throughout Brazil is essential to assessing potential impact of global climate change on water resources and biogeography. An increasing number of monsoon reconstructions from δ18O records provide insight into variations in regional monsoon intensity over the last millennium. The strength, however, of δ18O as a proxy of regional climate limits its ability to reflect local conditions, highlighting the need for comparable reconstructions of local moisture conditions. Here, speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values are developed as a paleo-moisture proxy in central Brazil to complement existing δ18O-based reconstructions of regional monsoon intensity. Speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values are resolved using laser ablation and conventional solution mass spectrometry at high resolution relative to existing (non-δ18O-based) paleo-moisture reconstructions to allow comparisons of centennial variability in paleo-monsoon intensity and paleo-moisture conditions. Variations in speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values from Tamboril Cave are interpreted to reflect varying extents of water interaction with the carbonate host rock, with more interaction resulting in greater evolution of water isotope values from those initially acquired from the soil to those of the carbonate bedrock. Increasing speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values over the last millennium suggest progressively less interaction with the carbonate host rock likely resulting from higher infiltration rates, expected under wetter conditions. Increasingly wetter conditions over the last millennium are consistent with an overall trend of increasing monsoon intensity (decreasing δ18O values) preserved in many existing δ18O records from the region. Such a trend, however, is absent in δ18O records from our site (central Brazil) and Cristal Cave (southeast Brazil), suggesting the existence of divergent (relevant to δ18Oprecip) shifts in the climate patterns within and outside the core monsoon region.

  11. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  12. Tax war in Brazil: aspects and trends; Competicao fiscal no Brasil: aspectos e tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende, Fabio Martins; Oliveira, David Brandao de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper issue aspects of tax war since the origin in Brazil until your apply after the tax reform with destiny principle. This work introduce with historical of tax system in Brazil. Besides approach the tax war with the game theory and practical examples to explain the advantage and disadvantage under fiscal responsibility law. Finally, we will discuss if will be continue the tax war developed in possible scenario the tax reform charging on the destiny state (author)

  13. Trends in non-AIDS-related causes of death among adults with HIV/AIDS, Brazil, 1999 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Fazito; Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos; Maurício Gomes Pereira; Dilermando Fazito de Rezende

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in the listing of non-AIDS-related causes of death on the death certificates of adults with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. The study analyzed mortality data for persons 15 to 69 years of age from 1999 to 2010. Standardized mortality odds ratios were used to compare mortality from non-AIDS-related causes in the group with HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and in the group without HIV/ AIDS. From 1999 to 2010, there were 6,120,670 deaths among adults in B...

  14. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Llasat, Maria C.; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-te...

  15. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis felis from Five Geographic Regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Mauricio C.; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Azevedo, Milka C.; Costa, Francisco B.; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated rickettsial infection in 701 Ctenocephalides felis felis fleas that were collected from dogs and cats in 31 municipalities, encompassing all regions and major biomes of Brazil. A total of 268 (38.2%) fleas from 30 municipalities were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for the rickettsial gltA gene. The PCR products from 44 fleas, consisting of at least 1 PCR-positive flea from each of 30 municipalities, generated DNA sequences identical to Rickettsia felis. Rickettsial prevalence was highly variable among 30 municipalities, with values ranging from 2.9% to 100%. Significantly higher infection rates by R. felis were associated with the Pampa biome (southern Brazil), and the temperate climate that prevails in southern Brazil. In contrast, lowest R. felis-infection rates were significantly associated with the Caatinga biome, and its semiarid climate. Further studies should evaluate the effect of temperature and moisture on the R. felis infection in Ctenocephalides fleas world widely. PMID:24778194

  16. Recent trends in the climate of Namaqualand, a megadiverse arid region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available . Seasonal trends in rainfall did, however, demonstrate some spatial variability across the region. Spatial trends in evapotranspiration obtained from the 8-day MOD16 ET product were characterised by a steepening inland-coastal gradient where areas along...

  17. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette

    1994-01-01

    and the mortality varied between the regions, with maximum differences of 22%. The analysis showed no variation in the time trends in the different regions, and thus indicates that the use of a regional comparison group would be a valid basis for evaluation of the Copenhagen programme. Our study, however, underlies...

  18. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MO. Segura

    Full Text Available Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  19. [Decentralization and regionalization: dynamics and conditioning factors for the implementation of the Health Pact in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; de Queiroz, Lúcia F N; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila

    2012-07-01

    Decentralization and regionalization represent constitutional guidelines for the organization of the Unified Health System, which in the last 20 years has required the adoption of mechanisms to coordinate and accommodate federative tensions in Brazil's healthcare sector. This paper analyzes the national implementation of the Health Pact between 2006 and 2010 involving a strategy that reconfigures intergovernmental relations in the sector. The study involved the analysis of documents, official data and interviews with federal, state and municipal managers in the Brazilian states. The content of the national proposal is initially discussed, including its implications for health policy. The different rhythms and degrees of implementation of the Health Pact are then reviewed, with respect to adherence by states and municipalities and the formation of Regional Management Boards. Lastly, the conditioning factors for the multiplicity of experiences observed in the country are identified and the challenges facing progress toward a decentralized and regionalized health system in Brazil are discussed.

  20. Trends bodybuilding development in Ukraine and Kharkov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the features of bodybuilding and Ukraine in Kharkiv region. Material and Methods: results conducted on the basis of archival materials and records of events, publications and other sources. Incrementally conducted research of bodybuilding Ukraine and Kharkiv from the first event to modern times. Results: bodybuilding – a sport that can be practiced at any age. This makes bodybuilding common among different population groups. Conclusions: every year in Ukraine, the growing number of athletes and their level of preparedness. Athletes of Ukraine and the Kharkiv region show good results in international competitions.

  1. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  2. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  3. Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African penguins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1987 to 2005, numbers of African penguins Spheniscus demersus breeding in South Africa's Western Cape Province increased by about 50%. Numbers decreased at the four northernmost colonies in the region: Lambert's Bay and the three colonies in Saldanha Bay, although at Jutten Island the decrease is inferred ...

  4. Food flora in 17th century Northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-06-25

    This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as "umbu" (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), "mandacaru" (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and "carnauba" (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today.

  5. Reduction in NO(x) emission trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen

    2013-11-19

    We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission trends. Since NOx emissions were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average emission trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trends. The average NOx emission trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual emission trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual emission trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle emission regulations, and closure or migration of high-emission industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions.

  6. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in School: a Review Profile Found in the Different Regions From Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.

  8. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  9. Tendências no ensino da epidemiologia no Brasil Trends in the teaching of epidemiology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    1997-01-01

    development of biostatistical techniques. Currently, the definition of guidelines for the teaching of epidemiology in Brazil depends on careful reflection regarding a number of issues, among which are the reformulation or elimination of medical residency programs in preventive medicine, social medicine, and collective health; the creation of masters and doctoral programs exclusively in epidemiology; the conflict between a theoretical emphasis and a technical emphasis; and the development of strategies to strengthen new instructional groups that are being created in teaching institutions in less developed regions of the country. A positive trend is that teaching institutions are working more closely with health services, both for training personnel and for providing technical support in planning, organizing, and evaluating health programs. Regarding the teaching of health service professionals, successful training depends on how well teachers can provide in-service training that ties students' learning to real work situations, where the application of theories can be understood in the natural context of real problems.

  10. FDI in Brazil: recent trends and the role of Canadian investment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    xp

    2010-05-27

    May 27, 2010 ... the number of mergers and acquisitions. With regards to the FDI that took place in the second half of the 1990´s, the share of investments in the form of mergers and acquisitions increased. Graph 3 shows an increase in the value of transboundary mergers and acquisitions - where Brazil is presented as the ...

  11. Seabather's eruption: report of case in northeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Proença, Luís Antônio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Seabather's eruption is characterized by the occurrence of intensely itchy erythematous papules observed mainly in the region covered by swimwear. The dermatitis occurs due to the contact of planula larvae of scyphomedusae Linuche unguiculata with the skin. The swimsuit pressure triggers the action of the poisonous stinging structures carried by the larvae. The case described occurred in a child who, while bathing in the ocean waters of the Northeast coast of Bessa's Beach located in the city of Joao Pessoa, state of Paraiba, showed typical clinical signs of the disease. It was concluded that the report of the case showed clinical and therapeutic implications for doctors working in all of the Brazilian coastal areas.

  12. Global Disparities Since 1800: Trends and Regional Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahid Alam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the growing body of evidence on the relative economic standing of different regions of the world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In general, it does not find support for Euro-centric claims regarding Western Europe’s early economic lead. The Eurocentric claims are based primarily on estimates of per capita income, which are plagued by conceptual problems, make demands on historical data that are generally unavailable, and use questionable assumptions to reconstruct early per capita income. A careful examination of these conjectural estimates of per capita income, however, does not support claims that Western Europe had a substantial lead over the rest of the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century. An examination of several alternative indices of living standards in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries—such as real wages, labor productivity in agriculture, and urbanization—also fails to confirm claims of European superiority. In addition, this paper examines the progress of global disparities—including the presence of regional patterns—using estimates of per capita income.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in a metropolitan region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G C V R; Azevedo, R S; Amaku, M; Yu, A L F; Massad, E

    2009-12-01

    Seroprevalence data from a representative population were used to estimate the annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). Retrospective anti-toxoplasma IgG serological analysis was conducted to determine age-dependent seroprevalence, force of infection, average age of acquisition of infection and curve of decay of maternally derived antibodies. Seroprevalence was used to calculate the number of new infections. Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was estimated by total number of deliveries in a given year as a proxy for the number of pregnancies per year. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 64.9% in women of childbearing age. Average age of acquisition of toxoplasmosis was 10.74 years. The estimated annual incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis varied from 9.5 to 10.6/1000 births in the studied period. The toxoplasmosis seroprevalence model allowed a good incidence estimation of congenital disease in SPMR compared to other published data, indicating that this mathematical approach is useful in calculating the potential demand of congenital disease due to Toxoplasma gondii in a given community.

  14. Occurrence of Symphyla (Myriapoda) in the region of the Upper Solimões River, Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Wellington de Morais; Ester Paixão da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The present work aimed at identifying the Symphyla species diversity and abundance in various land-use systems under different degrees of intensification in western Amazonia. This is the first inventory of Symphyla in primary and secondary forest, crops, agroforestry systems and pastures which was carried out in Benjamin Constant municipality, in the region of the Upper Solimões River, Brazil. Samples (n = 101) were collected using a metal corer, and the symphylan extraction was carried out u...

  15. Acceptance of Santo Giorno cheese typical of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Edimir Andrade; Roncatti, Roberta; Todescatto, Carla; Beux, Simone; Marchi,João Francisco; Daltoé, Marina Leite Mitterer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Santo Giorno cheese, obtained from raw milk and selected autochthonous starters, is emerging as the newest typical food product from the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of the cheese with two ripening times of 60 and 180 days, produced in two dairy factories, testing two starters and two preservatives. Subjective sensory evaluation was applied using 129 consumers and hedonic scales for the attributes and for purchasin...

  16. Fog in the coastal region of southern Brazil: seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, N.; Gomes, C.

    2009-05-01

    Fog forecasting, especially advection fog, is important because a large port is located at Rio Grande, 32° S and 52° W. Fogs discontinue the cargo transport and prevent entrance of ships in the port, causing great financial loss. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions associated to fog formation are been investigated, especially those that happen during advection fog. The result of this characterization will facilitate the forecast using mesoscale numerical models. The research started with a climatology of fog in the region, in two locations which are 2° of latitude apart, with an average temperature difference of 3°C. The observation of fog is a standard record at conventional meteorological stations. Data from this study was obtained from the Meteorological Station of Rio Grande, which belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia network, and from the Meteorological Station operated by the Division of Meteorology of Department of Airspace Control in Porto Alegre. The period of this study is from January 1990 to December 2005. The distribution of the monthly total of fog observations shows that they occur mainly between May and August, with maximum in June. In all seasons of the year the total number of fogs is greater than in Porto Alegre in Rio Grande. There was a decrease in the average annual number of fogs from the 90s to the last five years of research, which can be attributed to urbanization around the places of observation. It increases the temperature in the layers closer to the soil and decreases the available moisture, making the occurrence of radiation fog. Atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, prevalent during these occurrences, will be examined next. The another goal is to compare the data of advection fog in Rio Grande, obtained from images of the type ARGUS in Cassino beach, with those recorded by Meteorological Station. This work is partially financed by FINEP and CAPES.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

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    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  18. Cuban Migration Trends and Their Impact on Central America Region

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    Charleene Cortez Sosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration of Cuban population has taken new directions; this is mainly due to the migration policy flexibility adopted by the Cuban government and other Latin America governments, such as Ecuador, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, among others, by issuing visas in favorable conditions for the population. Although there are varied reasons to migrate, this population has traditionally migrated motivated by the United States Cuban Adjustment Act which grants administrative advantages for regularization; no other country of the continent offers this privilege. Due to their political exile condition, whoever arrives to the United States will easily have access to legal mechanisms for migrant regularization. Although there has been great work on migration in general terms, little has been addressed on the Cuban migration in the Central American region; possibly this is due to the difficulty to find quantitative information in this regard. The article aims to facilitate the understanding of migration in a context of flexibility and establishment of new relations between the Caribbean and Central America.

  19. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m

  20. Trends in temperature and rainfall extremes in the Yellow River source region, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Y.; Maskey, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in daily temperature and rainfall indices are analyzed for the source region of Yellow River. Three periods are examined: 1960–1990, 1960–2000 and 1960–2006. Significant warming trends have been observed for the whole study region over all the three periods, particularly

  1. Transformation of regional educational space: inline with world and Russian trends

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    Anna B. Fokina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article points some problems and prospects in evolution of Russian educational space in context with the world trends in education. It presents the author’s vision over the vector of transforming the regional education space, which contribute to raiseof the level of professional potential of indigenous peoples of the North of Tyumen region.

  2. Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions

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    C.-E. Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in background dryness over land is key information for adapting to climate change because of its critical socioeconomic consequences. However, causes of continental dryness changes remain uncertain because various climate parameters control dryness. Here, we verify dominant climate variables determining dryness trends over continental eastern Asia, which is characterized by diverse hydroclimate regimes ranging from arid to humid, by quantifying the relative effects of changes in precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, surface air temperature, and relative humidity on trends in the aridity index based on observed data from 189 weather stations for the period of 1961–2010. Before the early 1980s (1961–1983, change in precipitation is a primary condition for determining aridity trends. In the later period (1984–2010, the dominant climate parameter for aridity trends varies according to the hydroclimate regime. Drying trends in arid regions are mostly explained by reduced precipitation. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon region despite an enhanced water supply and relatively less warming. Our results show significant drying effects of warming over the humid monsoon region in recent decades; this also supports the drying trends over warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.

  3. Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Eui; Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Hoonyoung; Piao, Shilong; Kim, Jinwon; Feng, Song

    2017-09-01

    Understanding changes in background dryness over land is key information for adapting to climate change because of its critical socioeconomic consequences. However, causes of continental dryness changes remain uncertain because various climate parameters control dryness. Here, we verify dominant climate variables determining dryness trends over continental eastern Asia, which is characterized by diverse hydroclimate regimes ranging from arid to humid, by quantifying the relative effects of changes in precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, surface air temperature, and relative humidity on trends in the aridity index based on observed data from 189 weather stations for the period of 1961-2010. Before the early 1980s (1961-1983), change in precipitation is a primary condition for determining aridity trends. In the later period (1984-2010), the dominant climate parameter for aridity trends varies according to the hydroclimate regime. Drying trends in arid regions are mostly explained by reduced precipitation. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon region despite an enhanced water supply and relatively less warming. Our results show significant drying effects of warming over the humid monsoon region in recent decades; this also supports the drying trends over warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.

  4. Detecting trends in 10-day rainfall amounts at five sites in the state ofSão Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution of the rainfall events within a crop growing season plays a crucial role on the crop yield. In this way, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of climate trends in the 10-day rainfall totalsobtained from five weather stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (1951-2012.The autocorrelation function, the Run test and the Durbin-Watson test indicateda lack of significant serial correlation in theseseries. The wavelet analysis revealed no conclusive evidence of periodicities in the temporal variability of this variable. According to the Mann-Kendall test, most of the 10-day rainfall amounts obtained from the five weather stations shows no significant trends. However, for the locations of States Campinas, Pindorama and Ribeirão Preto, the significant decreasing trends observed during the 2nd and 3rd ten days of October suggests a possible change in the climatic patterns of these locations, which may be linked to a delay in the return of the rainy season.

  5. Epidemiological profile of patients with cutaneous melanoma in a region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  6. Evaluating the patterns of spatiotemporal trends of root zone soil moisture in major climate regions in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha

    2017-08-01

    Root zone soil moisture (RZSM) is a crucial variable in land-atmosphere interactions. Evaluating the spatiotemporal trends and variability patterns of RZSM are essential for discerning the anthropogenic and climate change effects on the regional and global hydrological cycles. In this study, the trends of RZSM, computed by the exponential filter from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative soil moisture, were evaluated in major climate regions of East Asia from 1982 to 2014. Moreover, the trends of RZSM were compared to the trends of precipitation (P), skin temperature (Tskin), and actual evapotranspiration (AET) to investigate how they influence the RZSM trends in each climate region. Drying trends were predominant in arid and continental regions, whereas wetting trends were found in the tropical and temperate regions. The increasing trends of Tskin and AET cause drying in arid and continental regions, whereas in tropical regions, these cause wetting trends, which might be due to convective P. In temperate regions, despite decreasing P and increasing Tskin, the RZSM trend was increasing, attributed to the intensive irrigation activities in these regions. This is probably the first time to analyze the long-term trends of RZSM in different climate regions. Hence, the results of this study will improve our understanding of the regional and global hydrological cycles. Despite certain limitations, the results of this study may be useful for improving and developing climate models and predicting long-term vast scale natural disasters such as drought, dust outbreaks, floods, and heat waves.

  7. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

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    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  8. Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions

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    J. Bremer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected.

    The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995 modifies the estimated mean foE trend.

  9. Litomosoides silvai (Nematoda: Onchocercidae parasitizing Akodon montensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae in the southern region of Brazil

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    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, Litomosoides silvai parasitizing Akodon montensis in the southern region of Brazil is reported for the first time. New morphological information is provided for some structures of this nematode species, such as a flattened cephalic extremity, presence of two dorsal cephalic papillae, female tail with a constriction at its tip, “s” shaped vagina, spicules characteristic of the carinii species group and microfilaria tail constricted at the tip. This nematode was found parasitizing the thoracic cavity with a prevalence of 10% (2/20, mean intensity of 4 (6/2, mean abundance of 0.4 (8/20 and range of infection of 2-6 specimens per host, in southern Brazil. This occurrence of L. silvai in A. montensis is a new geographical record for southern Brazil, in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion of the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome.

  10. Characteristics and Error Modeling of GPM Satellite Rainfall Estimates over Different Regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R. A. J.; Vila, D. A.; Maggioni, V.; Morales, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to investigate, over the different regions of Brazil, the error characteristics and uncertainties (random and systematic errors components) in satellite-based precipitation estimates by comparing the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF), through different sensors from GPM database (such as GMI, TMI, SSMI/S, AMSR2, MHS, among others), and Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) algorithms. The analyses are made with other ground (S- and X-band dual polarization weather radar) and space (e.g., TRMM-PR and GPM-DPR [at Ku-band] active radars) based rainfall estimates as references at instantaneous timescales and respecting their temporal limitations. The Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology (PUSH) framework is used for the analysis and uncertainties characterization and error modeling. Specially, this study are focused on specific regions of Brazil, where the campaigns of the CHUVA project occurred (CHUVA/GoAmazon [IOP1 and 2] in Amazon and over southern Brazil where the S-band dual polarization radars (e.g., the FCTH radar) are located.

  11. Adaptation of spineless cactus to semi-arid region of Paraíba state, Brazil.

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    Aldo Torres-Sales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of two spineless cactus of the species Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck (Miuda and Alagoas under the environmental conditions of the semi-arid region in the tate of Paraiba, Brazil. An experimental randomized block design with five replications was used. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in São João do Cariri county, State of Paraiba, Brazil (7°22’45,1”S and 36°31’47,2”W, from August 2004 to May 2007. Every twenty-eight days the relative growth rate of cladodes height, length, width, and thickness were evaluated, as well as the number of cladodes per plant and the photosynthetic active area of cladodes and plant. The biomass accumulation per hectare was also measured at the end of the experimental period. One thousand days after planting, the cultivars did not differ in length and width of cladodes. The Alagoas cultivar showed greater thickness of cladode than the Miuda. The Miuda had a larger number of cladodes (p>0.05. There was no difference (p>0.05 in biomass accumulation between cultivars. In conclusion, both cultivars showed similar behavior in the environmental conditions of the semiarid region of the State of Paraiba, Brazil.

  12. Trends in non-AIDS-related causes of death among adults with HIV/AIDS, Brazil, 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazito, Erika; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Pereira, Maurício Gomes; Rezende, Dilermando Fazito de

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trends in the listing of non-AIDS-related causes of death on the death certificates of adults with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. The study analyzed mortality data for persons 15 to 69 years of age from 1999 to 2010. Standardized mortality odds ratios were used to compare mortality from non-AIDS-related causes in the group with HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and in the group without HIV/ AIDS. From 1999 to 2010, there were 6,120,670 deaths among adults in Brazil. Deaths in the HIV group represented 2.2% of the total. Non- AIDS-related causes, and more specifically cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the genitourinary system, and non-AIDS-related malignant neoplasms increased at higher rates in the group with HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate. The results point to a greater increase in mortality from non-AIDS-related diseases among persons with HIV/AIDS. This finding suggests that long contact with HIV and antiretroviral therapy play an important role in the occurrence of these diseases.

  13. A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu; Pereira Filho, Gentil Alves; Silva Vieira, Kleber; Silva Souto, Wedson Medeiros; Mendonça, Lívia Emanuelle Tavares; Montenegro, Paulofernandoguedespereira; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Silva Vieira, Washington Luiz

    2012-07-30

    The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region. In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil and analyse the implications on conservation that are related to the interactions between people and reptiles in this region. Taxonomic keys to identifying recorded reptiles are provided. Records of humans interacting with 38 reptile species that belong to 31 genuses and 16 families have been found. The groups with the largest numbers of recorded species were snakes (18 species), and this group was followed in number by lizards (13), chelonians (4), and crocodilians (3). The reptiles that were recorded may be used for the following purposes: medicinal purposes (24 species), food (13 species), ornamental or decorative purposes (11 species), in magical/religious practices (10 species), and as pets (10 species). Some species (n = 16) may have multiple uses. Furthermore, more than half of the species (n = 19) are commonly killed because they are considered potentially dangerous. Strategies for conserving the reptiles of the Brazilian semi-arid region must reconcile and integrate human and conservation needs.

  14. Trends in tobacco consumption in three different birth cohorts of elderly of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gabriela Arantes; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo Monteiro da; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of birth cohorts reflect the historical differences in physical and social environments. The objectives of the present study were to describe the tobacco consumption and to evaluate the behavioral trends with respect to smoking in three different birth cohorts of a population-based sample of elderly individuals. A series of three cross-sectional studies conducted with elderly individuals of 60-64 years of age interviewed in 2000 (birth cohort 1936-1940; n=427), 2006 (birth cohort 1942-1946; n=298) and 2011 (birth cohort 1947-1951; n=355) in a population-based sample from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The interviewees were participating in a prospective cohort study entitled Health, Well-Being and Aging (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento [SABE]). Data on tobacco consumption were self-reported and interviewees were then classified as never smokers, former smokers or current smokers. Linear model for categorical data was used to test differences on tobacco consumption between three birth elderly cohorts. Men were more likely than women to be smokers. Being evangelical and having more schooling constituted protective factors against smoking. Regarding trends, the tobacco consumption of the men did not change in any of the three cohorts studied (p=0.7454), whereas there was an increase in the number of women smokers, principally former smokers, over the periods evaluated (p=0.0189). These results suggest that the anti-smoking policies implemented in Brazil were effective in women of this age group; however, different prevention strategies are required to target elderly men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. White grubs (Cyclocephala flavipennis damaging perennial winter pastures in the South Region of Brazil

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    Paulo Gonçalves Duchini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, popularly known as white grub, is an insect widely disseminated in the South Region of Brazil. Despite the frequent occurrence of this white grub in areas cultivated with winter cereals, it is generally not considered a pest, since it feeds on straw and dead plant material. However, in 2015 and 2016, this insect has been identified as the damage-causing agent in the perennial winter pastures in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Damage was observed in patches and caused reduction in root depth and mass, resulting in loss of vigor, accelerated senescence in aerial parts, and death of tillers in Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Dactylis glomerata L. plants.

  16. Evaluation of regional trends in power plant siting and energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Wolsko, T.D.; Mueller, R.O.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Senew, M.J.; Gamauf, K.; Seymour, D.A.

    1977-07-01

    This study reviews trends in power plant siting and energy transport. The perspective is regional and covers the contiguous United States. A review of the methodologies used by utilities in siting power plants is given, as well as a detailed summary of state and Federal siting legislation. Air quality management programs that impact on siting are discussed, and trends in the inter-regional transport of energy in the form of fuel and electricity are evaluated. The review of siting trends presented is based on an empirical analysis of data submitted to the Federal Power Commission. For each region, alternative patterns of energy transport are analyzed, with particular emphasis on environmental impacts. A discussion of the movement toward development of energy parks concludes the report. 63 refs., 72 figs., 122 tables.

  17. Latin American Development Trends and Brazil’s Role in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto De Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of development of Latin American countries in XX century, defines the features of the process of economic stabilization (the case of Argentina and Brazil, the resolution of debt crisis, the development of democratization and the influence of globalization. The author reveals the main features of the integration processes in the region (Mercosur, UNASUR, the Pacific Alliance and the Venezuelan project of Alba, the consequences of the implosion of the FTAA. The author shows that most of Latin American countries followed their roles of primary products exporters, a characteristic even reinforced in the last decade by the impressive growth of China. The role of trade and economic policy of China in the region has changed and it turned into the main regional trade partner, taking the place previously held by the United States. The analyses of the successes and failures in the implementation of economic reforms in Brazil is provided. Three scenarios of regional development are proposed depending on the degree of regional inclusion in the process of globalization.

  18. Climate change projections over three metropolitan regions in Southeast Brazil using the non-hydrostatic Eta regional climate model at 5-km resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Andre; Tavares, Priscila; Chou, Sin Chan; Sueiro, Gustavo; Dereczynski, Claudine; Sondermann, Marcely; Silva, Adan; Marengo, José; Giarolla, Angélica

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this work is to assess changes in three metropolitan regions of Southeast Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santos) based on the projections produced by the Eta Regional Climate Model (RCM) at very high spatial resolution, 5 km. The region, which is densely populated and extremely active economically, is frequently affected by intense rainfall events that trigger floods and landslides during the austral summer. The analyses are carried out for the period between 1961 and 2100. The 5-km simulations are results from a second downscaling nesting in the HadGEM2-ES RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations. Prior to the assessment of the projections, the higher resolution simulations were evaluated for the historical period (1961-1990). The comparison between the 5-km and the coarser driver model simulations shows that the spatial patterns of precipitation and temperature of the 5-km Eta simulations are in good agreement with the observations. The simulated frequency distribution of the precipitation and temperature extremes from the 5-km Eta RCM is consistent with the observed structure and extreme values. Projections of future climate change using the 5-km Eta runs show stronger warming in the region, primarily during the summer season, while precipitation is strongly reduced. Projected temperature extremes show widespread heating with maximum temperatures increasing by approximately 9 °C in the three metropolitan regions by the end of the century in the RCP8.5 scenario. A trend of drier climate is also projected using indices based on daily precipitation, which reaches annual rainfall reductions of more than 50 % in the state of Rio de Janeiro and between 40 and 45 % in São Paulo and Santos. The magnitude of these changes has negative implications to the population health conditions, energy security, and economy.

  19. Changes to urban form and commuting patterns: trends in two Danish city regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares indicators of polycentricity in a monocentric (MUR) and a polycentric urban region (PUR) in Denmark at two points in time (1982 and 2002). It describes how population, jobs and commuting indicators of polycentricity develop and interact over time. Both the MUR and the PUR tend...... towards more balanced development. The increasing size of the main node in the PUR is the only deviation from the general trend. The general tendency towards a more polycentric regional structure was most marked in changing interaction and commuting patterns. Inter-urban commuting increased, while intra......-urban commuting decreased, leading to dispersion of commuters and a rapid increase in commuting across the region. Commuting distances were shortest in the polycentric region, but it also had the highest growth rates. In both regions, the balancing trend leads to a dispersal of commuting demand over...

  20. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978-2004: a joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Canosa, Antonio; Minelli, Liliana; Petrinelli, Anna Maria; Cassetti, Tiziana; Romagnoli, Carlo; La Rosa, Francesco

    2007-01-16

    The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness). Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Mortality data for the periods 1978-1993 and 1994-2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM) respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers were recently introduced. Besides gastric cancer, tobacco

  1. Trends and changes in tropical and summer days at the Adana Sub-Region of the Mediterranean Region, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Altın, Türkan; Barak, Belma

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the long-term variability and trends of the annual and seasonal numbers of summer and tropical days of the Adana Sub-region were investigated using nonlinear and linear trend detection tests for the period 1960-2014 at 14 meteorological stations. The results suggest that the annual number of summer and tropical days was generally below the long-term average through to the end of the 1980s. In particular, positive anomaly values could be observed at all stations between the years 1993-2014. With respect to the Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test, the significant breaking date was 1993. The rapid rise of the annual number of summer (tropical) days after this year led to the inversion of the negative trends observed from 1987 to 1992 into positive ones. The increasing trend is statistically significance at 0.01 level in Yumurtalık, Mersin and Antakya for the annual number of summer and tropical days. Dörtyol, İskenderun and Elbistan were significance at 0.01 level for tropical days. The largest positive anomalies of the summer of 2010 are observed in coastal vicinity (Mersin, Yumurtalık and İskenderun). This indicates that these settlements underwent a long-term warm period and thermal conditions due to increasing temperatures in the spring and summer months. The same conditions are found in high inner areas (Göksun and Elbistan) for tropical days. It is noticed that a tendency for greater warming occurred at stations located above 1000 m in the sub-region. The average number of warm days will increase 2-days per 100-years in southern part of the sub-region. The increasing trend in summer temperatures can be considered a potential risk, notably for human health and for economic and crop losses in the Adana Sub-region, including Çukurova, one of the most important agriculture areas of Turkey.

  2. Particularities of Syrah wines from different growing regions of Southern Brazil: grapevine phenology and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Saionara; Malinovski, Luciane Isabel; Caliari, Vinícius; da Silva, Aparecido Lima; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the phenological parameters of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) of Syrah variety recently introduced in the region of Marari, Água Doce, Campos Novos and São Joaquim, Santa Catarina State (SC), Brazil, and to characterize the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of wines produced from this variety of the vintages 2010 and 2011. The adaptation of the grapevine to climate conditions of these grape growing regions of Southern Brazil for this variety has also been assessed. The climate variations occurring between the phenological cycles of grapevine of Syrah for each growing region influenced the phenological extension and heat accumulation of the grapevine. The wines showed significant levels of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity, while catechin, a potent antioxidant, was the main phenolic compound quantified in wines. Positive correlations between the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were observed. The principal component analysis confirmed the influence of the growing region and vintages on the phenolic composition of wines, indicating the importance of climate conditions. This study identified possible phenolic markers indicative of climatic influence.

