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Sample records for brazil treatment heterogeneity

  1. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations

  2. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%), a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not. Low socioeconomic status areas have higher tuberculosis

  3. Overview of flue gas treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.A.P.; Duarte, C.L.; Omi, N.M.; Poli, D.C.R.; Lima, W.

    2011-01-01

    The coal mines in Brazil are primarily located in southern part areas. The total coal reserves are approximately 32.8 billions tons, 89% of which are located in Rio Grande do Sul state. The Brazilian agriculture potentiality is very high, mainly due to the availability of flat land and the existence of industrial capacity to supply the main fertilizers needs. Electron beam flue gas treatment process ensures simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO X from flue gases by single process, requiring no additional wastewater treatment system and can produce useful nitrogen fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and ammonium nitrate NH 4 NO 3 as by-products. During the TC Project BRA/8/021 - Pilot Plant for Electron Beam Purification of Flue Gas supported by IAEA (1995-1996), a laboratory facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was set at IPEN. In 1997, an official request from Brazilian Government, Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) and IPEN was made for the Japan Consulting Institute (JCI) to prepare feasibility studies of air pollution control by electron beam flue gas treatment in three power generation companies. These companies are responsible for the power generation, the transmission and the supply of electricity to Brazil: Jorge Lacerda – Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A., Presidente Medici – Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Piratininga – AES Eletropaulo Thermal Power Plants. (author)

  4. Overview of flue gas treatment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, W. A.P.; Duarte, C. L.; Omi, N. M. [National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN), Radiation Technology Center - CTR, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poli, D. C.R.; Lima, W. [National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN), Cyclotron Accelerator Center - CAC, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The coal mines in Brazil are primarily located in southern part areas. The total coal reserves are approximately 32.8 billions tons, 89% of which are located in Rio Grande do Sul state. The Brazilian agriculture potentiality is very high, mainly due to the availability of flat land and the existence of industrial capacity to supply the main fertilizers needs. Electron beam flue gas treatment process ensures simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} from flue gases by single process, requiring no additional wastewater treatment system and can produce useful nitrogen fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ammonium nitrate NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} as by-products. During the TC Project BRA/8/021 - Pilot Plant for Electron Beam Purification of Flue Gas supported by IAEA (1995-1996), a laboratory facility for electron beam flue gas treatment was set at IPEN. In 1997, an official request from Brazilian Government, Ministry of Science & Technology (MCT) and IPEN was made for the Japan Consulting Institute (JCI) to prepare feasibility studies of air pollution control by electron beam flue gas treatment in three power generation companies. These companies are responsible for the power generation, the transmission and the supply of electricity to Brazil: Jorge Lacerda – Eletrosul Centrais Eletricas do Sul do Brasil S.A., Presidente Medici – Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica (CEEE) and Piratininga – AES Eletropaulo Thermal Power Plants. (author)

  5. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil, the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT. These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. Methods We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. Results There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%, a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not

  6. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  7. Heterogeneity of bird communities in a mosaic of habitats on a restinga ecosystem in southeast Brazil

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    Verônica S. da M. Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Restinga occurs as a narrow band of coastal habitats throughout the Atlantic Forest, although it presents considerable variation in vegetation structure, which likely contributes to heterogeneity in species inhabiting this endangered ecosystem. The goal of this study is to examine how variation in vegetation and abiotic conditions in the restinga ecosystem may contribute to heterogeneity of bird communities in Restinga de Jurubatiba, Brazil. Temperature, relative humidity, and vegetation structure were sampled to characterize four sites (dry forest, flooded forest, open scrub and closed scrub. Birds were sampled using observations, mist-netting and voice recordings. Results indicate that major differences of all variables occur between forest and scrub in both vegetation and birds. In addition, differences also exist within forests and within scrub, resulting in considerable heterogeneity among sampled areas. Scrub sites were richer in bird species (n = 58 than forest sites (n = 41, while closed scrub had the most species (n = 49. Also, 64% (47 of 73 of bird species were exclusive to forest or scrub habitats. Scrub habitats were more similar to each other than forest habitats. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI calculated from satellite images distinguished scrub sites and may be useful to monitor changes in vegetation patches through time. The restinga ecosystem is quite heterogeneous with considerable turnover in bird species composition and differences in vegetation structure. Forest strips may serve as connectors on the landscape and to help maintain species diversity and conservation of forest species. Also, this highly dynamic ecosystem, which includes a mosaic of habitat types, likely promotes resilience of bird populations under changing conditions.

  8. The Welfare Cost of Homicides in Brazil: Accounting for Heterogeneity in the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Daniel; Soares, Rodrigo R

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates the health dimension of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil incorporating age, gender, educational, and regional heterogeneities. We use a marginal willingness to pay approach to assign monetary values to the welfare cost of increased mortality due to violence. Results indicate that the present discounted value of the welfare cost of homicides in Brazil corresponds to roughly 78% of the GDP or, in terms of yearly flow, 2.3%. The analysis also shows that reliance on aggregate data to perform such calculations can lead to biases of around 20% in the estimated social cost of violence. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. On heterogeneity of treatment effects and clinical freedom.

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    Sacristán, J A; Avendaño-Solá, C

    2015-01-01

    Three decades ago, John R Hampton announced the death of clinical freedom. Since then, evidence-based medicine has been the predominant paradigm in clinical research. By applying a population-based approach, the randomised controlled trial has become the cornerstone for demonstrating the overall effect of a treatment and for developing guidelines. The new patient-centred medicine movement is rediscovering the important implications of heterogeneity of treatment effects for clinical practice and that a better understanding of such variability can contribute to improve health outcomes for individual patients through practicing a science-based clinical freedom. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An Overview of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Heterogeneity and Treatment Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Masi; Marilena M.DeMayo; Nicholas Glozier; Adam J.Guastella

    2017-01-01

    Since the documented observations of Kanner in 1943,there has been great debate about the diagnoses,the sub-types,and the diagnostic threshold that relates to what is now known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Reflecting this complicated history,there has been continual refinement from DSM-Ⅲ with ‘Infantile Autism’ to the current DSM-Ⅴ diagnosis.The disorder is now widely accepted as a complex,pervasive,heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies,sub-types,and developmental trajectories.Diagnosis remains based on observation of atypical behaviors,with criteria of persistent deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior.This review provides a broad overview of the history,prevalence,etiology,clinical presentation,and heterogeneity of ASD.Factors contributing to heterogeneity,including genetic variability,comorbidity,and gender are reviewed.We then explore current evidencebased pharmacological and behavioral treatments for ASD and highlight the complexities of conducting clinical trials that evaluate therapeutic efficacy in ASD populations.Finally,we discuss the potential of a new wave of research examining objective biomarkers to facilitate the evaluation of sub-typing,diagnosis,and treatment response in ASD.

  11. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  12. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from Northeastern Brazil

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    Jamille Bitencourt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of H. prope unae.

  13. Influence of habitat heterogeneity on anuran diversity in Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta, northeastern Brazil.

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    Araújo, Kássio C; Guzzi, Anderson; Ávila, Robson W

    2018-01-01

    Anurans have close associations with environmental conditions and therefore represent an interesting vertebrate group for examining how resource availability and environmental variables influence species diversity. Associations between habitat heterogeneity and anuran species diversity were tested in the Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta in northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one anuran species were sampled in the rainy season during monthly excursions (December 2015 to June 2016) into areas of Restinga on two islands in the Parnaíba River delta. The fourth highest anuran diversity was found in this type of environment in Brazil and is the third in northeastern Brazil. Microenvironments, characterized by a combination of vernal pools with different vegetational and physical structures, better explained anuran species composition in the Parnaíba River delta.

  14. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Application for Treatment of Polluted Air

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    Tomašić, V.

    2011-07-01

    the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds is generally more efficient in the gas phase than in the liquid phase, and the fact that the treatment cost may be significantly lower than that of the water phase photocatalytic treatment, the scientific interest has shifted towards the application of photocatalysis for air treatment. This paper describes the basics of heterogeneous photocatalysis, mainly on TiO2 and the application of photocatalytic processes for air treatment purposes. Review of more interesting practical application of heterogeneous photocatalysis for the treatment of polluted air is presented. Special efforts are made to describe the technical aspects of the photocatalytic processes and to characterize different photocatalytic reactors in use for air treatment.

  15. Heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after IFRS adoption: evidence from Brazil

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    Roberto Black

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to investigate the existence of heterogeneity in earnings quality between different classes of companies after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. IFRS adoption is generally associated with an increase in the quality of financial statements. However, companies within the same country are likely to have different economic incentives regarding the disclosure of information. Thus, treating companies equally, without considering the related economic incentives, could contaminate earnings quality investigations. The case of Brazil is analyzed, which is a country classified as code-law, in which tax laws determined accounting practice and in which IFRS adoption is mandatory. First, Brazilian companies listed on the São Paulo Stock, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA were separated into two classes: companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs before IFRS adoption and companies that did not issue ADRs until the adoption of IFRS. Then, this second class of companies was grouped, using cluster analysis, into two different subclasses according to economic incentives. Based on the groups identified, the quality of accounting earnings is tested for each class of the companies before and after IFRS adoption. This paper uses timely recognition of economic events, value relevance of net income, and earnings management as proxies for the quality of accounting earnings. The results indicate that a particular class of companies began showing conditional conservatism, value relevance of net income, and lower earnings management after IFRS adoption. On the other hand, these results were not found for the two other classes of companies.

  16. Electron beam wastewater treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Oikawa, H.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Silveira, C.G.; Costa, F.E.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed at laboratory scale and at pilot plant scale to study the efficiency on using EB to remove and degrade toxic and refractory pollutants mainly from industrial origins. An upflow stream hydraulic system that governs the efficiency of the EB energy transferred to the stream was developed. Two different sources of samples were used to treat industrial effluents from a pharmaceutical chemical industry located in Sao Paulo and from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Sao Paulo State, which receives the major quantity of industrial wastewater. Using samples from this WWTP, studies to combine EB irradiation process with conventional treatment were carried out with experimentation doses of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy and the irradiation effects were evaluated in the following parameters: COD, BOD, solids, TOC, THMs. PCE, TCE, BTX and concentration of organic acids by-products. Toxicity studies were also carried out for different sites and industrial activities showing significant removal of acute toxicity by increasing values of the EC-50 for most of the experiments. The economic aspects of this technology were evaluated and the estimated processing costs for some values of delivered doses and operation are reported here. (author)

  17. Genetic heterogeneity in Alzheimer disease and implications for treatment strategies.

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    Ringman, John M; Goate, Alison; Masters, Colin L; Cairns, Nigel J; Danek, Adrian; Graff-Radford, Neill; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2014-11-01

    Since the original publication describing the illness in 1907, the genetic understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has advanced such that it is now clear that it is a genetically heterogeneous condition, the subtypes of which may not uniformly respond to a given intervention. It is therefore critical to characterize the clinical and preclinical stages of AD subtypes, including the rare autosomal dominant forms caused by known mutations in the PSEN1, APP, and PSEN2 genes that are being studied in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network study and its associated secondary prevention trial. Similar efforts are occurring in an extended Colombian family with a PSEN1 mutation, in APOE ε4 homozygotes, and in Down syndrome. Despite commonalities in the mechanisms producing the AD phenotype, there are also differences that reflect specific genetic origins. Treatment modalities should be chosen and trials designed with these differences in mind. Ideally, the varying pathological cascades involved in the different subtypes of AD should be defined so that both areas of overlap and of distinct differences can be taken into account. At the very least, clinical trials should determine the influence of known genetic factors in post hoc analyses.

  18. Estimating the effect of treatment rate changes when treatment benefits are heterogeneous: antibiotics and otitis media.

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    Park, Tae-Ryong; Brooks, John M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A; Bergus, George

    2008-01-01

    Contrast methods to assess the health effects of a treatment rate change when treatment benefits are heterogeneous across patients. Antibiotic prescribing for children with otitis media (OM) in Iowa Medicaid is the empirical example. Instrumental variable (IV) and linear probability model (LPM) are used to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatments on cure probabilities for children with OM in Iowa Medicaid. Local area physician supply per capita is the instrument in the IV models. Estimates are contrasted in terms of their ability to make inferences for patients whose treatment choices may be affected by a change in population treatment rates. The instrument was positively related to the probability of being prescribed an antibiotic. LPM estimates showed a positive effect of antibiotics on OM patient cure probability while IV estimates showed no relationship between antibiotics and patient cure probability. Linear probability model estimation yields the average effects of the treatment on patients that were treated. IV estimation yields the average effects for patients whose treatment choices were affected by the instrument. As antibiotic treatment effects are heterogeneous across OM patients, our estimates from these approaches are aligned with clinical evidence and theory. The average estimate for treated patients (higher severity) from the LPM model is greater than estimates for patients whose treatment choices are affected by the instrument (lower severity) from the IV models. Based on our IV estimates it appears that lowering antibiotic use in OM patients in Iowa Medicaid did not result in lost cures.

  19. Estimated annual cost of arterial hypertension treatment in Brazil.

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    Dib, Murilo W; Riera, Rachel; Ferraz, Marcos B

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the direct annual cost of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) treatment in Brazil's public and private health care systems, assess its economic impact on the total health care budget, and determine its proportion of the 2005 gross domestic product (GDP). A decision tree model was used to determine direct costs based on estimated use of various resources in SAH diagnosis and care, including treatment (medication and non-medication), complementary exams, doctor visits, nutritional assessments, and emergency room visits. Estimated direct annual cost of SAH treatment was approximately US$ 398.9 million for the public health care system and US$ 272.7 million for the private system, representing 0.08% of the 2005 GDP (ranging from 0.05% to 0.16%). With total health care expenses comprising about 7.6% of Brazil's GDP, this cost represented 1.11% of overall health care costs (0.62% to 2.06%)-1.43% of total expenses for the Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Unico de Saúde, SUS) (0.79% to 2.75%) and 0.83% of expenses for the private health care system (0.47% to 1.48%). Conclusion. To guarantee public or private health care based on the principles of universality and equality, with limited available resources, efforts must be focused on educating the population on prevention and treatment compliance in diseases such as SAH that require significant health resources.

  20. Treatment at scale in Brazil: a physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Mauro

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), based on a strategy that utilizes an individualized approach to treatment and an open formulary. At the time, the number of patients in need of treatment was less than 15% of what it is today, there were six approved drugs for the treatment of HIV infection (compared with 25 today), and the life expectancy of patients was measured in months and years, not in decades. In recent years, preventable and treatable conditions such as cardiovascular diseases increased significantly faster as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in the general population. In the near future there will be a substantial increase in the number of patients in need of therapy and in the number of patients using more complex regimens who also have co-morbidities that impact prognosis. Brazil will thus need to expand its network of treatment facilities, increase its capacity to manage more complex clinical conditions, and decide on the proper balance of sophistication that will be required. As the Brazilian scientific output is not commensurate with its successes in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection, there is little empirical basis to inform decisions on how best to allocate finite resources. The Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, universal access to ART in particular, is an example to other developing countries. The Brazilian experience also shows that operational research should be an integral part of programmes of access to treatment, if their long-term sustainability is to be ensured.

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity screening and treatment cost in Brazil

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    Andrea A. Zin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the additional cost of incorporating the detection and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP into neonatal care services of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS. METHODS: A deterministic decision-tree simulation model was built to estimate the direct costs of screening for and treating ROP in neonatal intensive-care units (NICUs, based on data for 869 preterm infants with birth weight less than 1 500 g examined in six governmental NICUs in the capital city of Rio de Janeiro, where coverage was 52% and 8% of infants were treated. All of the parameters from this study were extrapolated to Brazilian newborn estimates in 2010. Costs of screening and treatment were estimated considering staff, equipment and maintenance, and training based on published data and expert opinion. A budget impact analysis was performed considering the population of preterm newborns, screening coverage, and the incidence of treatable ROP. One- and two-way sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: In Rio de Janeiro, unit costs per newborn were US$ 18 for each examination, US$ 398 per treatment, and US$ 29 for training. The estimated cost of ROP diagnosis and treatment for all at-risk infants NICUs was US$ 80 per infant. The additional cost to the SUS for one year would be US$ 556 640 for a ROP program with 52% coverage, increasing to US$ 856 320 for 80% coverage, and US$ 1.07 million or 100% coverage. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that providing ROP care is affordable within the framework of the SUS in Brazil, and might be feasible elsewhere in Latin America, considering the evidence of the effectiveness of ROP treatment and the social benefits achieved.

  2. Variability in soybean yield in Brazil stemming from the interaction of heterogeneous management and climate variability

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    Cohn, A.; Bragança, A.; Jeffries, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    An increasing share of global agricultural production can be found in the humid tropics. Therefore, an improved understanding of the mechanisms governing variability in the output of tropical agricultural systems is of increasing importance for food security including through climate change adaptation. Yet, the long window over which many tropical crops can be sown, the diversity of crop varieties and management practices combine to challenge inference into climate risk to cropping output in analyses of tropical crop-climate sensitivity employing administrative data. In this paper, we leverage a newly developed spatially explicit dataset of soybean yields in Brazil to combat this problem. The dataset was built by training a model of remotely-sensed vegetation index data and land cover classification data using a rich in situ dataset of soybean yield and management variables collected over the period 2006 to 2016. The dataset contains soybean yields by plant date, cropping frequency, and maturity group for each 5km grid cell in Brazil. We model variation in these yields using an approach enabling the estimation of the influence of management factors on the sensitivity of soybean yields to variability in: cumulative solar radiation, extreme degree days, growing degree days, flooding rain in the harvest period, and dry spells in the rainy season. We find strong variation in climate sensitivity by management class. Planting date and maturity group each explained a great deal more variation in yield sensitivity than did cropping frequency. Brazil collects comparatively fine spatial resolution yield data. But, our attempt to replicate our results using administrative soy yield data revealed substantially lesser crop-climate sensitivity; suggesting that previous analyses employing administrative data may have underestimated climate risk to tropical soy production.