  3. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  4. Contributions on the regionalization process in two regions in the Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Yurie Teruya Uchimura

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to analyze the contributions of regionalization in North-Barretos and South-Barretos regions, focusing on political, structural and organizational changes. Methods: mixed sequential explanatory methods using records analysis from the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR (Regional Inter-managers Commission (CIR, interviews with questionnaire and guides along with 42 key agents (managers and providers of services conducted in August 2015. The descriptive statistical results were presented with mean scores for each of the question in the questionnaire. The analysis of the thematic content was performed by using the Atlas-ti software and categories of the mixed themes were generated representing the following dimensions: policy, structure and organization. Results: the study identified that the Estrutura Regional da Secretaria Estadual de Saúde (Regional Structure of the State Health Department is the most important institution in health policy decisions. Several contributions can be identified in the process of regionalization, mainly in the organizational aspect of the health system. The records demonstrated the frequent presence of themes related to networks, regulation and financing and the definition of flow of patients. Conclusions: regionalization in the North-Barretos and South-Barretos regions have contributed for a better organization in health actions and services. The intergovernmental forums do not work with coordination and they are not a collaborative place to negotiate health issues in these regions in São Paulo State

  5. Hepatitis B virus markers among teenagers in the Araguaia region, Central Brazil: assessment of prevalence and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Laura Valdiane Luz; da Silva, Marcondes Alves Barbosa; Calçada, Cristiane de Oliveira Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Silvia Raquel Brandão; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2011-07-18

    The Brazilian hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was implemented in 1998 and broadened to include young people up to 20 years of age in 2001. However, HBV coverage of teenagers has not been systematically assessed in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the magnitude of HBV infection and vaccine coverage among adolescent students regularly enrolled in the public schools of Barra do Garças, a city located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A representative sample was randomly obtained and participants were interviewed and had blood samples collected to test for HBV markers. The sample was composed of 576 subjects, 51% of which were females. The average age was 15, with the group ranging from 12 to 20 years of age. There were 29 anti-HBc reactive participants (5.0%). Four out of 29 were HBsAg positive (0.7%). Anti-HBs alone (vaccinated profile) showed in 323 (56.1%) students and 224 (38.9%) were negative for all HBV markers. Increasing age was associated with HBV exposure in a χ(2) for trend analysis (p=0.004). The prevalence of anti-HBs alone decreased as the subjects' age increased. Multivariate analysis showed independent association between HBV infection and the start of sexual activity. Another associated variable was the fact that the some students were enrolled in two low-income neighborhood schools. Our findings classify this area as low endemic for HBV and suggest that there is a progressive decrease in the spread of HBV in the region due to the introduction of universal vaccination of neonates. Approximately half of the adolescents 15 years or older were not immunized, which raises a concern in terms of the need to increase the vaccination rate for this segment of the population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. SAPOVIRUSES IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS FROM MANAUS , AMAZON REGION, BRAZIL, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymão, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral; Hernandez, Juliana das Merces; Costa, Samya Thalita Picanço da; Sousa, Maísa Silva de; Oliveira, Darleise de Souza; Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Bandeira, Renato da Silva; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Soares, Luana da Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana Darc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2016-11-03

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are responsible for acute gastroenteritis in humans, especially children and the elderly. In Brazil, data on SaVs infections are very limited, especially in Northern Brazil. Here, we investigated the occurrence of SaVs in samples from hospitalized children under ten years old that presented acute gastroenteritis. Positive samples were genotyped and phylogenetic analysis was performed using prototype strains sequences obtained from GenBank database. In total, 156 fecal samples were screened by RT-PCR for SaVs. A positivity rate of 3.8% (6/156) was found in children under three years of age. Four genotypes were detected: GI.I, GI.2 and GII.2?-GII.4?/GII.4, suggesting a possible inter-genotypes recombination. Most infections (83.3%) occurred between August and September. The positivity was similar to that found in other countries and genotyping demonstrated the presence of distinct genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the circulation of SaVs in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Amazon region, Brazil.

  7. Income Inequality, Economic Growth and Stroke Mortality in Brazil: Longitudinal and Regional Analysis 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincens, Natalia; Stafström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stroke accounts for more than 10% of all deaths globally and most of it occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Income inequality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has been associated to stroke mortality in developed countries. In LMIC, GDP per capita is considered to be a more relevant health determinant than income inequality. This study aims to investigate if income inequality is associated to stroke mortality in Brazil at large, but also on regional and state levels, and whether GDP per capita modulates the impact of this association. Stroke mortality rates, Gini index and GDP per capita data were pooled for the 2002 to 2009 period from public available databases. Random effects models were fitted, controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita and other covariates. GDP per capita reduced only partially the impact of income inequality on stroke mortality. A decrease in 10 points in the Gini index was associated with 18% decrease in the stroke mortality rate in Brazil. Income inequality was independently associated to stroke mortality in Brazil.

  8. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, Tommy; Thorling, L.

    2012-01-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have......, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average......, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate...

  9. Trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide over the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitch, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S. D.; Murray-Tortarolo, G.; Ahlström, A.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H.; Heinze, C.; Huntingford, C.; Levis, S.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.; Arneth, A.; Bonan, G.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Ellis, R.; Gloor, M.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S.; Le Quéré, C.; Smith, B.; Zhu, Z.; Myneni, R.

    2013-12-01

    The land and ocean absorb on average over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) and four Ocean Biogeochemical General Circulation Models (OBGCMs) to quantify the global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 - driven trends in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990-2009, attribute these trends to underlying processes, and quantify the uncertainty and level of model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; Land Use and Land Cover Changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990-2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of -2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr-1 with a small significant trend of -0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990-2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of -2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yr-1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (-0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yr-2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small trend of -0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP) whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yr-2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-2 - primarily as a consequence of wide-spread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (-0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2), with almost no trend over the northern land region, where recent warming and

  10. Recent trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitch, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S. D.; Murray-Tortarolo, G.; Ahlström, A.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H.; Heinze, C.; Huntingford, C.; Levis, S.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.; Arneth, A.; Bonan, G.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Ellis, R.; Gloor, M.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S. L.; Le Quéré, C.; Smith, B.; Zhu, Z.; Myneni, R.

    2015-02-01

    The land and ocean absorb on average just over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and four ocean biogeochemical general circulation models (OBGCMs) to estimate trends driven by global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990-2009, to attribute these trends to underlying processes in the models, and to quantify the uncertainty and level of inter-model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; land use and land cover changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990-2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of -2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr-1 with a small significant trend of -0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990-2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of -2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yr-1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (-0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yr-2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small, trend of -0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP), whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yr-2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-2 - primarily as a consequence of widespread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (-0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2), with almost no trend over the northern land region

  11. Decadal-scale trends in regional aerosol particle properties and their linkage to emission changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Gu, Yu; Diner, David; Worden, John; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Xing, Jia; Garay, Michael; Huang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Understanding long-term trends in aerosol loading and properties is essential for evaluating the health and climatic effects of these airborne particulates as well as the effectiveness of pollution control policies. While many studies have used satellite data to examine the trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD), very few have investigated the trends in aerosol properties associated with particle size, morphology, and light absorption. In this study, we investigate decadal-scale (13-15 year) trends in aerosol loading and properties during 2001-2015 over three populous regions: the Eastern United States (EUS), Western Europe (WEU), and Eastern and Central China (ECC). We use observations from MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Relationships between aerosol property trends and air pollutant emission changes are examined. We find that annual mean AOD shows pronounced decreasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, as a result of considerable emission reductions in all major pollutants except for mineral dust and ammonia (NH3). Over the ECC region, AOD increases before 2006 due to emission increases induced by rapid economic development, fluctuates between 2006 and 2011, and subsequently decreases after 2011 in conjunction with effective emission reduction in anthropogenic primary aerosols, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The fraction of small-size AOD (albedo have generally decreased, while the fractions of large-size (>1.4 μm diameter), nonspherical and absorbing AOD have generally shown increasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, indicating that fine and light-scattering aerosol constituents have been more effectively reduced than coarse and light-absorbing constituents. These trends are consistent with the larger reduction ratios in SO2 and NOx emissions than in primary aerosols, including mineral dust and black carbon (BC). Over the ECC region, no significant trends are observed with

  12. POTENTIAL AND FUTURE TRENDS ON INDUSTRIAL RADIATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN EMERGING COUNTRY - BRAZIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Omi, N.M.; Rela, C.S.; Tsai, D.

    2004-10-06

    Brazil started the use of radiation technology in the seventies on crosslinking polyethylene for insulation of wire and electronic cables and sterilization of medical care devices. The present status of industrial applications of radiation shows that the use of this technology is increasing according to the economical development and the necessity to become the products manufactured in the local industries competitive in quality and price for internal and external market. The on going development activities in this area are concentrated on polymers processing (materials modification), foodstuff treatment and environmental protection. The development, the promotion and the technical support to consolidate this technology to the local industries is the main attribution of Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research-IPEN, a governmental Institution.

  13. Birds from cerradão woodland, an overlooked forest of the Cerrado region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado region still receives relatively little ornithological attention, although it is regarded as the only tropical savanna in the world considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. Cerradão is one of the least known and most deforested Cerrado physiognomies and few recent bird surveys have been conducted in these forests. In order to rescue bird records and complement the few existing inventories of this under-studied forest type in the state of São Paulo, we looked for published papers on birds of cerradão. Additionally we surveyed birds at a 314-ha cerradão remnant located in central São Paulo, Brazil, from September 2005-December 2006 using unlimited distance transect counts. Out of 95 investigations involving cerradão bird studies, only 17 (18% investigations teased apart bird species recorded inside cerradão from those recorded in other physiognomies of Cerrado. Except for one study, no research found more than 64 species in this type of forest, a result shared within many regions from Brazil and Bolivia. Differences in species richness do not seem be related with levels of disturbance of landscape or fragment size. Considering all species recorded in cerradão in Brazil and Bolivia, a compilation of data accumulated 250 species in 36 families and 15 orders. In recent surveys at central São Paulo, we recorded 48 species in 20 families, including the Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma pallescens, threatened in São Paulo, and the Helmeted Manakin Antilophia galeata, near threatened in the state and endemic to the Cerrado region. Among the most abundant species inside this fragment, none was considered to be neither threatened nor endemic.

  14. The Current State and Trends of Development of Stores in Kyiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beglarashvili Oksana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state and trends of development of stores in Kyiv region for 2010-2016 are analyzed. The research reflects regional aspects of the basic indicators of development of the stores — there analyzed the dynamics of retail turnover, consumer price indices, retail turnover of retail trade enterprises, commodity stocks in the enterprises’ retail network, basic indicators of stores of enterprises-legal entities, namely the number of stores; sales area; provision of the population with sales area; sales area per store, etc. Carrying out the research of development trends of the retail trade network in Kiev region, the indicators characterizing the network of stores of enterprises-legal entities trading in food and non-food goods of are analyzed. There proposed measures to level the disproportions in the development of the retail trade network in urban and rural area of Kyiv region.

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection.

  16. A new species of Microcaecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae) from the Guianan region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Adriano O; Hoogmoed, Marinus S

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Microcaecilia from the Guianan region of Brazil, based on a series of eight specimens from the states of Pará and Amazonas. Microcaecilia marvaleewakeae sp. nov. is very similar to M. taylori, but differs from it in having more primary annuli, more secondary grooves, and more secondary grooves that completely encircle the body. The new species also seems to have a relatively shorter and thinner head than M. taylori, but additional specimens of the new species are necessary to check this. A brief discussion of the taxonomy of M. taylori is presented.

  17. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Junior, Olival Freire; Moreira, Ildeu C; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democratic institutions put an end to the race. Thus regional and national interests in addition to the establishment of democracies in Latin America have been responsible for the building of trust between the two countries. Meaningful international initiatives are once again needed in the framework of worldwide cooperation. This cooperation is better developed when democratic regimes are in place.

  18. Trends in Extreme Climate Indices for Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to analyze trends in air temperature and rainfall for 13 locations in the state of Pará using nonparametric tests. Daily data of maximum and minimum air temperatures and precipitation covering the period 1970-2006, collected by the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET have been used. From the results obtained it was observed that the number of warm days and nights per year has increased, thereby providing a significant reduction in the number of cool days and nights in the state. Due to the high space-time variability of precipitation, few localities showed statistically significant trends for indices of extremes dependent on this variable. The days and nights in Belém have been hotter in the last two decades. Therefore, these results are important for future planning of public health and energy for the state of Para, which must adapt to future warming scenarios sectors.

  19. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. The data were analyzed for maximum temperature increases and the trends were confirmed statistically using Spearman’s nonparametric test. Temperature trends were correlated with the mortality information related with extreme heat events in the region. The results showed a clear trend of increasing maximum temperatures during the months of June, July, and August for five of the six cities and statically confirmed using Spearman’s rho values. Las Vegas was the only city where the temperature increase was not confirmed using Spearman’s test, probably because it is geographically located outside of the Sonoran Desert or because of its proximity to the Hoover Dam. The relationship between mortality and temperature was analyzed for the cities of Mexicali, Mexico and Phoenix. Arizona.

  20. Trend analysis of the quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme by region and state from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; de Lima Vazquez, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Céline; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro

    2018-02-02

    Quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme can provide a perspective on its effectiveness in Brazilian macro-regions and states. The aim of this study was to perform a trend analysis of the cervical cancer screening program's quality indicators, according to Brazilian regions and states, from 2006 to 2013. Using information from approximately 62,000,000 exams obtained from the Information System of Cervical Cancer Screening (SISCOLO), joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the Annual Percentage Change (APC). The estimated number of women in the target age group (25-64 years) who underwent Pap testing over a three-year interval was lower than that recommended by international guidelines in the North, Northeast and Midwest regions, and the trends for this indicator remained stationary over the years in all regions of Brazil. Overall, the index of positivity in Brazilian regions and states is below that preconized by the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Additionally, the frequencies of unsatisfactory cases are in line with international guidelines but above those preconized by INCA guidelines. All positive cytological diagnoses were lower than those preconized by INCA. The results show that the cervical cancer screening programme is still far from efficient because most of the quality indicators in Brazilian regions and states are outside of the parameters preconized by national and international organizations.

  1. Disparities in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction: long-term trends from the Hunter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Allan J; Naudin, Crystal; Al-Omary, Mohammed; Khan, Arshad; Oldmeadow, Chris; Jones, Mark; Bastian, Bruce; Bhagwandeen, Rohan; Fletcher, Peter; Leitch, James; Boyle, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Trends in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) provide important information for healthcare providers and can allow for accurate planning of future health needs and targeted interventions in areas with an excess burden of cardiovascular disease. To investigate the regional variations in AMI incidence in the Hunter region. Incident cases of AMI identified between 1996 and 2013 from the Hunter New England Health Cardiac and Stroke Outcomes Unit were prospectively collected for this study. We calculated crude and age-adjusted incidence of AMI over an 18-year period and explored differences in remoteness, age, sex and indigenous status. During 1996-2013, a total of 15 480 cases of AMI were identified. There was a significantly higher incidence of AMI in patients from regional areas compared to patients from metropolitan areas. More importantly, while rates of AMI declined by 28% in metropolitan patients, they increased by 8% in regional patients. Males had higher rates of AMI throughout the study period than females, however there was trend over time towards a reduction in AMI incidence in males that was not seen in females. The age-adjusted incidence of AMI for indigenous patients increased by 48% from 2007 to 2013, compared to a 23% decrease in non-indigenous patients. Between 1996 and 2013 in the Hunter region, the adjusted incidence of AMI increased for regional patients compared to metropolitan patients with a trend towards a higher adjusted incidence of AMI in the indigenous population. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Temporal Trends and Hydrological Controls of Fisheries Production in the Madeira River (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. A.; Lima, M. A.; Doria, C.

    2016-12-01

    Amazonian river systems are characterized by a strongly seasonal flood pulse and important hydrologic effects have been observed in the dynamics of fish stocks and fishing yields. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from hydropower development will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects and impacts on fish and fisheries are expected to be potentially irreversible. In this work we investigate shared trends and causal factors driving fish catch in the Madeira River (a major tributary of the Amazon) before dam construction to derive relationships between catch and natural hydrologic dynamics. We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis to investigate dynamics in fish catch across ten commercially important fish species in the Madeira River using daily fish landings data including species and total weight and daily hydrological data obtained from the Brazilian Geological Service. Total annual catch averaged over the 18-yr period (1990-2007) was 849 tons yr-1. Species with the highest catch included curimatã, dourada/filhote and pacu, highlighting the importance of medium and long-distance migratory species for fisheries production. We found a four-trend dynamic factor model (DFM) to best fit the observed data, assessed using the Akaike Information Criteria. Model goodness of fit was fair (R2=0.51) but highly variable across species (0.16 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.95). Fitted trends exhibited strong and regular year-to-year variation representative of the seasonal hydrologic pulsing observed on the Madeira River. Next, we considered 11 candidate explanatory time series and found the best DFM used four explanatory variables and only one common trend. While the model fit with explanatory variables was lower (R2=0.31) it removed much reliance on unknown common trends. The most important explanatory variable in this model was maximum water level followed by days flooded, river flow of the previous year and increment. We found unique responses to hydrological

  3. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sørensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30–55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988–2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952

  4. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  5. Regional trends in surface solar radiation derived from satellite-based data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Posselt, Rebekka; Krähenmann, Stefan; Müller, Richard W.; Wild, Martin; Stöckli, Reto; Ahrens, Bodo

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of the surface solar radiation and the detection of its variability and possible changes is highly relevant for our understanding of the climate system. Clouds and aerosols are the main contributors to the observed changes in the solar energy reaching the surface. Clouds are well observed from satellites, especially during daytime, making satellite-derived data sets of the surface radiation a potentially powerful source of information to assess the spatial structure of surface solar radiation. Surface-based observations, e.g., from the BSRN and GEBA networks, have been used to assess the temporal variability and trend of the surface radiation. Due to the limited spatial distribution of the surface stations, a generalization of the trends derived from measurements at individual stations is difficult. Satellite-derived data of the surface radiation, providing up to global coverage, are available since the 1980s allowing an analysis of the regional variability of temporal changes of the surface radiation. Here, we use surface solar radiation data generated and provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, www.cmsaf.eu) based on geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. The ability of the satellite-derived data sets to detect trends is tested and assessed by comparison with surface reference observations in Europe. It is shown that, at least for part of the available time series, the satellite data is stable and can be used to derive trend estimates. Substantial regional differences in the trend of the surface solar radiation are detected across Europe between 1994 and 2005, with strong positive trends over Central Europe (brightening) and negative trends over the Mediterranean Sea (dimming).

  6. A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil

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    Nóbrega Alves Rômulo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region.In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil and analyse the implications on conservation that are related to the interactions between people and reptiles in this region. Taxonomic keys to identifying recorded reptiles are provided. Records of humans interacting with 38 reptile species that belong to 31 genuses and 16 families have been found. The groups with the largest numbers of recorded species were snakes (18 species, and this group was followed in number by lizards (13, chelonians (4, and crocodilians (3. The reptiles that were recorded may be used for the following purposes: medicinal purposes (24 species, food (13 species, ornamental or decorative purposes (11 species, in magical/religious practices (10 species, and as pets (10 species. Some species (n = 16 may have multiple uses. Furthermore, more than half of the species (n = 19 are commonly killed because they are considered potentially dangerous. Strategies for conserving the reptiles of the Brazilian semi-arid region must reconcile and integrate human and conservation needs.

  7. A web-based information system for a regional public mental healthcare service network in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Vinicius Tohoru; de Azevedo-Marques, João Mazzoncini; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Vinci, André Luiz Teixeira; Sasso, Ariane Morassi; Miyoshi, Newton Shydeo Brandão; Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira; Rijo, Rui Pedro Charters Lopes; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Alves, Domingos

    2017-01-01

    Regional networking between services that provide mental health care in Brazil's decentralized public health system is challenging, partly due to the simultaneous existence of services managed by municipal and state authorities and a lack of efficient and transparent mechanisms for continuous and updated communication between them. Since 2011, the Ribeirao Preto Medical School and the XIII Regional Health Department of the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, have been developing and implementing a web-based information system to facilitate an integrated care throughout a public regional mental health care network. After a profound on-site analysis, the structure of the network was identified and a web-based information system for psychiatric admissions and discharges was developed and implemented using a socio-technical approach. An information technology team liaised with mental health professionals, health-service managers, municipal and state health secretariats and judicial authorities. Primary care, specialized community services, general emergency and psychiatric wards services, that comprise the regional mental healthcare network, were identified and the system flow was delineated. The web-based system overcame the fragmentation of the healthcare system and addressed service specific needs, enabling: detailed patient information sharing; active coordination of the processes of psychiatric admissions and discharges; real-time monitoring; the patients' status reports; the evaluation of the performance of each service and the whole network. During a 2-year period of operation, it registered 137 services, 480 health care professionals and 4271 patients, with a mean number of 2835 accesses per month. To date the system is successfully operating and further expanding. We have successfully developed and implemented an acceptable, useful and transparent web-based information system for a regional mental healthcare service network in a medium-income country with a decentralized

  8. A zoological catalogue of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The variety of interactions between human cultures and herpetofauna is the subject matter of Ethnoherpetology, a subdivision of Ethnozoology. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, many reptiles interact with human communities because of their utility or because of the risks they represent. These interactions have obvious implications for the conservation of reptiles from this region.In this context, ethnoherpetology studies are crucial because they serve as subsidies for guiding strategies for the handling and conservation of reptiles. This paper presents ethnozoological and taxonomic informations of hunted reptiles in the semiarid region of Brazil and analyse the implications on conservation that are related to the interactions between people and reptiles in this region. Taxonomic keys to identifying recorded reptiles are provided. Records of humans interacting with 38 reptile species that belong to 31 genuses and 16 families have been found. The groups with the largest numbers of recorded species were snakes (18 species), and this group was followed in number by lizards (13), chelonians (4), and crocodilians (3). The reptiles that were recorded may be used for the following purposes: medicinal purposes (24 species), food (13 species), ornamental or decorative purposes (11 species), in magical/religious practices (10 species), and as pets (10 species). Some species (n = 16) may have multiple uses. Furthermore, more than half of the species (n = 19) are commonly killed because they are considered potentially dangerous. Strategies for conserving the reptiles of the Brazilian semi-arid region must reconcile and integrate human and conservation needs. PMID:22846258

  9. Radioactive pegmatites of the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Preliminary investigation on radiominerals and radioactive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DINOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Serra da Borborema, in Northeast Brazil, along the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, is known for comprising thousands of pegmatitic bodies and it is called Borborema Pegmatite Province. The pegmatites are exploited for gems and non-metallic ores and also for metallic by-products. Many of these bodies are mined for radiominerals and radioactive minerals in so-called garimpos, illegal mines, with dangerous and insalubrious working conditions. In order to locate the sources of commercial batches of columbite-tantalite (coltan) ores, exported between 2000 and 2004, were made radiometric surveys in these mines in the region of the city of Parelhas and radioactive samples collected from the batches were analyzed for uranium, thorium, niobium, and tantalum. The gamma radiation was measured in the pegmatites, also from their enclosing rocks and from the surrounding soil. The results indicate that uraninite has been mixed with coltan ores, but these minerals themselves show considerable contents of uranium and thorium. Chemical analyses indicate four distinct trends for uranium, possibly correlated with previously and already observed four structural features which control the pegmatites, and also evidencing four magmatic-metasomatic events of their emplacement. Regarding the working conditions in the mines, the sparsely presence of uranium minerals does not necessarily represent a hazard for the workers. Laboring risks are much higher than any kind of radioactive risk. (author)

  10. Long-term variations and trends in the polar E-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoland, L. M.; Ogawa, Y.; Hall, C.; Rietveld, M.; Løvhaug, U. P.; La Hoz, C.; Miyaoka, H.

    2017-10-01

    As the EISCAT UHF radar system in Northern Scandinavia started its operations in the early 1980s, the collected data cover about three solar cycles. These long time-series provide us the opportunity to study long-term variations and trends of ionospheric parameters in the high latitude region. In the present study we have used the EISCAT Tromsø UHF data to investigate variations of the Hall conductivity and ion temperatures in the E-region around noon. Both the ion temperature and the peak altitude of the Hall conductivity are confirmed to depend strongly on solar zenith angle. However, the dependence on solar activity seems to be weak. In order to search for trends in these parameters, the ion temperature and peak altitude of the Hall conductivity data were adjusted for their seasonal and solar cycle dependence. A very weak descent (∼0.2 km/ decade) was seen in the peak altitude of the Hall conductivity. The ion temperature at 110 km shows a cooling trend (∼10 K/ decade). However, other parameters than solar zenith angle and solar activity seem to affect the ion temperature at this altitude, and a better understanding of these parameters is necessary to derive a conclusive trend. In this paper, we discuss what may cause the characteristics of the variations in the electric conductivities and ion temperatures in the high latitude region.

  11. Mortality rate in children caused by traffic accidents according to geographical regions - Brazil, 1997 - 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Maria; Arruda, Celso; Loffredo, Leonor de Castro Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Fatal injuries in children caused by motor vehicle accidents represent a common situation in many countries worldwide. The present study addresses the mortality rate in children as vehicle passengers in Brazil, from 1997 to 2005. To evaluate mortality rates, the number of deaths was collected from the National Mortality Information System (SIM) and the population size was obtained using the Brazilian Bureau Census (IBGE) data available at DATASUS. Mortality rates were estimated in three-year periods and analyzed according to age groups (younger than 1 year old, 1-4 years old, 5-9 years old) and geographical regions using a 95% confidence interval. Overall results showed mortality rates of 5.68, 7.32 and 6.78 (per 1,000,000) for the 1997-1999, 2000-2002 and 2003-2005 periods, respectively for the whole country. Children younger than 1 year old had a mortality rate of 10.18 (per 1,000,000), which was higher than for the other age groups. For the period analyzed, the highest rates were observed for the Mid-West and South regions of Brazil, with rates of 13.88 and 11.47 (per 1,000,000), respectively. These results show the risk of fatal injury in children caused by motor vehicle accidents and may contribute to the establishment of educational campaigns aiming injury prevention in children as vehicle passengers.

  12. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Rodrigo I; Reis, Fábio A G V; Gramani, Marcelo F; Giordano, Lucilia C; Zaine, José Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  13. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil

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    RODRIGO I. CERRI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  14. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  15. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

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    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  16. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in chagasic and nonchagasic patients from the same geographical region of Brazil

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    Fernanda Machado Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among chagasic and non-chagasic subjects as well as among the subgroups of chagasic patients with the indeterminate, cardiac, digestive, and cardiodigestive clinical forms. METHODS: The evaluated subjects were from the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chagasic patients showed positive reactions to the conventional serological tests used and were classified according to the clinical form of their disease. Immunoglobulin G antibodies specific to H. pylori were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. RESULTS: The overall H. pylori prevalence was 77.1% (239/310 in chagasic and 69.1% (168/243 in non-chagasic patients. This difference was statistically significant even after adjustment for age and sex (odds ratio = 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.42; p = 0.04 in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of infection increased with age in the non-chagasic group (p = 0.007, χ2 for trend, but not in the chagasic group (p = 0.15, χ2 for trend. H. pylori infection was not associated with digestive or other clinical forms of Chagas disease (p = 0.27. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that chagasic patients have a higher prevalence of H. pylori compared to non-chagasic subjects; a similar prevalence was found among the diverse clinical forms of the disease. The factors contributing to the frequent co-infection with H. pylori and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its effects on the clinical outcome deserve further study.

  17. Trends in risk factors chronic diseases, according of health insurance, Brazil, 2008-2013

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to compare the trends for risk and protective factors for NCD in the population with and without health insurance. Analysis of temporal trends of the Vigitel phone survey, collected annually in adult population. Were used analyzed the temporal series of variables referent to risk and protective factors for NCD, from 2008 to 2013. Variables were compared according to the possession or not of health insurance using simple linear regression model. There was a reduction in the prevalence of smoking in the population with and without health insurance, in 0.72% and 0,69% per year respectively. The consumption of fruits and vegetables grew 0,8% and 0.72% per year respectively among the population with and without health insurance. Physical activity in leisure time increased 1.17% and 1.01% per year among population with and without health insurance. Excess weight increased in 1.03% and obesity in 0.74% p.y in the population with health insurance and 1.53% and 0.95% p.y without health insurance. Mammography increased 2.4% in the population without health insurance. Vigitel monitoring showed improvement in the indicators in the population with and without health insurance.

  18. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

    OpenAIRE

    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria; Erick R. Bandala

    2017-01-01

    Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico) and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada) were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. Th...

  19. Comments on "The organization of pharmaceutical services by 'health region' in Brazil's Unified Health System".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suetônio Queiroz; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Lavras, Carmen; Santana, Eucilene Alves; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to describe and characterize the pharmaceutical services provided in Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) from the point of view of the healthcare networks that are organized by region in the QualiSUS-Rede Project. This was a cross-sectional study, with data collected from December 2013 to July 2015, in public health establishments that carried out delivery or warehousing of medications (n = 4,938), in 465 municipalites, and the Federal District, in 43'Health Regions'. The results show the existence of at least one management service supporting the health network, and warehousing of medications in all the regions (> 90%). It also showed the availability of at least one healthcare service, in healthcare locations, by pharmaceutical professionals is irregular between the Regions, being highest in the Southeastern Region (74.3%), and lowest in the Northeastern Region (43.3%). The results underpine the need for effective structuring of pharmaceutical assistance in the SUS networks, overcoming the current restrictive vision of its activities, which gives value almost exclusively to the logistical component of support to the network, to the detriment of the clinical component. It is also important to expand, and improve the quality of, the population's access to medical drugs, and improve the quality of the healthcare offered to users of the system.

  20. Regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil, in 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mondini, Lenise; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2012-02-01

    To describe the regional and socioeconomic distribution of household food availability in Brazil. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey on food and beverage acquisition for household consumption, conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), were analyzed. The amounts of foods, recorded during seven consecutive days in the 55,970 sample households, were converted into calories and nutrients. Food quality indicators were constructed and analyzed according to the regional and socioeconomic strata of the Brazilian population. The amount of energy from protein was adequate in all regional and socioeconomic strata. On the other hand, an excess of free sugars and fats was observed in all regions of the country, especially in the Southern and Southeastern regions. The proportion of saturated fats was high in urban areas and consistent with the greater contribution of animal-derived products. Limited availability of fruits and vegetables was found in all regions. An increase in the fat content and reduction in carbohydrate content of the diet were observed with the increase in income. The negative characteristics of the Brazilian diet observed at the end of the first decade of the 21st century indicate the need to prioritize public policies for the promotion of healthy eating.

  1. Susceptibility profile of Salmonella against the antibacterial activity of propolis produced in two regions of Brazil

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    R. O. Orsi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Propolis antibiotic action has been widely investigated. This assay was carried out in order to observe the in vitro antibacterial activity of propolis against Salmonella enteritidis isolated from food and Salmonella typhimurium isolated from human infections. Propolis was collected by Apis mellifera in two regions of Brazil (Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State; and Urubici, Santa Catarina State. Both strains survival percentage decreased with time of incubation in Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis (EEP, demonstrating bactericidal effect after 24 hours. It was also observed that EEP from Mossoró was more effective than that from Urubici. The control of the propolis solvent - 70% ethanol - was less effective than EEP, showing only a bacteriostatic effect. We can conclude that propolis shows an activity against Gram-negative bacteria that varies according to the geographical region where it was collected by bees.

  2. A SYNOPSIS OF ALISMATACEAE FROM THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    LIGIA QUEIROZ MATIAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Alismataceae (excluded Limnocharitaceae comprises twelve genera of herbaceous aquatic plants. Only two of its genera (Echinodorus and Sagittaria are native to the Neotropics. A survey of the species of Alismataceae confirmed the occurrence of four taxa of Sagittaria and eleven of Echinodorus from the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Analytical keys to differentiate the genera and species are provided, as well as illustrations of their taxonomic characteristics and data on their geographical distribution. Echinodorus macrocarpus to be considered synonymous with E. pubescens. Echinodorus reticulatus is considered as a different species from E. longipetalus. There are five excluded taxa from the Brazilian semi-arid region: E. grandiflorus, E. macrophyllus, E. martii, E. bolivianus, and E. decumbens.

  3. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  4. Incidence trend for breast cancer among young women in Goiânia, Brazil

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    Ruffo Freitas-Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that there has been a large increase in breast cancer incidence among young women over the last decade. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of breast cancer among young women up to 39 years of age in Goiânia, between 1988 and 2003, and to compare this with other age groups. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study using the database of the Population-based Cancer Registry of Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: The incidence was calculated according to age groups: up to 39 years, 40 to 59 years and 60 years and over. Average annual percentage changes (AAPCs were estimated for the different age groups using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Over this period, 3,310 new cases were recorded. The standardized incidence was 2.89/100,000 in 1988 and increased to 6.37/100,000 in 2003 (R² = 0.52 for the group aged up to 39 years (p < 0.003. For the group from 40 to 59 years old, the incidence was 14.39/100,000 in 1988 and 41.70/100,000 in 2003 (R² = 0.85; p < 0.001. For the group aged 60 years and over, it was 17.62/100,000 and 28.49/100,000, respectively (R² = 0.67; p < 0.001. The AAPCs were 5.22%, 5.53% and 4.54% for the age groups up to 39, 40 to 59 and 60 years and over, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of breast cancer among young women in Goiânia has been increasing significantly, although this change was similar to the increase in other age groups.

  5. Trends in AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses incidence over 25 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Lara Coelho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the temporal trends in incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in an urban cohort of a middle-income country. METHODS: HIV infected patients aged ≥ 18 years at cohort entry were included in this analysis. We calculated incidence rates per 1000 persons-years of observation for the first opportunistic illness presented after cohort enrollment, from 1987 to 2012. Trends for overall and specific opportunistic illnesses were tested and incidence rate ratios for the most recent calendar period were calculated as the ratio between the incidence rate observed in the most recent period of the study (2009-2012 and the incidence rate observed in first period of the study (1987-1990. RESULTS: Overall, 3378 patients were included in this analysis; of which 1119 (33% patients presented an opportunistic illness during follow up. Incidence rates of all opportunistic illnesses decreased over time, and the overall opportunistic illness incidence rates fell from 295.4/1000 persons-years in 1987-1990 to 34.6/1000 persons-years in 2009-2012. Tuberculosis, esophageal candidiasis, cerebral toxoplasmosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most incident opportunistic illnesses in the cohort. Tuberculosis had the highest incidence rate in the study period. The peak in tuberculosis incidence occurred in 1991-1993 (80.8/1000 persons-years. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the third most incident opportunistic illness in the study, with a peak of incidence of 43.6/1000 persons-year in 1987-1990. CONCLUSIONS: All opportunistic illnesses incidence rates decreased over the years but they still occur in an unacceptable frequency. Tuberculosis co-infection among HIV-infected persists as an important challenge for health care professionals and policy makers in our setting. Impressively high rates of cerebral toxoplasmosis were found suggesting that its incidence among HIV-infected is linked to the high prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii

  6. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978–2004: a joinpoint regression analysis

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    Petrinelli Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness. Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Methods Mortality data for the periods 1978–1993 and 1994–2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. Results For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Conclusion Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers

  7. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  8. New species and records of Anacroneuria (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas Silveira

    2016-02-11

    The genus Anacroneuria is widely distributed in the Neotropical Region. There are about 80 species listed from Brazil, five of which are recorded from the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil, an area characterized by irregular and low precipitation. Examination of adult Anacroneuria material from this including areas of Caatinga desert vegetation and Atlantic forest revealed two new species records, A. debilis (Pictet) and A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci. Additionally, two new species, A. calori n. sp. and A. singela n. sp., are described from this material. These new records and new species reflect a major effort to document the biodiversity of the aquatic insects of the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil by the Research Program in Semi-arid Biodiversity.

  9. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  10. Acute leukemias in Piauí: comparison with features observed in other regions of Brazil

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    Rego M.F.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in age and sex distribution as well as FAB (French-American-British classification types have been reported for acute leukemias in several countries. We studied the demographics and response to treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL between 1989 and 2000 in Teresina, Piauí, and compared these results with reports from Brazil and other countries. Complete data concerning 345 patients (230 ALL, 115 AML were reviewed. AML occurred predominantly in adults (77%, with a median age of 34 years, similar to that found in the southeast of Brazil but lower than the median age in the United States and Europe (52 years. FAB distribution was similar in children and adults and FAB-M2 was the most common type, as also found in Japan. The high frequency of FAB-M3 described in most Brazilian studies and for Hispanics in the United States was not observed. Overall survival for adults was 40%, similar to other studies in Brazil. A high mortality rate was observed during induction. No clinical or hematological parameter influenced survival in the Cox model. ALL presented the characteristic peak of incidence between 2-8 years. Most of the cases were CD10+ pre-B ALL. In 25%, abnormal expression of myeloid antigens was observed. Only 10% of the patients were older than 30 years. Overall survival was better for children. Age and leukocyte count were independent prognostic factors. These data demonstrate that, although there are regional peculiarities, the application of standardized treatments and good supportive care make it possible to achieve results observed in other countries for the same chemotherapy protocols.

  11. Regional Trends in Large Wildfires and Climate in the Western U.S., 1984-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Brewer, S.; Arnold, J.; Moritz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database provides remote sensing-based maps of fire perimeters for all fires larger than 405 ha (1000 acres) in the Western U.S. The database uniquely permits analysis of large fires on all lands, collected using a uniform methodology, for the 1984-2010 period. We used MTBS data to examine changes in the annual number of large fires, total area burned in large fires, large fire size, and day of year of ignition (DOY) for ten ecoregions across the Western U.S. Fire trends were compared to seasonal trends in maximum temperature, precipitation, and Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SCPDSI) derived from monthly PRISM data. In a majority of ecoregions, our analysis revealed statistically significant positive trends in the number of large fires and/or total area burned in large fires per year. When all regions were combined, fire occurrence increased at a rate of six large fires per year and total area burned increased at a rate of 274 km2 per year over the 1984-2010 period. Multiple ecoregions demonstrated significant increases in the 90th percentile of large fire size, with trends as high as +3 km2 per year. The 10th percentile of DOY, an indicator of early season large fires, declined in two high elevation ecoregions. This finding agrees with previous research that has observed correlations between earlier snowmelt and increased fire activity at high elevation. Fall maximum temperature trended warmer and SCPDI in all seasons trended drier in the ecoregions with strongest increases in fire activity. At the Western U.S. scale, increases in large fire occurrence and total area burned coincide with increased drought severity over the 1984-2010 period.

  12. Trends in hospitalization for abortion-related complications in Brazil, 1992-2009: why the decline in numbers and severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Monteiro, Mario F G; Levin, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Brazil offers a unique opportunity to analyze trends in abortion-related morbidity over time with high-quality data. National data on facility-based treatment of abortion complications from 1992-2009 were analyzed. Large declines occurred in the number and rate of women treated for abortion complications: the national number of treated cases declined by 41% (from 282 000 in 1992 to 165000 in 2009), and the abortion treatment rate declined by 57% (from 7.1 to 3.1 per 1000 women) over the same period. The decline in this rate was more striking for more serious complications than for less serious ones (69% compared with 52%). Possible reasons for these overall declines include increasing use and greater availability of safer abortion methods, and greater ability to pay for such methods as well as a possible decline in incidence of unintended pregnancy and abortion through more widespread use of modern contraception. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Historical trends in the epidemiology of candidaemia: analysis of an 11-year period in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Wille

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSI. To evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects of two cohorts {1994-1999 [period 1 (P1 ]; 2000-2004 [period 2 (P2 ]} of candidaemic patients, we performed a retrospective analysis from a laboratory-based survey. A total of 388 candidaemias were identified, with an incidence of 0.20/1,000 patient-days and a significant increase in P2 vs. P1 (0.25 vs. 0.15, p = 0.04. Cancer and prior antibiotic use were frequent and Candida albicans was the most prevalent species found (42.4%. Resistance to fluconazole was found in 2.47% of the strains. No differences were observed in the species distribution of Candida during the study periods. In the P2 cohort, there were higher prevalence of elderly individuals, cardiac, pulmonary and liver diseases, renal failure, central venous catheters and antibiotic therapy. In P1, there were higher prevalence of neurological diseases and chemotherapy. The crude mortality was 55.4%. In conclusion, our incidence rates remained high. Furthermore, the distribution pattern of Candida species and the fluconazole resistance profile remained unchanged. Moreover, we found a clear trend of higher prevalence of candidaemia among the elderly and among patients with comorbidities. Finally, it is necessary to discuss strategies for the prevention and control of Candida BSI in Brazil.

  14. Trends in screen time on week and weekend days in a representative sample of Southern Brazil students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Adair S; Silva, Kelly S; Barbosa Filho, Valter C; Bezerra, Jorge; de Oliveira, Elusa S A; Nahas, Markus V

    2014-12-01

    Economic and technological improvements can help increase screen time use among adolescents, but evidence in developing countries is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine changes in TV watching and computer/video game use patterns on week and weekend days after a decade (2001 and 2011), among students in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys that included 5 028 and 6 529 students in 2001 and 2011, respectively, aged 15-19 years. The screen time use indicators were self-reported. 95% Confidence intervals were used to compare the prevalence rates. All analyses were separated by gender. After a decade, there was a significant increase in computer/video game use. Inversely, a significant reduction in TV watching was observed, with a similar magnitude to the change in computer/video game use. The worst trends were identified on weekend days. The decrease in TV watching after a decade appears to be compensated by the increase in computer/video game use, both in boys and girls. Interventions are needed to reduce the negative impact of technological improvements in the lifestyles of young people, especially on weekend days. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional economy of activation processes of activity of global trade networks; examples of cooperation in geo-space direction are given; the role of regional marketing technologies is determined in provision of complex long-term cross-border effect of cooperation of Chernivtsi and Suceava as regional centres of Bukovyna.

  16. Recent trends in incidence of cervical cancer in several regions of south-western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L; Ménégoz, F; Fioretta, G

    1995-01-01

    In recent decades, most Western countries have experienced a decline in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. More recently, a reversal of this trend has been noted in young women, especially in anglo-saxon countries. These trends have been attributed to the beneficial results of cervical cancer screening on the one hand, to the widespread increase of high risk sexual behaviors on the other. Recent trends in Latin European countries have not previously been studied. Time trends of incidence data from 10 regions of South-Western Europe (Geneva, Vaud, Calvados, Doubs, Bas-Rhin, Isère, Ragusa, Varese, Zaragoza and Navarra) were analysed by means of log-linear models. The data were provided for various periods of time between 1970 and 1990. The mean incidence rate varies threefold between Navarra where rates are the lowest to Calvados where they are the highest. The overall decrease rate is of the order of -3% per year but rate changes differ by age group. The reduction seems to concern mostly middle aged women. A definite trend could not be determined among younger women due to low case numbers. Thus, the hypothesis of a rising incidence in young women cannot be confirmed at this time.

  17. Proposing a Compartmental Model for Leprosy and Parameterizing Using Regional Incidence in Brazil.

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    Rebecca Lee Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hansen's disease (HD, or leprosy, is still considered a public health risk in much of Brazil. Understanding the dynamics of the infection at a regional level can aid in identification of targets to improve control. A compartmental continuous-time model for leprosy dynamics was designed based on understanding of the biology of the infection. The transmission coefficients for the model and the rate of detection were fit for each region using Approximate Bayesian Computation applied to paucibacillary and multibacillary incidence data over the period of 2000 to 2010, and model fit was validated on incidence data from 2011 to 2012. Regional variation was noted in detection rate, with cases in the Midwest estimated to be infectious for 10 years prior to detection compared to 5 years for most other regions. Posterior predictions for the model estimated that elimination of leprosy as a public health risk would require, on average, 44-45 years in the three regions with the highest prevalence. The model is easily adaptable to other settings, and can be studied to determine the efficacy of improved case finding on leprosy control.

  18. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

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    Priscila Pereira-Coltri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  19. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pereira Coltri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data, geographic information system (GIS and atmospheric modeling. The urban heat-islands were analyzed by using Landsat 7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ images for the sugar cane crop (January to March and non-crop (August to November periods, and these images were subsequently converted to land surface brightness temperature. The average temperature in the non-crop period was 3.5°C higher than in the crop period, which suggested that heat-island intensity may be linked to the seasonality of sugar cane cultivation. In order to examine the influence of urban areas on regional temperature changes and heat fluxes, numerical simulations were done with the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS. Overall, the results obtained suggested that local and regional climatic dynamics were related to land use and changes in land cover.

  20. Proposing a Compartmental Model for Leprosy and Parameterizing Using Regional Incidence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca Lee

    2016-08-01

    Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is still considered a public health risk in much of Brazil. Understanding the dynamics of the infection at a regional level can aid in identification of targets to improve control. A compartmental continuous-time model for leprosy dynamics was designed based on understanding of the biology of the infection. The transmission coefficients for the model and the rate of detection were fit for each region using Approximate Bayesian Computation applied to paucibacillary and multibacillary incidence data over the period of 2000 to 2010, and model fit was validated on incidence data from 2011 to 2012. Regional variation was noted in detection rate, with cases in the Midwest estimated to be infectious for 10 years prior to detection compared to 5 years for most other regions. Posterior predictions for the model estimated that elimination of leprosy as a public health risk would require, on average, 44-45 years in the three regions with the highest prevalence. The model is easily adaptable to other settings, and can be studied to determine the efficacy of improved case finding on leprosy control.

  1. [Variation trends of the vegetations in distribution region of Amur tiger based on MODIS NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Ru; Wang, Tian-Ming; Ge, Han-Ping

    2012-10-01

    By using the averaged 250 m MODIS NDVI data in growth seasons of 2000-2010 and the approach of ordinary linear regression, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the vegetations in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), the Far East region of Russia and the eastern part of Northeast China, as well as the relationships between these variation trends and the anthropogenic activities. In 2000 - 2010, the areas with significantly decreased NDVI were sparsely distributed and accounted for 9.6% of the total, while the areas with significantly increased NDVI were mainly concentrated in the central part of northern Russia Far East Region and only accounted for 0.5% of the total. The percentage of the areas with significantly decreased NDVI in the distribution region of Amur tiger was slightly higher than that in the whole study region. The areas with significantly decreased NDVI were mainly distributed in the places of low elevation, gentle slope, and close to roads/railroads. The number of the pixels with significantly decreased NDVI increased with the increase of the nearest distance to residential locations first, and then decreased gradually. The significant decrease of the NDVI was closely related to the anthropogenic activities, and thus, to adopt effective measures to reduce human disturbances could control the vegetation degradation, and further, provide sustainable basis for the protection of Amur tiger and the conservation of the biodiversity in the studied region.

  2. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital...

  3. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  4. Global and Regional Trends in Production, Trade and Consumption of Food Legume Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Akibode, Comlanvi Sitou; Maredia, Mywish K.

    2012-01-01

    Food legumes play an important and diverse role in the farming systems and in the diets of poor people around the world. They are ideal crops for simultaneously achieving three developmental goals in targeted population—reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition, and enhancing ecosystem resilience. This report provides global and regional trend analysis and sheds light on the pulse crop production, price, trade, and consumption patterns observed in the developing world, developed ...

  5. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  6. Occurrence of immature forms of culicids (Insecta: Diptera in the northeastern region of Brazil

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    Cristiane Maia da Silva

    Full Text Available The Culicidae family is represented by approximately 3,610 species, among which many are involved in transmission of pathogens and parasites, thus presenting great medical-veterinary importance. In Brazil, the state of Pernambuco is considered an endemic area for many diseases vectored by mosquitoes, such as human and canine filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of immature forms of culicids, over an one-year period, in a specific area of northeastern region of Brazil. Culicids larvae were collected from traps located on the ground and in treetops, between october 2012 and september 2013. Ten different species of culicids were identified. The greatest number of larvae were collected in september 2013 and the lowest number in december 2012. Stegomyia (Stegomyia albopicta (46.45%; 5,908/12,718, Culex (Culex maxi (35.56%; 4,523/12,718 and Limatus durhamii (12.58%; 1,600/12,718 were the most frequent species. The human and animal populations living in the study area are exposed to culicids and transmission agents throughout the year, especially after the rains. Therefore, control and prevention measures against culicids must be adopted in the study area.

  7. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

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    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  8. Regional transport modelling for nitrate trend assessment and forecasting in a chalk aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Couturier, Julie; Goderniaux, Pascal; Leroy, Mathieu; Maloszewski, Piotr; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-10-21

    Regional degradation of groundwater resources by nitrate has become one of the main challenges for water managers worldwide. Regulations have been defined to reverse observed nitrate trends in groundwater bodies, such as the Water Framework Directive and the Groundwater Daughter Directive in the European Union. In such a context, one of the main challenges remains to develop efficient approaches for groundwater quality assessment at regional scale, including quantitative numerical modelling, as a decision support for groundwater management. A new approach combining the use of environmental tracers and the innovative 'Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell' (HFEMC) modelling technique is developed to study and forecast the groundwater quality at the regional scale, with an application to a regional chalk aquifer in the Geer basin in Belgium. Tritium data and nitrate time series are used to produce a conceptual model for regional groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the combined unsaturated and saturated zones of the chalk aquifer. This shows that the spatial distribution of the contamination in the Geer basin is essentially linked to the hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in the basin, more precisely to groundwater age and mixing and not to the spatial patterns of land use or local hydrodispersive processes. A three-dimensional regional scale groundwater flow and solute transport model is developed. It is able to reproduce the spatial patterns of tritium and nitrate and the observed nitrate trends in the chalk aquifer and it is used to predict the evolution of nitrate concentrations in the basin. The modelling application shows that the global inertia of groundwater quality is strong in the basin and trend reversal is not expected to occur before the 2015 deadline fixed by the European Water Framework Directive. The expected time required for trend reversal ranges between 5 and more than 50 years, depending on the location in the basin and the expected reduction

  9. Breast cancer mortality trends in Italy by region and screening programme, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Zappa, Marco; Cortini, Barbara; Martini, Andrea; Mantellini, Paola; Ventura, Leonardo; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-12-01

    To describe trends in breast cancer mortality in 14 Italian regions representing 90% of the Italian population, and in the country overall, in relation to the diffusion of organized or opportunistic breast cancer screening programmes. Settings : Breast cancer mortality figures from 1980-2008 in Italy and 14 Italian regions were retrieved from the National Statistics Institute. Estimated annual percent change (EAPC) was calculated for three time-periods (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2008). To estimate the age-adjusted and age-specific EAPC, trends in mortality based on annual data were examined using a log-linear regression model, and the year of death as a regressor variable. In the period 1980-1989 an increasing trend was observed in Italy overall (EAPC = +1.1%; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: + 0.9%; + 1.3%) and in the 14 regions. In the second decade a decreasing trend was recorded both overall in Italy (EAPC = -1.6%; 95CI:-1.8%;-1.4%) and in all the regions. Between 2000-2008 a slightly decreasing trend was observed in Italy overall (EAPC = -0.8%; 95%CI:-1.0%;-0.5%). A steeper and earlier decrease compared with the rest of Italy was observed in 1990-1999 in Liguria (EAPC = -3.1%; 95%CI:-4.0%,-2.1%), Lombardy (EAPC = -2.3%; 95%CI:-2.8%;-1.9%), and Tuscany (EAPC = -3.0%; 95%CI:-3.7%;-2.2%), mainly due to the 55-64 age-group. There were significant EAPCs between -4.1% and -3.7% in these three regions, 2.5-3.0 times greater than in the rest of Italy (EAPC = -1.4%). This earlier decline in three Italian regions could be partially attributable to local organized screening programmes implemented earlier than in the rest of Italy, and to opportunistic screening that became more common in 1990s. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Trends and Perspectives of Social and Economic Development of the Perm region

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    Taliya Kh. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of the article is study the current prerequisites and trends of the economic development of the Perm Region to formulate proposals and recommendations within the framework of the program for the long-term development of regional social and economic systems. The main hypothesis of the article is that the social and economic development of the Perm Region requires the creation of innovative ways to develop promising areas of business based on relevant trends and assumptions.Methods: the methodology of solving the tasks is based on the use of the method of dialectical research, methods of economic analysis, forecasting, situational and system analysis, expert assessments and analysis of empirical data.Results: the results of the work are to study the economic processes in the region, including indicators and indicators of the region's social and economic development, and further develop recommendations and proposals for the development of priority areas in project management and selection of optimal project planning models to ensure sustainable development of the region and its competitiveness.Conclusions and Relevance: priority goals for solving the current economic problems of the Perm Region are to increase the income of the population and increase the revenue of the regional budget. To increase the pace and ensure the stability of economic growth, increase the real income of citizens, achieve technological leadership, a consistent solution to a number of specific tasks is necessary. It is important that the implementation of economic policy should be based on building partnerships between public authorities and entrepreneurship, aimed at increasing the efficiency of companies and the development of the economy of the region.

  11. Modulation mechanisms of marine atmospheric boundary layer at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region

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    de Camargo, Ricardo; Todesco, Enzo; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; de Souza, Ronald Buss

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC) region on the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is investigated through in situ data analysis of five different cruises (2004 to 2008) and numerical experiments with a regional atmospheric model. Two different groups of numerical experiments were performed in order to evaluate the relevance of static stability and hydrostatic balance physical mechanisms for the MABL instability. The first group used monthly climatological sea surface temperature (SST) as bottom boundary condition while the second used daily updated Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS SST data together with radiosondes and surface data assimilation. A reasonable agreement between numerical results and QuikSCAT wind data was observed through correlation coefficients and mean square error values. In terms of the horizontal structure of the MABL, stronger winds were found over the warm side of the BMC region as well as over the thermal front itself, which supports the coexistence of both modulation mechanisms. The analyzed patterns of surface atmospheric thermal advection showed a clear interaction between the synoptic and regional scales. The signature of the oceanic thermal front (almost meridionally oriented) on the air temperature at 2 m makes the temperature advection strongly determined by the zonal component of the wind. The analysis of momentum budget terms did not show a clear and reasonable explanation of the existence or predominance of the modulation mechanisms, and it also suggested the relevance of other effects, such as the idea based on unbalanced Coriolis force and turbulence/friction effects.

  12. Child Nutritional Status in the Changing Socioeconomic Region of the Northern Amazon, Brazil.

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    Cunha, Mônica P L; Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G

    2017-12-23

    The living conditions (i.e., socioeconomic, healthcare-related, nutritional, and environmental) to which children are exposed may influence their ability to reach their optimal growth potential. This review focuses on the relationship between the nutritional status of children under five years of age and social and environmental factors in Northern Brazil. Children living in this region have limited access to healthcare and face precarious socioeconomic and environmental conditions. This analysis was based on data from national health surveys, the consolidated food, nutrition surveillance system (SISVAN), and indicators of the DPSEEA (driving force, pressure, state, exposures, health effects, and actions) framework. The northern region has the worst living conditions in the country, and children under five years of age have significant height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height deficits. Concomitantly, the prevalence of children who are overweight has increased significantly, although it remains lower than that in more developed Brazilian regions. Insufficient and/or inadequate dietary practices and early exposure to unfavorable living conditions are risk factors for nutritional deviations. Further advances in public health policies that consider regional characteristics, particularly in the north, where progress has been slower, are needed.

  13. Trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan C

    2011-03-01

    The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is rapidly growing in the Asia-Pacific region. There is the need for region-specific research and analysis of the epidemiology of COPD to raise awareness of the disease and highlight its causes. Such information is essential to for the development of effective national health policies to ensure evidence-based deployment of finite healthcare resources in the prevention and management of COPD. Recent population-based epidemiological studies have confirmed previous assumptions that COPD in the Asia-Pacific region is as prevalent as in the mature economies of the western world. The greatest numbers of deaths and hospitalizations from COPD are concentrated in this populous region of the world. The patterns in trends in mortality and hospitalization in the past 10 years in Asia-Pacific countries show a spectrum from the 'mature' to the 'evolving' and are likely related to the combined effects of cigarette smoking and nonsmoking risk factors. Gross underdiagnosis of COPD and underutilization of spirometry further contribute to burden and are barriers to appropriate and timely management of COPD. COPD is a common disease with a large disease burden throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Effective public health preventive measures coupled with timely case detection are needed for the reversal of trends and the reduction of disease burden.

  14. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  15. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Figueiredo Filho Alberto Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25degreesC, 30degreesC, and 37degreesC for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  16. Decadal change of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the region of Brazil and Malvinas confluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yi; He, Zhigang

    2014-06-01

    The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) exhibits a decadal variability during recent years, i.e., salinification before 1997 and freshening thereafter, with the maximum anomalies locating at the region of Brazil and Malvinas currents confluence. Our study proposed that the local mesoscale eddies may play an important role in triggering this decadal oscillation. The eddy activity intensification (weakening) leads to the increase (decrease) of poleward cross-frontal eddy salinity flux and upward eddy buoyancy flux, which results in the weakening (strengthening) of the subsurface stratification and potential vorticity (PV). The PV anomalies facilitate (block) the poleward transport of warm saline subtropical water, while the stratification weakening favors the further downward transmission of salinity anomalies by processes of eddy flux as well as mean-flow advection (the stratification strengthening inhibits the vertical transport), then initiates the decadal change of the AAIW property. The whole process of the eddy-related propagation of salinity anomalies takes about 4 to 6 years.

  17. A preliminary study of coal mining drainage and environmental health in the Santa Catarina region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luis F O; Wollenschlager, Marcus; Oliveira, Marcos L S

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and loadings of major and trace elements in coal mine drainage (CMD) from 49 abandoned mines located in the coal fields of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were determined. The CMD sites typically displayed a wide spatial and temporal variability in physical and geochemical conditions. The results of our CMD analyses in Santa Catarina State were used to illustrate that the geochemical processes in the rock piles can be deduced from multiple data sets. The observed relationship between the pH and constituent concentrations were attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by near-neutral or alkaline groundwater and (2) solubility control of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba and Sr by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals. The preliminary results of the CMD analyses and environmental health in the Santa Catarina region, Brazil, are discussed.

  18. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  19. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  20. Herpetofauna, municipality of Porto Murtinho, Chaco region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Souza, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the physiographic regions included in the central South American diagonal of open formations,the Chaco, with some endemic species, represents the southernmost dry area. In Brazil, the Chaco is foundin southwestern corner of Mato Grosso do Sul state, mostly in the municipality of Porto Murtinho along theParaguay and Apa rivers. From February 2008 to December 2009, we carried out an inventory of amphibiansand reptiles in Porto Murtinho, using pitfall traps, time-limited searches, and occasional encounters. A total of34 amphibian and 39 reptile species were registered. Although some typical Chacoan species were found, mostof the species are open area dwellers that also occur in other open biomes, such as the Cerrado and Caatinga.

  1. Mobility trends of Patients across Italian Regions: implications for planning and evaluation of hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, N; Messina, G; Lispi, L; Serafini, A; Prisco, G; Moirano, F

    2016-01-01

    The study of patients' mobility is useful for health planning and identifying deficiencies in care supply. The Italian Health Service, with 21 different regional realities, can be considered as a macrocosmic test bench. Our study aims: (1) to describe the trend of patients' hospital mobility across the Italian Regions; (2) to offer an immediate visual approach for decision making; (3) to identify some factors involved in patient's mobility. Observational cross sectional study. We used ordinary and day hospital discharge data from 1998 to 2014. The study was carried out using: (1) the Gandy's Nomogram (GN), a graphical tool that assesses the power of attraction and the escape's containment of hospital regional networks; (2) the vector analysis; (3) the trend analysis with Cuzik's test; (4) the panel data analysis, with multiple logistic regression model. The mean number of annual admissions, in Italian hospitals, was 10,976,290, progressively decreasing from 2001 to 2014, and 7% of it occurred "in mobility". We have drawn the different paths of patients' mobility by Regions and observed critical situations almost in Regions of Southern Italy, compared with Regions of the Centre-North. Moreover we analyzed the factors implied in such mobility, highlighting that attraction is influenced by the hospitalization rate in private structures, by the percentage of graduates in the Regions, and by the number of hospital beds/10,000 inhabitants; while escapes are influenced by GDP per capita, by the number of hospital beds/10,000 inhabitants and by the sanitary expenses per capita of the Region. We have shown the potentialities of the GN, applicable at micro level but also on a large scale in the analysis of patients' hospital mobility; and this, together with panel data analysis, can lead to a more conscious and effective health planning.

  2. Reference range for T lymphocytes populations in blood donors from two different regions in Brazil

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    A.J.L. Torres

    Full Text Available This study defined the normal variation range for different subsets of T-lymphocyte cells count in two different Brazilian regions. We analysed the T-lymphocytes subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in blood donors of two Brazilian cities, located in North (Belem, capital state of Para, indian background and Northeast (Salvador, capital state od Bahia, African background regions of Brazil. Results were compared according to gender, stress level (sleep time lower than 8 hours/day, smoking, and alcohol intake. Lymphocytes subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Five hundred twenty-six blood donors from two Brazilians cities participated in the study: 450 samples from Bahia and 76 samples from Pará. Most (60% were men, 59% reported alcohol intake, 12% were smokers, and 80% slept at least 8 h/day. Donors from Bahia presented with significantly higher counts for all parameters, compared with Para. Women had higher lymphocytes levels, in both states, but only CD4+ cells count was significantly higher than men's values. Smokers had higher CD4+ counts, but sleep time had effect on lymphocytes levels only for Para's donors (higher CD3+ and CD4+ counts. That state had also, a higher proportion of donors reporting sleep time <8 h/day. The values for CD3, CD4 and CD8+ cells count were significantly higher in blood donors from Bahia than among those from Pará. Female gender, alcohol intake, stress level, and smoking were associated with higher lymphocyte counts. The use of a single reference range for normal lymphocytes count is not appropriate for a country with such diversity, like Brazil is.