  3. Hemophilia A in Brazil – epidemiology and treatment developments

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    Ferreira AA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Aparecida Ferreira,1 Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite,2 Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira,2 Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra2 1Foundation and Center for Hematology and Hemotherapy of Minas Gerais (Hemominas, 2Department of Collective Health, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Hemophilia A is an inherited disorder characterized by deficiency of coagulation factor VIII, which predisposes patients to bleeding events. Treatment is based on replacement of the deficient factor, in a therapeutic or prophylactic manner. Brazil is the country with the third largest population of people with hemophilia, for which the public health system provides free comprehensive care. Maintaining an updated registry of patients, documenting the prevalence of complications, and assessing the effectiveness of resource use are indispensable elements in the design of a well-coordinated national program. According to sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data collected by the computerized Brazilian system on coagulopathies, in June 2013, there were 9,122 registered patients with hemophilia A in Brazil, of which 36.1% had a severe form of the disease. Clotting factor inhibitors were present in 7.5%, but 25.7% of records did not provide this type of data. Around 70% of the patients belonged to the economically active population, being between 15 and 59 years old. Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus was present in 23.4% of the patients tested and infection by hepatitis C virus antibodies in 59.3%. Infection by the hepatitis B virus and human T-lymphotropic virus was also reported. The high percentage of incomplete records regarding serological data shows the fragility of the information system to date. There was also no information available on the prevalence of permanent or disabling joint damage. Although few hemophiliacs receive adequate care in developing countries, and despite Brazil exhibiting great social

  4. Estimated costs of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia in Brazil

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    Haylton J. Suaid

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH presents 2 options: medical or surgical, and there are doubts about what is the best treatment since 80% of patients who undergo surgery become asymptomatic and 10 to 40% of those under medical regimen undergo surgery within a 5 years period. It is difficult to assess the actual costs of treating BPH in Brazil due to several factors, among them regional particularities and the scarcity of current statistical data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recently, in the Ribeirão Preto area, São Paulo, Brazil, the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score and quality of life were verified in 934 volunteers. It was determined the percentage of individuals with ages ranging from 40 to 79 years with moderate symptoms (score 8-19 and with severe symptoms (score 20-35, values for which are indicated medical and surgical treatment, respectively, according to the Brazilian Society of Urology consensus on BPH. Data on Brazilian population in that age range were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics referent to the year of 2000. It was determined the number of patients, according to the criteria above, subjected to either one of the treatments mentioned. Surgical costs of prostate transurethral resection were researched according to Unified Health System - SUS tables (US$ 173 and of Brazilian Medical Society - AMB with a mean cost in 3 hospitals of US$ 933. Drug costs were calculated by the annual mean price (US$ 355 of 4 alpha-blockers (tamsulosin, alfuzosin, doxazosin and terazosin. RESULTS: The estimated population for medical treatment was 5,397,321 individuals, with a cost corresponding to US$ 1,916,489,055.00. The estimated population for surgical treatment was 2,040,299 men, what would represent a cost of US$ 353,291,204.00 based on the SUS table and of US$ 1,904,279,066.00 based on AMB with hospital expenses included. CONCLUSION: All theses facts induce us to predict

  5. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Brazil: I. Cognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reports the recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD in Brazil, with special focus on cognitive disorders. It constitutes a revision and broadening of the 2005 guidelines based on a consensus involving researchers (physicians and non-physicians in the field. The authors carried out a search of articles published since 2005 on the MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases. The search criteria were pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive disorders in AD. Studies retrieved were categorized into four classes, and evidence into four levels, based on the 2008 recommendations of the American Academy of Neurology. The recommendations on therapy are pertinent to the dementia phase of AD. Recommendations are proposed for the treatment of cognitive disorders encompassing both pharmacological (including acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine and other drugs and substances and non-pharmacological (including cognitive rehabilitation, physical activity, occupational therapy, and music therapy approaches. Recommendations for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease are included in a separate article of this edition.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity of malaria in Indian reserves of Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria constitutes a major cause of morbidity in the Brazilian Amazon where an estimated 6 million people are considered at high risk of transmission. Indigenous peoples in the Amazon are particularly vulnerable to potentially epidemic disease such as malaria; notwithstanding, very little is known about the epidemiology of malaria in Indian reservations of the region. The aim of this paper is to present a spatial analysis of malaria cases over a four-year time period (2003–2006 among indigenous peoples of the Brazilian State of Rondônia, southwestern Amazon, by using passive morbidity data (results from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears gathered from the National Malaria Epidemiologic Surveillance System databank. Results A total of 4,160 cases of malaria were recorded in 14 Indian reserves in the State of Rondônia between 2003 and 2006. In six reservations no cases of malaria were reported in the period. Overall, P. vivax accounted for 76.18 of malaria cases reported in the indigenous population of Rondônia. The P. vivax/P. falciparum ratio for the period was 3.78. Two reserves accounted for over half of the cases reported for the total indigenous population in the period – Roosevelt and Pacaas Novas – with a total of 1,646 (39.57% and 1,145 (27.52% cases, respectively. Kernel mapping of malaria mean Annual Parasite Index – API according to indigenous reserves and environmental zones revealed a heterogeneous pattern of disease distribution, with one clear area of high risk of transmission comprising reservations of west Rondônia along the Guaporé-Madeira River basins, and another high risk area to the east, on the Roosevelt reserve. Conclusion By means of kernel mapping, it was shown that malaria risk varies widely between Indian reserves and environmental zones defined on the basis of predominant ecologic characteristics and land use patterns observed in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The geographical

  7. A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of Zephyr Endobronchial Valve Treatment in Heterogeneous Emphysema (TRANSFORM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, Samuel V.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Kirk, Alan; Kornaszewska, Malgorzata; Carron, Kris; Ek, Lars; Broman, Gustav; Hillerdal, Gunnar; Mal, Herve; Pison, Christophe; Briault, Amandine; Downer, Nicola; Darwiche, Kaid; Rao, Jagan; Huebner, Ralf-Harto; Ruwwe-Glosenkamp, Christof; Trosini-Desert, Valery; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J.; Derom, Eric; Malfait, Thomas; Shah, Pallav L.; Garner, Justin L.; ten Hacken, Nick H.; Fallouh, Hazem; Leroy, Sylvie; Marquette, Charles H.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Single-center randomized controlled trials of the Zephyr endobronchial valve (EBV) treatment have demonstrated benefit in severe heterogeneous emphysema. This is the first multicenter study evaluating this treatment approach. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Zephyr EBVs

  8. Electron beam processing programme: Wastewater and sludge treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Duarte, C.L.; Borrely, S.I.; Vieira, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research, working on environmental applications, has an extensive research programme using high energy electron beam in treating industrial wastewater and sludge. The experiments are being conducted in a pilot plant using an industrial electron beam 1.5MeV, 25mA, where the streams are presented to the scanned electron beam in counter flow. This pilot plant is designed to process approximately 3.0m 3 /h with an average dose 5kGy and the absorbed dose measurement is performed continuously by calorimetric system in real time. Combined biological and radiation treatment of domestic sewage and sludge were carried out to investigate disinfestation and removal of organic matter. The experiments showed that total and fecal coliforms were decreased by about 5 logs cycles with a 3.0kGy radiation dose in raw sewage and biological effluents, respectively. Concerning the industrial wastewater in the first stage of the programme, the irradiation was conducted using batch systems with samples originating from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant. The data showed a significant color reduction effect when delivered dose was increased, and the opposite was noted for turbidity and total suspended solids. Other experiments were focused to process real industrial effluents from one of the most important chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil. A special transport truck was used to transfer the liquid waste from the Industry to the Electron Beam Pilot Plant. Large quantities of liquid waste were irradiated with and without air addition with the doses from 2kGy to 20kGy. Such experiences performed in association with the Industry demonstrated that this technology has a great potential to be transferred and to contribute with a permanent cleanup alternative for hazardous wastes

  9. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    the last barrier against disinfection resistant protozoan pathogens and this has led to increased regulation of the filtration process. To be able to produce high-quality filtrate in a constant and reliable manner while meeting stricter drinking water guideline values, it is important to be able......Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often...... options prescribed. The diagnostic tools are then used again to verify the efficiency of the solution applied. If the problem is not solved the whole process starts again. These tools are of significant interest for the development of the Water Safety Plans recommended by WHO to monitor filters...

  10. Evaluation of the known behavioral heterogeneity in conduct disorder to improve its assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) is among the most highly represented diagnostic problems in child and adolescent mental health treatment settings. There is a great deal of heterogeneity within the CD category, with potentially important implications for case conceptualization and treatment. The current review sought to detail forms of heterogeneity within CD, including callous-unemotional traits, comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behavior, and age of onset. The current review summarizes research on etiological factors, correlates, and trajectories associated with distinguishable dimensions of CD, and considers how this heterogeneity should be incorporated into the assessment and treatment of CD. Callous-unemotional traits have been associated with a more severe and persistent form of CD, as have comorbid ADHD and child-onset CD. Aggressive antisocial behavior is a stable behavioral dimension that emerges in early childhood and is associated with high levels of neuroticism. Nonaggressive antisocial behavior demonstrates specific associations with impulsivity, is most frequent during adolescence, and evidences more moderate levels of stability. Conduct disorder is a highly heterogeneous disorder. Although the clinical implications of this heterogeneity are discussed, future research is clearly needed to shore up our understanding of the clinical ramifications of the sub-dimensions within CD. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Analysis of image heterogeneity using 2D Minkowski functionals detects tumor responses to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Timothy J; Canuto, Holly C; Kettunen, Mikko I; Booth, Thomas C; Hu, De-En; Krishnan, Anant S; Bohndiek, Sarah E; Neves, André A; McLachlan, Charles; Hobson, Michael P; Brindle, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of ever increasing volumes of high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data has created an urgent need to develop automated and objective image analysis algorithms that can assist in determining tumor margins, diagnosing tumor stage, and detecting treatment response. We have shown previously that Minkowski functionals, which are precise morphological and structural descriptors of image heterogeneity, can be used to enhance the detection, in T1 -weighted images, of a targeted Gd(3+) -chelate-based contrast agent for detecting tumor cell death. We have used Minkowski functionals here to characterize heterogeneity in T2 -weighted images acquired before and after drug treatment, and obtained without contrast agent administration. We show that Minkowski functionals can be used to characterize the changes in image heterogeneity that accompany treatment of tumors with a vascular disrupting agent, combretastatin A4-phosphate, and with a cytotoxic drug, etoposide. Parameterizing changes in the heterogeneity of T2 -weighted images can be used to detect early responses of tumors to drug treatment, even when there is no change in tumor size. The approach provides a quantitative and therefore objective assessment of treatment response that could be used with other types of MR image and also with other imaging modalities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajman, Anete; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Belo, Marcia; Calaça, Janaína; Gaspar, Júlia; Dos Santos, Alexandre Martins; Dos Santos, Camila Martins; Brito, Raquel Trindade; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Vassall, Anna; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2016-01-01

    Shortened treatment regimens for tuberculosis are under development to improve treatment outcomes and reduce costs. We estimated potential savings from a societal perspective in Brazil following the introduction of a hypothetical four-month regimen for tuberculosis treatment. Data were gathered in

  13. Some considerations on the treatment of the kinetic data of heterogeneous isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koernyei, J.; Szirtes, L.; Lakatos, M.

    1985-01-01

    A direct curve simulation treatment was worked out for the evaluation of the kinetic curves of heterogeneous isotope exchange. Based on the data obtained by a personal computer, some considerations were made on the transport processes in the fully and half exchanged sodium forms of crystalline zirconium phosphate. (author)

  14. Dosimetric evaluation in heterogeneous tissue of anterior electron beam irradiation for treatment of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsner, S.M.; Hogstrom, K.R.; Kurup, R.G.; Moyers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    A dosimetric study of anterior electron beam irradiation for treatment of retinoblastoma was performed to evaluate the influence of tissue heterogeneities on the dose distribution within the eye and the accuracy of the dose calculated by a pencil beam algorithm. Film measurements were made in a variety of polystyrene phantoms and in a removable polystyrene eye incorporated into a tissue substitute phantom constructed from a human skull. Measurements in polystyrene phantoms were used to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to predict the effect of a lens block placed in the beam, as well as the eye's irregular surface shape. The eye phantom was used to measure dose distributions within the eye in both the sagittal and transverse planes in order to test the algorithm's ability to predict the dose distribution when bony heterogeneities are present. Results show (1) that previous treatment planning conclusions based on flat, uniform phantoms for central-axis depth dose are adequate; (2) that a three-dimensional heterogeneity correction is required for accurate dose calculations; and (3) that if only a two-dimensional heterogeneity correction is used in calculating the dose, it is more accurate for the sagittal than the transverse plane

  15. Identifying treatment effect heterogeneity in clinical trials using subpopulations of events: STEPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ann A; Bonetti, Marco; Cole, Bernard F; Yip, Wai-Ki; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Investigators conducting randomized clinical trials often explore treatment effect heterogeneity to assess whether treatment efficacy varies according to patient characteristics. Identifying heterogeneity is central to making informed personalized healthcare decisions. Treatment effect heterogeneity can be investigated using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot (STEPP), a non-parametric graphical approach that constructs overlapping patient subpopulations with varying values of a characteristic. Procedures for statistical testing using subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot when the endpoint of interest is survival remain an area of active investigation. A STEPP analysis was used to explore patterns of absolute and relative treatment effects for varying levels of a breast cancer biomarker, Ki-67, in the phase III Breast International Group 1-98 randomized clinical trial, comparing letrozole to tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Absolute treatment effects were measured by differences in 4-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer recurrence, while relative effects were measured by the subdistribution hazard ratio in the presence of competing risks using O-E (observed-minus-expected) methodology, an intuitive non-parametric method. While estimation of hazard ratio values based on O-E methodology has been shown, a similar development for the subdistribution hazard ratio has not. Furthermore, we observed that the subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis may not produce results, even with 100 patients within each subpopulation. After further investigation through simulation studies, we observed inflation of the type I error rate of the traditional test statistic and sometimes singular variance-covariance matrix estimates that may lead to results not being produced. This is due to the lack of sufficient number of events within the subpopulations, which we refer to as instability of

  16. HVR-1 heterogeneity during treatment with telaprevir with or without pegylated interferon alfa-2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian M; Susser, Simone; Herrmann, Eva; Karey, Ursula; Kieffer, Tara L; Kwong, Ann D; Schinkel, Janke; Reesink, Henk W; Zeuzem, Stefan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2011-11-01

    The extensive heterogeneity of the hypervariable region-1 (HVR-1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) evidences the high genetic flexibility of HCV and was shown to be associated with virologic response to interferon-α-based therapies. However, the evolution of HVR-1 heterogeneity during treatment with directly acting antivirals has not been studied. Clonal sequence analysis of HVR-1 quasispecies in the serum of patients who were treated with telaprevir (3 × 750 mg/day) alone, telaprevir plus pegylated interferon-α-2a (pegIFN-α-2a), or pegIFN-α-2a plus placebo for 14 days was performed. HVR-1 heterogeneity, expressed as Shannon complexity and Hamming distance, was analyzed with virologic response and with the emergence of variants associated with resistance to telaprevir. HVR-1 heterogeneity at baseline was not associated with response to telaprevir-based therapy (Shannon complexity 0.34 vs. 0.55, p = 0.38; Hamming distance 0.15 vs. 0.23, p = 0.51; for patients with or without viral breakthrough, respectively). No significant changes in HVR-1 complexity were observed from baseline to day 4 of therapy in patients in whom a continued decline in HCV RNA was observed (Shannon complexity = 0.55 vs. 0.51, p = 0.67; Hamming distance = 0.23 vs. 0.25, p = 0.81, respectively). This was similar in patients with viral breakthrough associated with telaprevir-resistant variants (Shannon complexity = 0.34 vs. 0.42, p = 0.68; Hamming distance = 0.15 vs. 0.2, p = 0.50, at baseline and day 4, respectively). Baseline and on-treatment HVR-1 heterogeneity are not associated with early viral response to telaprevir-based therapy.

  17. Modified natural zeolite as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in treatment of recalcitrants in industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton M. Arimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial effluents with high recalcitrants should undergo post-treatment after biological treatment. The aim of this study was to use cheap and abundantly available natural materials to develop heterogeneous Fenton catalysts for the removal of colored recalcitrants in molasses distillery wastewater (MDW. The pellets of zeolite, which is naturally available in many countries, were modified by pre-treatment with sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, before embedding on them the ferrous ions. The effects of pH and temperature on heterogeneous Fenton were studied using the modified catalysts. The sulphuric acid-ferrous modified catalysts showed the highest affectivity which achieved 90% color and 60% TOC (total organic carbon removal at 150 g/L pellet catalyst dosage, 2 g/L H2O2 and 25 °C. The heterogeneous Fenton with the same catalyst caused improvement in the biodegradability of anaerobic effluent from 0.07 to 0.55. The catalyst was also applied to pre-treat the raw MDW and increased it's biodegradability by 4%. The color of the resultant anaerobic effluent was also reduced. The kinetics of total TOC removal was found to depend on operation temperature. It was best described by simultaneous first and second order kinetics model for the initial reaction and second order model for the rest of the reaction.

  18. Cancer treatment scheduling and dynamic heterogeneity in social dilemmas of tumour acidity and vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznatcheev, Artem; Vander Velde, Robert; Scott, Jacob G; Basanta, David

    2017-03-14

    Tumours are diverse ecosystems with persistent heterogeneity in various cancer hallmarks like self-sufficiency of growth factor production for angiogenesis and reprogramming of energy metabolism for aerobic glycolysis. This heterogeneity has consequences for diagnosis, treatment and disease progression. We introduce the double goods game to study the dynamics of these traits using evolutionary game theory. We model glycolytic acid production as a public good for all tumour cells and oxygen from vascularisation via vascular endothelial growth factor production as a club good benefiting non-glycolytic tumour cells. This results in three viable phenotypic strategies: glycolytic, angiogenic and aerobic non-angiogenic. We classify the dynamics into three qualitatively distinct regimes: (1) fully glycolytic; (2) fully angiogenic; or (3) polyclonal in all three cell types. The third regime allows for dynamic heterogeneity even with linear goods, something that was not possible in prior public good models that considered glycolysis or growth factor production in isolation. The cyclic dynamics of the polyclonal regime stress the importance of timing for anti-glycolysis treatments like lonidamine. The existence of qualitatively different dynamic regimes highlights the order effects of treatments. In particular, we consider the potential of vascular normalisation as a neoadjuvant therapy before follow-up with interventions like buffer therapy.