  3. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  5. Discrepancies in the Climatology and Trends of Cloud Cover in Global and Regional Climate Models for the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Calbó, Josep; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Tan, Elcin

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims at comparing total cloud cover (TCC) as simulated by regional climate models (RCM) from CORDEX project with the same variable as simulated by the driving global climate models (GCM), which are part of the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project ensemble. The comparison is performed for the Mediterranean region, and for the 1971-2005 period, when results from the "historical" scenario can also be compared with two data sets of ground-based cloud observations. We work with 14 modeling results (resolution, 0.11° × 0.11°), which are a combination of five GCMs and five RCMs. In general, RCMs improve only very slightly the climatic estimation of TCC when compared with observations. Indeed, not all RCMs behave the same, and some indicators (monthly evolution of the relative bias) show an enhancement, while other indices (overall mean bias and annual range difference) improve only very slightly with respect to GCMs. Changes in the estimate of TCC in summer might be the most relevant value added by RCMs, as these should describe in a more proper way several mesoscale processes, which play a more relevant role in summer. Noticeably, RCMs are unable to capture the observed decadal trend in TCC. Thus, TCC simulated by RCMs is almost stable, in contradiction with observations and GCMs, which both show statistically significant decreasing trends in the Mediterranean area. This result is somewhat unsatisfactory, as if RCMs cannot reproduce past trends in TCC, their skill in projecting TCC into the future may be questioned.

  6. Landsat-based trend analysis of lake dynamics across northern permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Ulrich, Mathias; Federov, Alexander; Veremeeva, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here we present, a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM,ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (-0.69%), Western Alaska (-2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (-0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e. upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.

  7. Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Barbara Insley; Caravati, E Martin; Booth, Jeremy

    2004-06-15

    Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center over a 10-year period were examined. Human exposures to toxic substances reported to the Utah Poison Control Center between January 1990 and December 1999 were reviewed. Cases were selected for analysis if the exposure involved a nonprescription drug, the patient was 6-19 years old, and the reason for exposure was intentional abuse. Frequencies and cross-tabulations were calculated to identify trends in nonprescription drug abuse. There were 2214 reports of intentional drug abuse among children and teenagers 6-19 years old. Of those, 844 (38.1%) involved nonprescription drugs. The percentage of exposures Involving nonprescription products varied every year and declined over time. Exposures were slightly more common In males (51.7%). The site of exposure was a residence in 65% of cases and a school in 10% of cases. The majority of patients with exposures (68.4%) were treated In a health care facility. The most common types of nonprescription medications abused were drugs with anticholinergic properties, caffeine, dextromethorphan, and nonprescription stimulants. Reports of the Intentional abuse of nonprescription drugs by children and teenagers were common at a regional poison control center. There was significant variation in the type of nonprescription medication most commonly abused. The knowledge of these trends may assist public health policymakers, physicians, pharmacists, and child educators in their attempts to curb nonprescription drug abuse. drugs.

  8. Karyotype Patterns of Hypsolebias antenori (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): An Endangered Killifish of the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Bezerra, Juliana Galvão; Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2014-01-01

    Annual fish which belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes constitute an excellent model for evolutionary studies. their short life cycle, distribution in ecologically dynamic environments, and low agility make them favorable for genetic analyses. The species Hypsolebias antenori (Rivulidae), encountered in seasonal pools located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, has been the object of surveys with a view to study its ecological and behavioral aspects. This study reports on the karyotype patterns of this species, which represents the first contribution to the cytogenetics of this genus. The karyotype of this species is composed of 2n = 48 chromosomes (6m + 4sm + 36st; NF = 96); the heterochromatic regions are located in centromeric or pericentromeric position and are more pronounced in the nucleolar organizer regions. Two sites Ag-NORs/CMA+/DAPI were identified in the short arms of pairs 2 (metacentric) and 21 (subtelocentric). Unlike the other species of this family which show an evolution modulated by events of centric fusions, H. antenori shows the maintenance of a basal diploid number and the large number of bibrachial elements indicates karyotypic diversification derived by pericentric inversions. Cytogenetic analyzes in this species will provide new taxonomic markers capable of being utilized in conservation issues and systematics. PMID:24693249

  9. BENCHMARKS FOR MILK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN THE PERNAMBUCO AGRESTE REGION, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MARLA CONCEIÇÃO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and assess the technological, zootechnical and socioeconomic profiles and identify and quantify benchmarks for dairy cattle production systems, in a non-experimental approach, aiming to contribute to the sustainability and competitiveness of dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region, northeastern Brazil. Thirty-six milk production systems of family and corporate farming were evaluated during twelve months, in order to identify and quantify the benchmarks. The systems were characterized regarding their size and technological, zootechnical and economic profiles. The correlation coefficients of the return rate on invested capital were assessed and regression equations were developed for each indicator, according to four scenarios of annual return rates (4, 6, 8 and 10%. The indicators evaluated were milk production per dairy cows, milk production per area, average price of milk, effective operational cost, total operating cost, total cost per price of milk and profitability. The dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region pays the production costs, but tends to a not adequate remuneration of family labor and a need of external capital input for replacement of the assets. The productivity of production factors area and animals showed higher correlation with cost-effectiveness, denoting the need for increase the production through increases in land area and milk productivity per dairy cow. The identification and quantification of benchmarks may help to identify the weak points of dairy farming in the Agreste region, making it sustainable and competitive.

  10. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M C; Aron, J; Santos-Burgoa, C; Uieda, W; Ruiz-Velazco, S

    2001-01-01

    Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants). Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036). Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067). Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  11. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Schneider Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  12. Karyotype Patterns of Hypsolebias antenori (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae: An Endangered Killifish of the Semiarid Region of Brazil

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    Wallace Silva do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual fish which belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes constitute an excellent model for evolutionary studies. their short life cycle, distribution in ecologically dynamic environments, and low agility make them favorable for genetic analyses. The species Hypsolebias antenori (Rivulidae, encountered in seasonal pools located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, has been the object of surveys with a view to study its ecological and behavioral aspects. This study reports on the karyotype patterns of this species, which represents the first contribution to the cytogenetics of this genus. The karyotype of this species is composed of 2n = 48 chromosomes (6m + 4sm + 36st; NF = 96; the heterochromatic regions are located in centromeric or pericentromeric position and are more pronounced in the nucleolar organizer regions. Two sites Ag-NORs/CMA+/DAPI were identified in the short arms of pairs 2 (metacentric and 21 (subtelocentric. Unlike the other species of this family which show an evolution modulated by events of centric fusions, H. antenori shows the maintenance of a basal diploid number and the large number of bibrachial elements indicates karyotypic diversification derived by pericentric inversions. Cytogenetic analyzes in this species will provide new taxonomic markers capable of being utilized in conservation issues and systematics.

  13. Massive post-fire flowering events in a tropical mountain region of Brazil: high episodic supply of floral resources

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    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Vellozia sincorana L.B.Sm. & Ayensu is key to biodiversity conservation in the tropical mountain region of Brazil. The massive post-fire flowering of this endemic species provides a large, episodic supply of floral resources, mostly nectar, to animals.

  14. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  15. Explaining regionally coherent trends in daily rainfall extremes during the Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Boos, W. R.; Huybers, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events during the Indian monsoon can have deleterious effects on the Indian economy, where an estimated two-thirds of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. With increasing mean temperature, rainfall variability is also expected to change. Here, we identify regionally coherent patterns of 1980-2015 time trends for 95th-99th percentile daily JJAS rainfall events over the Indian subcontinent. Using a 0.25 by 0.25 degree resolution rainfall data-set that incorporates nearly 7000 weather stations, at least three times as many as the 1 degree by 1 degree IMD Pune data-set, we find that time-trends over the western slope of the Western Ghats change from negative to positive with higher elevation, whereas previous work using a coarser network of stations have found overall declines. Less apparent in the coarser data but present in the finer resolution data-set are marked declines in extremes over the Indo-Gangetic Plains. This may be linked to declining average rainfall over northeastern central India, which has been attributed to aerosols through modeling studies. However, consistency in trends between both fine and coarse resolution data-sets is seen in the increases in extremes across North Central India. Extreme events in each of three regions-North Central India, the Western Ghats, and interior Peninsular India-can be connected with low pressure systems and orographic precipitation, possibly allowing for inferences about the reasons for observed trends. Understanding temporal changes in these phenomena may assist in future prediction of local extreme daily rainfall events.

  16. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-term precipitation series (since 1928) of 1-min precipitation from the Fabra Observatory, as well as a shorter (1996-2011) but more extensive precipitation series (43 rain gauges) of 5-min precipitation. Both series have been used to characterise the degree of convective contribution to rainfall, introducing the β parameter as the ratio between convective precipitation versus total precipitation in any period. Information about flood events was obtained from the INUNGAMA database (a flood database created by the GAMA team), with the aim of finding any potential links to convective precipitation. These flood data were gathered using information on damage where flood is treated as a multifactorial risk, and where any trend or anomaly might have been caused by one or more factors affecting hazard, vulnerability or exposure. Trend analysis has shown an increase in flash flood events. The fact that no trends were detected in terms of extreme values of precipitation on a daily scale, nor on the associated ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) extreme index, could point to an increase in vulnerability, an increase in exposure, or changes in land use. However, the summer increase in convective precipitation was concentrated in less torrential events, which could partially explain this positive trend in flash flood events. The β parameter has been also used to characterise the type of flood event according to the features of the precipitation. The highest values

  17. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

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    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  18. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semiarid region, Northeastern Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Traditional Medicine and this is true in Brazil as well both in rural and urban areas of the country. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine in the country. The use of these natural resources for medical purposes, however, is not restricted to human diseases treatment, being also widely used for the treatment of animal illnesses. Ethnoveterinary is a science that involves the popular practical knowledge used to treat and prevent animal diseases. This study documents ethnoveterinary practices in one local semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil and discusses the findings in the surveyed area. Methods Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 20 respondents (09 men and 11 women provided information on animal species and body parts used as medicine, information concerning the illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed were also obtained. Results and conclusion Eleven animal species were used in the treatment of 11 diseases in the surveyed area. The species inventoried comprise 3 taxonomic categories: mammals (05, reptiles (04 and birds (02. The obtained results proves that the use of animals or their derived products as therapeutic resources to the treatment of animal diseases represent a common practice and is culturally important in the studied area. It is evident that the popular knowledge about the ethnoveterinary practices is, frequently, passed through generations. We also noticed that, besides the cultural aspects, the socio-economic context permeates the use of zootherapics, since these practices constitute an alternative to the medicines acquired in veterinarian pharmacies, which have a high cost.

  19. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semiarid region, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confessor, Maine V A; Mendonça, Lívia E T; Mourão, José S; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2009-11-26

    Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Traditional Medicine and this is true in Brazil as well both in rural and urban areas of the country. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine in the country. The use of these natural resources for medical purposes, however, is not restricted to human diseases treatment, being also widely used for the treatment of animal illnesses. Ethnoveterinary is a science that involves the popular practical knowledge used to treat and prevent animal diseases. This study documents ethnoveterinary practices in one local semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil and discusses the findings in the surveyed area. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 20 respondents (09 men and 11 women) provided information on animal species and body parts used as medicine, information concerning the illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed were also obtained. Eleven animal species were used in the treatment of 11 diseases in the surveyed area. The species inventoried comprise 3 taxonomic categories: mammals (05), reptiles (04) and birds (02). The obtained results proves that the use of animals or their derived products as therapeutic resources to the treatment of animal diseases represent a common practice and is culturally important in the studied area. It is evident that the popular knowledge about the ethnoveterinary practices is, frequently, passed through generations. We also noticed that, besides the cultural aspects, the socio-economic context permeates the use of zootherapics, since these practices constitute an alternative to the medicines acquired in veterinarian pharmacies, which have a high cost.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  1. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN OF DEVELOPMENT OF REGION MACHINE BUILDING COMPLEX

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    Виталий Николаевич Маковеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition of the Russian economy to an innovation type of development, selected by leaders of the country as a priority one, creates the need of solving number of problems. A key one is the need for large-scale renovation of the economy’s production basis, which can not be implemented without a modern machine building sector.Purpose. To analyze development of machine building complex in theVologda region against the all-Russian background, to identify common trends and challenges of the sector’s development.Methodology. Methods of system and structural analysis, comparison, differences and similarities analysis, deduction and induction were used. Official statistics, as well as the works of prominent scientists in this field, served as an information basis for the study.Results. The author conducted an analysis of basic production assets, growth rates, the financial situation, investments, levels of profitability, staffing and salary levels of employees of machine building sector of the Vologda Region and Russia. The main trends and problems of the sector development were identified. Measures that are able to change the situation were proposed.Practical implications. The research materials could be useful for regional authorities in forming industrial and innovation policy, as well as for all those interested in problems of machine building development.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-24

  2. Annual maximum daily rainfall trends in the Midwest, southeast and southern Brazil in the last 71 years

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    José Ruy Porto de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model, based on the overall distribution of extreme values, the probability of occurrence of a particular level of annual maximum daily rainfall in three Brazilian regions (Midwest, Southeast and South and study their behavior over the past 71 years. The parameters of the general distribution of extreme values were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The Mann–Kendall test showed that there is a positive trend in the annual maximum daily rainfall data series. The non-stationarity was rejected by the augmented Dickey–Fuller test supporting the use of the density function of extreme value distribution to describe the values of the occurrence of annual maximum daily rainfall. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov/Lilliefors goodness-of-fit test showed the good fit of the studied variable to the probability distribution function. The Midwest region has a return period of more frequent annual maximum daily rainfall below 300 mm in comparison with other regions. There is a clear change in the behavior of this extreme event in the Southern region. According to the literature, in past decades annual maximum daily rainfall of 248 mm has been estimated for a return period of 100 years for the state of Santa Catarina-South region, while the results found with the current series, annual maximum daily rainfall of 250 mm was estimated for a return period of 10 years. Extreme annual maximum daily rainfalls for return periods smaller were also found in other regions.

  3. Trends in asthma mortality in the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudenz, Gustavo Silveira; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula

    2017-01-01

    To provide an update on trends in asthma mortality in Brazil for two age groups: 0-4 years and 5-34 years. Data on mortality from asthma, as defined in the International Classification of Diseases, were obtained for the 1980-2014 period from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. To analyze time trends in standardized asthma mortality rates, we conducted an ecological time-series study, using regression models for the 0- to 4-year and 5- to 34-year age groups. There was a linear trend toward a decrease in asthma mortality in both age groups, whereas there was a third-order polynomial fit in the general population. Although asthma mortality showed a consistent, linear decrease in individuals ≤ 34 years of age, the rate of decline was greater in the 0- to 4-year age group. The 5- to 34-year group also showed a linear decline in mortality, and the rate of that decline increased after the year 2004, when treatment with inhaled corticosteroids became more widely available. The linear decrease in asthma mortality found in both age groups contrasts with the nonlinear trend observed in the general population of Brazil. The introduction of inhaled corticosteroid use through public policies to control asthma coincided with a significant decrease in asthma mortality rates in both subsets of individuals over 5 years of age. The causes of this decline in asthma-related mortality in younger age groups continue to constitute a matter of debate. Apresentar uma atualização das tendências da mortalidade da asma no Brasil em duas faixas etárias: 0-4 anos e 5-34 anos. Dados relativos ao período de 1980 a 2014 referentes à mortalidade da asma, conforme se definiu na Classificação Internacional de Doenças, foram extraídos Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Departamento de Tecnologia da Informação do Sistema Único de Saúde. Para analisar as tendências temporais das taxas

  4. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  5. [Analysis on regional distribution characteristics and changing trend of Chinese patent medicine industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Shi, Ting-Ting; Yang, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Through the collection and collation of the industrial sales output values of Chinese patent medicines in 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2014,the regional distribution characteristics and changing trend of Chinese patent medicine industry in the past ten years were analyzed by using the descriptive statistical analysis method in statistics.The results showed that the industrial sales output values of Chinese patent medicines in Jilin, Shandong, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Guangdong accounted for the largest proportion of the country, while Ningxia accounted for only 0.04% of the whole country. Anhui Province had the largest fluctuations in data, and its coefficient of variation was as high as 102.03%.The average annual growth rate of the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines was lowest in Ningxia, only -1.09%.Based on the statistical analysis of the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines in four major economic regions, the data concentration trend was as follows: east> west> central> northeast; the data fluctuation trend was northeast> central> west> east, and the average annual growth rate from large to small was northeast> central> west> east.This study was conducive to understand the differencesin the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines among various provinces and economic regions,and to lay the foundation for the correct understanding and in-depth exploration of the factors that may affect the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines.This study has reference value for the management and economic research of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

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    Kai-Lan Chang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone’s global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April–September 2000–2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM. Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that

  7. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  8. Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Kokkalis, Alexandros; Bardarson, H.

    2016-01-01

    across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we...... representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social...

  9. Linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices in the arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaijun; Pan, Yingping; Chen, Yaning; Ye, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, climate extreme events have caused increasing direct economic and social losses in the arid region of northwestern China. Based on daily temperature and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010, this paper discussed the linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices. The general evolution was obtained by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF), the Mann-Kendall test, and the distribution-free cumulative sum chart (CUSUM) test. The results are as follows: (1) climate showed a warming trend at annual and seasonal scale, with all temperature indices exhibiting statistically significant changes. The warm indices have increased, with 1.37%days/decade of warm days (TX90p), 0.17 °C/decade of warmest days (TXx) and 1.97 days/decade of warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), respectively. The cold indices have decreased, with - 1.89%days/decade, 0.65 °C/decade and - 0.66 days/decade for cold nights (TN10p), coldest nights (TNn) and cold spell duration indicator (CSDI), respectively. The precipitation indices have also increased significantly, coupled with the changes of magnitude (max 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day)), frequency (rain day (R0.1)), and duration (consecutive dry days (CDD)). (2) Abrupt changes of the annual regional precipitation indices and the minimum temperature indices were observed around 1986, and that of the maximum temperature indices were observed in 1996. (3) The EOF1 indicated the overall coherent distribution for the whole study area, and its principal component (PC1) was also observed, showing a significant linear trend with an abrupt change, which were in accordance with the regional observation results. EOF2 and EOF3 show contrasts between the southern and northern study areas, and between the eastern and western study areas, respectively, whereas no significant tendency was observed for their PCs. Hence, the climate indices have changed significantly, with linear trends and abrupt changes noted for all climate indices

  10. Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of Eimeria species affecting sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil. Fecal samples of native sheep were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The degree of infection was determined by counting oocysts per gram (OPG of feces, and the morphometric method was used for species identification. Oocysts were found in all the properties assessed, in which 68.3% of the animals were infected. The prevalence of oocysts was influenced by the season and animal category (P<0.05. It was higher during the rainy season than the dry season (80.2% vs. 55.8% and highest in young animals than the adults animals (68.2% vs. 39.6%. The OPG was lower during the dry season (1,269 ± 312 vs. 4,400 ± 1,122. Ten species were found; of these, E. ovinoidalis, E. granulosa, E. faurei, and E. crandallis were the most frequent. E. ovinoidalis and E. crandallis were found in all properties, with their prevalences being 19.4% and 13.6% respectively. The high prevalence of pathogenic species shows that eimeriosis is a risk for animals raised extensively in the semiarid region.

  11. Snakebites in the metropolitan region of Belém, Pará, Brazil

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    Revone Miranda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are among the major public health problems in tropical countries. In Brazil, its high incidence, especially in the Amazon region, reflects the intimate relationship between man and animal in a constant process of overlapping places of use. This study aims to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of snakebites occurred in Belém, Pará, eastern Amazon. For this, a survey was conducted of all cases of poisoning by venomous snakes reported to the National System of notices and Diseases (SINAN of the Ministry of Health, between January 2007 and December 2011. The data obtained from database with the Secretariat of the State of Pará Health (SESPA were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics on Microsoft Excel (version 2007. They were reported 352 cases of snake bites, and identified prevalence in the first six months of each year, coinciding with the regional rainy season. Different from that seen in most studies, most accidents occurred in urban areas. Adult men, mainly in the lower limbs affected by Bothrops was the general profile found. Flaws in the serum therapy and filling in the forms were identified, showing that there is a need for training of involved and improving the notification system of this problem.

  12. Sugar markers in aerosol particles from an agro-industrial region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Queiroz, M. E. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to better understand how aerosol particles from sugar cane burning contribute to the chemical composition of the lower troposphere in an agro-industrial region of São Paulo State (Brazil) affected by sugar and ethanol fuel production. During a period of 21 months, we collected 105 samples and quantified 20 saccharides by GC-MS. The average concentrations of levoglucosan (L), mannosan (M), and galactosan (G) for 24-h sampling were 116, 16, and 11 ng m-3 respectively. The three anhydrosugars had higher and more variable concentrations in the nighttime and during the sugar cane harvest period, due to more intense biomass burning practices. The calculated L/M ratio, which may serve as a signature for sugar cane smoke particles, was 9 ± 5. Although the total concentrations of the anhydrosugars varied greatly among samples, the relative mass size distributions of the saccharides were reasonably constant. Emissions due to biomass burning were estimated to correspond to 69% (mass) of the sugars quantified in the harvest samples, whereas biogenic emissions corresponded to 10%. In the non-harvest period, these values were 44 and 27%, respectively, indicating that biomass burning is an important source of aerosol to the regional atmosphere during the whole year.

  13. FOREST COVER ANALYSIS THROUGH THE WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD IN THE CAMPANHA OCIDENTAL REGION - RS (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Araújo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The uncontrolled expansion of human activities may lead to a reduction in vegetation cover, an increase in erosion processes and soil sealing. The aim of this study is to examine forest cover using the Weights of evidence method based on land use maps between the years of 1996 and 2011 in the micro-region of the Campanha Ocidental located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The spatial database was constructed in SPRING software (version 5.2.1 based on LANDSAT 5 images, which were georeferenced and classified. Geophysical and socioeconomic variables were included in the database for further analysis in Dinamica EGO software (version 2.2.8. In order to parameterize the probabilistic model for the analysis of the dynamics of forest cover change, we calculated the percentage of class change through transition matrices; calculated the intervals for discretization of continuous variables; calculated the weights of evidence (W+; analyzed the correlation between the weights of the input variables for all transitions; simulated future scenarios and; validated the simulated final map based on the historical map. This model was adequate for understanding the variables that most contribute to forest cover change in the region. The results showed that the emergence of new forest areas was influenced by hypsometry, distance to sandy lands and per capita income, while deforestation by rural population and distance to the sandy lands.

  14. Towards an e-Health Cloud Solution for Remote Regions at Bahia-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, V T; Mota, A O; Silva, E P

    2017-12-19

    This paper presents CloudMedic, an e-Health Cloud solution that manages health care services in remote regions of Bahia-Brazil. For that, six main modules: Clinic, Hospital, Supply, Administrative, Billing and Health Business Intelligence, were developed to control the health flow among health actors at health institutions. They provided database model and procedures for health business rules, a standard gateway for data maintenance between web views and database layer, and a multi-front-end framework based on web views and web commands configurations. These resources were used by 2042 health actors in 261 health posts covering health demands from 118 municipalities at Bahia state. They also managed approximately 2.4 million health service 'orders and approximately 13.5 million health exams for more than 1.3 million registered patients. As a result, a collection of health functionalities available in a cloud infrastructure was successfully developed, deployed and validated in more than 28% of Bahia municipalities. A viable e-Health Cloud solution that, despite municipality limitations in remote regions, decentralized and improved the access to health care services at Bahia state.

  15. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  16. Evaluation of leprosy surveillance system in the Amazon region, Brazil, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Felipe Teixeira de Mello; de Sena Neto, Sebastião Alves; Grossi, Maria Aparecida de Faria; Macário, Eduardo Marques; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr Alves

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the leprosy surveillance system in the Amazon region, Brazil, 2001-2007, using evaluation guidelines from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We found that the leprosy surveillance system in the Amazon region is simple, presents good data quality and is representative in describing the sociodemographic profile and clinical classification of cases. The predictive value positive is high and its sensitivity is unknown. The grade two disability artificially increased in 2007 during the transition to a new version of the information system. The cases are reported, receive treatment and are discharged from the system as treatment completion in a timely fashion. Nevertheless, the dermatological and neurological examination introduces complexity to the system, which may account for the irregular data quality related to the evaluation of the disability degree, the system's lack of representativeness to describe mild neurological manifestations and low proportion of household contacts investigated. Despite its limitations, the leprosy surveillance system proved to be useful. Recommendations for its improvement were issued based on the results found. More data on surveillance systems in endemic countries are needed to facilitate valid comparisons between country indicators.

  17. Regional differences in infection control conditions in a sample of primary health care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available International guidelines have pointed out the importance of the physical environment of health care facilities in preventing and controlling infection. We aimed to describe the physical environment of dental care facilities in Brazil in 2014, focusing on characteristics designed to control infections. Exactly 16,202 dental offices in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS participated in this survey. Trained researchers extracted information about the infection control characteristics of health facilities by using a structured instrument. We used data from 12 dichotomous questions that evaluated the wall, floor, sink and tap conditions, and the presence and condition of sterilization equipment. We calculated a score by summing the number of characteristics handled appropriately for infection control, which could range from 0 to 12. Hierarchical cluster analyses were developed. None of the 12 criteria were met by all the oral health teams. Only 208 (1.3% dental offices correctly performed all 12-infection control practices. Two clusters, with different frequencies of structure for infection control in dental offices, were identified. South and Southeast regions had the highest frequencies for Cluster 1, with better structure of infection control in dental offices. Dental care facilities of oral health teams were not typically meeting the infection control guidelines regarding clinic design and equipment. Adherence to the guidelines varied among the Brazilian geographic regions.

  18. Infectious Agents As Markers of Human Migration toward the Amazon Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Ricardo; Machado, Luiz F A; Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura; Guimarães Ishak, Marluísa de O; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

    2017-01-01

    Infectious agents are common companions of humans and since ancient times they follow human migration on their search for a better place to live. The study of paleomicrobiology was significantly improved in its accuracy of measurement with the constant development of better methods to detect and analyze nucleic acids. Human tissues are constantly used to trace ancient infections and the association of anthropological evidences are important to confirm the microbiological information. Infectious agents which establish human persistent infections are particularly useful to trace human migrations. In the present article, the evidence of infection by viral agents such as human T-lymphotropic virus 1, human T-lymphotropic virus 2, human herpes virus-8, JC virus, and a bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, was described using different methodologies for their detection. Their presence was further used as biomarkers associated with anthropological and other relevant information to trace human migration into the Amazon region of Brazil. The approach also evidenced their microbiological origin, emergence, evolution, and spreading. The information obtained confirms much of the archeological information available tracing ancient and more recent human migration into this particular geographical region. In this article, the paleomicrobiological information on the subject was summarized and reviewed.

  19. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  20. Regional contribution to variability and trends of global gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Rafique, Rashid; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Ciais, Philippe; Zhao, Fang; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Ostberg, Sebastian; Chang, Jinfeng; Ito, Akihiko; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning; Kalnay, Eugenia; West, Tristram; Leng, Guoyong; Francois, Louis; Munhoven, Guy; Henrot, Alexandra; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Nishina, Kazuya; Viovy, Nicolas; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Betts, Richard; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Steinkamp, Jörg; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest component of the global carbon cycle and a key process for understanding land ecosystems dynamics. In this study, we used GPP estimates from a combination of eight global biome models participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact-Model Intercomparison Project phase 2a (ISIMIP2a), the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP product, and a data-driven product (Model Tree Ensemble, MTE) to study the spatiotemporal variability of GPP at the regional and global levels. We found the 2000–2010 total global GPP estimated from the model ensemble to be 117 ± 13 Pg C yr‑1 (mean ± 1 standard deviation), which was higher than MODIS (112 Pg C yr‑1), and close to the MTE (120 Pg C yr‑1). The spatial patterns of MODIS, MTE and ISIMIP2a GPP generally agree well, but their temporal trends are different, and the seasonality and inter-annual variability of GPP at the regional and global levels are not completely consistent. For the model ensemble, Tropical Latin America contributes the most to global GPP, Asian regions contribute the most to the global GPP trend, the Northern Hemisphere regions dominate the global GPP seasonal variations, and Oceania is likely the largest contributor to inter-annual variability of global GPP. However, we observed large uncertainties across the eight ISIMIP2a models, which are probably due to the differences in the formulation of underlying photosynthetic processes. The results of this study are useful in understanding the contributions of different regions to global GPP and its spatiotemporal variability, how the model- and observational-based GPP estimates differ from each other in time and space, and the relative strength of the eight models. Our results also highlight the models’ ability to capture the seasonality of GPP that are essential for understanding the inter-annual and seasonal variability of GPP as a major component of the carbon cycle.

  1. Regional contribution to variability and trends of global gross primary productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min; Rafique, Rashid; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Ciais, Philippe; Zhao, Fang; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Ostberg, Sebastian; Chang, Jinfeng; Ito, Akihiko; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning; Kalnay, Eugenia; West, Tristram; Leng, Guoyong; Francois, Louis; Munhoven, Guy; Henrot, Alexandra; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Nishina, Kazuya; Viovy, Nicolas; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Betts, Richard; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Steinkamp, Jörg; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-09-28

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest component of the global carbon cycle and a key process for understanding land ecosystems dynamics. In this study, we used GPP estimates from a combination of eight global biome models participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact-Model Intercomparison Project phase 2a (ISIMIP2a), the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP product, and a data-driven product (Model Tree Ensemble, MTE) to study the spatiotemporal variability of GPP at the regional and global levels. We found the 2000-2010 total global GPP estimated from the model ensemble to be 117±13 Pg C yr-1 (mean ± 1 standard deviation), which was higher than MODIS (112 Pg C yr-1), and close to the MTE (120 Pg C yr-1). The spatial patterns of MODIS, MTE and ISIMIP2a GPP generally agree well, but their temporal trends are different, and the seasonality and inter-annual variability of GPP at the regional and global levels are not completely consistent. For the model ensemble, Tropical Latin America contributes the most to global GPP, Asian regions contribute the most to the global GPP trend, the Northern Hemisphere regions dominate the global GPP seasonal variations, and Oceania is likely the largest contributor to inter-annual variability of global GPP. However, we observed large uncertainties across the eight ISIMIP2a models, which are probably due to the differences in the formulation of underlying photosynthetic processes. The results of this study are useful in understanding the contributions of different regions to global GPP and its spatiotemporal variability, how the model- and observational-based GPP estimates differ from each other in time and space, and the relative strength of the eight models. Our results also highlight the models’ ability to capture the seasonality of GPP that are essential for understanding the inter-annual and seasonal variability of GPP as a major component of the carbon cycle.

  2. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  3. Regional Science trends through the analysis of the main facts of the 51st ERSA Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Royuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51st ERSA Conference held in Barcelona in 2011 was one of the largest ever. By examining the characteristics of the conference, this paper identifies the main trends in Regional Science and draws on a broad array of sources of information: the delegates’ demographic details, the conference program itself, a satisfaction survey conducted among delegates, a quality survey addressed to those chairing the sessions and, finally, a bibliometric database including each author signing a paper presented at the conference. We finally run a regression analysis from which we show that for ERSA delegates what matters most is quality, and this must be the direction that future conferences should move toward. Ultimately, ERSA conferences are comprehensive, all-embracing occasions, representing an ideal opportunity for regional scientists to present their work to each other and to network.