  19. Advanced Heterogeneous Fenton Treatment of Coalbed Methane-Produced Water Containing Fracturing Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heterogeneous Fenton treatment to process coalbed methane-produced water containing fracturing fluid and chose the development region of coalbed methane in the Southern Qinshui Basin as a research area. We synthesized the catalyst of Fe-Co/γ-Al2O3 by homogeneous precipitation method and characterized it by BET, XRD, SEM-EDS, FTIR, and XPS. Based on the degradation rate, we studied the influences of the heterogeneous Fenton method on the coalbed methane output water treatment process parameters, including initial pH, H2O2 concentration, and the catalyst concentration. We also investigated the impacts of overall reaction kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic oxidation on coalbed methane-produced water containing fracturing fluid. Results showed that Fe-Co/γ-Al2O3 as a Fenton catalyst has a good catalytic oxidation effect and can effectively process coalbed methane-produced water. This reaction also followed first-order kinetics. The optimal conditions were as follows: the initial pH of 3.5, a H2O2 concentration of 40 mol L−1, a catalyst concentration of 4 g/L, and an apparent reaction rate constant of 0.0172 min−1. Our results provided a basis to establish methods for treating coalbed methane-produced water.

  20. A historiographic study of psychiatric treatments in Brazil: mentalism and organicism from 1830 to 1859.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida de Oliveira, Carlos Francisco; Martins Eulálio, Carlos Evandro; Campelo, Viriato; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Dening, Tom

    2016-12-01

    Our aim is to investigate two major tendencies in nineteenth-century Brazilian alienism: mentalism and organicism, by conducting a descriptive study of original Brazilian documents on medical health treatments in the 1830s, 1840s and 1850s. Primary sources of Brazilian alienism were theses, memoirs, official reports, and documents written by clinicians and asylum directors. We analysed early mental treatment in Brazilian lunatic asylums, exploring the relative contributions of two main theoretical orientations: moral treatment (based on Pinel and Esquirol) and 'medical-organicist therapeutic orientation'. Intertextuality was used to assess reports of medical organicist treatment in Brazil. We concluded that contemporaneous textual sources indicate that mid-nineteenth-century alienism in Brazil was predominantly influenced by organicism exported from European countries. Pinel's mentalist view, nevertheless, remained the reference point for clinical issues associated with the doctor-patient relationship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Review of 3D image data calibration for heterogeneity correction in proton therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Penfold, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    Correct modelling of the interaction parameters of patient tissues is of vital importance in proton therapy treatment planning because of the large dose gradients associated with the Bragg peak. Different 3D imaging techniques yield different information regarding these interaction parameters. Given the rapidly expanding interest in proton therapy, this review is written to make readers aware of the current challenges in accounting for tissue heterogeneities and the imaging systems that are proposed to tackle these challenges. A summary of the interaction parameters of interest in proton therapy and the current and developmental 3D imaging techniques used in proton therapy treatment planning is given. The different methods to translate the imaging data to the interaction parameters of interest are reviewed and a summary of the implementations in several commercial treatment planning systems is presented.

  2. Review of 3D image data calibration for heterogeneity correction in proton therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Penfold, Scott N

    2016-06-01

    Correct modelling of the interaction parameters of patient tissues is of vital importance in proton therapy treatment planning because of the large dose gradients associated with the Bragg peak. Different 3D imaging techniques yield different information regarding these interaction parameters. Given the rapidly expanding interest in proton therapy, this review is written to make readers aware of the current challenges in accounting for tissue heterogeneities and the imaging systems that are proposed to tackle these challenges. A summary of the interaction parameters of interest in proton therapy and the current and developmental 3D imaging techniques used in proton therapy treatment planning is given. The different methods to translate the imaging data to the interaction parameters of interest are reviewed and a summary of the implementations in several commercial treatment planning systems is presented.

  3. Optimization and real-time control for laser treatment of heterogeneous soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yusheng; Fuentes, David; Hawkins, Andrea; Bass, Jon M; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2009-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of thermotherapies in cancer treatment requires an accurate characterization of the bioheat transfer processes in soft tissues. Due to the biological and structural complexity of tumor (soft tissue) composition and vasculature, it is often very difficult to obtain reliable tissue properties that is one of the key factors for the accurate treatment outcome prediction. Efficient algorithms employing in vivo thermal measurements to determine heterogeneous thermal tissues properties in conjunction with a detailed sensitivity analysis can produce essential information for model development and optimal control. The goals of this paper are to present a general formulation of the bioheat transfer equation for heterogeneous soft tissues, review models and algorithms developed for cell damage, heat shock proteins, and soft tissues with nanoparticle inclusion, and demonstrate an overall computational strategy for developing a laser treatment framework with the ability to perform real-time robust calibrations and optimal control. This computational strategy can be applied to other thermotherapies using the heat source such as radio frequency or high intensity focused ultrasound.

  4. Comparison of two heterogeneity correction algorithms in pituitary gland treatments with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Lucas D.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Weltman, Eduardo; Braga, Henrique F.

    2013-01-01

    The dose accuracy calculated by a treatment planning system is directly related to the chosen algorithm. Nowadays, several calculation doses algorithms are commercially available and they differ in calculation time and accuracy, especially when individual tissue densities are taken into account. The aim of this study was to compare two different calculation algorithms from iPlan®, BrainLAB, in the treatment of pituitary gland tumor with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These tumors are located in a region with variable electronic density tissues. The deviations from the plan with no heterogeneity correction were evaluated. To initial validation of the data inserted into the planning system, an IMRT plan was simulated in a anthropomorphic phantom and the dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film. The gamma analysis was performed in the film, comparing it with dose distributions calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm and pencil beam convolution (PBC). Next, 33 patients plans, initially calculated by PBC algorithm, were recalculated with XVMC algorithm. The treatment volumes and organs-at-risk dose-volume histograms were compared. No relevant differences were found in dose-volume histograms between XVMC and PBC. However, differences were obtained when comparing each plan with the plan without heterogeneity correction. (author)

  5. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing and reporting heterogeneity in treatment effects in clinical trials: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent David M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mounting evidence suggests that there is frequently considerable variation in the risk of the outcome of interest in clinical trial populations. These differences in risk will often cause clinically important heterogeneity in treatment effects (HTE across the trial population, such that the balance between treatment risks and benefits may differ substantially between large identifiable patient subgroups; the "average" benefit observed in the summary result may even be non-representative of the treatment effect for a typical patient in the trial. Conventional subgroup analyses, which examine whether specific patient characteristics modify the effects of treatment, are usually unable to detect even large variations in treatment benefit (and harm across risk groups because they do not account for the fact that patients have multiple characteristics simultaneously that affect the likelihood of treatment benefit. Based upon recent evidence on optimal statistical approaches to assessing HTE, we propose a framework that prioritizes the analysis and reporting of multivariate risk-based HTE and suggests that other subgroup analyses should be explicitly labeled either as primary subgroup analyses (well-motivated by prior evidence and intended to produce clinically actionable results or secondary (exploratory subgroup analyses (performed to inform future research. A standardized and transparent approach to HTE assessment and reporting could substantially improve clinical trial utility and interpretability.

  7. 1842676957299765Latent class cluster analysis to understand heterogeneity in prostate cancer treatment utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghani Salimah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men with prostate cancer are often challenged to choose between conservative management and a range of available treatment options each carrying varying risks and benefits. The trade-offs are between an improved life-expectancy with treatment accompanied by important risks such as urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Previous studies of preference elicitation for prostate cancer treatment have found considerable heterogeneity in individuals' preferences for health states given similar treatments and clinical risks. Methods Using latent class mixture model (LCA, we first sought to understand if there are unique patterns of heterogeneity or subgroups of individuals based on their prostate cancer treatment utilities (calculated time trade-off utilities for various health states and if such unique subgroups exist, what demographic and urological variables may predict membership in these subgroups. Results The sample (N = 244 included men with prostate cancer (n = 188 and men at-risk for disease (n = 56. The sample was predominantly white (77%, with mean age of 60 years (SD ± 9.5. Most (85.9% were married or living with a significant other. Using LCA, a three class solution yielded the best model evidenced by the smallest Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC, substantial reduction in BIC from a 2-class solution, and Lo-Mendell-Rubin significance of < .001. The three identified clusters were named high-traders (n = 31, low-traders (n = 116, and no-traders (n = 97. High-traders were more likely to trade survival time associated with treatment to avoid potential risks of treatment. Low-traders were less likely to trade survival time and accepted risks of treatment. The no-traders were likely to make no trade-offs in any direction favouring the status quo. There was significant difference among the clusters in the importance of sexual activity (Pearson's χ2 = 16.55, P = 0.002; Goodman and Kruskal tau = 0.039, P < 0.001. In

  8. VEGFR2 heterogeneity and response to anti-angiogenic low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patten, Steven G; Adamcic, Una; Lacombe, Kristen; Minhas, Kanwal; Skowronski, Karolina; Coomber, Brenda L

    2010-01-01

    Targeting tumor vasculature is a strategy with great promise in the treatment of many cancers. However, anti-angiogenic reagents that target VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling have met with variable results clinically. Among the possible reasons for this may be heterogeneous expression of the target protein. Double immunofluorescent staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections of treated and control SW480 (colorectal) and WM239 (melanoma) xenografts, and tissue microarrays of human colorectal carcinoma and melanoma. Xenografts were developed using RAG1 -/- mice by injection with WM239 or SW480 cells and mice were treated with 20 mg/kg/day of cyclophosphamide in their drinking water for up to 18 days. Treated and control tissues were characterized by double immunofluorescence using the mural cell marker α-SMA and CD31, while the ratio of desmin/CD31 was also determined by western blot. Hypoxia in treated and control tissues were quantified using both western blotting for HIF-1α and immunohistochemistry of CA-IX. VEGFR2 is heterogeneously expressed in tumor vasculature in both malignant melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We observed a significant decrease in microvascular density (MVD) in response to low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in both malignant melanoma (with higher proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 93%) and colorectal carcinoma (with lower proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 60%) xenografts. This reduction in MVD occurred in the absence of a significant anti-tumor effect. We also observed less hypoxia in treated melanoma xenografts, despite successful anti-angiogenic blockade, but no change in hypoxia of colorectal xenografts, suggesting that decreases in tumor hypoxia reflect a complex relationship with vascular density. Based on α-SMA staining and the ratio of desmin to CD31 expression as markers of tumor blood vessel functionality, we found evidence for increased stabilization of colorectal microvessels, but no

  9. VEGFR2 heterogeneity and response to anti-angiogenic low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowronski Karolina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting tumor vasculature is a strategy with great promise in the treatment of many cancers. However, anti-angiogenic reagents that target VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling have met with variable results clinically. Among the possible reasons for this may be heterogeneous expression of the target protein. Methods Double immunofluorescent staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections of treated and control SW480 (colorectal and WM239 (melanoma xenografts, and tissue microarrays of human colorectal carcinoma and melanoma. Xenografts were developed using RAG1-/- mice by injection with WM239 or SW480 cells and mice were treated with 20 mg/kg/day of cyclophosphamide in their drinking water for up to 18 days. Treated and control tissues were characterized by double immunofluorescence using the mural cell marker α-SMA and CD31, while the ratio of desmin/CD31 was also determined by western blot. Hypoxia in treated and control tissues were quantified using both western blotting for HIF-1α and immunohistochemistry of CA-IX. Results VEGFR2 is heterogeneously expressed in tumor vasculature in both malignant melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We observed a significant decrease in microvascular density (MVD in response to low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in both malignant melanoma (with higher proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 93% and colorectal carcinoma (with lower proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 60% xenografts. This reduction in MVD occurred in the absence of a significant anti-tumor effect. We also observed less hypoxia in treated melanoma xenografts, despite successful anti-angiogenic blockade, but no change in hypoxia of colorectal xenografts, suggesting that decreases in tumor hypoxia reflect a complex relationship with vascular density. Based on α-SMA staining and the ratio of desmin to CD31 expression as markers of tumor blood vessel functionality, we found evidence for increased

  10. Bayesian analysis of heterogeneous treatment effects for patient-centered outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nicholas C; Louis, Thomas A; Wang, Chenguang; Varadhan, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE) is an essential aspect of personalized medicine and patient-centered outcomes research. Our goal in this article is to promote the use of Bayesian methods for subgroup analysis and to lower the barriers to their implementation by describing the ways in which the companion software beanz can facilitate these types of analyses. To advance this goal, we describe several key Bayesian models for investigating HTE and outline the ways in which they are well-suited to address many of the commonly cited challenges in the study of HTE. Topics highlighted include shrinkage estimation, model choice, sensitivity analysis, and posterior predictive checking. A case study is presented in which we demonstrate the use of the methods discussed.

  11. [Policy dilemmas in providing antiretroviral treatment in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Lago, Regina Ferro; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2010-11-01

    This paper addresses institutional constraints that have affected Brazilian politics regarding provision of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) to HIV/Aids patients. We analyzed the normative conflict resulting from international agreements on intellectual property rights, especially patent protection, and the constitutional rights of Brazilian patients to universal and free access to ART. These constraints have not substantially changed the Brazilian public policy yet, but they may impact the future sustainability of this policy. As the main barrier to the production of patented drugs is not technological but institutional, Brazilian government faces a dilemma. It may either abide by existing monopolistic restrictions or it may incite competitiveness of domestic industries and developing countries in the pharmaceutical market.

  12. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised: normative and accuracy data for seniors with heterogeneous educational level in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, Karolina G; Yassuda, Mônica S; Porto, Fabio H G; Brucki, Sonia M D; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    Several cognitive tools have been developed aiming to diagnose dementia. The cognitive battery Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R) has been used to detect cognitive impairment; however, there are few studies including samples with low education. The aim of the study was to provide ACE-R norms for seniors within a lower education, including illiterates. An additional aim was to examine the accuracy of the ACE-R to detect dementia and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND). Data originated from an epidemiological study conducted in the municipality of Tremembé, Brazil. The Brazilian version of ACE-R was applied as part of the cognitive assessment in all participants. Of the 630 participants, 385 were classified as cognitively normal (CN) and were included in the normative data set, 110 individuals were diagnosed with dementia, and 135 were classified as having CIND. ACE-R norms were provided with the sample stratified into age and education bands. ACE-R total scores varied significantly according to age, education, and sex. To distinguish CN from dementia, a cut-off of 64 points was established (sensitivity 91%, specificity 76%) and to differentiate CN from CIND the best cut-off was 69 points (sensitivity 73%, specificity 65%). Cut-off scores varied according to the educational level. This study offers normative and accuracy parameters for seniors with lower education and it should expand the use of the ACE-R for this population segment.

  13. Access to treatment for phenylketonuria by judicial means in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mangueira Trevisan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU includes the use of a metabolic formula which should be provided free of charge by the Unified Health System (SUS. This retrospective, observational study sought to characterize judicial channels to obtain PKU treatment in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. Lawsuits filed between 2001- 2010 and having as beneficiaries PKU patients requesting treatment for the disease were included. Of 20 lawsuits filed, corresponding to 16.8% of RS patients with PKU, 19 were retrieved for analysis. Of these, only two sought to obtain therapies other than metabolic formula. In all the other 17 cases, prior treatment requests had been granted by the State Department of Health. Defendants included the State (n = 19, the Union (n = 1, and municipalities (n = 4. In 18/19 cases, the courts ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. Violation of the right to health and discontinuation of State-provided treatment were the main reasons for judicial recourse. Unlike other genetic diseases, patients with PKU seek legal remedy to obtain a product already covered by the national pharmaceutical assistance policy, suggesting that management failures are a driving factor for judicialization in Brazil.

  14. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for air and water treatment: Fundamental needs for quantum efficiency enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollis, D.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In the remediation industries, a useful treatment technology must be {open_quotes}general, robust, and cheap{close_quotes}. Among oxidation processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is now broadly demonstrated to destroy common water and air contaminants. The potential process uses of highly stable titania, long lived lamps (one year), and room temperature operation, indicating a simple and robust process. We are left to address the third criterion: Can photocatalysis be {open_quotes}cheap{close_quotes}? In both liquid phase and gas phase treatment and purification by photocatalysis, it is established that the primary barrier to commercialization is often cost. Cost in return is dominated by the efficiency with which solar or lamp photons are harvested for productive light, and subsequent dark, reactions. This paper therefore defines fundamental needs in photocatalysis for pollution control in terms of activities which could lead to quantum efficiency enhancement. We first recall three related definitions. The quantum yield (QY) is the ratio of molecules of reactant converted per photon absorbed, a fundamental quantity. A less fundamental, but more easily measured variable is the quantum efficiency (QE), the ratio of molecules converted per photon entering the reactor. A third variable is the energy required per order of magnitude pollutant reduction, or EEO, a definition which provides for easy energy cost comparisons among different technologies. Each measure cited here reflects the photon, and thus the electrical, cost of this photochemistry.

  15. Assessment of the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kennedy Scofoni Faleiros de Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is funded by the national public health system (SUS. To evaluate treatment results in the state of Mato Grosso, central Brazil, we have consulted the files of the office of the State Department of Health responsible for supplying such medications. We obtained information on 232 treatments of 201 patients who underwent treatment in or prior to 2008. The study was conducted by reviewing medical records, making telephone calls and interviewing the assistant physicians. Thirty-nine patients (19.4% had cirrhosis and HCV genotype 1 predominated (64.3%. Excluding patients with comorbidities or treatment without ribavirin we analysed 175 treatments (sustained virologic response occurred in 32.6% of cases. Twenty-six of these 175 were retreatments and the sustained virological response (SVR rate among them was 30.8%; the SVR rate was 32.9% among those receiving treatment for the first time. The SVR rate of genotype 1 patients was 27.8%, whereas it was 37.5% in non-1 genotype patients. The adjusted multivariate analysis showed association of SVR with the absence of cirrhosis [odds ratio (OR: 7.7; confidence interval (CI 95%: 2.5, 33.3], the use of pegylated interferon (OR: 5.8; CI 95%: 1.5, 21.4, non-1 genotype (OR: 5.3; CI 95%: 1.7, 16.7 and uninterrupted treatment (OR: 9.0; CI 95%: 3.3, 45.4. The SVR rates were similar to those found in other Brazilian studies about HCV, but lower than those found in national and international clinical trials. These data suggest that the treatments of chronic hepatitis C that are made available by SUS does not, under normal conditions, work as well as the original controlled studies indicated.

  16. Treatment of liquid wastes from decontamination of nuclear power plants by heterogeneous photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgada, Maria Eugenia

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear power plants high radiation fields are produced, not only in the core but also in the auxiliary systems, due, mainly, to the activation of corrosion products by means of a mechanism known as 'Activity Transport'.With the purpose of reducing at minimum values the intensity of radiation fields and of avoiding the operative problems generated by the deposition of oxides in tanks and pipelines, it is necessary to remove the oxide films, carriers of activity, from the components in auxiliary systems in nuclear power plants and this is usually carried on by chemical cleaning.This process, known as decontamination, is done employing mixtures of oligocarboxilic acids such as NTA, EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, etc., at concentration nearly 1% and pH 3-4.The resulting liquid wastes of this process cannot be discharged directly to the environment but must be properly treated.Conventional treatments such as thermolysis, chemical oxidation and others show some problems and, in addition, some of these substances are resistant to degradation.Previous work done in the Unidad de Actividad Quimica del Centro Atomico Constituyentes (UAQ-CAC) indicated that Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, belonging to the Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs), could be a useful procedure for the treatment of liquid decontamination wastes. This method consists on the irradiation of an aqueous suspension of a semiconductor, generally TiO 2 , containing the substrate to be degraded, employing wavelengths shorter than the semiconductor's 'band-gap'.In this way, oxidant and reducing molecules are generated.The advantages compared to other AOTs are its low cost, the ability to work at room temperature and pressure, it uses only oxygen as oxidizing agent and can be operated in 'batch' and continuum.In the present work we employed a recycling system, with a black-light tubular UV lamp (366nm) installed inside as the source of illumination, to study the degradation of oxalic and citric acid by

  17. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I; Gruskin, Sofia; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-11-13

    Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs: patented lopinavir

  18. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005.We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs

  19. Treatment outcomes of MDR-tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a retrospective cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lisboa Bastos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting. Methods The 2007–2013 cohort of the national electronic database (SITE-TB, which records all special treatments including drug-resistance, was analysed. Patients classified as MDR-TB in SITE-TB were eligible. Treatment outcomes were classified as successful (cure/treatment completed or unsuccessful (failure/relapse/death/loss to follow-up. The odds for successful treatment according to type of regimen were controlled for demographic and clinical variables. Results Out of 4029 registered patients, we included 1972 recorded from 2010 to 2012, who had more complete outcome data. The overall success proportion was 60%. Success was more likely in non-HIV patients, sputum-negative at baseline, with unilateral disease and without prior DR-TB. Adjusted for these variables, those receiving standardized regimens had 2.7-fold odds of success compared to those receiving individualized treatments when failure/relapse were considered, and 1.4-fold odds of success when death was included as an unsuccessful outcome. When loss to follow-up was added, no difference between types of treatment was observed. Patients who used levofloxacin instead of ofloxacin had 1.5-fold odds of success. Conclusion In this large cohort of MDR-TB patients with a low proportion of successful outcomes, standardized regimens had superior efficacy than individualized regimens, when adjusted for relevant variables. In addition to the limitations of any retrospective observational

  20. SU-F-19A-01: APBI Brachytherapy Treatment Planning: The Impact of Heterogeneous Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupot, S; Han, T; Salehpour, M; Gifford, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the difference in dose to PTV-EVAL and OARs (skin and rib) as calculated by (TG43) and heterogeneous calculations (CCC). Methods: 25 patient plans (5 Contura and 20 SAVI) were selected for analysis. Clinical dose distributions were computed with a commercially available treatment planning algorithm (TG43-D-(w,w)) and then recomputed with a pre-clinical collapsed cone convolution algorithm (CCCD-( m,m)). PTV-EVAL coverage (V90%, V95%), and rib and skin maximum dose were compared via percent difference. Differences in dose to normal tissue (V150cc, V200cc of PTV-EVAL) were also compared. Changes in coverage and maximum dose to organs at risk are reported in percent change, (100*(TG43 − CCC) / TG43)), and changes in maximum dose to normal tissue are absolute change in cc (TG43 − CCC). Results: Mean differences in V90, V95, V150, and V200 for the SAVI cases were −0.2%, −0.4%, −0.03cc, and −0.14cc, respectively, with maximum differences of −0.78%, −1.7%, 1.28cc, and 1.01cc, respectively. Mean differences in the 0.1cc dose to the rib and skin were −1.4% and −0.22%, respectively, with maximum differences of −4.5% and 16%, respectively. Mean differences in V90, V95, V150, and V200 for the Contura cases were −1.2%, −2.1%, −1.8cc, and −0.59cc, respectively, with maximum differences of −2.0%, −3.16%, −2.9cc, and −0.76cc, respectively. Mean differences in the 0.1cc dose to the rib and skin were −2.6% and −3.9%, respectively, with maximum differences of −3.2% and −5.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The effects of translating clinical knowledge based on D-(w,w) to plans reported in D-(m,m) are minimal (2% or less) on average, but vary based on the type and placement of the device, source, and heterogeneity information

  1. Public health system and psychiatry in the treatment of 'dangerous' young offenders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Cordeiro, Quirino; Taborda, José G V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Experimental Health Unit, a special forensic mental health facility in Brazil, created by court order and administered by the São Paulo Department of Health. It was designed for young offenders receiving compulsory inpatient treatment for severe personality disorders. All nine patients admitted to date came from Foundation CASA (a socio-educational centre of assistance for adolescents, the juvenile correctional centres managed by the São Paulo state Department of Justice). The court decision is questionable, relying on a new interpretation of the Child and Adolescent Statute and the law that regulates psychiatric treatment in Brazil. The public health system and psychiatry have been supporting the isolation of some individuals from society, based on the seriousness of their crimes and possession of particular personality characteristics. The decision to commit and send a small group of personality disordered individuals to this unit as inpatients is an unfair decision, since jails and correctional centres hold a high number of psychopathic who have also committed barbaric crimes. The central mental health issue is the role that the public health system should play in the custody of dangerous people; the cost-effectiveness of this model, the accuracy of risk assessment and tractability of people with severe personality disorders are also debatable. From a legal perspective, the operation of this facility raises questions about age of legal majority, the maximum period of incarceration of young offenders and use of whole-life sentences for certain types of crimes and criminals in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of work on the treatment of radioactive wastes at IPR (Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas, Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M.L.L.; Gomes, H.

    1974-01-01

    The work developed until 1974 by the group of IPR (Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas - MG, Brazil) responsible for the treatment of radioative wastes, is presented. The evaporation of liquid effluents of medium level activity, the treatment of gaseous effluents, the vitrification of high level liquid wastes and the sites for the final disposal of wastes are discussed [pt

  3. Non-participation during azithromycin mass treatment for trachoma in The Gambia: heterogeneity and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansy Edwards

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is concern that untreated individuals in mass drug administration (MDA programs for neglected tropical diseases can reduce the impact of elimination efforts by maintaining a source of transmission and re-infection.Treatment receipt was recorded against the community census during three MDAs with azithromycin for trachoma in The Gambia, a hypo-endemic setting. Predictors of non-participation were investigated in 1-9 year olds using random effects logistic regression of cross-sectional data for each MDA. Two types of non-participators were identified: present during MDA but not treated (PNT and eligible for treatment but absent during MDA (EBA. PNT and EBA children were compared to treated children separately. Multivariable models were developed using baseline data and validated using year one and two data, with a priori adjustment for previous treatment status. Analyses included approximately 10000 children at baseline and 5000 children subsequently. There was strong evidence of spatial heterogeneity, and persistent non-participation within households and individuals. By year two, non-participation increased significantly to 10.4% overall from 6.2% at baseline, with more, smaller geographical clusters of non-participating households. Multivariable models suggested household level predictors of non-participation (increased time to water and household head non-participation for both PNT and EBA; increased household size for PNT status only; non-inclusion in a previous trachoma examination survey and younger age for EBA only. Enhanced coverage efforts did not decrease non-participation. Few infected children were detected at year three and only one infected child was EBA previously. Infected children were in communities close to untreated endemic areas with higher rates of EBA non-participation during MDA.In hypo-endemic settings, with good coverage and no association between non-participation and infection, efforts to improve participation

  4. Drug addiction and alcoholism as predictors for tuberculosis treatment default in Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M R; Pereira, J C; Costa, R R; Dias, J A; Guimarães, M D C; Leite, I C G

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients' entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04-49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34-24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11-15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08-7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79-24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.

  5. Conceptions of health, illness and treatment of patients who use homeopathy in Santos, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriani Justo, C M; Dé Andrea Gomes, Mara H

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the conceptions of health and illness, the reasons for seeking homeopathy and continuing treatment, compliance and the meaning of the relationship between religiosity and health for patients who adhere to homeopathy. A qualitative study of 20 adult patients in Santos (Brazil) treated by homeopaths in the public and private sector for at least 2 years. Semi-structured interviews, organized by predefined thematic categories, the content of the interviews was analyzed. The conceptions of health and illness of the interviewed patients are related to the idea of vital balance/imbalance mediated by body-mind interaction. Dissatisfaction with conventional treatment, family influence and suggestions of others were the reasons for seeking homeopathic treatment. Patients continued homeopathic treatment due to positive therapeutic results, cure without being aggressive to the organism, the holistic integrated approach, the preventive nature of the treatment and low prices of medicine. For these patients, the availability of homeopathy in the public health sector extends the possibility of access. The need for a wider dissemination of homeopathy and the difficulties in following the prescription are the main problems involved in continuing treatment. Faith is an important component. We found a correlation between the conceptions of health and illness and the principles of homeopathy, assimilated through a strong bond between patients and the homeopathic practitioners. To investigate the beliefs, values and meanings that patients attribute to homeopathy helps to understand subjective aspects that may interfere with treatment compliance.

  6. Comparative performance evaluation of full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M; Oliveira, S C

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates and compares the actual behavior of 166 full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment plants in operation in Brazil, providing information on the performance of the processes in terms of the quality of the generated effluent and the removal efficiency achieved. The observed results of effluent concentrations and removal efficiencies of the constituents BOD, COD, TSS (total suspended solids), TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus) and FC (faecal or thermotolerant coliforms) have been compared with the typical expected performance reported in the literature. The treatment technologies selected for study were: (a) predominantly anaerobic: (i) septic tank + anaerobic filter (ST + AF), (ii) UASB reactor without post-treatment (UASB) and (iii) UASB reactor followed by several post-treatment processes (UASB + POST); (b) predominantly aerobic: (iv) facultative pond (FP), (v) anaerobic pond followed by facultative pond (AP + FP) and (vi) activated sludge (AS). The results, confirmed by statistical tests, showed that, in general, the best performance was achieved by AS, but closely followed by UASB reactor, when operating with any kind of post-treatment. The effluent quality of the anaerobic processes ST + AF and UASB reactor without post-treatment was very similar to the one presented by facultative pond, a simpler aerobic process, regarding organic matter.

  7. Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer among Women Attending a Reference Service in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro Lopes, Tiara Cristina; Gravena, Angela Andréia França; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira; Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso; Dell`Agnolo, Cátia Millene; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2017-11-26

    Background: Cancer is a major public health problem. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for reducing mortality. This study aimed to analyze factors associated with delay in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among women attending a reference cancer service. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with data collected from medical records and interviews conducted with women diagnosed with breast cancer and treated from October 2013 to October 2014 at a cancer reference hospital in Paraná, Southern Brazil. Results: A total of 82 participants were enrolled during the study period; their average age was 58.2 ± 11.5 years. The average time taken for final diagnosis of breast cancer was 102.5 ± 165.5 days. Treatment onset was delayed in the majority of cases, and the average time elapsing from diagnostic biopsy to onset of primary treatment was 72.3 ± 54.0 days. The odds of treatment delay were higher among the women with a low educational level. Conclusions: The results underline the need for proposals aimed at early detection, identification of risk factors and timely provision of treatment by health managers that focus on this group. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. The outcome of tuberculosis treatment in subjects with chronic kidney disease in Brazil: a multinomial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Reis-Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between clinical/epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of tuberculosis treatment in patients with concomitant tuberculosis and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Brazil. METHODS: We used the Brazilian Ministry of Health National Case Registry Database to identify patients with tuberculosis and CKD, treated between 2007 and 2011. The tuberculosis treatment outcomes were compared with epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the subjects using a hierarchical multinomial logistic regression model, in which cure was the reference outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD among patients with tuberculosis was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.37-0.42%. The sample comprised 1,077 subjects. The outcomes were cure, in 58%; treatment abandonment, in 7%; death from tuberculosis, in 13%; and death from other causes, in 22%. The characteristics that differentiated the ORs for treatment abandonment or death were age; alcoholism; AIDS; previous noncompliance with treatment; transfer to another facility; suspected tuberculosis on chest X-ray; positive results in the first smear microscopy; and indications for/use of directly observed treatment, short-course strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the importance of sociodemographic characteristics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with CKD and underscore the need for tuberculosis control strategies targeting patients with chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as CKD.

  9. Elimination of casting heterogeneities by high temperature heat treatment on a titanium stabilized austenitic alloy. Effect on the microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, Jacques; Cadalbert, Robert; Sidhom, Habib.

    1982-06-01

    Microstructural observation on a longitudinal section of stainless steels often reveals the presence of a ''veined'' structure showing a segregation remainder due to the setting of the ingot. This casting heterogeneity can be eliminated by high temperature treatments. This study shows the change in the structure and the state of solubilization produced by these high temperature treatments and the effect of a stabilizing element such as titanium on Z6CNDT17.13 and Z10CNDT15.15B alloys compared with the Z6CND17.13 alloy. It is also shown that a high temperature treatment applied to these stabilized alloys deeply modifies the recrystallization kinetics [fr

  10. Addressing challenges of heterogeneous tumor treatment through bispecific protein-mediated pretargeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Parker, Christina L; McCallen, Justin D; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-12-28

    Tumors are frequently characterized by genomically and phenotypically distinct cancer cell subpopulations within the same tumor or between tumor lesions, a phenomenon termed tumor heterogeneity. These diverse cancer cell populations pose a major challenge to targeted delivery of diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents, as the conventional approach of conjugating individual ligands to nanoparticles is often unable to facilitate intracellular delivery to the full spectrum of cancer cells present in a given tumor lesion or patient. As a result, many cancers are only partially suppressed, leading to eventual tumor regrowth and/or the development of drug-resistant tumors. Pretargeting (multistep targeting) approaches involving the administration of 1) a cocktail of bispecific proteins that can collectively bind to the entirety of a mixed tumor population followed by 2) nanoparticles containing therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents that can bind to the bispecific proteins accumulated on the surface of target cells offer the potential to overcome many of the challenges associated with drug delivery to heterogeneous tumors. Despite its considerable success in improving the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy, the pretargeting strategy remains underexplored for a majority of nanoparticle therapeutic applications, especially for targeted delivery to heterogeneous tumors. In this review, we will present concepts in tumor heterogeneity, the shortcomings of conventional targeted systems, lessons learned from pretargeted radioimmunotherapy, and important considerations for harnessing the pretargeting strategy to improve nanoparticle delivery to heterogeneous tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and fate of trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. The effluents of wastewater treatment plants, usually directly emitted to the environment, often contain the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Diclofenac was chosen because it is of high consumption; by background literature indicate toxic effects on biota and the lack of profile in sewage removal provided by the city. For this purpose, a survey on the presence of diclofenac in urban wastewater of Rio de Janeiro was carried out. It were evaluated diclofenac concentration in the affluent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP Penha and Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each WWTP, and for clean up the samples were solid phase extraction (SPE, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, assisted by diode array detector (DAD techniques. The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater treatment plants was roughly evaluated. Diclofenac was detected in all samples analysed wastewater (treated and raw, which confirms the low removal efficiency of conventional treatment systems, aerobes and anaerobes.

  13. Niobium substituted magnetite as a strong heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim Pouran, Shima, E-mail: rahimpooran@yahoo.com [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abdul Aziz, A.R., E-mail: azizraman@um.edu.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri, E-mail: ashri@um.edu.my [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi, E-mail: zembong@gmail.com [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-10-01

    decrease in their catalytic efficiency. The results proved that incorporation of niobium into magnetite significantly improved the characteristics and effectiveness of the heterogeneous catalyst for Fenton treatment of recalcitrant effluents.