  4. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érida Zoé Lustosa Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3% had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7% of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20 with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015, with no health insurance (p < 0.002 and from the countryside (p < 0.001 were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this

  5. High prevalence of norovirus in children with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in Manaus, Amazon Region, northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Samya Thalita Picanço da; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Hernández, Juliana das Mercês; Lucena, Maria Silvia Souza de; Reymão, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral; Soares, Luana da Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, especially in children under five years. Studies involving the detection and molecular characterisation of NoV have been performed in Brazil, demonstrating its importance as an etiological agent of AGE. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of human NoV and to genotype the strains isolated from 0-14-year-old patients of AGE in Manaus, Brazil, over a period of two years. A total of 426 faecal samples were collected between January 2010 and December 2011. All samples were tested for the presence of NoV antigens using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. RNA was extracted from all faecal suspensions and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the NoV-polymerase partial region was performed as a trial test. Positive samples were then subjected to PCR with specific primers for partial capsid genes, which were then sequenced. NoV was detected in 150 (35.2%) faecal samples, for at least one of the two techniques used. NoV was detected in children from all age groups, with the highest positivity observed among the group of 1-2 years old. Clinically, fever was verified in 43% of the positive cases and 46.3% of the negative cases, and vomiting was observed in 75.8% and 70.8% cases in these groups, respectively. Monthly distribution showed that the highest positivity was observed in January 2010 (81.2%), followed by February and April 2010 and March 2011, when the positivity rate reached almost 50%. Phylogenetic analyses performed with 65 positive strains demonstrated that 58 (89.2%) cases of NoV belonged to genotype GII.4, five (7.7%) to GII.6, and one (1.5%) each to GII.7 and GII.3. This research revealed a high circulation of NoV GII.4 in Manaus and contributed to the understanding of the importance of this virus in the aetiology of AGE cases, especially in a region with such few studies available.

  6. Trends in temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    By characterizing the patterns of temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 extreme temperature indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold extremes significantly decreased but warm extremes significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum temperature (TNn) and maximum daily maximum temperature (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in temperature extremes across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.

  7. [Population ageing and health implication. Thinking time trends in Emilia-Romagna Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchetti, Angelina; Caranci, Nicola; Addis, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Ageing is doubtless a factor characterizing population in Europe, and particularly in Emilia-Romagna, a north-east Italian region of about 4,5 million people. From 1990 to 2010 life expectancy in Emilia-Romagna has grown by about 6 years for men and 5 for women. At the same time good health life expectancy has grown even more rapidly, particularly among women. While it is expected that in 2030 the number of over-65s will have exceeded one million people, the trends in good health life expectancy is not granted. Strengthen actions aimed at increasing good health conditions promotes ageing sustainability and can feed the positive trend observed for the life expectancy in good health. The Emilia-Romagna Region takes up the demographic challenge of the coming years in the European context and promotes strategies for active and healthy ageing, working on prevention in its broadest sense and for the entire life span, with the aim of actively contribute to the achievement of the EU2020 target of an increase of two years in life expectancy in good health of European citizens.

  8. Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Chesterian and Morrowan strata, Western Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolson, J.; Adams, C.; Van Zant, K. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Late Chesterian (Mississippian) and Morrowan (Pennsylvanian) unconformity-bounded packages in the Western Interior have traditionally been viewed as sequences separated by a regional basal Pennsylvanian unconformity. Analysis of alluvial valley trends and paleontological data suggests that these sequences are related and formed in response to multiple relative sea level fluctuations initiated in the Chesterian which continued throughout the Pennsylvanian. The Darwin, Tyler, Morrowan, and Humbug formations of the Western Interior appear to have formed in retrogradational parasequence sets of alluvial valley fills and marine transgressive systems tracts repeatedly developed around the flanks of the transcontinental arch. Relative sea level rises following each major incisement created a complex intertonguing of marine strata responsible for fluvial aggradation of each valley system. These sequences progressively backstep and grow younger toward the transcontinental arch, where Atokan and Desmoinesan strata cap the oldest preserved surfaces. At least four major paleodrainage basins have been identified, and valley-fill production has been established in three of these. The previously unrecognized age equivalency of these formations provides a new regional sequence stratigraphic interpretation which has hydrocarbon exploration implications in frontier areas of Utah and Colorado. Seismic resolution and an understanding of hydrocarbon migration paths hold the key to developing new exploration trends.

  9. An enhanced trend surface analysis equation for regional-residual separation of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, A. I.; Onwuemesi, A. G.; Romanus, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Trend surface analysis is a geological term for a mathematical technique which separates a given map set into a regional component and a local component. This work has extended the steps for the derivation of the constants in the trend surface analysis equation from the popularly known matrix and simultaneous form to a more simplified and easily achievable format. To achieve this, matrix inversion was applied to the existing equations and the outcome was tested for suitability using a large volume of gravity data set acquired from the Anambra Basin, south-eastern Nigeria. Tabulation of the field data set was done using the Microsoft Excel spread sheet, while gravity maps were generated from the data set using Oasis Montaj software. A comparison of the residual gravity map produced using the new equations with its software derived counterpart has shown that the former has a higher enhancing capacity than the latter. This equation has shown strong suitability for application in the separation of gravity data sets into their regional and residual components.

  10. Trends in screen time on week and weekend days in a representative sample of Southern Brazil students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes, Adair S; Silva, Kelly S; Barbosa Filho, Valter C; Bezerra, Jorge; de Oliveira, Elusa S A; Nahas, Markus V

    2014-01-01

    ...), among students in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys that included 5 028 and 6 529 students in 2001 and 2011, respectively, aged 15-19 years...

  11. An examination of global and regional opioid consumption trends 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Barbara A; Gilson, Aaron M; Maurer, Martha A; Cleary, James F

    2014-09-01

    Despite expert recognition that strong opioid analgesics are the cornerstone of treatment for moderate to severe pain, most of the world's population lacks adequate availability of opioids. Moreover, great disparities in availability of opioids continue to exist between higher- and lower-to-middle-income countries. This study examined more than 30 years of consumption data reported to the International Narcotics Control Board, from 1980 to 2011, for five opioids that are indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain: fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, and pethidine. As such, this study offers a regional and global perspective on opioid consumption, providing an indication of preparedness for treating moderate to severe pain. Countries are categorized according to the World Health Organization's six geographical regions. Morphine equivalence (ME) statistics were calculated for each study drug, allowing for equianalgesic comparisons between consumption of the study opioids and well as the ability to aggregate all study opioids (Total ME). The ME statistic is adjusted for country population, which allows for uniform global-, regional-, and country-level equianalgesic comparisons of consumption of morphine with other opioids. Although overall trend lines revealed general increases by region, profound inequities in opioid consumption continue to abound globally.

  12. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  13. Ethnopharmacological study of Stryphnodendron rotundifoliumin two communities in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This work describes the local knowledge of the medicinal use of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., Fabaceae, according to informants in two areas of the Araripe bioregion, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. We used interviews to investigate the ethnomedicinal use of the local species to determine the mode of use, frequency of administration, duration of treatment and restrictions of use. In traditional medicine, the use of S. rotundifoliumis associated with the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The part of the plant most used was the stem bark (86.11%, the predominant mode of preparation was immersion in water (52.83%, and oral administration was the most cited (48.43%. For inflammatory and infectious diseases, the treatment lasted 3-10 days and the frequency of administration was 2-3 times/day. For gastroprotective effects, treatment lasted up to 30 days, and the herb was administered 1-3 times/day. For pain complaints, the therapy varied from 2-3 days to continuous administration.The informants (46.87% did not mention restrictions of use, except for pregnant women, with a rate of 25%. A comparison of these results with the ethnopharmacological information from other studies showed that some of the traditional indications are scientifically supported by the literature or clinical studies. Nevertheless, the results showed that pharmacologists have not fully investigated all the possible bioactivities that healers credit to this plant.

  14. Acceptance of Santo Giorno cheese typical of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimir Andrade Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Santo Giorno cheese, obtained from raw milk and selected autochthonous starters, is emerging as the newest typical food product from the Southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptance of the cheese with two ripening times of 60 and 180 days, produced in two dairy factories, testing two starters and two preservatives. Subjective sensory evaluation was applied using 129 consumers and hedonic scales for the attributes and for purchasing intent. A questionnaire involving the rate of cheese consumption was also used. The results suggested good reproducibility of the cheese preparation by the dairy factories, with no significant differences between the type of preservative used and the suitability of the two types of starter tested. An inverse relationship between hedonic scores for attributes (appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor and ripening time was observed, except for texture. By applying multinomial logistic regression and a box plot analysis, a significant effect of age on cheese purchasing intent was verified, with a mean acceptance rate of 87.8% for 60 days ageing and 81.8% for 180 days ageing. Results revealed a possible Santo Giorno cheese public of older consumers who had a cheese consuming habit.

  15. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G; Colasso, Camilla G; Monteiro, Paula P; Pedreira Filho, Walter R; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fátima C. T.; Sousa, Oscarina V.; Carvalho, Edirsana M. R.; Hofer, Ernesto; Vieira, Regine H. S. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12%) of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal) exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area. PMID:24455280

  17. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  18. Migration and gender wage gap in the southern region of Brazil

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    Karla Cristina Tyskowski Teodoro Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the wage gap according to migration status and gender of the labor force of the southern states of Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. We used data from the National Household Sample Survey – 2013, Mincer equations, Heckman procedure for sample selection bias and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis. The results show that the state of Paraná has greater relative share of migrants from the South, followed by Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. The region has a higher salary for migrants, both for men and for women, consistent with the results already seen in the literature. Men have a higher salary, and the largest wage gap by gender occurs in the migrant population. By decomposing wage gap we detected discrimination by sex, which is higher among migrants. We also found the migration effect on wages, i.e. a wage gap caused by migration even after controlling by workers endowments: among women, about 15% of the pay gap comes from the migration status (favorable to migrants, and among men a difference of approximately 38% (favorable migrants.

  19. Ion input via rainwater in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Francine Neves Calil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion input via rainfall alone and after interception by the forest canopy, constitutes an important path ofbiochemical cycling, although few studies have provided information on the subject so far. The objective of this work is toquantify ion inputs, via rainfall, in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten rain gauges were mountedin a field area. The quantification of stored water volume, along with sample collection for determination of nitrate, nitrite,ammonium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents, was done fortnightly fromSeptember 2006 to August 2008. Local annual average precipitation in the relevant period was 1,588.3 mm. The concentrationof chemical elements in rainwater was found to vary throughout, being inversely correlated with the increase in rainfall, whilepotassium, ammonium, phosphate, sulfate, chloride and sodium were found to have a significant mutual correlation (p <0.01.Based on the annual amount of nutrient input via rainwater, it can be inferred that rainfall is an important source of chemicalelement input into the forest system.

  20. Avian influenza virus (H11N9 in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Jansen de Araujo

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR. The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres, that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.

  1. False-color L-band image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This false-color L-band image of the Manaus region of Brazil was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 46th orbit. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 by 25 miles). At the top of the image are the Solimoes and Rio Negro River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude, and 61 degrees west longitude. Blue areas show low returns at VV poloarization; hence the bright blue colors of the smooth river surfaces. Green areas in the image are heavily forested, while blue areas are either cleared forest or open water. The yellow and red areas are flooded forest. Between Rio Solimoes and Rio Negro, a road can be seen running from some cleared areas (visible as blue rectangles north of Rio Solimoes) north toward a tributary or Rio Negro. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43895.

  2. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  3. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard

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    FABIO H.V. HAZIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h−1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (< 50 m vertical distribution for most of the monitoring period. While presenting the first data on tiger shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  4. Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

  5. Effects of harbor activities on sediment quality in a semi-arid region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Lucas B; Castro, Ítalo B; Hortellani, Marcos A; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Petti, Mônica A V; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Bícego, Márcia C; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Abessa, Denis M S

    2017-01-01

    Tropical marine environments are rich in biodiversity and the presence of harbor activities in these areas can harm the coastal ecosystems. In this study, we assessed sediment quality of two harbors from a tropical region in Brazil by applying multiple lines-of-evidence approach. This approach included the integration of results on: (1) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and tributyltin; (2) acute toxicity of whole sediments and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; and (3) benthic community descriptors. Our results revealed that the main contaminants detected in sediments from Mucuripe and Pecém Harbors were chromium, copper, nitrogen, zinc, and tributyltin. These toxicants arise from typical harbor activities. However, the changes in benthic composition and structure appear to depend on a combination of physical impacts, such as the deposition of fine sediments and the toxic potential of contaminants, especially in Mucuripe. Thus, apart from toxicants physical processes are important in describing risks. This information may assist in management and conservation of marine coastal areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Land-cover classification in a moist tropical region of Brazil with Landsat TM imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Lu, Dengsheng; Moran, Emilio; Hetrick, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to improve land-cover classification accuracy in a moist tropical region in Brazil by examining the use of different remote sensing-derived variables and classification algorithms. Different scenarios based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data and derived vegetation indices and textural images, and different classification algorithms - maximum likelihood classification (MLC), artificial neural network (ANN), classification tree analysis (CTA), and object-based classification (OBC), were explored. The results indicated that a combination of vegetation indices as extra bands into Landsat TM multispectral bands did not improve the overall classification performance, but the combination of textural images was valuable for improving vegetation classification accuracy. In particular, the combination of both vegetation indices and textural images into TM multispectral bands improved overall classification accuracy by 5.6% and kappa coefficient by 6.25%. Comparison of the different classification algorithms indicated that CTA and ANN have poor classification performance in this research, but OBC improved primary forest and pasture classification accuracies. This research indicates that use of textural images or use of OBC are especially valuable for improving the vegetation classes such as upland and liana forest classes having complex stand structures and having relatively large patch sizes.

  7. Determinants and probability of first employment and reemployment in south region of Brazil

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    Magno Rogério Gomes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the probability of insertion in the first job and reemployment in the formal and private labor market in the southern region of Brazil, based on data from the RAIS - Annual Social Information Report - of the Ministry of Labor and Employment 2013. The multinomial logit model was applied and the results found show a greater chance of absorption of female labor in the sectors of Trade and Services and of male work in the Agricultural and Industrial sectors. In the last two sectors, women are segregated in hiring, since they have the same masculine characteristics and the labor absorption of the sectors is masculine. Individuals with higher levels of education (higher level are more likely to engage in the Services sector, where the average remuneration is higher. The chances of insertion of the individuals with low education were higher in the industry, showing the worse situation of the industries compared to the other sectors with respect to human capital.

  8. Controllership practices adopted in private institutions of higher education (ipes in the midwest region of Brazil

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    Ramão Humberto Martins Manvailer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the adoption of controllership practices by managers of Private Institutions of Higher Education (IPES of the Midwest Region of Brazil. It also sought to identify the characteristics of IPES and analyze the association between them. The controllership practices addressed in this study were raised in the literature and submitted to the opinion of specialists in this knowledge area for validation. The data were collected through a questionnaire, with Likert scales, getting 25 responses that make up the research sample. The most adopted practices in IPES management are: performance evaluation, capital budget and the analysis of investment return. To investigate the association between controllership practices, according to the classification of the four stages of IFAC (1998, and characteristics of IPES, it was used the Fisher’s Exact Test. An association was observed between the adoption of controllership practices of the different stages of Managerial Accounting and variables such as size, administrative classification and economic performance. There is an association between internal control in asset protection and the size of IPES. The analysis practice cost-volume-profit (CVL is more adopted by for-profit institutions. Internal control in asset protection is more used by IPES that indicated unfavorable economic performance. As for the third and fourth stages practices, only the meta-funding showed a greater association with small size IPES.

  9. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off Northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Fábio H V; Afonso, André S; De Castilho, Pedro C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Rocha, Bruno C L M

    2013-09-01

    An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  11. Factors associated with nutritional status of the elderly in two regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Daniele; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Borgatto, Adriano Ferreti; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique

    2012-01-01

    To verify the association of nutritional status with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, and health status in elderly individuals from two cities in different regions of Brazil. Cross-sectional epidemiological home-based study, involving 477 and 316 elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) from the towns of Antônio Carlos (AC-SC) and Lafaiete Coutinho (LC-BA), respectively. Nutritional status was verified using the body mass index (BMI). Explanatory variables in the study were gender, age, level of schooling, living arrangements, lifelong occupation, smoking status, alcohol consumption, time spent sitting, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, respiratory diseases, and medications. Logistic regression analyses were used (crude and adjusted). Underweight (BMI 27.0 kg/m(2)) was more prevalent among individuals from AC-SC (52.8% vs. 28.2%). In AC-SC, underweight was positively associated with older age (≥ 75 years) and smoking, and inversely associated with longer periods spent sitting (≥ 6 hrs/day). Overweight was positively associated with longer periods spent sitting, hypertension, and arthritis, and inversely associated with older age, male gender, working in rural areas, and alcohol consumption. In LC-BA, no explanatory variable was associated with underweight. Overweight was positively associated with hypertension, and inversely associated with individuals aged ≥ 75 years, and with living alone. Underweight was more prevalent in LC-BA and overweight was more prevalent in AC-SC. Factors associated with nutritional status are specific to each municipality.

  12. Students' attitudes toward and knowledge about snakes in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Silva, Vanessa N; Trovão, Dilma M B M; Oliveira, José V; Mourão, José S; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Ângelo G C; Lucena, Reinaldo F P; Barboza, Raynner R D; Montenegro, Paulo F G P; Vieira, Washington L S; Souto, Wedson M S

    2014-03-27

    Humans in various cultures have feared snakes, provoking an aversion and persecution that hinders conservation efforts for these reptiles. Such fact suggests that conservation strategies for snakes should consider the interactions and perceptions of the local population towards these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate students' perception of snakes and if attitudes and knowledge may differ according to gender and local residence (urban or rural). Data was collected in the second half of 2012 and consisted of questionnaires applied to 108 students in the Basic Education School in the municipality of Sumé, located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. The male respondents recognized more species than female did. Part of the students affirmed to have a fear of snakes, especially women. Nearly half of respondents (49%) showed negative behaviour towards these animals, reflecting the influence of potential risk and myths associated with snakes, and supported by a limited knowledge about these animals and their ecological and utilitarian role. We find that the rural students recognized significantly more species than the urban students. Our results point to the need for educational interventions in order to increase knowledge about the positive aspects associated with snakes, seeking to minimize the influence of myths and beliefs that contribute to a strong aversion to snakes by the locals. Conservation strategies should therefore engage students but also teachers, who are key individuals in the process.

  13. Students’ attitudes toward and knowledge about snakes in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans in various cultures have feared snakes, provoking an aversion and persecution that hinders conservation efforts for these reptiles. Such fact suggests that conservation strategies for snakes should consider the interactions and perceptions of the local population towards these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate students' perception of snakes and if attitudes and knowledge may differ according to gender and local residence (urban or rural). Methods Data was collected in the second half of 2012 and consisted of questionnaires applied to 108 students in the Basic Education School in the municipality of Sumé, located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Results The male respondents recognized more species than female did. Part of the students affirmed to have a fear of snakes, especially women. Nearly half of respondents (49%) showed negative behaviour towards these animals, reflecting the influence of potential risk and myths associated with snakes, and supported by a limited knowledge about these animals and their ecological and utilitarian role. We find that the rural students recognized significantly more species than the urban students. Conclusions Our results point to the need for educational interventions in order to increase knowledge about the positive aspects associated with snakes, seeking to minimize the influence of myths and beliefs that contribute to a strong aversion to snakes by the locals. Conservation strategies should therefore engage students but also teachers, who are key individuals in the process. PMID:24673877

  14. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  15. Recent trends in the climate of Namaqualand, a megadiverse arid region of South Africa

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    Claire L. Davis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Namaqualand is especially vulnerable to future climate change impacts. Using a high-resolution (0.5°x0.5° gridded data set (CRU TS 3.1 and individual weather station data, we demonstrated that temperatures as well as frequency of hot extremes have increased across this region. Specifically, minimum temperatures have increased by 1.4 °C and maximum temperatures by 1.1 °C over the last century. Of the five weather stations analysed, two showed evidence of a significant increase in the duration of warm spells of up to 5 days per decade and a reduction in the number of cool days (TX10P by up to 3 days per decade. In terms of rainfall, we found no clear evidence for a significant change in annual totals or the frequency or intensity of rainfall events. Seasonal trends in rainfall did, however, demonstrate some spatial variability across the region. Spatial trends in evapotranspiration obtained from the 8-day MOD16 ET product were characterised by a steepening inland-coastal gradient where areas along the coastline showed a significant increase in evapotranspiration of up to 30 mm per decade, most notably in spring and summer. The increase in temperature linked with the increases in evapotranspiration pose significant challenges for water availability in the region, but further research into changes in coastal fog is required in order for a more reliable assessment to be made. Overall, the results presented in this study provide evidence-based information for the management of climate change impacts as well as the development of appropriate adaptation responses at a local scale.

  16. Temporal trends and regional variations in gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Peru, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Azañedo, Diego; Huarez, Bertha; Rodríguez-Lema, Belén

    2016-01-01

    To estimate and analyze the evolution of mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Peru and its regions between 2005-2014. We performed a nationwide secondary analysis of Peru's Health Ministry registry of deaths during the period 2005-2014, with a focus on regional differences. Deaths registered with codes C15 to C25 (malignant neoplasms of digestive organs) from the ICD-10 were included. Calculation of age-standarized mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) due to GI cancer per 100,000 habitants were also performed. Data of 67,527 deaths from GI cancers was analyzed, 35,055 (51.91%) were women. In 2005, the number of GI cancer deaths was 6,484, for 2014, 7,532 cases were recorded. The GI cancer age-standarized mortality rates at the country level showed a decrease of 12.70% between 2005-2014. Stomach cancer presented the highest age-standarized mortality rate despite showing a downward trend in the last years, equal for gallbladder, liver and biliary tract, and esophagus cancer. Colorectal, small intestine and anus cancer show a progressive increase. In 2014, Callao (48.8), Huancavelica (48.5), La Libertad (39.6), Lambayeque (40.5) and Huanuco (38.9) had the highest rates. The three types of GI cancers with the highest rates of YLL in 2014 were stomach cancer (118.51), followed by liver and biliary tract cancer (58.68) and colorectal (44.86). GI cancer mortality in Peru is high and a priority issue in regions like Huancavelica, Huanuco, Callao, La Libertad and Lambayeque. Stomach cancer remains the most frequent GI cancer, but with a downward trend in the study period.

  17. An age-stratified poisson model for comparing trends in cancer rates across overlapping regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Tiwari, Ram C; Zou, Zhaohui

    2008-08-01

    The annual percent change (APC) has been used as a measure to describe the trend in the age-adjusted cancer incidence or mortality rate over relatively short time intervals. The yearly data on these age-adjusted rates are available from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The traditional methods to estimate the APC is to fit a linear regression of logarithm of age-adjusted rates on time using the least squares method or the weighted least squares method, and use the estimate of the slope parameter to define the APC as the percent change in the rates between two consecutive years. For comparing the APC for two regions, one uses a t-test which assumes that the two datasets on the logarithm of the age-adjusted rates are independent and normally distributed with a common variance. Two modifications of this test, when there is an overlap between the two regions or between the time intervals for the two datasets have been recently developed. The first modification relaxes the assumption of the independence of the two datasets but still assumes the common variance. The second modification relaxes the assumption of the common variance also, but assumes that the variances of the age-adjusted rates are obtained using Poisson distributions for the mortality or incidence counts. In this paper, a unified approach to the problem of estimating the APC is undertaken by modeling the counts to follow an age-stratified Poisson regression model, and by deriving a corrected Z -test for testing the equality of two APCs. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the test and an application of the test to compare the trends, for a selected number of cancer sites, for two overlapping regions and with varied degree of overlapping time intervals is presented. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  18. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  19. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    A database of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled using established techniques. This database indicates that in the ten year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is very heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and SE. Brazil. The number of landslides varies considerably between years; the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerges as a major factor controlling this variation, although the study period did not capture a large event. Analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of research articles with a local author, which shows that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distributions causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  20. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  1. Dioctophyma renale in maned wolf in the geoeconomic region of Jatai, GO, Brazil - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcinir Aloisio Scalla Vulcani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Vulcani V.A.S., Franzo V.S., de Araújo D.P., Vicentin F.R., da Costa O.M., Rangel A.S. & Gomes L.A. [Dioctophyma renale in maned wolf in the geoeconomic region of Jatai, GO, Brazil - Case report.] Dioctophyma renale em Lobo-Guará na região geoeconômica de Jataí, GO, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:149-152, 2015. Laboratório de Anatomia, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus de Jataí, BR 364 Km 192, 3800, Setor Industrial, Jataí, GO 75801-615, Brasil. E-mail: aloisiosv@hotmail.com The maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 is the largest animal that represents the canidae species at the South America. The Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782 known as the giant kidney-worm, because it is used to lodges mostly this organs, and it has been also responsible for the majority of captive animals deaths. A maned wolf necropsy was done at the animal anatomy laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG - Campus Jataí and showed a nematode in the right kidney of the wild dog. This is the second confirmed case report of maned wolf that have free life in the city of Jataí and in State of Goiás, that suggests that is a common parasitism in this region of the country.

  2. The AIDS epidemic in the Amazon region: a spatial case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil

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    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze spatial changes in the risk of AIDS and the relationship between AIDS incidence and socioeconomic variables in the state of Rondonia, Amazon region. METHODS A spatial, population case-control study in Rondonia, Brazil, based on 1,780 cases reported to the Epidemiological Surveillance System and controls based on demographic data from 1987 to 2006. The cases were grouped into five consecutive four-year periods. A generalized additive model was adjusted to the data; the dependent variable was the status of the individuals (case or control, and the independent variables were a bi-dimensional spline of the geographic coordinates and some municipality-level socioeconomic variables. The observed values of the Moran’s I test were compared to a reference distribution of values generated under conditions of spatial randomness. RESULTS AIDS risk shows a marked spatial and temporal pattern. The disease incidence is related to socioeconomic variables at the municipal level in Rondônia, such as urbanization and human capital. The highest incidence rates of AIDS are in municipalities along the BR-364 highway and calculations of the Moran’s I test show positive spatial correlation associated with proximity of the municipality to the highway in the third and fourth periods (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS Incidence of the disease is higher in municipalities of greater economic wealth and urbanization, and in those municipalities bisected by Rondônia’s main roads. The rapid development associated with the opening up of once remote regions may be accompanied by an increase in these risks to health.

  3. Characterization of Fricke dosimeter developed at Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, Recife, PE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Cunha, Manuela S.; Santos, Carla D.A.; Figueiredo, Marcela D.C.; Rodrigues, Kelia R.G.; Melo, Roberto T.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: manusc06@hotmail.co, E-mail: daysebutterfly@hotmail.co, E-mail: keliareja@hotmail.co, E-mail: rtmelo@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) is a modified Fricke dosimeter system that was tested at the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), in Recife, Brazil. The Fricke dosimeter system has been used in our laboratory successfully. We decided to test the FXG in our laboratory because this dosimetric system presents some advantages in relation to the Fricke dosimeter, such as: easy preparation, more sensitivity for doses between 5 - 30 Gy, good reproducibility, tissue equivalence and multidimensional dose information. The dosimetric solution was synthesized with 0.392 g of ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.0060 g of sodium chloride, 0.0076 g of xylenol orange, 5.0 g of gelatine (270 bloom porcine) and 300 mul of sulphuric acid in 100 ml of water. First, the water-gelatin mixture was heated and continuously stirred with a magnetic stirrer while the others reagents were added and the temperature was raised to 45 deg C. Once the solution ready it was transferred to acrylic cuvettes and kept in dark under refrigeration at 5 deg C during 12 h. Characteristics such as absorption spectrum, stability and linearity were evaluated by spectrophotometry (Beckman DU-640 UV-visible spectrophotometer). The developed material presented a good performance: ferric ion concentration at 589 nm, after irradiation; linear dose-response curve between 5 and 30 Gy; and saturation region for doses higher than 30 Gy. One disadvantage of the FXG system is its poor storage stability, because the non-irradiated samples suffer a selfdegradation and this could be a limitation for the use of FXG system. (author)

  4. Natural variation of selenium in Brazil nuts and soils from the Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Junior, E C; Wadt, L H O; Silva, K E; Lima, R M B; Batista, K D; Guedes, M C; Carvalho, G S; Carvalho, T S; Reis, A R; Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G

    2017-12-01

    Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is native of the Amazon rainforest. Brazil nuts are consumed worldwide and are known as the richest food source of selenium (Se). Yet, the reasoning for such Se contents is not well stablished. We evaluated the variation in Se concentration of Brazil nuts from Brazilian Amazon basin, as well as soil properties, including total Se concentration, of the soils sampled directly underneath the trees crown, aiming to investigate which soil properties influence Se accumulation in the nuts. The median Se concentration in Brazil nuts varied from 2.07 mg kg - 1 (in Mato Grosso state) to 68.15 mg kg - 1 (in Amazonas state). Therefore, depending on its origin, a single Brazil nut could provide from 11% (in the Mato Grosso state) up to 288% (in the Amazonas state) of the daily Se requirement for an adult man (70 μg). The total Se concentration in the soil also varied considerably, ranging from Brazil nuts generally increased in soils with higher total Se content, but decreased under acidic conditions in the soil. This indicates that, besides total soil Se concentration, soil acidity plays a major role in Se uptake by Brazil nut trees, possibly due to the importance of this soil property to Se retention in the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  6. Energetics of the Brazil Current in the Rio Grande Cone region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, André Lopes; Azevedo, José Luiz Lima de; Oliveira, Leopoldo Rota de; Calil, Paulo Henrique Rezende

    2017-10-01

    The energetics of the Brazil Current (BC) in the region of the Rio Grande Cone (RGC, 30-35.5°S), a topographic rise in the southwest portion of the Brazilian continental margin, are analyzed using 16 years of numerical data from the Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) for the Earth Simulator (OFES). The main focus of this study is the eddy-mean flow interactions of the BC and the local energy budgets in the study region. The kinetic and potential energy balance equations are derived for mean and eddy flows, and the resulting terms are presented and discussed. The eddy-mean flow interactions exhibit complex spatial distributions, and the intensities of the energy budgets decrease with increasing depth. However, only the mean potential energy (MPE) budget decreases southward. Eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and eddy potential energy (EPE) exhibit similar horizontal distribution patterns. Additionally, the baroclinic and barotropic conversion rates increase downstream of the bump, where the eddy energy field exhibits along-stream variability that increases southward. Barotropic conversion is more intense between 50 and 200 m, where mean kinetic energy (MKE) and EKE are concentrated, and it exhibits a horizontal cross-stream variation pattern, with mean-to-eddy energy conversion observed on the offshore side of the BC. This result indicates that the turbulence associated with the stream jet increases as the BC moves away from the coast, with the conversion term acting to stabilize the flow. Baroclinic conversion exhibits a high intensity below 300 m (where MPE and EPE display peaks), and it has a greater influence on the eddy-mean flow interaction than does the barotropic conversion. The RGC directly affects the local dynamics of the BC by increasing the eddy field as soon as the BC reaches the bump. The energy diagrams illustrate a stream characterized by evolving barotropic and baroclinic instability processes throughout the water column. This result indicates an

  7. Climate change: A trend of increasingly frequent droughts in Kakheti Region (East Georgia

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    M. Meladze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the global warming, in Kakheti Region, in East Georgia (by municipalities, the trends of changes (increase or decrease in agro-climatic characteristics for the development of agricultural crops were identified. Such changes result in the prolonged vegetation period, increased sum of temperatures and mostly, decreased sum of precipitations. Based on the latter indicators, a trend of a decreasing index of the hydrothermal coefficient is observed evidencing more frequent droughts with low or moderate intensity. The data of the 60-year-long period of meteorological observations (1949–2008 were divided into two 30-year-long periods in order to compare them. It was found that in the second period (1979–2008, the indices of a hydrothermal coefficient in all municipalities (except Kvareli are decreased in the active vegetation period (VI-VIII. The dynamics of the course of a hydrothermal coefficient is shown with trends. Based on the many-year meteorological observation data (1949–2008 in different municipalities, the sums of active annual temperatures (>10 °C and atmospheric precipitations were calculated. On the background of global warming, the repeated nature of droughts of different types was identified. The nomograms of the frequency of the droughts of the type typical to the study object and moisture evaporation have been drafted. Based on the sums of the annual active temperatures (>10 °C and atmospheric precipitations, an equation to calculate the hydrothermal coefficient was given. A correlation between the date of the temperature rising over 10 °C and the sum of temperatures was identified (r=0.80 and a regression equation to forecast different types of droughts was designed. Against frequent droughts following the global warming, it is recommended to take relevant adaptation measures to avoid negative events.

  8. Regional patterns and trends in cancer mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, David; Paisano, Roberta; Cobb, Nathaniel

    2005-03-01

    National estimates of cancer mortality indicate relatively low rates for American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs). However, these rates are derived from state vital records in which racial misclassification is known to exist. In this cross-sectional study of cancer mortality among AIs and ANs living in counties on or near reservations, the authors used death records and census population estimates to calculate annualized, age-adjusted mortality rates for key cancer types for the period 1996-2001 for 5 geographic regions: East (E), Northern Plains (NP), Southwest (SW), Pacific Coast (PC), and Alaska (AK). Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) also were calculated to compare rates with those in the general United States population (USG) for the same period. To examine temporal trends, MRRs for 1996-2001 were compared with MMRs for 1990-1995. The overall cancer mortality rate was lower in AIs and ANs (165.6 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 161.7-169.5) than in the USG (200.9 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 200.7-201.2). In the regional analysis, however, cancer mortality was higher in AK (MRR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.17-1.36) and in the NP (MMR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.31-1.44) than in the USG. In both regions, the excess mortality was attributed to cancer of the lung, colorectum, liver, stomach, and kidney. In the SW, the mortality rate for cancer of the liver and stomach was higher than the rate in the USG, in contrast with that region's nearly 4-fold lower mortality rate for lung cancer (MRR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.19-0.27). Rates of cervical cancer mortality were higher among AIs and ANs (MRR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.62), notably in the NP and SW. Rates of breast cancer mortality generally were lower (MRR=0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.66), notably in the PC, SW, and E. Cancer mortality increased by 5% in AIs and ANs (MRR for 1996-2001 compared with 1990-1995: 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), whereas it decreased by 6% in the USG (MMR=0.94; 95% CI, 0.94-0.94). Regional data

  9. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wonsuk; Kim, Sangmi; Huh, Warner K; Dilley, Sarah; Coughlin, Steven S; Partridge, Edward E; Chung, Yunmi; Dicks, Vivian; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Bae, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000-2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Black race and South region were associated

  10. [Trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer in Murcia Region (Spain) from 1984 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Navarro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To study the trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer. We selected incident cases of thyroid cancer occurring in the Region of Murcia (Spain) in 1984-2008. The variables gathered were age, sex, date of diagnosis, and morphology. We calculated incidence rates and the annual percentage of change using Bayesian age-period-cohort models. During the study period, 1414 cases were diagnosed, representing an increase in adjusted rates from 2.9/100000 in 1984-1988 to 7.3 in 2004-2008. The incidence was 3.5 times higher in women than in men and the most frequent morphology was papillary carcinoma (67.7%). An increasing trend was found in both genders; these increments were more pronounced in papillary carcinoma. In women, the incidence increased with age, calendar year, and in those born in 1945-1963. The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma increased four-fold in women. Thyroid cancer used to be a rare cancer but has become an emerging tumor. The greatest changes were found in papillary thyroid cancer, including a gradual increase in the proportion of microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Precipitation Trend Analysis over Eastern Region of India Using Cmip5 Based Climatic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, A.; Dwivedi, S.; Chandra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Climate science is a complex field as climate is governed by processes that interact and operate on a vast array of time and space scales. The processes involving radiative transfer, chemistry and phase changes of water are most easily described at atomic and molecular scales; the influence of ice sheets, continents and planetary scale circulations controlling the basic energy balance of the planet operate at continental scales; even planetary orbital and solar variations operating at millennial time scales cannot be ignored. Global as well as regional climate has changed due to human activities like land use changes, production of industrial effluents and other activities due to the development of the society. The consequences of these changes have a massive impact on atmospheric events like precipitation, temperature etc. So, present and future information of precipitation is required to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies at national and international levels. Precipitation is one of the major phenomena of the atmosphere. So, its prediction and the trend are very necessary to realize the change of climate. The study attempted some model based analysis to assess prediction of rainfall trend using MK test and the Sen's slope estimator.

  12. Trends and risk factors for syphilis infection in Piedmont Region, Italy, 2002-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Vigna-Taglianti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: This work aims to analyze trends of syphilis infections in the Piedmont Region (Italy between 2002 and 2008, and to evaluate risk factors for infection. Methods: Syphilis trends were described according to socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, condom use, number of partners and HIV infection. Independent risk factors for syphilis among men having sex with men (MSM, men having sex with women (MSW, and women were identified through logistic regression comparing cases with 12,773 negative patients. Results: Between 2002 and 2008, 1,046 cases of syphilis were diagnosed, with peaks in 2004 and 2007. The risk of a syphilis diagnosis was independently associated with being older than 24, having a low education level, homosexual behavior, HIV self-reported infection (for MSM and MSW, number of partners (for MSW and women and non- consistent condom use (for women. Conclusions: Recent outbreaks suggest that the attention to syphilis can’t be lowered. Screening, treatment of cases and notification of partners should be reinforced and integrated with sexual health education and counselling in high-risk environments. Surveillance data must be continuously collected.

  13. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area.

  14. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Vegetative growth of Conilon coffee plants under two water conditions in the Atlantic region of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Monzoli Covre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme temperatures and persistent water stress stand out among the main factors that restrict the vegetative growth and productivity of Coffea canephora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative growth of orthotropic and plagiotropic branches of C. canephora under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, and their correlation with climatic factors in the Atlantic region of Bahia State, Brazil. The experiment was established with two treatments (non-irrigated and irrigated in a completely random design with 14 replicates. One orthotropic and four plagiotropic branches were labelled on each plant. During the two-year experimental period, the growth of these branches was evaluated at 14-day intervals. Two harvests were performed to obtain productivity data. In summary, it was confirmed that irrigation resulted in an increased productivity of Conilon coffee in the Atlantic region of Bahia, Brazil. The growth rate of the orthotropic and plagiotropic branches was higher in irrigated plants. The growth rate of the plagiotropic branches was limited by the fruit load capacity. The growth rate of C. canephora branches was not limited by the minimum average air temperature in the Atlantic region of Bahia, Brazil.

  16. Mortality trends from diabetes mellitus in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2010-11-01

    To determine trends in mortality from diabetes mellitus nationwide according to federative entity, socioeconomic region, and sex and to establish the association between education level, federation entity of residence, and socioeconomic region and mortality from diabetes in Mexico during the years 2000-2007. Records of mortality associated with diabetes for 2000-2007 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics through death certificates. Codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, that correspond to the basic cause of death from diabetes mellitus were identified. Rates of mortality by federative entity and socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained by Poisson regression) between federative entity of residence, socioeconomic region, and education level and mortality from diabetes. The seven socioeconomic regions elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics include the 32 federative entities according to indicators related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.104, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.089-2.119). The federative entity and socioeconomic region with the strongest association with mortality from diabetes were Mexico City (RR 2.5, CI 2.33-2.68 for 2000; RR 2.06, CI 1.95-2.18 for 2007) and region 7 (RR 2.47, CI 2.36-2.57 for 2000; RR 2.05, CI 1.98-2.13 for 2007). Mortality rates increased from 77.9 to 89.2 per 100,000 inhabitants in the period 2000-2007. Women had higher mortality than men. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (RR 2.104, CI 2.089-2.119). Mexico City as federative entity and socioeconomic region 7 presented the

  17. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R; Shelton, Jennifer L; Dubrovsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices.

  18. The U.S.-Brazil-China trade and transportation triangle : implications for the southwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The advent of globalization and more integrated international trade has placed increased demands : on transportation infrastructure. This report assesses the impacts of triangular trade between and among : the United States, Brazil and China with an ...

  19. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins [Fundacao...

  20. LBA Regional Boundary for the Legal Amazon of Brazil, 8-km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Legal Amazon of Brazil is defined by law to include the states of Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Mato Grosso, Maranhao, and Tocantins...

  1. Journal Publication in Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela: University Responses to Global, Regional, and National Pressures and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Background. This project was motivated by the impressive growth that scholarly/scientific journals in Latin America have shown in recent decades. That advance is attributed to global, regional, and national pressures and trends, as well as a response to obstacles that scholars/researchers from the region face to be published in prestigious…

  2. Tuberculose, HIV e pobreza: tendência temporal no Brasil, Américas e mundo Tuberculosis, HIV, and poverty: temporal trends in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonça Guimarães

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal das taxas de prevalência, incidência e mortalidade por tuberculose, associada ou não com HIV, no Brasil, nas Américas e no mundo. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados os dados relacionados à tuberculose, com e sem coinfecção por HIV, entre 1990 e 2010, no Brasil, nas Américas e no mundo. As tendências foram estimadas por regressão linear. RESULTADOS: Foi identificada uma tendência de redução nas taxas de prevalência e mortalidade de tuberculose, que foi maior no Brasil e nas Américas que no mundo. Houve uma tendência crescente na incidência da coinfecção tuberculose/HIV e nas taxas de detecção de casos de tuberculose ativa e latente. Houve uma tendência de redução da incidência de tuberculose no Brasil, mas de aumento dessa no mundo. Houve uma correlação direta das taxas de incidência de tuberculose com as taxas de pobreza e as taxas de incidência de HIV. CONCLUSÕES: Desigualdades sociais e o advento da AIDS são os principais fatores que agravam a atual situação da tuberculose. Nesse contexto, abordagens metodológicas para a avaliação das ações de vigilância da tuberculose são bem-vindas, pois essas indicarão situações de dados de notificação da tuberculose que não reflitam a verdadeira incidência dessa doença.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the temporal trends of the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, as well as of the associated mortality, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. METHODS: We collected data related to tuberculosis, with and without HIV co-infection, between 1990 and 2010, in Brazil, the Americas, and worldwide. Temporal trends were estimated by linear regression. RESULTS: We identified a trend toward a decrease in tuberculosis prevalence and mortality, and that trend was more pronounced in Brazil and the Americas than worldwide. There was also a trend toward an increase in the incidence of tuberculosis/HIV co

  3. Complementary feeding patterns in the first year of life in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: time trends from 1998 to 2008

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    Daniel Alves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze time trends in complementary feeding practices among children under one year of age in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2008. Based on comparable questions on food consumption in five surveys conducted in representative randomized samples of children in 1998 (n = 3,762, 2000 (n = 3,670, 2003 (n = 4,305, 2006 (n = 3,686, and 2008 (n = 2,621, 16 complementary feeding indicators were constructed. The percentage frequency of all indicators was estimated for each year of the study. Linear trend analyses were also conducted by means of multivariate regression models. All indicators of early complementary feeding decreased from 1998 to 2008. In the 6-11.9 month age group, there was a significant downward trend in the proportion of children receiving food with adequate consistency for their age, consumption of iron-rich foods, and overall adequacy of the diet. A significant upward trend in fruit consumption was observed. There was a decrease in the early complementary feeding, and generally a worsening of complementary feeding practices in children aged 6-11.9 months in Rio de Janeiro during the period studied.

  4. Monthly values of the standardized precipitation index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: trends and spectral features under the normality assumption

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe monthly series of the Standardized Precipitation Index obtained from four weather stations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were carried out by evaluating the normality assumption of the SPI distributions, the spectral features of these series and, the presence of climatic trends in these datasets. It was observed that the Pearson type III distribution was better than the gamma 2-parameter distribution in providing monthly SPI series closer to the normality assumption inherent to the use of this standardized index. The spectral analyses carried out in the time-frequency domain did not allow us to establish a dominant mode in the analyzed series. In general, the Mann-Kendall and the Pettitt tests indicated the presence of no significant trend in the SPI series. However, both trend tests have indicated that the temporal variability of this index, observed at the months of October over the last 60 years, cannot be seen as the result of a purely random process. This last inference is due to the concentration of decreasing trends, with a common beginning (1983/84 in the four locations of the study.

  5. Labor structural changes in the regional economy of the Southwestern region of the Parana State in Brazil in beginning of 21st century

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    Jandir Ferrera de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the structural changes in the economy of Southwest Region of Parana State in Brazil. To measure changes in production structure, with respect to the occupation of labor was used indicators of regional analysis. This is a Parana Southwest Region of recent settlement, whose agricultural frontier has run out in the 1970s. It is also considered one of the poorest regions of Parana State and suffered the impact of agriculture modernization, but still retains strong duality in rural development. There are in the Southwest of Parana State two cities more developed than the other: Francisco Beltrao and Pato Branco, but this development is not as expressive as in the cities of the Western Region of Parana State, which has in Toledo, Cascavel and Foz do Iguacu cities, a development much more than the other municipalities.

  6. The semi-Arid integrated model (SIM), a regional integrated model assessing water availability, vulnerability, of ecossytems and society in NE-Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Jaeger, A.; Bronstert, A.; Krywkow, Jorg

    2001-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil, an example of vulnerable semi-arid regions on the earth, is characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress situations. Integrated studies involving hydrology, ecology, meteorology, climatology, pedology,

  7. Radon origin in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Talita de O.; Oliveira, H. de [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear (PCTN/DEN), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Dias, Antonio F., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: antdias@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Malta, Ricardo S.V. [Engenharia e Consultoria - SEMC, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main sources of radon concentration in buildings are the underground surrounding soil and bedrock, construction materials and underground water supply. However, the contribution from these sources to the indoor radon level depends on many factors, such as type of the building, geology and pedology of the site and also the floor level. Focusing on this concern, the present work outlines on the characterization of the radon concentration in two different kinds of buildings - slab-on-grade dwellings and apartments on the second floor and above - in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, which is located in a large part on granite embasement area, the Granitic Gnaissic Complex. The radon concentration in dwellings and apartments, measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber, ranged from 18.5 to 1591.0 Bqm{sup -3} (mean value 114.7 {+-} 5.5 Bqm{sup -3}) and 3.7 to 185.0 Bqm{sup -3} (mean value 70.3 {+-} 6.7 Bqm{sup -3}), respectively. Thus, the highest radon concentration is present in dwellings not in apartments, suggesting that the enhanced radon concentration maybe was originated mainly from local geological settings instead of other sources. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the measurements of the soil gas radon concentration were carried out by using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO detector and {sup 226}Ra ({sup 214}Bi) and {sup 224}Ra ({sup 212}Pb) specific activity in construction materials were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector. These results confirmed the local geological setting as the main radon source. Moreover, radon concentration much higher than United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA action level 148Bq.m{sup -3} occurred only in slab-on-grade dwellings. (author)

  8. Neospora caninum: Seroprevalence in beef cattle in the mountainous region of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Mayckon Antonio Cardoso Padilha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Neospora caninum, an important agent of reproductive disorders in cattle, has been frequently reported in dairy cattle in Brazil and worldwide. Records of infection are less frequent in beef cattle. To determine the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis, 507 beef cattle blood samples were collected from January 2013 to September 2015, from 16 municipalities of the Associação dos Municípios da Região Serrana (AMURES. Samples were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies ( ? 1:100 against N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Information about sex, age, and origin of the bovines were obtained from the Brazilian Bovine and Bubaline Identification and Certification System (SISBOV, and were tabulated for statistical analysis (Chi-square and Fisher Exact test, P ? 0.05. Of the 507 serum samples analyzed, 70 (13.81% contained antibodies against N. caninum with titers of 1:100 (16, 1:200 (22, 1:400 (17, 1:800 (nine, 1:1600 (four and 1:3200 (two. Positive specimens were collected from 13 of the 16 municipalities and across all age groups. Of the positive samples, there were no statistical differences between males and females (32.86% vs. 67.14%, P= 0.1072, age groups (P= 0.4116, or municipalities (P= 0.6838. While not statistically significant (P>0.05, higher seroprevalence was observed among older females. Although seroprevalence was relatively low, results indicate that infection by N. caninum in beef cattle is widespread in the studied region.

  9. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  10. Refractive status of indigenous people in the northwestern Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Frank; Cruz, Antonio A V; Machado, André J; Carvalho, Ricardo A C

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the refractive status of the illiterate indigenous people of the upper Rio Negro region of the Amazon rain forest in northwestern Brazil. From an overall sample of 486 people, 259 indigenous people and 78 Brazilians between 12 and 59 years of age with no compromising optical opacities were refracted with cycloplegic retinoscopy. Subjects were categorized as indigenous if they had at least three generations of indigenous ancestry with no folklore suggesting other ancestors. Myopia was rare among the indigenous population. Only 2.7% of eyes showed myopia of -1.00 D or more and 1.6% (four people) had bilateral myopia of -1.00 D or more. Half of this small group were the only educated indigenous people examined. The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia equal to or >1.00 D was 15.5% and 8.2%, respectively. Most of the astigmatism in the indigenous people had an against-the-rule axis. Age was not associated with the refractive errors of the indigenous people. Brazilians from the small city in which the study was performed had higher rates of myopia (6.4% of eyes and 5.1% of subjects bilaterally). Older preeducation adults also had a very low prevalence of myopia (3.2% of eyes and 2.0% of subjects), whereas the younger, slightly educated Brazilians had a higher prevalence of myopia (11.3% of eyes and 9.7% of subjects). The low prevalence of myopia in the illiterate indigenous people is consistent with other studies and suggests that myopia is related to literacy. The generational change among the local mixed race Brazilians further supports this conclusion. The relatively high rates of astigmatism and anisometropia in the indigenous people were unusual for a predominantly emmetropic sample.

  11. Human papillomavirus in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas in the central region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petito, Guilherme; Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos; Santos, Sílvia Helena de Rabello; Silva, Antonio Marcio Teodoro Cordeiro; Alencar, Rita de Cassia; Gontijo, Antonio Paulo; Saddi, Vera Aparecida

    Molecular studies about carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx demonstrate the presence of human papilomavirus genome in these tumors, reinforcing the participation of human papilomavirus in oral carcinogenesis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papilomavirus and genotype distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas, as well as their association with clinical characteristics of the tumors. This is a retrospective study, with clinical data collected from 82 patients. Human papilomavirus detection was conducted on specimens of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas included in paraffin blocks. Patients were assisted in a cancer reference center, in the central region of Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and genotyping of human papilomavirus. Among the patients evaluated, 78% were male. The average age of the group was about 58 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (78%) and alcohol consumption (70.8%) were recorded for the group. HPV DNA was detected in 21 cases (25.6%; 95% confidence interval 16.9-36.6) of which 33.3% were HPV16 and 14.3% were HPV18. The presence of lymph node metastases and registered deaths were less frequent in human papilomavirus positive tumors, suggesting a better prognosis for these cases; however, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. The results obtained in the present study, with respect to the presence of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, highlight the importance of human papilomavirus vaccination in the control of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Human papillomavirus in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas in the central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Petito

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Molecular studies about carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx demonstrate the presence of human papilomavirus genome in these tumors, reinforcing the participation of human papilomavirus in oral carcinogenesis. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papilomavirus and genotype distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas, as well as their association with clinical characteristics of the tumors. Methods This is a retrospective study, with clinical data collected from 82 patients. Human papilomavirus detection was conducted on specimens of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas included in paraffin blocks. Patients were assisted in a cancer reference center, in the central region of Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and genotyping of human papilomavirus. Results Among the patients evaluated, 78% were male. The average age of the group was about 58 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (78% and alcohol consumption (70.8% were recorded for the group. HPV DNA was detected in 21 cases (25.6%; 95% confidence interval 16.9–36.6 of which 33.3% were HPV16 and 14.3% were HPV18. The presence of lymph node metastases and registered deaths were less frequent in human papilomavirus positive tumors, suggesting a better prognosis for these cases; however, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study, with respect to the presence of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, highlight the importance of human papilomavirus vaccination in the control of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas.

  13. Helicopter emergency medical rescue for the traumatized: experience in the metropolitan region of Campinas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ricardo Galesso; Francischini, Carina Fontana; Ribera, Jorge Michel; Vanzetto, Ricardo; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the profile of patients served by the air medical rescue system in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, evaluating: triage and mobilization criteria; response time; on-site care and transport time; invasive procedures performed in the Pre-Hospital Care (PHC); severity of patients; morbidity and mortality. We conducted a prospective, descriptive study in which we analyzed medical records of patients rescued between July 2010 and December 2012. During this period, 242 victims were taken to the HC-Unicamp. Of the 242 patients, 22 were excluded from the study. of the 220 cases evaluated, 173 (78.6%) were male, with a mean age of 32 years. Blunt trauma was the most prevalent (207 cases - 94.1%), motorcycle accidents being the most common mechanisms of injury (66 cases - 30%), followed by motor vehicle collisions (51 cases - 23.2%). The average response time was 10 ± 4 minutes and the averaged total pre-hospital time was 42 ± 11 minutes. The mean values of the trauma indices were: RTS = 6.2 ± 2.2; ISS = 19.2 ± 12.6; and TRISS = 0.78 ± 0.3. Tracheal intubation in the pre-hospital environment was performed in 77 cases (35%); 43 patients (19.5%) had RTS of 7.84 and ISSd"9, being classified as over-triaged. Of all patients admitted, the mortality was 15.9% (35 cases). studies of air medical rescue in Brazil are required due to the investments made in the pre-hospital care in a country without an organized trauma system. The high rate of over-triage found highlights the need to improve the triage and mobilization criteria.

  14. Biogenic vanadium in total suspended particulate matter from Cabo Frio upwelling region, Southeast, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Silvia M.; Neves, Alessandra F.; Moreira, Josino Costa; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    In this work total suspended particulate (TSP) was collected during a year, in two municipalities located in a coastal region of Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast, Brazil, from February 2004 to January 2005. Two sites were chosen: site 1 located in front of the sea and representative of sea salt spray influence; site 2 in a tall booth of a highway representing vehicle exhaust influence. Samples were collected in glass fibre filters using Hi-Vol samplers and stored. 1/8 of those loaded filters were cut and digested in a microwave oven. The extract obtained was used to determine metal Ca, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ti, V, Zn and K concentration in the atmosphere. The results showed that TSP levels in site 1 (23.1-659 μg m -3) was higher than in site 2 (24.5-55.6 μg m -3) due to marine aerosol which is responsible for particle emissions with higher diameter. Vanadium was the only element studied whose concentration were higher in site 1 (0.840-20.9 ng m -3) compared to site 2 (0.655-7.07 ng m -3). The highest vanadium concentrations in site 1 were obtained during upwelling events, with NE winds predominance at high speed, which indicates the influence of this phenomena in V presence in the atmosphere. Principal components analysis was able to identify atmospheric particulate sources distributed in four factors. In site 1, those factors explain 86.5% of total data variance and indicate two sources: continental and marine. In site 2, those factors explain 89.2% of total data variance and indicate that vehicle exhaust is the main metals source in the atmosphere.

  15. Cretaceous biota of the Triângulo Mineiro region (Brazil: A review of recent finds

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    Candeiro, C. R. A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Group (Adamantina, Uberaba, and Marília Formations crop out in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and yield a rich continental biota. Invertebrate and vertebrate taxa from underlying and overlying strata, as well as biostratigraphical correlations with other fossil sites in Argentina, suggest an Upper Cretaceous age for this biota. The diversity of the fossil assemblage recorded in these formations is summarized here and includes: frogs, lizards, crocodiles, titanosaurs, abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs. This fossil assemblage provides important clues to understand faunas from other southern landmasses, particularly those from the Cretaceous of the African continent.Los afloramientos del Grupo Bauru (formaciones Adamantina, Uberaba y Marília en la región del Triângulo Mineiro, Provincia de Minas Gerais, Brasil, posee un rico contenido de biota continental. Los taxa de invertebrados y vertebrados de estos estratos, así como las correlaciones biostratigráficas con otros yacimientos fósiles de Argentina, sugieren una edad del Cretácico Tardío. La diversidad de la asociación fósil registrada en las formaciones del Triângulo Mineiro se resume en el presente trabajo e incluye: sapos, lagartos, tortugas, cocodrilianos, titanosaurideos, dinosaurios abelisaurideos y carcharodontosaurideos. Esta asociación es importante para la comprensión de las faunas del sur de América y también de las del Cretácico de África.

  16. Who experiences discrimination in Brazil? Evidence from a large metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Perceived discrimination is related to poor health and has been offered as one explanation for the persistence of health inequalities in some societies. In this study, we explore the prevalence and correlates of perceived discrimination in a large, multiracial Brazilian metropolitan area. Methods The study uses secondary analysis of a regionally representative household survey conducted in 2010 (n=12,213). Bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression assess the magnitude and statistical significance of covariates associated with reports of any discrimination and with discrimination in specific settings, including when seeking healthcare services, in the work environment, in the family, in social occasions among friends or in public places, or in other situations. Results Nearly 9% of the sample reported some type of discrimination. In multivariable models, reports of any discrimination were higher among people who identify as black versus white (OR 1.91), higher (OR 1.21) among women than men, higher (OR 1.33) among people in their 30’s and lower (OR 0.63) among older individuals. People with many health problems (OR 4.97) were more likely to report discrimination than those with few health problems. Subjective social status (OR 1.23) and low social trust (OR 1.27) were additional associated factors. Perceived discrimination experienced while seeking healthcare differed from all other types of discrimination, in that it was not associated with skin color, social status or trust, but was associated with sex, poverty, and poor health. Conclusions There appear to be multiple factors associated with perceived discrimination in this population that may affect health. Policies and programs aimed at reducing discrimination in Brazil will likely need to address this wider set of interrelated risk factors across different populations. PMID:23249451

  17. A transição nutricional no Brasil: tendências regionais e temporais Nutritional transition in Brazil: geographic and temporal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaquias Batista Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como principal fonte de informações três estudos transversais realizados nas décadas de 70, 80 e 90, faz-se uma análise da transição nutricional do Brasil, referenciada no rápido declínio da prevalência de desnutrição em crianças e elevação, num ritmo mais acelerado, da prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos. A correção dos déficits de estatura foi de 72% em crianças urbanas e de 54,4% no meio rural, enquanto a ocorrência de obesidade duplicou ou triplicou em homens e mulheres adultos nos extremos da série temporal analisada. Com exceção do Nordeste rural, a prevalência de desnutrição em mulheres adultas declinou para taxas aceitáveis (em torno de 5% a partir de 1989. Inversamente, as anemias continuam com prevalências elevadas e indicações de tendências epidêmicas. Descreve-se a evolução do estado nutricional da população brasileira segundo macrorregiões e distribuição social, analisando-se os prováveis fatores das mudanças ocorridas.Based on three cross-sectional studies conducted in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, an analysis of the nutritional transition in Brazil was performed. This analysis found a rapid decrease in the prevalence of childhood malnutrition and an even more rapid increase in adult overweight/obesity. Correction of the height deficit was 72% in urban children and 54.4% in rural children. Obesity rates doubled or tripled in adult men and women at the extremes of the time series analyzed. Excluding the rural Northeast, malnutrition prevalence in adult women dropped to acceptable rates (about 5% starting in 1989. Inversely, anemia continued to display a high prevalence, and there is indication of an epidemic trend. The evolution of nutritional status in the Brazilian population according to macro-regions and social distribution is reported. The likely factors for the observed changes are analyzed.

  18. Changing trend in congenital abdominal wall defects in Eastern region of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2002-09-01

    In the past six years, there have been reports from abroad of an unexplained rise in the birth prevalence rate of the congenital abdominal wall defect gastroschisis, while rates for the macroscopically similar anomaly omphalocoele have remained stable. The Dublin EUROCAT Registry of congenital anomalies monitors trends in the birth prevalence of birth defects in the eastern region of Ireland. We analysed births of children with omphalocoele and gastroschisis born in the period 1981-2000, with comparisons of a number of demographic and obstetric variables. During the 20 year period the birth prevalence rate for omphalocoele remained stable at 2.5\\/10,000 births, whereas the rate for gastroschisis increased significantly during the 1990s from 1.0\\/10,000 in 1991 to 4.9\\/10,000 in 2000. Most of the increase occurred among mothers under 25 years of age. Omphalocoele was associated with a relatively high proportion of other major congenital anomalies. This study showed that there has been an unexpected rise in the birth prevalence of gastroschisis in the region, similar to that experienced in other countries in the same time period and likely to have common aetiological features.

  19. Trends in mortality of adult patients diagnosed with myeloid leukemia from 1994 to 2011 in southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Callera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate trends in mortality among adults with myeloid leukemia in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo. Methods: Data from the Brazilian National Health Service database DATASUS provided the number of deaths caused by myeloid leukemia and the number of inhabitants per year in the Regional Health Division XVII from 1994 to 2011. Registries were categorized according to gender into four age ranges (over 20 years, 20-49, 50-69 and over 70 years for an estimation of the annual percent change for age-adjusted mortality rates. The percent changes were calculated using the Joinpoint regression analysis model. Results: Overall, a significant decline per year was demonstrated for the entire sample (over 20 years across the 18-year period studied (annual percent change: −5.59%; 95% CI: −8.5 to −2.5% for males; p-value < 0.05 and −7.02%; 95% CI −11.2 to −2.8% for females; p-value < 0.05 with no significant difference between genders. In an analysis using two Joinpoints, significant drops were observed from 1994 to 2001 (annual percent change: −21.22%; 95% confidence interval: −27.9 to −13.9%; p-value < 0.05 and from 1994 to 2003 (annual percent change: −12.86%; 95% confidence interval −22.2 to −2.5%; p-value < 0.05 for men and women, respectively. The declining trends were greatest for patients aged over 70 years with the age-adjusted mortality rates in younger groups declining non-significantly except for males aged 50-69 years old. Conclusion: Our data suggest a significant decline per year in age-adjusted mortality rates of adult patients diagnosed with myeloid leukemia from 1994 to 2011 in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo.

  20. THE MAIN TRENDS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF LENINGRAD REGION IN THE FIELD OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gorbanev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the main interaction trends of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in the Leningrad Region and the Government of Leningrad Region regarding issues of regional radiation protection. It reports on comprehensive measures devoted to the limitation of the population exposure from natural irradiation sources, monitoring of territories which suffered from Chernobyl NPP accident and monitoring of the environmental impact of unauthorized dumps and solid municipal waste sites in the Leningrad Region. It presents the basic issues of medical exposure limitation in the Leningrad Region and measures for their solving.