  14. [Advanced treatment of coking wastewater with a novel heterogeneous electro-Fenton technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Tao; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, An-Yang; Cao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A novel electro-catalytic reactor, with oxygen-reduction cathode (PAQ/GF), dimensionally stable anode (IrO2-RuO2 -TiO2/ Ti) and heterogeneous catalysts, is developed for advanced treatment of coking wastewater after biological process, integrating cathodic and anodic simultaneous oxidation processes. A PAQ/GF electrode was synthesized by the electro-polymerization of 2-ethyl anthraquinone on graphite felt, which was characterized with cyclic voltametry measurements; the results indicated that the PAQ/GF electrode showed high reversibility for oxidation-reduction reaction of anthraquinone and catalytic activity for O2 reduction to H2O2; 13.5 mmol/L H2O2 was obtained after electrolysis for 6 h at -0.7 V (vs. SCE) and pH 6 with a current efficiency of 50% in a membrane reactor. Fe-Cu/Y350 catalysts, prepared by impregnation method, could catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) from H2O2, which was confirmed both by fading reaction of crystal violet and oxidation of *OH-probe compound (p-chlorobenzoic acid); Fe-Cu/Y350 also showed high catalytic-activity for the oxidation of organics by hypochlorous sodium, because COD removal of coking wastewater reached 26% in the catalytic process while only 11% of COD removal was obtained in the absence of Fe-Cu/Y350. COD removal of coking wastewater reached 49.4% (26.0% and 23.4% in cathodic system and anodic system, respectively) in the developed electrolytic-reactor, which was higher than that of conventional cathodic-anodic-oxidation process (29.8%). At optimal reaction condition of initial COD = 192 mg/L, I = 10A x m(-2) and pH 4-5, more than 50% COD were removed after electrolysis for 1 h. The mechanism might be as follows: in cathodic system, H2O2 is generated from reduction of O2 on PAQ/GF cathode, and catalyzed by Fe-Cu/Y350 for production of *OH, which causes mineralization and degradation of organic pollutants; in anodic system, Cl2 and HClO are generated from Cl- oxidation on IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti anode and the

  15. Residual waters treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis: a study of experimental parameters applied to the photoelectrocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Santana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of electrochemically-assisted heterogeneous photo-catalysis will be discussed. Several operational parameters will also be discussed, in order to achieve optimum efficiency of this photo-degradation system, such as: the influence of variables as support electrolyte, applied potential, dye initial concentration, pH and choice of a UV source on dye degradation.

  16. An Exponential Tilt Mixture Model for Time-to-Event Data to Evaluate Treatment Effect Heterogeneity in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi; Tan, Zhiqiang; Louis, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the effect of a treatment on a time-to-event outcome is the focus of many randomized clinical trials. It is often observed that the treatment effect is heterogeneous, where only a subgroup of the patients may respond to the treatment due to some unknown mechanism such as genetic polymorphism. In this paper, we propose a semiparametric exponential tilt mixture model to estimate the proportion of patients who respond to the treatment and to assess the treatment effect. Our model is a natural extension of parametric mixture models to a semiparametric setting with a time-to-event outcome. We propose a nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation approach for inference and establish related asymptotic properties. Our method is illustrated by a randomized clinical trial on biodegradable polymer-delivered chemotherapy for malignant gliomas patients.

  17. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Relative Treatment Effects for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models and Value-of-Information Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; Soares, Marta O; Palmer, Stephen; Ades, Anthony E; Harrison, David; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Rowan, Kathy M

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the absence of observed treatment effect modifiers, various summaries from the random effects distribution (random effects mean, predictive distribution, random effects distribution, or study-specific estimate [shrunken or independent of other studies]) can be used depending on the relationship between the setting for the decision (population characteristics, treatment definitions, and other contextual factors) and the included studies. If covariates have been measured that could potentially explain the heterogeneity, then these can be included in a meta-regression model. We describe how covariates can be included in a network meta-analysis model and how the output from such an analysis can be used in a CEA model. We outline a model selection procedure to help choose between competing models and stress the importance of clinical input. We illustrate the approach with a health technology assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin for the management of adult patients with severe sepsis in an intensive care setting, which exemplifies how risk of bias information can be incorporated into CEA models. We show that the results of the CEA and value-of-information analyses are sensitive to the model and highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses when conducting CEA in the presence of heterogeneity. The methods presented extend naturally to heterogeneity in other model inputs, such as baseline risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Precision IORT - Image guided intraoperative radiation therapy (igIORT) using online treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Bludau, Frederic; Clausen, Sven; Fleckenstein, Jens; Obertacke, Udo; Wenz, Frederik

    2017-05-01

    To the present date, IORT has been eye and hand guided without treatment planning and tissue heterogeneity correction. This limits the precision of the application and the precise documentation of the location and the deposited dose in the tissue. Here we present a set-up where we use image guidance by intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for precise online Monte Carlo treatment planning including tissue heterogeneity correction. An IORT was performed during balloon kyphoplasty using a dedicated Needle Applicator. An intraoperative CBCT was registered with a pre-op CT. Treatment planning was performed in Radiance using a hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm simulating dose in homogeneous (MCwater) and heterogeneous medium (MChet). Dose distributions on CBCT and pre-op CT were compared with each other. Spinal cord and the metastasis doses were evaluated. The MCwater calculations showed a spherical dose distribution as expected. The minimum target dose for the MChet simulations on pre-op CT was increased by 40% while the maximum spinal cord dose was decreased by 35%. Due to the artefacts on the CBCT the comparison between MChet simulations on CBCT and pre-op CT showed differences up to 50% in dose. igIORT and online treatment planning improves the accuracy of IORT. However, the current set-up is limited by CT artefacts. Fusing an intraoperative CBCT with a pre-op CT allows the combination of an accurate dose calculation with the knowledge of the correct source/applicator position. This method can be also used for pre-operative treatment planning followed by image guided surgery. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system Xi O with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, Leandro R.; Barbi, Gustavo L.; Silva, Wiliam T.; Reis, Eduardo G.F.; Borges, Leandro F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Maciel, Marina F.; Amaral, Leonardo L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference ∼1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%). (author)

  20. Quality of life among HIV-infected patients in Brazil after initiation of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Nogueira Campos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite improvement in clinical treatment for HIV-infected patients, the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the overall quality of life has become a major concern. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased levels of self-reported quality of life among HIV-infected patients after four months of antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Patients were recruited at two public health referral centers for AIDS, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, for a prospective adherence study. Patients were interviewed before initiating treatment (baseline and after one and four months. Quality of life was assessed using a psychometric instrument, and factors associated with good/very good quality of life four months after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy were assessed using a cross-sectional approach. Logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Overall quality of life was classified as 'very good/good' by 66.4% of the participants four months after initiating treatment, while 33.6% classified it as 'neither poor nor good/poor/very poor'. Logistic regression indicated that >8 years of education, none/mild symptoms of anxiety and depression, no antiretroviral switch, lower number of adverse reactions and better quality of life at baseline were independently associated with good/very good quality of life over four months of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of modifiable factors such as psychiatric symptoms and treatment-related variables that may contribute to a better quality of life among patients initiating treatment. Considering that poor quality of life is related to non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy, careful clinical monitoring of these factors may contribute to ensuring the long-term effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens.

  1. Heterogeneous dermatitis complaints after change in drinking water treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Rajiv

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The disinfectant monochloramine minimizes the formation of potentially hazardous and regulated byproducts, and many drinking water utilities are shifting to its use. Case presentation After a drinking water utility serving 2.4 million people switched to monochloramine for residual disinfection, a small number of residents complained of dermatitis reactions. We interviewed 17 people about their symptoms. Skin appearance, symptoms, and exposures were heterogeneous. Five respondents had history of hives or rash that preceded the switch to monochloramine. Conclusion The complaints described were heterogeneous, and many of the respondents had underlying or preexisting conditions that would offer plausible alternative explanations for their symptoms. We did not recommend further study of these complaints.

  2. Factors associated with low adherence to medicine treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal

    2016-12-01

    To analyze factors associated with low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil. Analysis of data from Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - Brazilian Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a population-based cross-sectional household survey, based on a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population. We analyzed the association between low adherence to drug treatment measured by the Brief Medication Questionnaire and demographic, socioeconomic, health, care and prescription factors. We used Poisson regression model to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI) and p-value (Wald test). The prevalence of low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases was 30.8% (95%CI 28.8-33.0). The highest prevalence of low adherence was associated with individuals: young adults; no education; resident in the Northeast and Midwest Regions of Brazil; paying part of the treatment; poor self-perceived health; three or more diseases; reported limitations caused by a chronic disease; using five drugs or more. Low adherence to drug treatment for chronic diseases in Brazil is relevant, and regional and demographic differences and those related to patients' health care and therapy regime require coordinated action between health professionals, researchers, managers and policy makers. Analisar fatores associados à baixa adesão ao tratamento farmacológico de doenças crônicas no Brasil. Análise de dados oriundos da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), inquérito domiciliar de base populacional, de delineamento transversal, baseado em amostra probabilística da população brasileira. Analisou-se a associação entre baixa adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso mensurado pelo Brief Medication Questionnaire e fatores demográficos, socioeconômicos, de saúde, assist

  3. HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy, and treatment outcomes in new cases of tuberculosis in Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Torrens

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess the implementation of HIV-related interventions for patients with tuberculosis (TB, as well as TB treatment outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV in Brazil in 2011. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study of HIV-related interventions among TB cases and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of TB-HIV coinfected patients. It also used a retrospective cohort design to determine the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART and favorable TB treatment outcomes. The source of data was a linkage of 2011 administrative health databases used by the National TB and HIV/AIDS Programs. Results Of 73 741 new cases of TB reported, 63.6% (46 865 patients were tested for HIV; 10.3% were positive. Of patients with HIV, 45.9% or 3 502 were on ART. TB favorable outcome was achieved in 63.1% or 2 205 coinfected patients on ART and in only 35.4% or 1 459 of those not on ART. On multivariate analysis, the relative risk for the association between ART and TB treatment success was 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.64–1.81. Conclusions The linkage between national TB and HIV datasets has created a convenient baseline for ongoing monitoring of HIV testing, ART use, and TB treatment outcomes among coinfected patients. The low rates of HIV screening and ART use in 2011 need to be improved. The association between ART and treatment success adds to the evidence supporting timely initiation of ART for all patients with TB-HIV coinfection.

  4. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma treatment in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dantas Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a peripheral disease associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Treatment is carried out according to clinical type with watchful waiting being recommended for less aggressive types. Aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is generally treated with chemotherapy and/or antivirals. The objective of this study was to correlate the survival of patients diagnosed in Bahia, Brazil, with the therapeutic approaches employed and to evaluate what issues existed in their treatment processes. Methods: Eighty-three adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma patients (26 smoldering, 23 chronic, 16 acute, 13 lymphoma and five primary cutaneous tumoral with available data were included in this study. Results: Complete response was achieved in seven smoldering patients with symptomatic treatment, in two with chronic disease using antivirals/chemotherapy, in one with acute disease using antivirals and in one lymphoma using the LSG15 regimen [vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisolone (VCAP; doxorubicin, ranimustine, and prednisolone (AMP; and vindesine, etoposide, carboplatin, and prednisolone (VECP]. Smoldering patients who received symptomatic treatment presented longer survival. Favorable chronic patients treated with antivirals presented longer survival compared to the unfavorable subtype. However, for the acute form, first-line chemotherapy was better, albeit without significance, than antivirals. Only one of the patients with lymphoma and primary cutaneous tumors responded. Conclusions: Watchful waiting associated with phototherapy represents the best option for smoldering adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with survival in Bahia being superior to that described in Japan. There was a trend of better results with zidovudine/interferon-alpha in favorable chronic disease. Excellent results were achieved in the lymphoma type treated with the LSG15 protocol. Patients are diagnosed late

  5. [Cost analysis of treatment for severe rheumatoid arthritis in a city in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendgens, Fabíola Bagatini; Blatt, Carine Raquel; Marasciulo, Antônio Carlos Estima; Leite, Silvana Nair; Farias, Mareni Rocha

    2013-11-01

    Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis involves the use of medicines, non-pharmaceutical therapies, medical appointments, and complimentary tests, among other procedures. Based on sources of payment, this article presents the direct medical costs related to treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The cost analysis included 103 patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis treated at the Specialized Division of Pharmaceutical Care in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Total annual direct cost was R$ 2,045,596.55 (approximately one million US dollars), or R$ 19,860.16 per patient/year (slightly less than ten thousand US dollars). Total cost breakdown was as follows: 90.8% for medicines, 2.5% for hospitalizations, 2.2% for complimentary tests, 2.1% for medical appointments, and 2.4% for all other costs. The public sector accounted for 73.6% of the total direct medical costs and 79.3% of the cost of medicines. The cost analysis provided a profile of how a group of individuals with a chronic non-communicable disease that requires resources circulates in the public-private mix that characterizes the Brazilian health system.

  6. Heterogeneity of treatment changes after psychodynamic therapy within a one year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Naturalistic psychotherapy effect studies commonly report effect sizes for the total sample. However, a previous study of SCL-90 Global Severity Index (GSI) improvement in a large outpatient sample used a cluster analytic strategy and reported clinical relevant outcome trajectories that could...... and agoraphobic symptoms may be less optimally treated in short-term time limited psychodynamic groups. There is an obvious need for diversity of treatment offers, better integration of psycho-social treatment components, and long-term open ended treatment....

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Form to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Vania F S; Fukushima, Fernanda B; Rodrigues, Aniela M; Carvalho, Raissa P; Carvalho, Larissa P; Pinheiro, Leandro A F V; Polegato, Bertha F; Minicucci, Marcos F; Bassett, Rick; Moss, Alvin H; Steinberg, Karl E; Vidal, Edison I O

    2018-02-12

    The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) paradigm is considered one of the most important strategies to respect patients' values at the end of life in the United States. The cross-cultural adaptation of POLST entailed several methodological considerations, which may be informative for international researchers who may also consider bringing POLST to their countries as a means to promote care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences. To report the methods and outcome of the cross-cultural adaptation of the POLST form to Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation study. Twenty physicians and 10 patients at a university hospital participated in the pilot tests. The cross-cultural adaptation process included choosing which existing POLST form(s) to use as a source, deciding the intended reading level, which healthcare professionals should be allowed to sign the form, and consultation with attorneys, bioethicists, and members of the National POLST Paradigm Task Force. Pilot tests occurred in two stages using different approaches. First, 20 physicians were trained about POLST and asked for any unclear aspects related to the form. Second, trained investigators completed POLST forms after engaging in advance care planning conversations with 10 hospitalized patients or patients' surrogates. This report provides a basis for future cross-cultural adaptations of POLST to other countries. The authors hope such new adaptations will broaden the possibilities of research using POLST and also may promote wider provision of care at the end of life that is consistent with patients' preferences.

  8. Radionuclides release to three rivers by ore treatment unit at Caldas, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F. do; Py Junior, D.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a uranium mining and milling plant, situated at Caldas city, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was disabled in the mid 90's. This unit releases controlled effluents to three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas (at point 014, influenced by the waste pile), Ribeirao Soberbo (point 025, influenced by the waste pond) and Corrego da Consulta (at point 076, influenced by the open pit mine). Water samples collected at these points were analyzed for U{sub nat}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra content in the particulate and soluble fractions, and the behavior of radionuclide releases and their fractions was investigated. U{sub nat} and {sup 228}Ra showed identical behaviors at these three points. U{sub nat} at point 014 (waste pile) behaved different from described in recent literature data. The isotopes of Ra should exhibit the same behavior at each point, but this was not observed at point 025 (waste pond). {sup 232}Th release showed equal activity concentration near the waste pile (point 014) and near the waste pond (point 025), whilst near the open pit mine (point 076) the soluble fraction showed a concentration of activity greater than the particulate fraction. Finally, {sup 210}Pb showed a different behavior at each point. Due to the great differences in behaviors of each radionuclide, it was not possible to establish a temporal pattern of release which requires assessment over a longer period of time. (author)

  9. Radionuclides release to three rivers by ore treatment unit at Caldas, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F. do; Py Junior, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a uranium mining and milling plant, situated at Caldas city, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was disabled in the mid 90's. This unit releases controlled effluents to three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas (at point 014, influenced by the waste pile), Ribeirao Soberbo (point 025, influenced by the waste pond) and Corrego da Consulta (at point 076, influenced by the open pit mine). Water samples collected at these points were analyzed for U nat , 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 228 Ra content in the particulate and soluble fractions, and the behavior of radionuclide releases and their fractions was investigated. U nat and 228 Ra showed identical behaviors at these three points. U nat at point 014 (waste pile) behaved different from described in recent literature data. The isotopes of Ra should exhibit the same behavior at each point, but this was not observed at point 025 (waste pond). 232 Th release showed equal activity concentration near the waste pile (point 014) and near the waste pond (point 025), whilst near the open pit mine (point 076) the soluble fraction showed a concentration of activity greater than the particulate fraction. Finally, 210 Pb showed a different behavior at each point. Due to the great differences in behaviors of each radionuclide, it was not possible to establish a temporal pattern of release which requires assessment over a longer period of time. (author)

  10. The proposed 'concordance-statistic for benefit' provided a useful metric when modeling heterogeneous treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klaveren, David; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Serruys, Patrick W; Kent, David M