  1. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  2. Cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil, 1981-2006 Evolução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, 1981-2006

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    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe cervical cancer mortality trends in Brazil for the period 1981-2006. Cervical cancer mortality was corrected on the basis of proportional redistribution of the deaths from "malignant neoplasm of uterus, part unspecified". Time trends were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. After correction, cervical cancer ranked second among the leading causes of death from cancer in the female population up to 2005, with a downward trend for the country as a whole, a decline in the State capitals, and a stable trend in the municipalities in the interior. A downward trend was confirmed in the State capitals in all geographic regions of the country. In the municipalities in the interior, there was an increase in the North and Northeast regions, a decline in the Southeast and South, and a stable trend in the Central-West. Although uneven, the decline began to take consistent shape in the country. Even better results could be achieved by investing in the expansion of screening coverage, especially among the populations at greatest risk.Este estudo objetivou descrever a evolução da mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero no Brasil, entre 1981-2006. Foi efetuada correção da mortalidade por esse câncer com base na redistribuição proporcional dos óbitos por câncer do útero, "porção não especificada". A tendência temporal foi avaliada por meio de regressão linear simples. Após correção, as taxas de mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero passaram a ocupar o segundo lugar entre os principais cânceres na população feminina até 2005, com tendência decrescente para o país como um todo, queda nas capitais e estabilidade nos municípios do interior. Confirmou-se tendência decrescente nas capitais em todas as regiões do país. Já nos municípios do interior, houve aumento nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, declínio nas regiões Sudeste e Sul e estabilidade no Centro-oeste. A queda observada, mesmo

  3. Climate related trends and meteorological conditions in European Arctic region - Porsanger fjord, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significant effect on the Arctic environment, where global trends are amplified. In this study, we have focused on the Porsanger fjord, located in European Arctic in the coastal region of the Barents Sea. We have analyzed climate related trends and meteorological condititions in the area of interest. Meteorological data included wind speed and direction, air temperature (AT) and precipitation from Era-Interim reanalysis (1986-2015) and local observations (1996-2015) from Lakselv (L, fjord's head area) and Honningsvaag (H - fjord's exit area). Our results confirm that this region is undergoing climate change related warming, which is indicated by rising air temperatures. Based on long-term reanalysis data, estimated trends for air temperature (AT) in Porsanger fjord are: 0.0536 °C year-1 at fjord's exit and 0.0428 °C year-1 at fjord's head. The results show that climate change does not seem to have a significant effect on long-term changes of wind speed and precipitation in the Porsanger fjord. Statistical analysis underlined significant spatial variability of meteorological conditions inside the fjord. For example, there are large differences in the annual cycle of AT with monthly mean January and July values of -8.4 and 12.6 °C in L and -2.5 and 10.1 °C in H. Dominant wind directions in Lakselv are S and SSE, while in Honningsvaag S and SSW directions prevail. Strong wind events (above 12 m s-1) are more frequent in H than in L. Annual cycle is characterized by stronger winds in winter and seasonality of wind direction. Precipitation for a given location can change by about 50% between years and varies spatially. Synoptic scale and within day variability are extremely intense in the area of interest. Air temperature and wind speed and direction can change dramatically in hours. In addition, regular patterns of the daily cycle of AT have different intensity in L and H. It is interesting to note that in spring/summer season, the daily cycle of

  4. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcela T; Matsudo, Sandra M M; Ribeiro, Manoel C S A; Ramos, Luiz R

    2010-11-10

    Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL) will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging") studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living) scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a--Regularly Active; b--Insufficiently Active and c--Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P factors, reducing barriers to achieve desired changes in PAL.

  5. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

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    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  6. Interethnic Relationships and Migration Process at the Regional Level: Problems and Main Trends of Development

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    Lyubov Sabirdzyanovna Krestyanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems and trends of the development of interethnic relationships at the regional level. The assumption that migration process has direct influence upon them is proved. The hypothesis of the research is that the interethnic relationships of “traditional” ethnic communities for the region fundamentally differ from the interethnic relationships of the ethnic communities formed by the new migrants. For the first ethnic communities, ethnicity is not so important while the civil identity is more relevant and over-ethnic integrated images are developed. That results in the reduction of interethnic tension. For the other ethnic communities, ethnic and cultural barriers are strong, ethnicity is relevant for them. Furthermore, the language curtain and social distance strengthen interethnic tension for these ethnic communities. In our opinion, the basic threat is that the efforts of public authorities for the harmonization of interethnic relationships are mainly bending to the first ethnic communities. The public authorities attempt to save and develop the ethnic culture to form tolerance. Meanwhile, the major interethnic tension is associated with the migration process, a negative perception of migrants and a number of sociopsychological problems. Main factors having the influence on the negative perception of migrants and interethnic tension are analyzed. The conclusions are based on the research conducted by the author in 2011, relying on the questionnaire and expert survey, on the research conducted from 2008 till 2015, on the analysis of national population census and analytical reviews about migration situation. The results of the study can be used by the public authorities of the region developing ethnic policy, migration policy in formulation forecast of socio-economic development and social tension.

  7. Regional disparities in infant mortality in Canada: a reversal of egalitarian trends

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    Joseph, K S; Huang, Ling; Dzakpasu, Susie; McCourt, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Background Although national health insurance plans and social programs introduced in the 1960s led to reductions in regional disparities in infant mortality in Canada, it is unclear if such patterns prevailed in the 1990s when the health care and related systems were under fiscal duress. This study examined regional patterns of change in infant mortality in Canada in recent decades. Methods We analysed regional changes in crude infant mortality rates and in infant mortality rates among live births with a birth weight ≥ 500 g and ≥ 1,000 g in Canada from 1945 to 2002. Associations between baseline infant mortality rates in the provinces and territories (e.g., in 1985–89) and the change observed in infant mortality rates over the subsequent period (e.g., between 1985–89 and 1995–99) were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Trends in regional disparities were also assessed by calculating period-specific rate ratios between provinces/territories with the highest versus the lowest infant mortality. Results Provincial/territorial infant mortality rates in 1945–49 were not correlated with changes in infant mortality over the next 10 years (rho = 0.01, P = 0.99). However, there was a strong negative correlation between infant mortality rates in 1965–69 and the subsequent decline in infant mortality (rho = - 0.85, P = 0.002). Provinces/territories with higher infant mortality rates in 1965–69 (Northwest Territories 64.7 vs British Columbia 20.7 per 1,000 live births) experienced relatively larger reductions in infant mortality between 1965–69 and 1975–79 (53.7% decline in the Northwest Territories vs a 36.6% decline in British Columbia). This pattern was reversed in the more recent decades. Provinces/territories with higher infant mortality rates ≥ 500 g in 1985–89 experience relatively smaller reductions in infant mortality between 1985–89 and 2000–02 (rho = 0.82, P = 0.004). The infant mortality ≥ 500 g rate ratio

  8. Rain-season trends in precipitation and its' effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008

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    Song, Yanling; Achberger, Christine; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2013-04-01

    Rain-season trends in precipitation and its' effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008 Yanling Song, Christine Achberger, Hans W. Linderholm National Climate Centre, China Meteorological Administration, 100081, Beijing, China Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden Using high-quality precipitation data from 524 stations, the trends of a set of precipitation variables during the main rain season (May to September) were analyzed from 1961 to 2008 for different climate regions in China. Averaged over China, the results indicated an increase in total precipitation, where days with low precipitation were decreasing while precipitation intensity increased. However, different characteristics were displayed in different regions of China. In most temperate monsoon regions (north-eastern China), total precipitation and precipitation days showed decreasing trends, while positive tendencies in precipitation intensity were, noted for most stations. It is suggested that the decrease in rain-season precipitation is mainly related to fewer rain days and a change towards drier conditions in north-eastern China, and as a result, the available water resources have been negatively affected in the temperate monsoon regions. In most subtropical and tropical monsoon climate regions (south-eastern China), total precipitation and precipitation days (11-50mm, >50 mm) showed slightly positive trends. However, precipitation days (≤10mm) decreased in these regions. Changes towards wetter conditions in this area, together with more frequent heavy rainfall events causing floods, have a severe impact on the peoples' lives and socio-economic development. In general, the rain-season precipitation, precipitation days as well as rain-season precipitation intensity all had increased in the temperate continental and plateau/mountain regions of western China. This increase in rain-season precipitation has been favourable to pasture

  9. 20-Year Trend of CVD Risk Factors: Urban and Rural National Capital Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Ambuj; Praveen, Pradeep A; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gupta, Ruby; Amarchand, Ritvik; Kondal, Dimple; Singh, Kalpana; Sharma, Meenakshi; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Tandon, Nikhil; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Krishnan, Anand

    2017-09-01

    The World Health Organization and the Government of India have set targets to reduce burden of noncommunicable diseases. Information on population level trend of risk factors would provide insights regarding the possibility of achieving them. This study aimed to determine the population trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the National Capital Region of Delhi over 2 decades. Two representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted among men and women ages 35 to 64 years, residing in the urban and rural areas (survey 1 [1991 to 1994] and survey 2 [2010 to 2012]) using similar methodology. The urban sample was collected from the Municipal Corporation of Delhi, and the rural sample was from the Ballabgarh block of the adjoining state of Haryana. A total of 3,048 and 2,052 subjects of urban areas and 2,487 and 1,917 subjects of rural areas were surveyed in surveys 1 and 2, respectively. Behavioral (smoking and alcohol use), physical (overweight, abdominal obesity, and raised blood pressure), and biochemical risk factors (raised fasting blood glucose and raised total cholesterol) were measured using standard tools. Urban and rural prevalence of overweight, alcohol use, raised blood pressure, and blood glucose increased with increases in age-standardized mean body mass index (urban: 24.4 to 26.0 kg/m2; rural: 20.2 to 23.0 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (urban: 121.2 to 129.8 mm Hg; rural: 114.9 to 123.1 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (urban: 74.3 to 83.9 mm Hg; rural: 73.1 to 82.3 mm Hg), and fasting glucose (urban: 101.2 to 115.3 mg/dl; rural: 83.9 to 103.2 mg/dl). The smoking prevalence increased in the rural male population. Raised total cholesterol declined in urban and increased significantly in rural populations. The study indicates an overall worsening of population levels of all cardiovascular disease risk factors in National Capital Region over past 20 years, though some signs of stabilization and reversal are seen in urban Delhi. Copyright

  10. Detection Probability of Trends in Rare Events: Theory and Application to Heavy Precipitation in the Alpine Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Christoph; Schär, Christoph

    2001-04-01

    A statistical framework is presented for the assessment of climatological trends in the frequency of rare and extreme weather events. The methodology applies to long-term records of event counts and is based on the stochastic concept of binomial distributed counts. It embraces logistic regression for trend estimation and testing, and includes a quantification of the potential/limitation to discriminate a trend from the stochastic fluctuations in a record. This potential is expressed in terms of a detection probability, which is calculated from Monte Carlo-simulated surrogate records, and determined as a function of the record length, the magnitude of the trend and the average return period (i.e., the rarity) of events.Calculations of the detection probability for daily events reveal a strong sensitivity upon the rarity of events:in a 100-yr record of seasonal counts, a frequency change by a factor of 1.5 can be detected with a probability of 0.6 for events with an average return period of 30 days; however, this value drops to 0.2 for events with a return period of 100 days. For moderately rare events the detection probability decreases rapidly with shorter record length, but it does not significantly increase with longer record length when very rare events are considered. The results demonstrate the difficulty to determine trends of very rare events, underpin the need for long period data for trend analyses, and point toward a careful interpretation of statistically nonsignificant trend results.The statistical method is applied to examine seasonal trends of heavy daily precipitation at 113 rain gauge stations in the Alpine region of Switzerland (1901-94). For intense events (return period: 30 days) a statistically significant frequency increase was found in winter and autumn for a high number of stations. For strong precipitation events (return period larger than 100 days), trends are mostly statistically nonsignificant, which does not necessarily imply the absence

  11. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

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    Cláudia Silva Dias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma.

  12. Acute coccidiosis in an organic dairy farm in tropical region, Brazil

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    Mônica M. Florião

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Florião M.M., Lopes B. do B., Berto B.P. & Lopes C.W.G. Acute coccidiosis in an organic dairy farm in tropical region, Brazil. [Coccidiose aguda em uma fazenda de gado leiteiro orgânico na região tropical, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:6-12, 2015. Curso de Pós- -Graduação em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Agropecuária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897- 970, Brasil. E-mail: monicafloriao@hotmail.com Coccidiosis or bovine eimeriosis is an intestinal disease caused by species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875. It is responsible for gastrointestinal disorders and in some cases, animals died, especially the young animals. The proposed organic management for the system was relevant in establishing the health of the studied herd. Only some of the animals had clinical signs of acute eimeriosis. In nursing calves clinical signs appeared at 30 days old, during the first period of the study (2013-2014, occurring shortly after abrupt change in management, when the amount of milk supplied to animals of this extract was reduced. The other two cases occurred during the second period of the study (2014-2015, after fire in the area of pastures, causing the batch of weaned calves come into pasture destined to cows, with such abrupt change in management developed clinical signs of acute eimeriosis. The most frequent species was E. zuernii in both extracts, followed by E. cylindrica in nursing calves, and E. bovis and E. bukidnonensis in the weaned calves. The recovery of the animals was performed with the return to the proposed organic management associated with use of homeopathic medication. In addition, the animals recovered their body weight gains established for Gir breed (zebu dairy cattle and its cross breeds.

  13. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: I. distribution and abundance

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    Liang Tsui Hua

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of chaetognath species off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Brazil, was studied during a program of multidisciplinary research. Ten species belonging to the genera Sagitta, Krohnita and Pterosagitta were identified. S. enflata was the dominant species followed by S.friderici and S. hispida. The species S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata and JC pacifica were found in the Shelf water whereas S. serratodentata, S. minima, S. hexaptera and P. draco in the Tropical water. Only S. friderici was found associated to Coastal water. Hydrological conditions affected population structure, size of individuals and abundance.A ocorrência, distribuição, freqüência dos estágios de maturidade e comprimento total do corpo das espécies do filo Chaetognatha foram estudados. As amostras foram obtidas com o auxílio de rede Bongo, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987, durante o Projeto "Utilização Racional do Ecossistema Costeiro da Região Tropical Brasileira, Estado de São Paulo". Dez espécies foram identificadas, sendo Sagitta enflata, S. friderici e S. hispida as espécies mais abundantes. S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata e Krohnita pacifica estão associadas à água de Plataforma enquanto que S. serratodentata, S. hexaptera, S. minima e Pterosagitta draco à água Tropical. Apenas S. friderici mostrou preferência por água Costeira. Diferenças sazonais na estrutura da população, tamanho dos indivíduos, abundância e distribuição estão associados à hidrodinâmica local. Nos verões, os quetognatos apresentaram maior número de estágios maduros nas amostras examinadas, comprimentos maiores e baixa abundância como conseqüência da intrusão da água Central do Atlântico Sul que provocou uma estratificação térmica característica. Em contraposição, nestas amostras, nos invernos, a população é formada por indivíduos de estágios jovens, de comprimentos menores e grande

  14. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

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    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  15. Implantation of tomography qualities in Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste, Brazil; Implantacao das qualidades de tomografia no Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste, CNEN-PE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Osana F.; Silveira, Renata R.; Melo, Roberto T.; Oliveira, Marcia L., E-mail: osana.diniz@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The quality guarantee of the service offered by a ionizing radiation metrology laboratory is deeply connected to the conformity to the radiation beams implanted to the determination and definition present in the international standards and adopted by the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy – CNEN. The objective of this work was the implementation of computerized tomography qualities, RQT 8, 9 e 10, in accordance with the IEC-61267 standard in the Metrology Laboratory of the Northeast Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), PE, Brazil. (author)

  16. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7-71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet that

  17. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7–71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet

  18. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

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    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  19. The trends of burns epidemiology in a tropical regional burns centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwee, Jolie; Song, Christopher; Tan, Kok Chai; Tan, Bien Keem; Chong, Si Jack

    2016-05-01

    Singapore General Hospital (SGH) is a regional burns centre in Southeast Asia and is the only dedicated burns facility providing specialized burns care in Singapore. A cohort study was performed for burns patients admitted to SGH from 2011 to 2013. We compared our data with earlier studies and observed the trends of burns epidemiology in Singapore. Results were analyzed using the SPSS programme. 655 patients were admitted during this study period, a 35.9% increase from 2003 to 2005. Scalding by water and flame injury remain the top causes of burns and the mean extent of burn is 9.5%. TBSA correlates with the incidence of burn infection, bacteremia and mortality. Patients with ≥20% TBSA are at a higher risk of bacteremia, and ≥ 34% TBSA is a predictor of mortality. 4.9% (n=32) of our patients developed bacteremia. Bacteremia was associated with a surgical duration of ≥80min. Patients with bacteremia incurred longer hospitalization, and had higher mortality rates. Overall mortality rate of our burns patients has decreased from 4.5% to 2.7% (n=18). Key factors of mortality include inhalational injury, bacteremia and ≥20% TBSA. This is a large epidemiology study of a tropical region burns centre. A total of 655 burns cases over a 3-year period were analyzed. We analysed the key factors associated with adverse outcomes including burns infection, bacteremia and mortality, factors associated with mortality, and discussed strategies on the optimization of burns care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface radiation over the pan-Arctic land region: temporal variability and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Wild, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Surface radiation fluxes are not only a major component of the surface energy balance, but also control a diverse set of physical-biological processes, including the land surface hydrological cycle and plant photosynthesis. Past studies of the pan-Arctic region have identified changes in land surface hydrological fluxes, but less attention has been focused on the energy inputs to the system. Recent satellite data and atmospheric model reanalysis products have provided several data sets that predict most or all terms in the surface energy budget, and provide the opportunity to investigate spatial and temporal variations in surface radiation fluxes. We analyzed surface downward shortwave and longwave fluxes and albedo from (1) Off-line simulations with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, (2) International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD) products, (3) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast 40-Year Reanalysis (ERA-40), and (4) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the period 1984 to 2006. In addition, diurnal and mean seasonal cycles were compared at 35 sites with in situ measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), the Asian Automatic Weather Station Network (AAN), the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), and the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). At the regional scale, the consistency of dominant spatial, temporal and latitudinal variability of these surface parameters across different data sets was examined. Also, for a small number of GEBA stations with records spanning the period from the 1950s and 1960s to post-2000, we analyzed long-term trends in surface downward shortwave radiation.

  1. Filicide and fatal abuse in Japan, 1994-2005: temporal trends and regional distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumi, Katsuhiro; Kageyama, Jinsuke

    2009-02-01

    To describe the recent filicide features in Japan, data were collected from newspaper databases between 1994 and 2005 and compared with several official statistics. From this dataset, 933 cases and 1084 victims under age 15 were identified. Fatal abuse cases were most prevalent (309 cases, or 33.1%), followed by filicide-suicide cases (303, or 32.5%) and unwanted child cases (225, or 24.1%). Infants under the age of one were most at risk (filicide rate: 2.72 per 100,000 for the same aged infants). Annual filicide numbers showed an upward trend between 1994 and 2001 and the average filicide rate per year was 0.42 per 100,000 for children under age 15. Both the number of cases over the period and the filicide rate per year by prefecture ranged widely. Furthermore, the annual filicide rates over the period were strongly correlated with both suicide rates and unemployment rates for the general population (r=.884 and .926, respectively; pfilicide per region and the predominating category in a prefecture provides direction for filicide prevention. Result suggests that recent socioeconomic situations have a significant effect on not only filicide-suicide but also the overall filicide rate in Japan.

  2. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions – commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change – and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions. PMID:28690374

  3. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions - commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change - and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions.

  4. Ocean-atmosphere coupling at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region based on in situ, satellite and numerical model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Souza, R.; Pezzi, L.

    2013-05-01

    In the Southwest Atlantic close to 40oS, the meeting of two ocean currents with distinct characteristics, the Brazil Current (BC), warm and saline, and the Malvinas Current (MC), cold and low salinity, resulting in strong activity marked by the formation of mesoscale eddies, this region is known as Brazil Malvinas Confluence (BMC). The INTERCONF project (Ocean Atmosphere Interaction over the region of CBM) perfoms since the 2002 data collection in situ radiosondes and XBTs onboard the Oceanographic Support Ship Ary Rongel during its trajectory of Brazil to the Antarctic continent. This paper analyzes the thermal contrast and ocean atmosphere coupling on the ocean front from the INTERCONF data, and compares the results to satellite data (QuikSCAT) and numerical models (Eta-CPTEC / INPE). The results indicate that the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is driving the atmosphere, on the warm waters of the BC occurs an intensification of the winds and heat fluxes, and the reverse occurs on the cold waters of the MC. The data collected in 2009 include the presence of a warm core eddy (42 oS to 43.1 oS) which recorded higher values of heat fluxes and wind speed in relation to its surroundings. On the warm core eddy wind speed recorded was about 10 m.s-1, while on the BC and MC was approximately 7 m.s-1 and 2 m.s-1, respectively. Satellite data and numerical model tends to overestimate the wind speed data in the region in relation to data collected in situ. The heat flux data from the numerical model tend to increase over the warm waters and cold waters on the decline, though the amounts recorded by the model have low correlation.

  5. Thermal requirements and estimated number of generations of Neopamera bilobata (Say in strawberry-producing regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Melissa de Azevedo Kuhn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The thermal threshold and thermal requirements of Neopamera bilobata were determined, and the number of generations that this species may produce in the main strawberry-producing regions of Brazil was estimated. In a climate chamber (70±10% RH and 12h photophase at 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, or 30±1°C, the development of 120 eggs was monitored until the adult stage, at each temperature. Nymphs were maintained in individual cages and fed on strawberry fruits of the cultivar Aromas. The mean duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages were calculated by estimating the lower and upper developmental thresholds and the thermal constant, and this information was used to estimate the number of generations per year in different strawberry-producing regions of Brazil. The egg-to-adult duration decreased as temperatures increased, up to 28°C (93.4, 83.2, 43.9, and 31.4 days at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C, respectively. Viability of nymphs was highest between 22 and 28°C. At 30°C, the egg-to-adult duration increased (36 days, while the viability decreased (11.11%. The lower egg-to-adult developmental threshold was 15.2°C and the thermal constant was 418.4 degree-days. Calculating the number of generations indicated that the largest number (5.1 generations yr-1 was obtained for the municipality of Jaboti, Paraná, and the smallest for Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (1.9 generations yr-1. Our findings demonstrated that important strawberry-producing regions in Brazil are suitable for the development of N. bilobata.

  6. Regional and Socioeconomic Differences in the Coverage of the Papanicolau Test in Brazil: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the coverage of the Papanicolaou test in Brazil and the associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Health Survey 2013 comprising the proportion of 25- to 64-year-old women who had undergone a Papanicolaou test within the previous 3 years, categorized by sociodemographic variables and access to healthcare services. Results The screening coverage in Brazil was of 79.4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 78.4-80.3), showing significant differences between the different states of the country, with the highest rate in the state of Roraima (86.5; 95%CI: 83.5-89.4), and the lowest one in the state of Maranhão (67.7; 95%CI: 61.3-74.0). Undergoing the test was significantly more frequent among married women (83.6%; 95%CI: 82.4-84.8), those with higher educational levels (88.7%; 95%CI: 87.0-90.5), of white ethnicity (82.6%; 95%CI: 81.3-83.9) and who reside in urban areas (80.1%; 95%CI: 79.1-81.2). Those who had undergone the test more than three years prior to the survey and the ones who had never undergone it were associated with a lower level of education, being of black or brown ethnicity, single or divorced, and rural dwellers. Conclusions The coverage of cervical cancer screening in Brazil is below the recommended rate and presents regional and sociodemographic disparities. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  7. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  8. Air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Rice, Karen C.

    2015-12-14

    in-stream sediments, so understanding changes in stream-water temperature throughout the bay watershed is critical to resource managers seeking to restore the bay ecosystem.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses indicators that “represent the state or trend of certain environmental or societal conditions … to track and better understand the effects of changes in the Earth’s climate” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014). Updates to these indicators are published biennially by the EPA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, has completed analyses of air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region to be included as an indicator in a future release of the EPA report.

  9. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  10. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  11. Monitoring and assessment of surface water quality in Taquari-Antas Watershed, South Brazil-region with intensive pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Vania Elisabete; Marques, Roger Vasques; Bortolin, Taison Anderson; Cemin, Gisele; Santos, Geise Macedo Dos

    2016-11-01

    Pig farming is one of the human activities carried out to meet the increasing food demand by the increasing population. South Brazil is the region with most intensive pig farming in the country, exerting pressure on the water and soil environments by the relevant pollutant emissions. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to assess pig farming pollution by monitoring superficial water qualities of the Taquari-Antas Watershed in South Brazil. The study area is about 8062 km(2) (south latitude 292,614, 282,624 and west longitude 520,802, 504,554). In 2014, there were 861 pig farmers and 739,858 animals were slaughtered. Samples were collected bimonthly from 13 spots during 2 years of monitoring. The main analysis included the determination of the water quality index (WQI)-a nine physicochemical and microbiological parameter index-and the trophic state index (TSI), which gives a trophic degree based on phosphorous and chlorophyll-α concentration to assess the impacts of the pig farming on superficial water of the region. The results suggest that the regions with high concentration of finishing stage farms present a higher risk to water quality. A distance of 4 km between different spots was enough to detect a significant decrease in the WQI. The WQI was found ranging from "regular" to "good" (62.77 and 78.95). The TSI were found to be mesotrophic at every spot during the entire period of the study.

  12. Biomonitoring of air pollution in a mixed industrial/residential district in the region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Silva, M.D. da; Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ecologia

    2002-07-01

    During a one year's study, bioindicator plants were used in order to monitor the air quality in a mixed industrial/residential district of the city of Sao Paulo do Campo in the metropolitan region of Greater Sao Paulo, Brazil. The percentage of ozone-induced injuries on tobacco Bel-W3 leaves was low except from the reference site located at the Botanical Garden at Sao Paulo. In exposed rye grass cultures (Lolium multiflorum), relatively high levels of lead and zinc were found particularly at sites influenced by industrial and traffic emissions whereas the foliar nickel concentrations remained low in the whole area. (orig.)

  13. Aspects of the reproductive biology of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Elasmobranchii Lamnidae, in the Southeastern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTA F. E. S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteri from four pregnant females and two newborn of shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, were collected in the southeastern region of Brazil, during September, October, and November of 1993 and 1994. All embryos were near-term with developing dentition and inner organs. Total length ranged from 64.5 to 72.0 cm, and the maximum number of embryos observed in a litter was 20. These observations further confirmed oophagy as a form of nutrition in this species, and its periodicity. The presence of teeth in the embryos' stomachs suggest that tooth replacement begins in the uterine phase.

  14. Foot rot and other foot diseases of goat and sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gildeni M.N. Aguiar; Sara V.D. Simões; Tatiane R. Silva; Assis,Adriana C.O; João M.A Medeiros; Felício Garino Jr.; Franklin Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence and epidemiology of outbreaks of foot rot and other foot diseases in goats and sheep in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Four farms were inspected for the presence of foot lesion in sheep and goats and for environmental conditions, general hygiene, pastures, and disease control measures. The prevalence of foot lesions was 19.41% (170/876) in sheep and 17.99% (52/289) in goats, ranging between 5.77% and 33.85% in different farms. Foot rot w...

  15. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  16. Path analysis of family resemblance with temporal trends: applications to height, weight, and Quetelet index in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Province, M A; Rao, D C

    1985-01-01

    A multifactorial model incorporating temporal trends in its parameters is discussed. The model is a generalization of the tau model of Rice et al. in which the parameters are assumed to be specific functions of time. A special case of this model is fit to data on height, weight, and Quetelet index in 1,067 nuclear families to demonstrate the utility of the approach. The results indicate that there is considerable temporal variation in family resemblance over time for all three traits. For height and Quetelet index, both the transmissibility, comparable to heritability, and residual sibling environmental correlation show temporal changes, while for weight, only the latter exhibits significant trends. Trends were not found in the marital correlation for any of the traits, and only limited evidence was found for trends in the maternal transmission parameter for height. This provides an objective method for evaluating the nature and sources of temporal trends in family resemblance, which can easily be incorporated into the framework of any model-based approach.

  17. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, Mariel M; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cowan, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI....

  18. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semiarid region, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo RN; Mourão José S; Mendonça Lívia ET; Confessor Maine VA

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Traditional Medicine and this is true in Brazil as well both in rural and urban areas of the country. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine in the country. The use of these natural resources for medical purposes, however, is not restricted to human diseases treatment, being also widely used for the treatment of animal illnesses. Ethnoveterinary is a science that involves...

  19. Applying Telemedicine to Remote and Rural Underserved Regions in Brazil using eMedical Consulting Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpazidis, I; Ohl, R; Polanczyk, C; Torres, M; Messina, L; Sales, A; Sakas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to depict a medical tele-consultation network for medical imaging that has been deployed in Brazil. Preliminary outcomes of the medical network will be presented. In addition, the medical application used for tele-consultations will be shown. Eighty nine ultrasound acquisitions took place in the period of five months of the operation of the medical network and five hundred fifty six medical consultations performed.

  20. A new species of Atractus (Reptilia: Ophidia: Colubridae: Dipsadinae) from the Amazon forest region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Prudente, A.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Three specimens of Atractus natans were found during fieldwork in the “Reserva Mamirauá”, Amazonas and a fourth one in the “Estação Científica Ferreira Penna”, Floresta de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. The specimens from Mamirauá were all collected in floating logs in várzea forest during the period of

  1. Multiattribute Response of Maize Genotypes Tested in Different Coastal Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Varela Nualles, Mario; Araújo, Mirian Fernandes Carvalho; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    This work applies the three mode principal components analysis to analyze simultaneously the multiple attributes; to fit of models with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI models) and the regressions models on sites (SREG models); to evaluate, respectively, the multivariate response of the genotype × environment interaction and the mean response of 36 genotypes of corn tested in 4 locations in Brazil. The results were presented by joint plots to identify the bes...

  2. Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahid Silvia Maria Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. Females from each locality were fed on an infected dog (~ 6 microfilariae/µl blood. A sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. These results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito. Fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rates were low in all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The mean number of infective larvae detected in the head and proboscis of these mosquitoes was 1-1.5. The vector efficiency, the number of microfilariae ingested/number of infective larvae, was low for all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the survival rate for all populations was high (range 50-75%. The survival rate of Aedes aegypti assayed simultaneously for comparison was low (24.7%, while the vector efficiency was much higher than for Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data suggest that the vector competence of all assayed populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus to D. immitis in Brazil is similar and that this species is a secondary vector due to its low susceptibility. Nevertheless, vector capacity may vary between populations due to differences in biting frequency on dogs that has been reported in Brazil.

  3. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  4. Regional trends for bud burst and flowering of woody plants in Norway as related to climate change.