    2018-02-01

    Clinical prediction models that support treatment decisions are usually evaluated for their ability to predict the risk of an outcome rather than treatment benefit-the difference between outcome risk with vs. without therapy. We aimed to define performance metrics for a model's ability to predict treatment benefit. We analyzed data of the Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial and of three recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials. We assessed alternative prediction models with a conventional risk concordance-statistic (c-statistic) and a novel c-statistic for benefit. We defined observed treatment benefit by the outcomes in pairs of patients matched on predicted benefit but discordant for treatment assignment. The 'c-for-benefit' represents the probability that from two randomly chosen matched patient pairs with unequal observed benefit, the pair with greater observed benefit also has a higher predicted benefit. Compared to a model without treatment interactions, the SYNTAX score II had improved ability to discriminate treatment benefit (c-for-benefit 0.590 vs. 0.552), despite having similar risk discrimination (c-statistic 0.725 vs. 0.719). However, for the simplified stroke-thrombolytic predictive instrument (TPI) vs. the original stroke-TPI, the c-for-benefit (0.584 vs. 0.578) was similar. The proposed methodology has the potential to measure a model's ability to predict treatment benefit not captured with conventional performance metrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Life experiences of patients who have completed tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative investigation in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite being curable, tuberculosis is still a stigmatized disease. Not only is TB patients’ suffering due to its clinical manifestations, but also because of society’s prejudice, embarrassing situations, and even self-discrimination. This study aims to investigate psychosocial experiences of patients who have completed tuberculosis treatment in São Carlos a municipality in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods This study, of a clinical-qualitative nature, sought to understand the meanings provided by the participants themselves. Fifteen individuals, who had successfully completed tuberculosis treatment, participated in this research. The sample size was established using the information saturation criterion. Data were collected by means of interviews with in-depth open-ended questions. Data were treated by categorizing and analyzing content according to themes. Results Regardless of all progress, this study found that TB still causes patients to suffer from fear of transmission, social prejudice, and death. Despite the fact that the emotional support provided by families and healthcare professionals is considered essential to treatment adherence and completion, participants in this study reveal that friends and colleagues have distanced themselves from them for fear of contagion and/or prejudice. Ignorance about the disease and its transmission modes can be found in the interviewees’ statements, which seems to indicate that they have become vectors of transmission of stigma themselves. Patients’ medical leave from work during treatment may be due to both their health conditions and their attempt to avoid social/emotional embarrassment. There are accounts that TB has caused psychosocial damage to patients’ lives and that they feel more fatigue and lassitude and have begun to pay more attention to their own health. Conclusions Healthcare workers should be aware of the ways TB treatment affect patients’ psychosocial life and

  12. Treatment of Mo-U ore of Pocos de Caldas (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, H.F.

    Molybdenum-uranium ore compositions of surface material and deep material of Campo do Agostinho (MG, Brazil) are shown. Molybdenum extraction by natural leaching and by chemical leaching is considered as well as uranium extraction and its recovery [pt

  13. TH-A-19A-01: An Open Source Software for Proton Treatment Planning in Heterogeneous Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, M; Baroni, G; Wang, K; Phillips, J; Gueorguiev, G; Sharp, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Due to its success in Radiation Oncology during the last decade, interest in proton therapy is on the rise. Unfortunately, despite the global enthusiasm in the field, there is presently no free, multiplatform and customizable Treatment Planning System (TPS) providing proton dose distributions in heterogenous medium. This restricts substantially the progress of clinical research for groups without access to a commercial Proton TPS. The latest implementation of our pencil beam dose calculation algorithm for proton beams within the 3D Slicer open-source environment fulfills all the conditions described above. Methods: The core dose calculation algorithm is based on the Hong algorithm (1), which was upgraded with the Kanematsu theory describing the evolution of the lateral scattering of proton beamlets in heterogeneous medium. This algorithm deals with both mono-energetic beams and Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). In order to be user-friendly, we provide a graphical user interface implemented with the Qt libraries, and visualization with the 3D Slicer medical image analysis software. Two different pencil beam algorithms were developed, and the clinical proton beam line at our facility was modeled. Results: The dose distributions provided by our algorithms were compared to dose distributions coming from both commercialized XiO TPS and literature (dose measurements, GEANT4 and MCNPx) and turned out to be in a good agreement, with maximum dose discrepancies of 5% in homogeneous phantoms and 10% in heterogeneous phantoms. The algorithm of SOBP creation from an optimized weigthing of mono-energetic beams results in flat SOBP. Conclusion: We hope that our efforts in implementing this new, open-source proton TPS will help the research groups to have a free access to a useful, reliable proton dose calculation software.(1) L. Hong et al., A pencil beam algorithm for proton dose calculations, Phys. Med. Biol. 41 (1996) 1305–1330. This project is paid for by NCI

  14. Cluster analysis of quantitative parametric maps from DCE-MRI: application in evaluating heterogeneity of tumor response to antiangiogenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Dario Livio; Dastrù, Walter; Consolino, Lorena; Espak, Miklos; Arigoni, Maddalena; Cavallo, Federica; Aime, Silvio

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a clustering approach to conventional analysis methods for assessing changes in pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) during antiangiogenic treatment in a breast cancer model. BALB/c mice bearing established transplantable her2+ tumors were treated with a DNA-based antiangiogenic vaccine or with an empty plasmid (untreated group). DCE-MRI was carried out by administering a dose of 0.05 mmol/kg of Gadocoletic acid trisodium salt, a Gd-based blood pool contrast agent (CA) at 1T. Changes in pharmacokinetic estimates (K(trans) and vp) in a nine-day interval were compared between treated and untreated groups on a voxel-by-voxel analysis. The tumor response to therapy was assessed by a clustering approach and compared with conventional summary statistics, with sub-regions analysis and with histogram analysis. Both the K(trans) and vp estimates, following blood-pool CA injection, showed marked and spatial heterogeneous changes with antiangiogenic treatment. Averaged values for the whole tumor region, as well as from the rim/core sub-regions analysis were unable to assess the antiangiogenic response. Histogram analysis resulted in significant changes only in the vp estimates (pclustering approach depicted marked changes in both the K(trans) and vp estimates, with significant spatial heterogeneity in vp maps in response to treatment (pclustered in three or four sub-regions. This study demonstrated the value of cluster analysis applied to pharmacokinetic DCE-MRI parametric maps for assessing tumor response to antiangiogenic therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on anaerobic granular sludge performance and microbial community for the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chengyuan, E-mail: suchengyuan2008@126.com [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Weiguang [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lu, Yuxiang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Rhein has metabolic or physiological toxicity on methanogens in anaerobic granular sludge. • TCM wastewater containing rhein can be successfully treated by the combined treatment. • The productions of the EPS of granular sludge increased after pre-treatment. • Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were predominant in the DC reactor after pre-treatment. - Abstract: The effect of a heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on the anaerobic processes, characteristics and microbial community of sludge was investigated for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater containing rhein. When the concentrations of rhein were 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L, the toxic effect was physiological toxicity for anaerobic granular sludge. Using a single double circle (DC) reactor for the treatment of TCM wastewater containing rhein at concentrations of 15–20 mg/L, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 69%, and coenzyme F{sub 420} was nearly undetectable in the 3D-excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of soluble microbial products (SMP). The abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were only 5.57%, 2.39% and 1.08% in the DC reactor, respectively. TCM wastewater containing rhein could be successfully treated by the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment and the DC reactor processes, and the COD removal rate reached 95%. Meanwhile, the abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula increased to 22.5%, 18.5%, and 13.87%, respectively. For the bacterial community, the abundance of Acidobacteria-Gp6 decreased from 6.99% to 1.07%, while the abundances of Acidobacteria-Gp1 and Acidobacteria-Gp2 increased from 1.61% to 6.55% and from 1.28% to 5.87%, respectively.

  16. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment of Patients With Severe Heterogeneous Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Klooster, Karin; Ernst, Armin; Herth, Felix J. F.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    Background: The lung volume reduction coil (LVR-coil), a new experimental device to achieve lung volume reduction by bronchoscopy in patients with severe emphysema, works in a manner unaffected by collateral airflow. We investigated the safety and efficacy of LVR-coil treatment in patients with

  17. Evaluation of adherence to treatment by patients seen in a psychosocial care center in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Teles Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of mental disorders, nonadherence to medication, the main cause of psychiatric morbidity, is observed in about 50% of the cases and is responsible for numerous losses. This study evaluated adherence to drug treatment by patients seen in a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS in northeastern Brazil. Adherence to treatment was evaluated using the Haynes-Sackett and Morisky-Green-Levine tests. All patients registered in the CAPS were included in the study (n= 101. Only 11.88% of the patients adhered to drug treatment. The main reasons not to use medication were: oblivion (68.83%, feeling unwell after taking the medication (54.22%, not having money to buy the medication (43.83%, not finding the medication in the public health service (39.94% and fear of harm that might be caused by the drug (28.90%. Furthermore, 85.1% of the patients did not know their diseases, 88.1% did not know their treatment, 86.4% did not feel good when they took their medication, and 88.1% took their medication incorrectly. The results revealed that the lack of information about diseases and drugs used, the nuisance posed by drug therapy and the low access to medications reduce adherence to treatment and, consequently, treatment effectiveness.No tratamento de desordens mentais, a não-adesão ao tratamento ocorre em cerca de 50% dos casos e é responsável por inúmeros prejuízos, além de ser a principal causa de morbidade psiquiátrica. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso de pacientes atendidos em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS no Nordeste do Brasil. A avaliação da adesão ao tratamento foi feita através dos testes de Haynes-Sackett e Morisky-Green-Levine. Todos os pacientes cadastrados no CAPS foram incluídos no estudo (n = 101. Observou-se que apenas 11,88% dos pacientes aderiram ao tratamento medicamentoso. As principais razões para o não uso dos medicamentos foram: esquecimento (68,83%, sentir-se mal ap

  18. Heterogeneity in diabetic distal neuropathy and differential approach to its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O E Khutornaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, to evaluate the composition and efficacy of pharmacotherapy and to develop a differential algorithm for symptomatic treatment of PDN.Materials and Methods. 4494 outpatient subjects participated in this study. Severity of pain syndrome was assessed with DN4 question- naire (supplemented with NTSS-9 scale and visual analogue scale (VAS. After initial examination, a pharmacological evaluation of treatment was performed.Results. Based on our data, prevalence of diabetic neuropathy was estimated at 54%, with painful form reaching 6.4%. Median age was 57.2±12.1, duration of diabetes mellitus – 16.5±10.6 years. Type 1 / type 2 ratio equaled 32.4% : 67.6%, male/female – 29.7%: 70.3%. Median HbA1c level was 8.4±1.6%. Ratio of chronic/acute forms of neuropathy was 267 : 20. Pain severity (as measured by VAS distribution was as following: 15.6% – severe, 40.6% – moderate, 12.3% – mild, and 31.3% – no pain symptoms. We did not find PDN to be associated with any parameters but sensory deficit (NTSS-9 and NDS: r=0.4; p <0.001. 21% of patients with chronic painful neuropathy (CPN demonstrated allodynia and hyperalgesia besides typical symptoms. 97.9% of patients were previ- ously treated with “pathogenetic” agents, 2.1% received anticonvulsants; overall efficiency was estimated at 22%. Patients with CPN and allodynia did not respond to treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, but pregabalin was efficient. After the examination treatment composition was adjusted as follows: treatment was ceased in 23% of patients, 11.9% received ALA, 53.6% – anticonvulsants, and11.5% – antidepressants; overall efficiency was estimated at 75%.Conclusion. Prevalence of PDN is relatively low. 15.6% of patients suffer from severe pain. Neuropathic pain intensity correlates only with sensory deficit and is not dependent on any other parameters. CPN consists of two forms with higher and lower

  19. Heterogenous treatment of water gaps and control rods in core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.Oe.

    1984-08-01

    The conventional fuel assembly homogenization process introduces errors in the gross power distribution of the order of 10%. A method to mitigate the homogenization error is proposed. The gaps in between the fuel pin domains, containing water, control rod blades, fuel channel shroud, etc, are described by their transmission and reflection properties while the fuel pin regions are represented by conventional, homogenized cross sections. A nodal equation, incorporating the gap transmission and reflection functions, is set up in a general form. By numerical testing on 2D core problems it is shown that the explicit gap treatment is capable of reducing the homogenization error by an order of magnitude. (author)

  20. Heterogeneity in diabetic distal neuropathy and differential approach to its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Evgen'evna Khutornaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN, to evaluate the composition and efficacy of pharmacotherapy and to develop a differential algorithm for symptomatic treatment of PDN. Materials and Methods. 4494 outpatient subjects participated in this study. Severity of pain syndrome was assessed with DN4 question- naire (supplemented with NTSS-9 scale and visual analogue scale (VAS. After initial examination, a pharmacological evaluation of treatment was performed. Results. Based on our data, prevalence of diabetic neuropathy was estimated at 54%, with painful form reaching 6.4%. Median age was 57.2?12.1, duration of diabetes mellitus ? 16.5?10.6 years. Type 1 / type 2 ratio equaled 32.4% : 67.6%, male/female ? 29.7%: 70.3%. Median HbA1c level was 8.4?1.6%. Ratio of chronic/acute forms of neuropathy was 267 : 20. Pain severity (as measured by VAS distribution was as following: 15.6% ? severe, 40.6% ? moderate, 12.3% ? mild, and 31.3% ? no pain symptoms. We did not find PDN to be associated with any parameters but sensory deficit (NTSS-9 and NDS: r=0.4; p

  1. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence to treatment and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisla Ücker Calvetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this article was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence adherence to treatment and the quality of life of individuals who have been successfully following the HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out with 120 HIV positive participants in the south of Brazil. Among the variables studied, of note are: perceived stress, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Results: The results show that a moderate to high adherence to the treatment paired with a strong sense of social support indicate a higher quality of life. Conclusion: The combination of social support and antiretroviral treatment have an impact on physical conditions, improving immune response and quality of life.

  2. Impact of treatment heterogeneity on drug resistance and supply chain costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulou, Eirini; Boni, Maciej F; Yadav, Prashant

    2013-09-01

    The efficacy of scarce drugs for many infectious diseases is threatened by the emergence and spread of resistance. Multiple studies show that available drugs should be used in a socially optimal way to contain drug resistance. This paper studies the tradeoff between risk of drug resistance and operational costs when using multiple drugs for a specific disease. Using a model for disease transmission and resistance spread, we show that treatment with multiple drugs, on a population level, results in better resistance-related health outcomes, but more interestingly, the marginal benefit decreases as the number of drugs used increases. We compare this benefit with the corresponding change in procurement and safety stock holding costs that result from higher drug variety in the supply chain. Using a large-scale simulation based on malaria transmission dynamics, we show that disease prevalence seems to be a less important factor when deciding the optimal width of drug assortment, compared to the duration of one episode of the disease and the price of the drug(s) used. Our analysis shows that under a wide variety of scenarios for disease prevalence and drug cost, it is optimal to simultaneously deploy multiple drugs in the population. If the drug price is high, large volume purchasing discounts are available, and disease prevalence is high, it may be optimal to use only one drug. Our model lends insights to policy makers into the socially optimal size of drug assortment for a given context.

  3. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of psychotropic drug use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gaps in mental illness treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%, 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration - OR. RESULTS: The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%, followed by anorectics (1.65%, tranquilizers (1.61% and mood stabilizers (1.23%. General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%, followed by psychiatrists (29.3%; 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93, females (OR:1.82, separated/divorced (OR:2.23, of increased age (OR:1.03, with higher income (OR:2.96, and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59; only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. CONCLUSION: Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  5. The impact of being homeless on the unsuccessful outcome of treatment of pulmonary TB in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzani, Otavio T; Carvalho, Carlos R R; Waldman, Eliseu A; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2016-03-23

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem requiring complex treatment, the success of which depends on biological, social, and institutional factors. São Paulo State (SPS), in Brazil, has a high TB burden. Because of high socioeconomic heterogeneity and chaotic urbanisation, homelessness might play an important role in the TB burden in SPS. Our aim was to determine the association between homelessness and outcome of treatment of pulmonary TB (PTB) in SPS. A historical cohort from the routine SPS TB database for 2009-2013 was analysed. The study population was newly diagnosed adult patients with PTB. Homelessness was ascertained at notification or when treatment started. Our outcome was unsuccessful outcome of treatment. We used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders and multiple imputation for missing data. We analysed 61,817 patients; 1726 (2.8 %, 95%CI 2.7-2.9 %) were homeless. Homeless patients were concentrated in bigger cities, were more frequently middle-aged males, had black/brown skin colour, and had received less education (P homeless patients (43.2 % vs 14.4 %, 30.2 % vs. 9.4 %, P homeless, of whom 17.3 % were HIV positive compared with 8.5 % among the not homeless population (P homeless (91.6 % vs. 84.8 %, P homeless and 17.5 % among the not homeless (OR = 6.32, 95%CI 5.73-6.97, P homelessness remained strongly associated with lower treatment success (aOR = 4.96, 95 % CI 4.27-5.76, P homelessness: among HIV-infected patients, the aOR was 2.45 (95%CI 1.90-3.16, Pinteraction homelessness, alcohol and drug use was almost 20 %. Confirming our hypothesis, homelessness led to a marked reduction in the successful treatment of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Homelessness and associated conditions were important contributors to lack of treatment success in pulmonary tuberculosis in São Paulo. A multifaceted intervention must be implemented to target this vulnerable population.

  6. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, Nina A.; Huang Zhibin; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon S.; Fan, Joline M.; Grecula, John C.; Sammet, Steffen; Sammet, Christina L.; Jia Guang; Zhang Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB 2 –IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity ( 20, >13, and >5 cm 3 , respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 × 10 −8 , 2.0 × 10 −8 ) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 × 10 −4 , 2.1 × 10 −6 , 2.5 × 10 −7 , respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2–5 weeks into treatment.

  7. Trends in treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries of the knee in the public and private healthcare systems of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Orthopedic surgery implies high costs for both public and private healthcare. The aim of this study was to better understand the differences between the public and private sectors regarding treatment of a damaged anterior cruciate ligament, which is a common knee injury. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted during the Brazilian Orthopedics Congress in Brasília. METHODS We applied questionnaires during the 2010 Brazilian Orthopedics Congress, with participation by 241 knee surgeons from 24 Brazilian states. This was followed by statistical analysis on the data that were obtained. RESULTS The orthopedic surgeons who were evaluated used different approaches and treatment options in different Brazilian states, comparing between the public and private systems. CONCLUSION Both in the public and in the private systems in Brazil, because of non-medical issues surrounding the treatment, the best medical decision is not always made. This may be harmful both to patients and to physicians.