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    Nordli, Ø; Wielgolaski, F E; Bakken, A K; Hjeltnes, S H; Måge, F; Sivle, A; Skre, O

    2008-09-01

    Data series for bud burst, beginning of flowering and petal fall for 20 species of deciduous trees and conifers at four sites in different regions of southern Norway have been analysed and related to temperature series. On average, the spring phenophases occurred 7 days earlier during the period 1971-2005. The most significant linear trends were observed for the earliest phases. The trends in this period were compared with trends in other periods, the longest one starting in 1927. Those starting in cold decades and ending in 2005 were in most instances statistically significant, whereas hardly any significant trend appeared for series starting in warm decades. This fact showed that the results of trend studies are very sensitive to the choice of starting year. There were significant decadal variations in 40% of the series. The dates of occurrence of the phenophases, varying from the first days of May to the first days of June, correlated with seasonal temperature series, in most cases strongest to mean temperatures for the seasons March-May and April-May. The North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) for January and February appeared to have some predictive power for the date of occurrence of the recorded phases. The basis for this may be that the oscillations described by the index are of importance for the fulfilment of physiological chilling requirements needed to break bud dormancy. The same genotypes of the trees were grown in region West Norway and in Central Norwegian region; during the period 1965-2005 the trends towards earlier bud burst were more pronounced and steeper at the western site.

  5. Spatiotemporal reference evapotranspiration changes in humid and semi-arid regions of Iran: past trends and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Milad; Homaee, Mehdi; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) changes in semi-arid and humid regions of Iran during the past (1966-2010) and future (2011-2099). For detecting possible trend in ET0 over 1966-2010, the Mann-Kendall trend test was employed. The outputs of Hadley Centre coupled model version 3 (HadCM3) and the third generation couple global climate model (CGCM3) under A2, B2, and A1B emission scenarios were also used to simulate the future ET0 changes by statistical downscaling model (SDSM). The results indicated upward trends in annual ET0 during 1966-2010 in the most sites. Furthermore, the significant increasing ET0 trends were identified for 54.5, 18.2, 27.3, 22.7, and 36.3% of studied locations during winter, spring, summer, autumn, and entire year, respectively. Positive trends in ET0 were mostly found in northeast, west, and northwest Iran, and insignificant downward ET0 trends were primarily detected in southwestern and southern stations in 1966-2010. The ET0 changes were attributed to wind speed changes in semi-arid regions and mean temperature changes in humid areas in the past period. An increase in ET0 was projected under all scenarios due mainly to temperature rise and declined relative humidity in the investigated regions from 2011 to 2100. Averaged over all stations, the lowest and highest ET0 increment were, respectively, modeled for autumn and summer using CGCM3 outputs and winter and autumn using HadCM3 outputs. Given significant ET0 increase over the twenty-first century, appropriate adaptive measures are required to reduce negative impacts of climate change on water resources and agricultural productions.

  6. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

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    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  7. Regional differences and correlates of leisure time physical activity in Brazil: results from the Brazilian National Health Survey-2013.

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    Mielke, Grégore Iven; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Sá, Gisele Balbino Araújo Rodrigues; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the regional differences and factors associated with physical activity during the leisure time in the adult participants of the National Health Survey, 2013. This study was carried out with the data from the National Health Survey, conducted in 2013 with an approximate sample of 63,000 adults (18+ years). For each of the five regions of Brazil, the prevalence of physically active adults during the leisure time was calculated, and the participants were classified as active if they practiced at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity during leisure time. The prevalence of individuals who were active during the leisure time varied from 21.9% in the south to 24.4% in the midwest. The men were 1.48 (95%CI 1.40-1.57) times more active than women, with the northern region showing the highest difference between the sexes. The prevalence of active individuals was 67% lower among those aged 75+ years when compared with the 18-24 age group, and this difference was more marked in the north. Those with higher levels of education were on average three times more active than the participants with lower education levels. In terms of education level, the lowest difference was observed in the northeast. Despite the slight variations in the prevalence of physical activity during the leisure time among the regions, when population subgroups are considered, important differences were observed. These results suggest the need for promotion initiatives on physical activity with different approaches in each of the five regions of Brazil.

  8. Trends in cigarette use behaviors among adolescents by region in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Kim, Jong Yeon; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Ki Su

    2011-07-01

    Understanding recent trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents is important in order to develop strategies to prevent cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to compare recent trends in cigarette smoking for adolescents living in rural areas, small towns and metropolitan cities in Korea. The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2005 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate significant linear time trends in cigarette smoking. The indicators of cigarette use behaviors were 'current smoking rate', 'frequent smoking rate', 'heavy smoking rate' and 'smoking experience rate before 13 years of age'. All analyses were conducted according to gender. Statistically significant increasing trends in current smoking rate and frequent smoking rate were observed and borderline significant increasing trends in heavy smoking rate were shown among rural boys. Among metropolitan city boys, statistically significant increasing trends were also seen for frequent smoking. Statistically significant decreasing trends in current smoking rate were observed among small town and metropolitan city girls. Smoking experience rate before 13 years of age for rural girls decreased significantly. Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescents in the rural areas has increased in the last five years especially among boys. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco program for adolescents should be conducted primarily for those in rural areas.

  9. Multi-regional synthesis of temporal trends in biotic assemblages in streams and rivers of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Keenen, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Biotic assemblages in aquatic ecosystems are excellent integrators and indicators of changing environmental conditions within a watershed. Therefore, temporal changes in abiotic environmental variables often can be inferred from temporal changes in biotic assemblages. Algae, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage data were collected from 91 sampling sites in 4 geographic regions (northeastern/north-central, southeastern, south-central, and western), collectively encompassing the continental United States, from 1993 to 2009 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report uses a multivariate approach to synthesize temporal trends in biotic assemblages and correlations with relevant abiotic parameters as a function of biotic assemblage, geographic region, and land use. Of the three groups of biota, algal assemblages had temporal trends at the greatest percentage of sites. Of the regions, a greater percentage of sites in the northeastern/north-central and western regions had temporal trends in biotic assemblages. In terms of land use, a greater percentage of watersheds draining agricultural, urban, and undeveloped areas had significant temporal changes in biota, as compared to watersheds with mixed use. Correlations between biotic assemblages and abiotic variables indicate that, in general, macroinvertebrate assemblages correlated with water quality and fish assemblages correlated with physical habitat. Taken together, results indicate that there are regional differences in how individual biotic assemblages (algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish) respond to different abiotic drivers of change.

  10. Disparity in rainfall trend and patterns among different regions: analysis of 158 years' time series of rainfall dataset across India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav; Chakraborty, Debasish; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Samanta, Sandipan; Singh, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Rainfall anomaly during crop-growing season can have large impact on the agricultural output of a country, especially like India, where two-thirds of the crop land is rain-fed. In such situation, decreased agricultural production not only challenges food security of the country but directly and immediately hits the livelihood of its farming community. In a vast country like India, rainfall or its anomalies hardly follow a specific pattern, rather it is having high variability in spatial domain. This study focused on the trends of national and regional rainfall anomalies (wetness/dryness) along with their interrelationship using time series data of past 158 years. The significant reducing wetness trend (p tests indicate that major abrupt changes occurred between early to mid-twentieth century having regional variations. The regional interrelationship was studied using principal component, hierarchical clustering, and pair-wise difference test, which clearly indicated a significantly different pattern in rainfall anomalies for north east India (p = 0.022), north central India (p = 0.022), and north mountainous India (p = 0.011) from that of the all India. Result of this study affirmed high spatial variability in rainfall anomaly and most importantly established the unalike pattern in trends of regional rainfall vis-à-vis national level, ushering towards paradigm shift in rainfall forecast from country scale to regional scale for pragmatic planning.

  11. Occurrence and risk factors assessment associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in chickens in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Sílvio G. de Sá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection and risk factors of this disease in three hundred serum samples from on 23 familiar agricultural properties in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. ELISA was used to study antibodies anti-Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The univariate analysis (chi-squared test or Fischer's exact test followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression were used to assess the risk factors with two variables: management and sanity of the poultry. It was detected a frequence of 53.33% (157/300 of the birds were positive for MG, with 100% foci. The risk factors confirmed by multivariate analysis, in the present study, were the presence of other poultry species on the property, including Numida meleagris (OR=2.22; p=0.005, parrots (OR=1.72; p=0.027, and of passerines (OR=1.88; p=0.007. These results showed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is endemic among backyard poultry in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco. These birds could be a source of infection for other wild or domestic poultry. . This is the first report of the occurrence of avian mycoplasmosis in backyard poultry in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. The risk factors identified should serve as a parameter for the health authorities to seek solutions related to controlling the disease.

  12. Nitrogen Fertilization of No-Tillage Winter Cereals in the South-Central Region of Paraná, Brazil

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    Sandra Mara Vieira Fontoura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High winter cereal yields depend on an adequate supply of nitrogen (N. We developed a system for indicating N rates for wheat and barley in the South-Central region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, using results of 72 field experiments conducted from 2007 to 2012. The N rates recommended for winter cereals were estimated to supply the amounts of N fertilizer needed to obtain increasing yields (5.5 Mg ha-1 of crops grown after soybean and corn on soils with a variable organic matter content (60 g dm-3. The apparent mineralization rate of soil N was estimated to be 1 % and the N fertilization efficiency 50 %. The N rates recommended for wheat ranged from 30 to 150 kg ha-1 when cultivated after soybean, and from 30 to 170 kg ha-1 after corn. The N rates for barley ranged from 30 to 120 kg ha-1 when grown after soybean, and from 30 to 130 kg ha-1 after corn. These N rates are consistent with those indicated by the Soil Fertility Commission for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (CQFS-RS/SC, 2016, and also with the rates of maximum economic efficiency estimated in our study. The proposed N rate recommendation system can be used by agricultural technicians and producers to manage N fertilization of wheat and barley in the South-Central region of Paraná, Brazil.

  13. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Carlos A. F. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 mg·kg-1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2 higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 mg·kg-1. Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day-1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild marsupials and rodents from the Atlantic forest of Pernambuco state, northeastern region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, D B; Aléssio, F M; Mauffrey, J F; Marvulo, M F V; Ribeiro, V O; Oliveira, R L; Pena, H F J; Gennari, S M; Mota, R A; Faustino, M A G; Alves, L C; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

    2013-12-01

    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in their feces. Cats acquire T. gondii infection in nature by ingesting tissues of small mammals and birds. Serum samples of 223 feral marsupials and 174 feral rodents captured in 7 segments of the Atlantic Forest of the State of Pernambuco, northeastern region of Brazil, and in urban areas of the municipality of Recife were examined for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) were found in 6.7% (15 of 223) of the marsupials and 5.7% (10 of 174) of the rodents. No association was observed between seropositivity in marsupials or rodents and sex, age, or different areas of collection (P > 0.05). This is the first study on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in marsupials and rodents performed in the Atlantic Forest of the northeastern region of Brazil. The presence of antibodies to T. gondii are reported for the first time in long-furred woolly mouse opossum ( Micoureus demerarae ), murine mouse opossum ( Marmosa murina ), brown four-eyed opossum ( Metachirus nudicaudatus ), and gray short-tailed opossum ( Monodelphis domestica ).

  15. Spatial-temporal trends and risk of suicide in Central Brazil: an ecological study contrasting indigenous and non-indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jesem D; Balieiro, Antônio A; Fonseca, Fernanda R; Basta, Paulo C; Souza, Maximiliano L Ponte de

    2016-01-01

    To examine spatial-temporal distribution and risk of suicide, as well as trends in suicide mortality rates, in the indigenous and non-indigenous population of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Data were obtained from the Information Department of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Deaths recorded as voluntary self-inflicted injuries (ICD-10 codes X60.0 to X84.9) were considered suicide. Suicide rates were estimated and adjusted by age in the population > 9 years of age. Kernel analysis was used to assess the spatial distribution of suicide cases, while trend analysis was carried out using a non-parametric test (Mann-Kendall). The suicide risk among the indigenous population was 8.1 (95%CI 7.2-9.0) times higher than in the non-indigenous population. For indigenous residents in the 15-24 age group, the risk was 18.5 (95%CI 17.5-19.6) times higher than in the non-indigenous population. The majority of indigenous cases were concentrated in a few villages in reservation areas, mainly occupied by Guarani-Kaiowá and Guarani-Ñandeva groups. Rate patterns remained stable over time in both groups. Suicide is a serious public health problem in Mato Grosso do Sul, and has had an alarming and disproportionate impact on the indigenous population for more than a decade.

  16. Trends in AIDS Incidence in Individuals Aged 50 Years or Older in the City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1982–2011: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

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    Paulo Cavalcante Apratto Junior

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three temporal components of AIDS incidence (i.e., age, period and cohort on individuals aged 50 or older living in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Methods: Age-specific incidence rates were calculated from 1982–2011. Negative binomial and Poisson models were used to analyze the risk of AIDS by age, period and cohort. Results: The risk of AIDS in men was 2.45 times higher than in women, regardless of age and period (p-value < 0.001. The incidence of AIDS in individuals older than 69 years was 7-fold lower than in those aged 50–59 years (p-value < 0.001. A decreasing trend in AIDS risk was observed from the youngest cohort (≥1940 to the oldest (1910–1919. From 1982 to 2006, we could detect an increasing trend in AIDS risk in the population aged 50 years or older. A peak in rates was detected in the period from 2002–2006. The incidence rates in 2002–2006 were six times higher than those in 1987–1991 (p-value < 0.001, independent of age and sex (p-value < 0.001. Conclusions: An increase of AIDS risk in older people was detected. This group should not be neglected by public health programs.

  17. [Mortality trend due to ischemic heart diseases in the city of Curitiba--Brazil, from 1980 to 1998].

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    Daniel, Edevar; Germiniani, Helio; Nazareno, Eleusis Ronconi de; Braga, Simone Viana; Winkler, Anderson Marcelo; Cunha, Claudio L Pereira da

    2005-08-01

    To assess mortality trends due to ischemic heart diseases, per sex, and acute myocardial infarction, per sex and age range, from 1980 to 1998, in the city of Curitiba. Data of death due to ischemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction from Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde (Information System on Mortality of Ministry of Health), per sex, age range and domicile location in Curitiba were used. Population data were obtained from Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Foundation). Mortality rates were adjusted per age through direct method, by using the population of Curitiba, in 1980, as reference. The analysis of trend was calculated through simple linear regression, with a significance level of 5%. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases showed a decrease trend among both sexes. In age ranges of acute myocardial infarction, male sex showed a decrease until 79 years of age, among female sex individuals, the decrease was until 59 years of age. They were shown stable after those periods. Among the remaining ischemic diseases, female sex individuals showed a greater decrease than male sex ones. The study demonstrates a trend of reduction of mortality due to ischemic heart diseases, in both sexes, in the city of Curitiba, from 1980 to 1998. In acute myocardial infarction, such reduction has been happening in a more pronounced way among men, achieving stability, from 60 years of age, among women. The reasons for differentiated reduction trend between sexes are not clear, remaining as na important matter for new investigations.

  18. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  19. Environmental integrity and damselfly species composition in Amazonian streams at the "arc of deforestation" region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Investigated how the loss of environmental integrity affects damselfly species composition in nine sites with different levels of environmental integrity in a Cerrado-Amazon transition region known as "arc of deforestation" in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We also tested the influence of environmental variables on species composition. METHODS: We collected in transects of 100 m and used ordination (PCoA and simple linear regression. RESULTS: Species composition was strongly influenced by the environmental quality of sites, and the best model to explain species composition included variables related to channel morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These results are connected to the environmental homogenization and loss of environmental integrity as a result of extensive agricultural practices which alter stream communities of dragonflies in this region.

  20. Fish and fishery products trade in Brazil, 2005 to 2015: A review of available data and trends

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    Rafael Simões Coelho Barone

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Along the last ten years fish and fishery product trade in Brazil has been on a downward trajectory turning a profit of US$ 98.6 million in 2005 into a loss of US$ 1.25 billion by 2014. On the other hand, the country is a leading producer of grains and has the third largest animal feed industry in the world, which has added 5.5 million hectares of freshwater reservoirs and 3.5 million km2 of an exclusive marine economic zone in the same period, a sizable potential for development of the aquaculture industry. This study aims at unveiling strategies for the reduction of the deficit in the Brazilian seafood trade balance, based on critical analysis of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of imported fishery products. The fish and fishery product trade in Brazil, from 2005 to 2015, was studied considering import and export data mined from the Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Commerce databases through the Aliceweb system, and clustered as follows: processing; product species; origin; conservation; and group. The main imported products were gutted fresh fish, highest price (salmon; salted dried fish, higher price (cod; frozen fish fillets, lowest price (fish and hake. The replacement of fish imports by domestic production is not enough to enable consumers to identify the equivalence between products (technical, qualitative or organoleptic. Developing strategies for the production of fish and fishery products at competitive prices and quantities that meet consumer demand is an immediate need, and the development of the aquaculture industry a rational strategy.

  1. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

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    J. P. Burrows

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  2. Multiattribute Response of Maize Genotypes Tested in Different Coastal Regions of Brazil

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    Lúcio Borges de Araújo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work applies the three mode principal components analysis to analyze simultaneously the multiple attributes; to fit of models with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI models and the regressions models on sites (SREG models; to evaluate, respectively, the multivariate response of the genotype × environment interaction and the mean response of 36 genotypes of corn tested in 4 locations in Brazil. The results were presented by joint plots to identify the best genotypes for their adaptability and performance in the set of attributes.

  3. Tabagismo no Brasil: desigualdades regionais e prevalência segundo características ocupacionais Tobacco smoking in Brazil: regional inequalities and prevalence according to occupational characteristics

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    Aluísio J. D. Barros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreveu a prevalência do tabagismo diário segundo sexo, idade, renda domiciliar e ocupação dos moradores de 15 anos ou mais, no Brasil e regiões, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra Domiciliar 2008 (PNAD/IBGE. A análise considerou o desenho da amostra e incluiu 252.768 indivíduos. A prevalência de fumo diário no Brasil foi 15,1%, variando de 12,8% na região Norte a 17,4% na região Sul, sendo 62% maior nos homens que mulheres. A prevalência de fumo foi inversamente proporcional à renda domiciliar, sendo 18,6% entre os 20% mais pobres e 11,5% entre os 20% mais ricos. As mesmas tendências para sexo, idade e renda foram observadas nas diferentes regiões do país. O consumo diário de cigarros foi 3% maior entre os trabalhadores comparados com não trabalhadores. Trabalhadores não manuais apresentaram prevalências de fumo abaixo de 10%, enquanto trabalhadores manuais relataram frequências acima de 20%. A associação entre tabagismo e ocupação permaneceu após ajuste para sexo, idade e renda. As desigualdades encontradas devem ser consideradas no planejamento e direcionamento de ações efetivas para redução do tabagismo. Os grupos ocupacionais mais expostos deveriam ter prioridade nas intervenções.This study describes the prevalence of daily tobacco smoking according to sex, age, per capita household income and occupation of residents aged 15 years or more in Brazil and regions using data from the 2008 National Household Sample Survey (PNAD/IBGE. The analysis was adjusted for the sampling design and included 252.768 individuals. Daily smoking prevalence in Brazil was 15.1%, varying from 12.8% in the North region to 17.4% in the South region, and it was 62% higher in men compared to women. Smoking prevalence was inversely proportional to household income, 18.6% among the poorest 20% and 11.5% among the wealthiest 20%. The same trends for gender, age and income were observed in the different regions of

  4. Bacteria isolated from abscesses of small ruminants inspected in the semiarid region of Brazil

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    Wellington Erasmo Lima e Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss in the supply chain of small ruminants owing to condemnations of carcasses in the abattoirs and slaughterhouses is common in northeastern Brazil. This study aims to identify bacterial agents, including Mycobacterium spp., in the abscesses found in the postmortem analysis of the carcasses of sheep and goats bred in northeastern Brazil. Our analysis involved 679 goats and 1,838 sheep carcasses. Abscess samples were extracted and inoculated on blood agar and Lowenstein Jensen with pyruvate or glycerol for bacterial isolation. We then performed polymerase chain reaction of the hps 65 gene; samples positive for Mycobacterium spp. were subjected to DNA sequencing. Relative frequencies of abscesses in goats and sheep were 5.44 and 3.26%, respectively. Microbiological analysis revealed 87.7% bacterial growth in the inoculated samples. Among these, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis represented 67.7% of the isolates. We observed 1.9% mycobacteria growth in the abscess samples inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. PCR of DNA extracted from abscesses samples showed amplification of 0.9% of samples. After sequencing, Mycobacterium spp. isolate was identified as M. novocastrense. C. pseudotuberculosis was the main agent responsible for the formation of abscesses in the examined animals, and we did not identify any species of the M. tuberculosis complex in the examined small ruminants.

  5. [Mosquitoes potential vectors of canine heartworm in the Northeast Region from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahid, S M; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R

    1999-12-01

    In some coastal districts of São Luís, capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis is more than 40% in house dogs. Natural potential vectors, as found in other areas of Northeastern Brazil, are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify probable vectors of the disease. Mosquito catches were performed at a coastal, district Olho d'Agua, in S. Luís, to look for local potential vectors. Captures were carried out monthly, from March 1996 to May 1997, outdoors, having a man and a dog as baits. Mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae. A total of 1,738 mosquitoes belonging to 11 species were collected. Culex quinquefasciatus, the only species collected every month, was more frequently in the dry season. It accounted for 54.5% of the total, followed by Aedes albopictus (20. 3%), Ae. scapularis (11%) and Ae. taeniorhynchus (11%). D. immitis larvae were detected in 0.1% of the Cx. quinquefasciatus dissected (L3 in the Malpighian tubules) and 0.5% of the Ae. taeniorhynchus (L2 in the Malpighian tubules). Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus are considered natural potential vectors of the canine heartworm in São Luís. The role of Cx. quinquefasciatus as primary vector of D. immitis, however, needs further evaluation.

  6. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

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    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  7. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...... for conservation management by monitoring vegetation dynamics, projecting the persistence of vegetation trends and identifying areas of interest for upcoming restoration measures. In this study, we use MODIS satellite time series (2001-2013) and the Hurst exponent to classify the study area (Guizhou and Guangxi...... Provinces) according to the persistence of future vegetation trends (positive, anti-persistent positive, negative, anti-persistent negative, stable or uncertain). The persistence of trends is interrelated with terrain conditions (elevation and slope angle) and results in an index providing information...

  8. Evaluation of a Regional Monitoring Program's Statistical Power to Detect Temporal Trends in Forest Health Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year-1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year-1 in most indicators.

  9. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  10. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    R Clive Landis; Kelly Carmichael-Simmons; Hambleton, Ian R; Anton Best

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. ...

  11. Regional climate change trends and uncertainty analysis using extreme indices: A case study of Hamilton, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Razavi

    2016-01-01

    All climate models predicted increasing trends for extreme temperature indices, maximum 1-day and 5-day precipitation (RX1day and RX5day, total wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT, very heavy precipitation days (R20mm, Summer Days (SU, and Tropical Nights (TR and decreasing trend for Forest Days (FD and Ice Days (ID in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to present. CanRCM4 model did consistently project values in the upper range of the CMIP5 ensemble while the PRECIS ensemble was more in-line with the CMIP5 mean values. This difference may however be a function of different emission scenarios used.

  12. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Brazil: what research is needed based on trends, surveillance, and control experiences?

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    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics account annually for several million cases and deaths worldwide. The high endemic level of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form correlates to extensive domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti and multiple viral serotype human infection. This study analyzed serial case reports registered in Brazil since 1981, describing incidence evolutionary patterns and spatial distribution. Epidemic waves followed the introduction of every serotype (DEN 1 to 3, and reduction in susceptible individuals possibly accounted for decreasing case frequency. An incremental expansion of affected areas and increasing occurrence of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form with high case fatality were noted in recent years. In contrast, efforts based solely on chemical vector control have been insufficient. Moreover, some evidence demonstrates that educational measures do not permanently modify population habits. Thus, as long as a vaccine is not available, further dengue control depends on potential results from basic interdisciplinary research and intervention evaluation studies, integrating environmental changes, community participation and education, epidemiological and virological surveillance, and strategic technological innovations aimed to stop transmission.

  13. Intimate partner violence trends in Brazil: data from two waves of the Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey

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    Elizabeth Z. Ally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare intimate partner violence (IPV prevalence rates in 2006 and 2012 in a nationally representative household sample in Brazil. The associations between IPV and substance use were also investigated. Methods: IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactic Scale-R in two waves (2006/2012 of the Brazilian Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted logistic regression models were calculated. Results: Prevalence rates of IPV victimization decreased significantly, especially among women (8.8 to 6.3%. The rates of IPV perpetration also decreased significantly (10.6 to 8.4% for the overall sample and 9.2 to 6.1% in men, as well as the rates of bidirectional violence (by individuals who were simultaneously victims and perpetrators of violence (3.2 to 2.4% for the overall sample. Alcohol increased the likelihood of being a victim (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6 and perpetrator (OR = 2.4 of IPV. Use of illicit drugs increased up to 4.5 times the likelihood of being a perpetrator. Conclusions: In spite of the significant reduction in most types of IPV between 2006 and 2012, violence perpetrated by women was not significantly reduced, and the current national rates are still high. Further, this study suggests that use of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs plays a major role in IPV. Prevention initiatives must take drug misuse into consideration.

  14. Trends in the inter-regional and international research collaboration of the PRC’s regions: 2000-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luwel, M.; Van Wijk, E.; Van der Wurff, L.J.; Wang, L.

    2016-07-01

    The regional structure of the PRC’s scientific output is analyzed using publications processed for the Web of Science. Over the period 2000-2015 and measured by the Salton Index of the co-publications the scientific collaboration among the PRC’s regions increased only slightly, in stark contrast with the USA’ states and during the most recent years the EU member countries. Only for research with other nations, representing about 30% of the total publication output, inter-regional collaboration is on the rise. For the leading PRC’s regions the USA is the dominant partner co-authoring about 50% of their publications. Germany and especially Japan seems to lose attractiveness to the advantage of the UK, Australia and neighboring Asian countries. (Author)

  15. Validation of Meteornom solar irradiation data for three regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E. B.; Teixeira, V. A.; Martins, F. R.

    2015-12-01

    This work is a part of a study to identify available and reliable sources of solar irradiation data in Brazil - with a strong focus on their relevance for PV and CSP applications. One of these sources is the Meteonorm . Meteonorm is a comprehensive meteorological reference. It gives access to a catalogue of solar radiation data and meteorological data for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. The current report provides an evaluation of the solar irradiation data derived from version 7.0 of the Meteonorm software for Brazil. This evaluation was made by using the observation data of horizontal global solar irradiation from the SONDA/BSRN network for Petrolina (PTR), Brasilia (BRB), and São Martinho do Serra (SMS). These sites were chosen based on a careful data quality control, absence of daily gaps, and less than 60% of missing data per month. The Meteonorm data were generated with real input monthly average for each selected validation sites for the years 2011, 2013, and 2014. The analysis was performed by relative and cumulative frequency of annual and seasonal solar irradiance, based on the methodology proposed by Pierre Inechen, 2006. The results showed little interannual variability for the validation sites and presented a recurrent occurrence of the value of 1000W.m-2 for stations PTR and BRB. The Meteonorm was able to represent the high frequencies in these locations, however, presented an interannual variation greater than observed, and an overestimation of values. As for the seasonal analysis, it was possible to verify that the quarters which varied the most from one year to the next were the Dec-Jan-Feb and Sep-Oct-Nov in BRB station; Dec-Jan-Feb and Mar-Apr-May in the PTR station; and Dec-Jan-Feb in the SMS station. The Meteornorm was able identify the months of highest and lowest variability in the BRB and SMS stations, except PTR station which yielded a large variability for all quarters. Regarding the relative

  16. Trend of leprosy in individuals under the age of 15 in Mato Grosso (Brazil), 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Bruna Hinnah Borges Martins de; Cortela, Denise da Costa Boamorte; Ferreira, Silvana Margarida Benevides

    2017-04-10

    To identify the historical trend of leprosy epidemiological indicators in individuals under the age of 15 in the state of Mato Grosso. Descriptive study with trend analysis of leprosy indicators in individuals under the age of fifteen registered in the Mato Grosso's System for Notifiable Diseases between 2001 and 2013. We used the Prais-Winsten procedure for analyzing generalized linear regression at a significance level of 5%. We considered as increasing time series when the annual percent change was positive, decreasing when negative and stationary when there was no significant difference between its value and zero. We analyzed 2455 cases of leprosy and the average detection rate in individuals under the age of fifteen was 22.7 per 100 thousand inhabitants. The trend of the general coefficient of incidence was decreasing, with an average annual rate of -5.5% (95%CI -7.5--3.5). Increasing trend was observed with an increase of 6.7% (95%CI 2.7-10.8) in the proportion of multibacillary cases, 9.4% (95%CI 4.4-14.7) of cases diagnosed with dimorphic clinical form and 14% (95%CI 7.9-20.4) of cases with physical disability level 2 at the time of diagnosis. There was an increasing trend in the average proportion of examined contacts, with a growth of 4.1% (95%CI 1.2-7.1) and average proportion of healing was precarious (39.7%), with stationary trend. The historical trend of leprosy cases in individuals under the age of fifteen proved to be decreasing in the period, however the trends of epidemiological indicators such as the proportion of multibacillary cases, physical disability level 2 and healing, indicate late diagnosis with stay sources of transmission and consequent worsening of the disease in the state of Mato Grosso. Identificar a tendência histórica dos indicadores epidemiológicos de hanseníase em menores de 15 anos no estado de Mato Grosso. Estudo descritivo com análise de tendência dos indicadores de hanseníase em menores de 15 anos registrados no

  17. Recent trends in urbanization in the ASEAN region: implications for health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteria, T S

    1987-01-01

    "This paper examines recent trends in urbanization in four selected ASEAN countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand--giving particular attention to the scale and pace of urbanization, the unique features of urban communities, and the health changes and adjustments that accompany urban development in these countries." excerpt

  18. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

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    Gomes Marília B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years ( Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels Conclusions A majority of patients, mainly in the north/northeast and mid-west regions, did not meet metabolic control goals and were not screened for diabetes-related chronic complications. These results should guide governmental health policy decisions, specific to each geographic region, to improve diabetes care and decrease the negative impact diabetes has on the public health system.

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. Methods We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the overall abortion rate is a function of the modelled rates in subgroups of women of reproductive age defined by their marital status and contraceptive need and use, and the sizes of these subgroups. Findings We estimated that 35 abortions (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 33 to 44) occurred annually per 1000 women aged 15–44 years worldwide in 2010–14, which was 5 points less than 40 (39–48) in 1990–94 (90% UI for decline −11 to 0). Because of population growth, the annual number of abortions worldwide increased by 5·9 million (90% UI −1·3 to 15·4), from 50·4 million in 1990–94 (48·6 to 59·9) to 56·3 million (52·4 to 70·0) in 2010–14. In the developed world, the abortion rate declined 19 points (–26 to −14), from 46 (41 to 59) to 27 (24 to 37). In the developing world, we found a non-significant 2 point decline (90% UI −9 to 4) in the rate from 39 (37 to 47) to 37 (34 to 46). Some 25% (90% UI 23 to 29) of pregnancies ended in abortion in 2010–14. Globally, 73% (90% UI 59 to 82) of abortions were obtained by married women in 2010–14 compared with 27% (18 to 41) obtained by unmarried women. We did not observe an association between the abortion rates for 2010–14 and the