  8. Pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health: predictors of treatment noncompliance in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, Simone Teresinha Aloise; Moreira, José da Silva; Tietbohel, Carlos Nunes

    2011-01-01

    To determine the predictors of noncompliance with the pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health, in previously treatment-naïve patients with active tuberculosis treated in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. This was a case-control study involving six referral primary health care clinics for tuberculosis in Porto Alegre. We reviewed the medical charts of all previously treatment-naïve patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who were noncompliant with the treatment between 2004 and 2006. Those were paired with other patients having similar characteristics and having been cured. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 2,098 patients included, 218 (10.4%) became noncompliant with the treatment. In the multivariate analysis, the factors most strongly associated with treatment noncompliance were being an alcoholic (with or without concomitant use of illicit drugs), being HIV-infected, not residing with family members, and having a low level of education. In the univariate analysis, treatment noncompliance was also significantly associated with being younger and with being non-White. Gender was not significantly associated with treatment noncompliance; nor was the occurrence of adverse effects of the drugs included in the regimen. In the population studied, being an alcoholic, being HIV-infected, and not residing with family members were the major predictors of noncompliance with treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis among previously treatment-naïve patients.

  9. Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Esquivel, Luis Guillermo; Segalla-Pizzolatti, Bruno; Luiz-Sens, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Bank filtration (BF) consists in obtaining drinking water from wells in alluvial aquifers or other unconsolidated deposits hydraulically connected with a surface water source. The possibility of applying this technique was evaluated in a pilot scale on the banks of the Lagoa do Peri lagoon, Brazil. Observation and grain size analysis showed that the bottom of the lagoon and the adjacent aquifer have sandy texture. In addition, tests of constant head permeameter, standpipe falling head and a p...

  10. Estimating health service utilization for treatment of pneumococcal disease: the case of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, A M C; Novaes, C G; de Soárez, P C; Toscano, C M; Novaes, H M D

    2013-07-02

    Health service utilization (HSU) is an essential component of economic evaluations of health initiatives. Defining HSU for cases of pneumococcal disease (PD) is particularly complex considering the varying clinical manifestations and diverse severity. We describe the process of developing estimates of HSU for PD as part of an economic evaluation of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil. Nationwide inpatient and outpatient HSU by children under-5 years with meningitis (PM), sepsis (PS), non-meningitis non-sepsis invasive PD (NMNS), pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) was estimated. We assumed that all cases of invasive PD (PM, PS, and NMNS) required hospitalization. The study perspective was the health system, including both the public and private sectors. Data sources were obtained from national health information systems, including the Hospital Information System (SIH/SUS) and the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN); surveys; and community-based and health care facility-based studies. We estimated hospitalization rates of 7.69 per 100,000 children under-5 years for PM (21.4 for children Brazil. Estimating HSU for noninvasive disease was challenging, particularly in the case of outpatient care, for which secondary data are scarce. Information for the private sector is lacking in Brazil, but estimates were possible with data from the public sector and national population surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of heterogeneous mixed wastes: Enzyme degradation of cellulosic materials contaminated with hazardous organics and toxic and radioactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderberg, L.A.; Foreman, T.M.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Brainard, J.R.; Sauer, N.

    1999-01-01

    The redirection and downsizing of the US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons complex requires that many facilities be decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D). At Los Alamos National Laboratory, much of the low-level radioactive, mixed, and hazardous/chemical waste volume handled by waste management operations was produced by D and D and environmental restoration activities. A combination of technologies--air stripping and biodegradation of volatile organics, enzymatic digestion of cellulosics, and metal ion extraction--was effective in treating a radiologically contaminated heterogeneous paint-stripping waste. Treatment of VOCs using a modified bioreactor avoided radioactive contamination of byproduct biomass and inhibition of biodegradation by toxic metal ions in the waste. Cellulase digestion of bulk cellulose minimized the final solid waste volume by 80%. Moreover, the residue passed TCLP for RCRA metals. Hazardous metals and radioactivity in byproduct sugar solutions were removed using polymer filtration, which employs a combination of water-soluble chelating polymers and ultrafiltration to separate and concentrate metal contaminants. Polymer filtration was used to concentrate RCRA metals and radioactivity into <5% of the original wastewater volume. Permeate solutions had no detectable radioactivity and were below RCRA-allowable discharge limits for Pb and Cr

  12. Winery wastewater treatment by heterogeneous Photo-Fenton process and activated sludges; Depuracion de efluentes vinicolas ediante tratamientos Foto-Fenton en fase heterogenea y lodos activos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteo, R.; Lalinde, N.; Ormad, Maria O. M.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    The system composed by heterogeneous Photon-Fenton assisted by solar light and biological treatment based on activated sludge process treats adequately real winery wastewaters. the previous stage based on heterogeneous Photo-Fenton process produces a partial degradation of winery wastewaters and achieves a yield of degradation of organic matter (measured as TOC) close to 50%. The activated sludge process in simple stage doesn't present any operation problems (bulking phenomenon) and achieves a yield of degradation of organic matter of 90%. (Author) 16 refs.

  13. The use of electron beam accelerator for the treatment of drinking water and wastewater in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.; Silva, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil started a research program using high-energy electrons from accelerators for treating drinking water and wastewater in 1991. The objective is to study the potential use of this technique for disinfection of domestic wastewater, chemical degradation of dyes, phenols, oils and greases in industrial wastewater and reduction of trihalomethanes (THM's) concentration in drinking water. An Electron Beam Accelerator, 1.5MeV - 25mA from Radiation Dynamics Inc., was used for all experiments. A pilot plant designed to treat up to 3m 3 /h was built. (author)

  14. The use of electron beam accelerator for the treatment of drinking water and wastewater in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.; Silva, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil started a research program using high-energy electrons from accelerators for treating drinking water and wastewater in 1991. The objective is to study the potential use of this technique for disinfection of domestic wastewater, chemical degradation of dyes, phenols, oils and greases in industrial wastewater and reduction of trihalomethanes (THM's) concentration in drinking water. An Electron Beam Accelerator, 1.5MeV -25mA from Radiation Dynamics Inc., was used for all experiments. A pilot plant designed to treat up to 3m 3 /h was built. (author)

  15. The use of electron beam accelerator for the treatment of drinking water and wastewater in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.; Silva, B. L.; Vieira, J. M.; Rela, P. R.; Calvo, W. A. P.; Nieto, R. C.; Duarte, C. L.; Perez, H. E. B.; Somessari, E. S.; Lugão, A. B.

    1995-09-01

    Brazil started a research program using high-energy electrons from accelerators for treating drinking water and wastewater in 1991. The objective is to study the potential use of this technique for disinfection of domestic wastewater, chemical degradation of dyes, phenols, oils and greases in industrial wastewater and reduction of trihalomethanes (THM's) concentration in drinking water. An Electron Beam Accelerator, 1.5MeV-25mA from Radiation Dynamics Inc., was used for all experiments. A pilot plant designed to treat up to 3m3/h was built.

  16. Heterogeneous disease progression and treatment response in a C3HeB/FeJ mouse model of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lanoix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mice are the most commonly used species for non-clinical evaluations of drug efficacy against tuberculosis (TB. Unlike commonly used strains, C3HeB/FeJ mice develop caseous necrosis in the lung, which might alter the representation of drug efficacy in a way that is more like human TB. Because the development of such pathology requires time, we investigated the effect of infection incubation period on the activity of six drugs in C3HeB/FeJ and BALB/c mice. Mice were aerosol infected and held for 6, 10 or 14 weeks before receiving therapy with rifampin (RIF, rifapentine (RPT, pyrazinamide (PZA, linezolid (LZD, sutezolid (PNU or metronidazole (MTZ for 4-8 weeks. Outcomes included pathological assessments, pH measurements of liquefied caseum and assessment of colony-forming unit (CFU counts from lung cultures. Remarkable heterogeneity in the timing and extent of disease progression was observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice, largely independent of incubation period. Likewise, drug efficacy in C3HeB/FeJ mice was not affected by incubation period. However, for PZA, LZD and PNU, dichotomous treatment effects correlating with the presence or absence of large caseous lesions were observed. In the case of PZA, its poor activity in the subset of C3HeB/FeJ mice with large caseous lesions might be explained by the pH of 7.36±0.09 measured in liquefied caseum. This study highlights the potential value of C3HeB/FeJ mice for non-clinical efficacy testing, especially for investigating the interaction of lesion pathology and drug effect. Careful use of this model could enhance the bridging of non-clinical results with clinical outcomes.

  17. Candidates for Intensive Local Treatment in cIIIA-N2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Deciphering the Heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horinouchi, Hidehito, E-mail: hhorinou@ncc.go.jp [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Advanced Clinical Research of Cancer, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Goto, Yasushi; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sumi, Minako [Department of Radiation Therapy, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tamura, Tomohide [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ohe, Yuichiro [Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Advanced Clinical Research of Cancer, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to refine the heterogeneous clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N2 nodes status (cIIIA-N2) by clinicopathological characteristics before treatment. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data of consecutive patients with cIIIA-N2 NSCLC diagnosed between 1997 and 2010 and treated by chemoradiation therapy (CRT). The appearance of the mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) was classified into discrete or infiltrative according to the criteria proposed by the American College of Chest Physicians. In addition, the extent of MLN involvement (MLNI) was classified as limited (close to the primary tumor) or extensive (including upper MLNI in the case of tumors in the lower lobes and vice versa). Results: A total of 148 patients with cIIIA-N2 NSCLC was treated by CRT. The patient characteristics were as follows: males: 118; females: 30; median age: 62 years; appearance of the involved MLNs: 85 discrete, 63 infiltrative; extent of MLNI: 82 limited, 66 extensive; histology: 36 squamous, 112 nonsquamous. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) in the entire subject population were 9.9 and 34.7 months, respectively. A discrete appearance of the involved MLNs and a limited extent of MLNI contributed significantly to a better PFS and OS. The percentages of cases with relapses within the irradiated field classified according to the characteristics of the MLNs were as follows; appearance of the MLNs (24.6% discrete, 18.9% infiltrative); extent of MLNI (25.9 limited, 17.9% extensive). Conclusions: Those with a discrete appearance of the involved MLNs and a limited extent of MLNI at diagnosis could show relatively more favorable outcomes and could be candidates for multimodality therapy.

  18. Annual national direct and indirect cost estimates of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Itria, Alexander; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Rama, Cristina Helena; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. PMID:26017797

  19. A comparative study of renal care in Brazil and Mexico: hemodialysis treatment from the perspective of ESRD sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martinez, Francisco J; da Silva, Denise Guerreiro V; Correa-Mauricio, Mauricio E

    2017-04-01

    Renal replacement therapy is the indicated treatment for individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to survive. However, not all sick people have access to the same treatment. This study compares renal care in two developing countries with different health systems. Specifically, it explores hemodialysis treatment from the perspective of low-income individuals. A qualitative, comparative study was performed in Brazil and Mexico. Using purposive sampling, the research was based on open-ended interviews with nineteen participants with kidney failure undergoing hemodialysis treatment in public hospitals and ten relatives. According to our results, Brazilian participants perceived hemodialysis care as satisfactory because of health personnel courtesy as well as free access to dialysis treatment, prescription drugs, hospitalization and transportation. However, they reported deficiencies in the care they were receiving due to shortages of specialists, prescription drugs, laboratory tests and transportation. Mexican participants, in contrast, highlighted the catastrophic costs of medical care because they had no free access to renal therapy, nor adequate financial resources. Our findings suggest that low-income Brazilian CKD sufferers experience renal care differently, as they are more satisfied and face less obstacles with hemodialysis compared with those of Mexico. More studies on the topic are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  1. Pedological Heterogeneity of Soils Developed from Lithologies of the Pirambóia, Sanga-do-Cabral, and Guará Geological Formations in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Grahl dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The source material is one of the factors that most influence soil genesis and the mainly responsible for the nature, composition, and behavior of the soil. Given the geological complexity of the Santa Maria River basin, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the new lithologies described recently may be responsible for a greater variation in soil properties, as well as in the soil taxonomy itself. The study area is located in the municipality of Rosário do Sul, RS, Brazil at 30° 15’ 28” S and 54° 54’ 50” W, with average altitude of 132 m and climate type Cfa. This study was supported by a cartographic base composed of topographic charts, geological maps, satellite images, digital elevation models, and maps of geomorphometric variables, with the support of GPS receivers and GIS. Topolithosequences were defined from soils developed from the Pirambóia, Sanga-do-Cabral, and Guará Formations, and soil profiles were chosen based on types of source materials, variations in relief, and altitude. A classical model of slope compartmentalization was applied for correlation of the geomorphic surfaces with pedogenesis. Soil profiles were described in a general and morphological manner, and soil samples were collected for analysis. The physical and chemical properties determined were particle size, active and potential acidity, organic C content, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Al3+. The sum of bases, CEC, flocculation activity and degree of flocculation of the clay fraction, and base (V, aluminum (m, and sodium saturation were calculated. Soil properties were evaluated through factor analysis and grouping, which allowed profiles to be grouped based on their variables and identification of which variables were preponderant in distinguishing them. Furthermore, multivariate analysis allowed statistical differentiation of the profiles in the same lithostratigraphic unit and in different relief positions, and also differentiation of

  2. The Importance of the Conformality, Heterogeneity, and Gradient Indices in Evaluating Gamma Knife Radiosurgery Treatment Plans for Intracranial Meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagamwala, Ehsan H.; Suh, John H.; Barnett, Gene H.; Khan, Mohammad K.; Neyman, Gennady; Cai, Rong S.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Novak, Eric; Chao, Samuel T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the conformality index (CIn), heterogeneity index (HIn), and gradient index (GIn) and the development of toxicity in patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for intracranial meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Treatment records of patients treated from 1997 to 2009 with at least 6 months of follow-up were reviewed. The following parameters were collected: CIn, HIn, GIn (ratio of the volume receiving half the prescription isodose to the volume receiving the full prescription isodose), brainstem (BS) maximum dose (MD), BS volume receiving ≥12 Gy (V12), optic apparatus (OA) MD, OA V8 Gy, OA V10, number of isocenters, number of isocenters outside target volume, and the occurrence of six toxicities. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used for analysis. Results: This study included 145 patients (148 meningiomas) with a median follow-up time of 27 months (range, 6–113.9 months). The majority of meningiomas were located in the skull base (53%). The median prescription dose was 13 Gy (range, 10–24 Gy) to the 51.50% (range, 50–92%) isodose. A lower HIn was correlated with a higher GIn (p = 0.007). CIn was not associated with any toxicity. Higher HIn was associated with the development of dizziness (odds ratio [OR] 1.9; p = 0.02), whereas a lower GIn was associated with motor deficits (OR 0.38; p = 0.04) and auditory changes (OR 0.59; p = 0.04). The OA MD, V8, and V12 were not associated with visual changes, but visual changes were associated with a higher number of isocenters outside the target volume (OR 1.93; p = 0.07). BS V12 was correlated with the development of auditory changes (OR 1.05; p = 0.05), whereas patients with higher BS MD tended to have increased toxicity. Conclusions: Close attention must be paid to all three indices (CIn, HIn, GIn) when optimal treatment plans are determined. We recommend that the target CIn should be ≤2.0, the HIn ≤2.0, and the GIn ≥3

  3. Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: Nina.Mayr@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Huang Zhibin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wang, Jian Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lo, Simon S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Fan, Joline M. [Department of Molecular Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Grecula, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sammet, Steffen [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sammet, Christina L. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Jia Guang; Zhang Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C. [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB{sub 2}-IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (<2.1 compared with precontrast image, determined by previous receiver operator characteristic analysis). FRVs were correlated with treatment outcome (follow-up: 0.2-9.4, mean 6.8 years) and compared with ATVs (Mann-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analyses). Results: Before and during therapy at 2-2.5 and 4-5 weeks of RT, FRVs >20, >13, and >5 cm{sup 3}, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2

  4. Immunotherapy with natural killer cells: a possible approach for the treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia also in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Silla

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT can cure intermediate and high-risk acute myeloid leukemia. Even with the development of strategies to reduce HSCT toxicity, this is still a complex treatment with high morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the graft versus leukemia effect of HSCT has prepared the way for the development of Adoptive Immunotherapy or in vitro expansion of activated lymphocytes without alloreactivity, with subsequent intravenous infusion. The infusion of genetically modified T lymphocytes and haploidentical natural killer cells has been tested as an alternative to HSCT with very interesting results worldwide and in Brazil, as we not only have the technology of in vitro expansion of clinical grade lymphocytes available, but also do it according to the Good Manufacturing Practices that have been determined internationally.

  5. Treatment of ischemic stroke with r-tPA: implementation challenges in a tertiary hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Dias Tosta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents the initial experience with thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke at Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal (HBDF, Brazil, and the difficulties associated with the implementation of this treatment. Method: A retrospective study was performed using the medical records of all patients with acute stroke who were treated with intravenous alteplase in our department, between May 2011 and April 2012. Results: The thrombolytic therapy was administered to 32 patients. The mean time between the ictus and the start of stroke therapy start was 195 (60-270 minutes. Sixteen patients demonstrated a significant clinical improvement (decrease in National Institute Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score≥4 points in 24 hours; 6 patients were discharged with an NIHSS score of 0 and 2 demonstrated haemorrhagic transformation. Conclusions: The results of our study are similar to those reported in the literature, although we have been dealing with difficulties, such as the lack of a stroke unit.

  6. [Violence against children: revealing the characteristics of emergency treatment, Brazil, 2006 and 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima, Cheila Marina; Carvalho, Mércia Gomes Oliveira de; Oliveira, Vera Lídia Alves de

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the profile of emergency care for injuries resulting from violence against children (Violence and Accidents (VIVA) of the Ministry of Health, for 30 consecutive days in 2006 and 2007 in selected cities of Brazil. The 518 children in the sample were predominantly male (60.6%), aged 5-9 years (52.1%), and black (71.2%). The majority (55%) of the cases occurred in the home, 34.2% involved sharp objects, and 68.7% evolved to discharge. The most frequent form of violence was physical aggression (67.4%), involving beating, sharp objects, and firearms. The other types of violence included neglect (32%), psychological abuse (9.5%), and sexual assault (3.5%). The aggressors were largely male (48.1%) and family members of the victim (36.3%). The study shows children's vulnerability to situations of violence. It is necessary to develop specific strategies for inter-sector care and social mobilization to intervene in this problem.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation is feasible alternative for desinfeting of aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems sewage in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Luis Antonio; Campos, Jose Roberto

    1993-01-01

    This works shows desinfecting results employing ultraviolet radiation to wastes of sewage treatment station on true scales. Wastes of anaerobic, facultative and maturation pools, septic tank and anaerobic reactor were disinfected. It was found a inactive efficiency to coliforms higher than 99.9%. Safe ultraviolet desinfecting is technically applicable to wastes of sewage treatment station applying aerobic or anaerobic process

  8. Preparative treatment with NaOH to selectively concentrate iron oxides of a Chilean volcanic soil material to produce effective heterogeneous Fenton catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, Valentina; Pizarro, Carmen; Rubio, María Angélica; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-01-01

    A Chilean volcanic Ultisol material was first size-fractionated so as to obtain the fraction with mean particle sizes φ   − 1 NaOH, in an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the selective chemical dissolution to concentrate iron oxides, as a preparation procedure before using the materials as heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. The effects of those treatments on the iron oxides mineralogy were monitored with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The NaOH-treated samples were tested as catalysts towards the H 2 O 2 decomposition. Three or five sequential NaOH treatments were found to be comparably effective, by concentrating nearly the same proportion of iron oxides in the remaining solid phase (25.1 ± 0.4 and 23.3 ± 0.2 mass%, respectively). 298 K-Mössbauer patterns were similar for both samples, with a central (super)paramagnetic Fe 3 +  doublet and a broad sextet, assignable to several closely coexisting magnetically ordered forms of iron oxides. Despite of this nearly similar effect of the two treatments, the Ultisol material treated three times with NaOH presents higher heterogeneous catalytic efficiency and is more suitable to decompose H 2 O 2 than that with five treatments.

  9. Performance of centralized versus decentralized tuberculosis treatment services in Southern Brazil, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Mara Cristina; Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Wildner, Leticia Muraro; Medeiros, Taiane Freitas; Maurici, Rosemeri; Kupek, Emil; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2018-04-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) control programs face the challenges of decreasing incidence, mortality rates, and drug resistance while increasing treatment adherence. The Brazilian TB control program recommended the decentralization of patient care as a strategy for combating the disease. This study evaluated the performance of this policy in an area with high default rates, comparing epidemiological and operational indicators between two similar municipalities. This study analyzed epidemiological and operational indicators on new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis reported in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2006 and 2015. In addition, to characterize differences between the populations of the two studied municipalities, a prospective cohort study was conducted between 2014 and 2015, in which patients with new cases of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were interviewed and monitored until the disease outcome. A descriptive analysis, the chi-square test, and a Poisson regression model were employed to compare TB treatment outcomes and health care indicators between the municipalities. Two thousand three hundred nine cases were evaluated, of which 207 patients were interviewed. Over the 2006-2015 period, TB incidence per 100,000 population in the municipality with decentralized care was significantly higher (39%, 95% CI 27-49%) in comparison to that of the municipality with centralized care. TB treatment default rate (45%, 95% CI 12-90%) was also higher in the municipality with decentralized care. During the two-year follow-up, significant differences were found between patients in centralized care and those in decentralized care regarding treatment success (84.5 vs. 66.1%), treatment default (10.7 vs. 25.8%), illicit drug use (27.7 vs. 45.9%), and homelessness (3.6 vs. 12.9%). The operational indicators revealed that the proportion of control smear tests, medical imaging, and HIV tests were all significantly higher in the centralized care

  10. Tumor heterogeneity of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in invasive bladder cancer: implications for perioperative anti-FGFR3 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, D; Neuzillet, Y; Mertens, L S; van der Heijden, M S; de Jong, J; Sanders, J; Peters, D; Leroy, K; Manceau, A; Maille, P; Soyeux, P; Moktefi, A; Semprez, F; Vordos, D; de la Taille, A; Hurst, C D; Tomlinson, D C; Harnden, P; Bostrom, P J; Mirtti, T; Horenblas, S; Loriot, Y; Houédé, N; Chevreau, C; Beuzeboc, P; Shariat, S F; Sagalowsky, A I; Ashfaq, R; Burger, M; Jewett, M A S; Zlotta, A R; Broeks, A; Bapat, B; Knowles, M A; Lotan, Y; van der Kwast, T H; Culine, S; Allory, Y; van Rhijn, B W G

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an actionable target in bladder cancer. Preclinical studies show that anti-FGFR3 treatment slows down tumor growth, suggesting that this tyrosine kinase receptor is a candidate for personalized bladder cancer treatment, particularly in patients with mutated FGFR3. We addressed tumor heterogeneity in a large multicenter, multi-laboratory study, as this may have significant impact on therapeutic response. We evaluated possible FGFR3 heterogeneity by the PCR-SNaPshot method in the superficial and deep compartments of tumors obtained by transurethral resection (TUR, n = 61) and in radical cystectomy (RC, n = 614) specimens and corresponding cancer-positive lymph nodes (LN+, n = 201). We found FGFR3 mutations in 13/34 (38%) T1 and 8/27 (30%) ≥T2-TUR samples, with 100% concordance between superficial and deeper parts in T1-TUR samples. Of eight FGFR3 mutant ≥T2-TUR samples, only 4 (50%) displayed the mutation in the deeper part. We found 67/614 (11%) FGFR3 mutations in RC specimens. FGFR3 mutation was associated with pN0 (P < 0.001) at RC. In 10/201 (5%) LN+, an FGFR3 mutation was found, all concordant with the corresponding RC specimen. In the remaining 191 cases, RC and LN+ were both wild type. FGFR3 mutation status seems promising to guide decision-making on adjuvant anti-FGFR3 therapy as it appeared homogeneous in RC and LN+. Based on the results of TUR, the deep part of the tumor needs to be assessed if neoadjuvant anti-FGFR3 treatment is considered. We conclude that studies on the heterogeneity of actionable molecular targets should precede clinical trials with these drugs in the perioperative setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb among the rural population of a cocoa- producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plant species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae, used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - Chenopodiaceae 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solatium americanum - Solanaceae (25% and transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae. 2%.Este trabalho relata as plantas usadas no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, causada por Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (L(Vb, na população rural da faixa litorânea produtora de cacau do estado da Bahia, Brasil. Um inquérito realizado entre 100 pacientes, identificou 49 espécies de plantas usadas para tratar úlceras de pele causadas por esta espécie de Leishmânia. As principais plantas usadas foram o cajueiro-branco (Anacardium occidentale - Anacardiaceae usado por 65% da população, a folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta - Melastomataceae 39%, a alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus - Lamiaceae 33%, o mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides - henopodiaceae 31%, a erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum - Solanaceae 25% e a transagem (Plantago major - Plantaginaceae 2%.

  12. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  13. Evaluation of metals and radionuclides in water treatment system for drinking in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Adriana Muniz de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    The metals and radionuclides are naturally incorporated into natural waters, and may be present at levels that condition the health of the population. In view of this, health agencies regulate standards which determine maximum concentration values for these elements in water intended for human consumption. However, the water sources do not have the required quality and the application of treatment technologies is necessary. These technologies remove the impurities initially incorporated into the waters of the fountains from the application of physical and chemical processes. The impurities are retained and concentrated in the treatment systems giving rise to a residue which may contain appreciable concentrations of metals and radionuclides, and this residue is included among the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). In the present study, the investigation of raw, treated and wastewater samples from 19 Water Treatment Stations located in the state of Pernambuco, in relation to the behavior of Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn and radionuclides 226 Ra and 228 Ra, alpha and beta total and gamma emitters in the treatment systems, from the analysis of the concentrations of these in the waters and residues, evaluating the suitability of the waters in accordance with established in the norms in force, as well as the associated with the disposal of wastes that are commonly released into the environment. The results obtained for the metals indicated that the treatment systems must have their processes optimized to ensure the adequacy of the water supplied to the population to the potability parameters and for the residues levels that could generate environmental risk were observed. For the radionuclides the levels found in the waters were low, indicating a low contribution of these to the sources undergoing treatment, and in the residues the levels were low, but within the range described in the literature, corroborating its classification as a TENORM

  14. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji

    2014-01-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive 238 U and 232 Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  15. Estimated use of 131I at diagnostic and treatment in Nucl. Med. in Gb (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.

    1974-01-01

    The 131-radioiodine use in Guanabara area, during 1972-1973 is studied. References are made to the radiation levels delivered to thyroid, bone marrow and gonads in a population of 27000 peoples examined by tracer techniques, 190 submitted to hiperthyroidism treatment and 50 treated for thyroid data cancerning radiation induced cancer (Leukaemia and thyroid cancer). By this, it was possible to estimate the probability of tumour occurrence in that population, assuming a linear relationship between dose and effect. The conclusions are the following: 1 - There are many duties in this field at the present; 2 - The Leukaemia incidence related to the 131 - radioiodine use is negligibls, either in diagnostic ot therapeutic modalities; 3 - The possibility of thyroid tumors induced by radiation is real, specially in hyperthyroidism treatment; 4 - The use of tracer techniques that causes lower irradiation to the pacient is advisable, because we can't exclude thyroid carcinogenesis at this level [pt

  16. Radioactive waste management of the radiological accident in Goianaia, Brazil - Cooperation of Waste Treatment Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, M.F.R.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Reis, L.C.S.; Santos, P.O.; Silva, E.M.P.; Tello, C.C.O.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive waste were generated in Goiania by an accidental breakage of Cesium 137 radiotherapie source (A=5,0 x 10 13 Bq) in September 1987. The Waste Treatment Division (DITRR.CN) CDTN/NUCLEBRAS has worked in all critical areas to remove the contamination and carried out the tasks at the interim storage. Experience on the waste management and the results from the R and D works conducted by the Division were applied. The R and D works conducted by the Division were applied. The R and D works conducted by the Division were applied. The R and D works comprise package for storage and transport of radioactive material, the use of selected bentonite for Cesium 137 retention, installation of waste treatment facilities and elaboration of several specific procedures. (author) [pt

  17. Polycystic echinococcosis in the state of Acre, Brazil: contribution to patient diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Nilton Ghiotti; de Siqueira, Cláudia Maria Villar Maziero; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela; Soares, Manoel do Carmo P; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2013-01-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding polycystic hydatid disease results in delayed or even incorrect diagnosis. The lack of systematic information regarding treatment also makes it difficult to assess the results and prognosis in patients with peritoneal and hepatic lesions caused by Echinococcus vogeli. Here we describe the clinical features of patients, propose a radiological classification protocol and describe a therapeutic option for the treatment of hydatid disease that previously had only been used for cases of cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus). A prospective cohort study was initiated in 1999 and by 2009 the study included 60 patients. These patients were classified according to the PNM classification (parasite lesion, neighbouring organ invasion and metastases) and placed in one of three therapeutic modalities: (i) chemotherapy with albendazole at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, (ii) surgical removal of cysts or (iii) percutaneous puncture of the cysts via puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR). The results were stratified according to therapeutic outcome: "cure", "clinical improvement", "no improvement", "death" or "no information". The PNM classification was useful in indicating the appropriate therapy in cases of polycystic hydatid disease. In conclusion, surgical therapy produced the best clinical results of all the therapies studied based on "cure" and "clinical improvement" outcomes. The use of PAIR for treatment requires additional study. PMID:23903966

  18. Controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse perpetrated by men receiving substance use treatment in England and Brazil: Prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non‐physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Design and Methods Secondary analysis from two cross‐sectional studies was performed. Data on socio‐demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Results Sixty‐four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Conclusions Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d

  19. Knowledge about emergency contraception among women referred for treatment at a university hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Neves Lubianca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate knowledge about emergency contraception (EC in women who are referred for treatment at the HCPA. The study investigated prevalence of use and of knowledge about correct use of the method. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings: The study was conducted with patients admitted at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from 2009 to 2010. Patients: Sexually active women, age range 18 to 50 years. Interventions: Patients answered a questionnaire about the use and knowledge about emergency contraception. Main Outcome Measures:  Primary outcome: prevalence of knowledge about the correct use of EC. Secondary outcome: prevalence of use of emergency contraception. Results: 61.2% of women reported using regular birth control pills, 18.7% used condoms, 9.0% used other methods, 3.0% used intrauterine device and 8.2% did not use a contraceptive method. Emergency contraception: 86.5% of interviewees reported having knowledge about the method, and 43.1% of those interviewees reported knowing how to use EC. In our study, 12.0% of interviewees correctly reported how to use EC. The prevalence of the use of EC in our sample was 19.4%. Conclusions: Though most interviewees reported having some knowledge about EC, only a small number were able to accurately describe its proper use.

  20. Heterogeneous Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Koldehofe, Boris; Mogensen, Martin; Monod, Maxime; Quéma, Vivien

    Gossip-based information dissemination protocols are considered easy to deploy, scalable and resilient to network dynamics. Load-balancing is inherent in these protocols as the dissemination work is evenly spread among all nodes. Yet, large-scale distributed systems are usually heterogeneous with respect to network capabilities such as bandwidth. In practice, a blind load-balancing strategy might significantly hamper the performance of the gossip dissemination.

  1. Heterogeneity of Mental Health Service Utilization and High Mental Health Service Use Among Women Eight Years After Initiating Substance Use Disorder Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Padwa, Howard; Li, Libo; Lin, Veronique; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine mental health service utilization patterns among women treated for substance use disorders (SUD) and identify factors associated with patterns of high mental health service use. Data were provided by 4447 women treated for SUD in California during 2000-2002 for whom mental health services utilization records were acquired. A latent class model was fitted to women's high use of services (>6 services/year over 8 years). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with utilization patterns. In 8 years after initiating SUD treatment, 50% of women utilized mental health services. High use probability was consistently low for most women (76.9%); for others, however, it decreased immediately following SUD treatment and then increased over time (8.7%), increased immediately following SUD treatment and then decreased (9.3%), or remained consistently high (5.1%). Consistently high services use was negatively associated with marriage (OR 0.60, pwomen with co-occurring mental health disorders at SUD treatment entry did not receive any mental health treatment in the subsequent 8 years. Mental health services utilization patterns among women treated for SUD are heterogeneous and dynamic. Understanding factors related to women's utilization patterns may aid efforts to optimize care and ensure appropriate use of mental health services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergism between anodic oxidation with diamond anodes and heterogeneous catalytic photolysis for the treatment of pharmaceutical pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Peralta-Hernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization of diclofenac and acetaminophen has been studied by single anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond (AO-BDD using an undivided electrolysis cell, by single heterogeneous catalytic photolysis with titanium dioxide (HCP-TiO2 and by the combination of both advanced oxidation processes. The results show that mineralization can be obtained with either single technology. The type of functional groups of the pollutant does not influence the results of the single AO-BDD process, but it has a significant influence on the results obtained with HCP-TiO2. A clear synergistic effect appears when both processes are combined showing improvements in the oxidation rate of more than 50% for diclofenac and nearly 200% for acetaminophen at the highest current exerted. Results obtained are explained in terms of the production of oxidants on the surface of BDD (primarily peroxodisulfate and the later homogeneous catalytic light decomposition of these oxidants in the bulk. This mechanism is consistent with the larger improvement observed at higher current densities, for which the production of oxidants is promoted.

  3. Treatment of decontamination liquid waste of nuclear power plant components by heterogeneous photo catalysis with a continuous recirculation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litter, Marta I.; La Gamma, Ana M.; Chocron, Mauricio; Blesa, Miguel A.; Repetto, Pablo

    1999-01-01

    It has been designed a bench scale, recirculation device, for testing the degradation of solutions of ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) by heterogeneous photo catalysis under irradiation with UV and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Solutions of EDTA have been employed at concentrations and pH values similar to those used when a decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment is carried out. The circuit is composed of a photo reactor, a heat exchanger, a reservoir tank and a peristaltic pump. In the present paper, the results of the experiments of photo catalytic degradation of aqueous suspensions of TiO 2 (Degussa P-25) 1 g/L with EDTA (10 g/L) at pH 3.7 and 25 degree C and two irradiation wavelengths (366 and 254 nm) have been presented. At 366 nm the full degradation of EDTA has occurred in 10 hours. The 95% degradation of total organic carbon (TOC) has been achieved after 39 hours of irradiation. The irradiation at 254 nm in the same conditions has been much less effective (EDTA and TOC reduction of approximately 1%), due to a screening effect produced by the semiconductor. (author)

  4. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  5. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption. PMID:26517827

  6. Quantification of antiangiogenic treatment effects on tissue heterogeneity in glioma tumour xenograft model using a combination of DCE-MRI and 3D-ultramicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominietto, Marco [University and ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Basel, Biomaterials Science Center, Allschwil (Switzerland); Dobosz, Michael; Renner, Anja; Scheuer, Werner [Roche Innovation Center Penzberg, Discovery Oncology, Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development (pRED), Penzberg (Germany); Buergi, Sandra; Rudin, Markus [University and ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); Zahlmann, Gudrun [pRED, Oncology DTA, Innovation Center Basel, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of an anti-angiogenic treatment, which neutralises vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on tumour heterogeneity. Murine glioma cells have been inoculated into the right brain frontal lobe of 16 mice. Anti-VEGF antibody was administered to a first group (n = 8), while a second group (n = 8) received a placebo. Magnetic resonance acquisitions, performed at days 10, 12, 15 and 23 following the implantation, allowed the derivation of a three-dimensional features dataset characterising tumour heterogeneity. Three-dimensional ultramicroscopy and standard histochemistry analysis have been performed to verify in vivo results. Placebo-treated mice displayed a highly-vascularised area at the tumour periphery, a monolithic necrotic core and a chaotic dense vasculature across the entire tumour. In contrast, the B20-treated group did not show any highly vascularised regions and presents a fragmented necrotic core. A significant reduction of the number of vessel segments smaller than 17 μm has been observed. There was no difference in overall tumour volume and growth rate between the two groups. Region-specific analysis revealed that VEGF inhibition affects only: (1) highly angiogenic compartments expressing high levels of VEGF and characterised by small capillaries, and also (2) the formation and structure of necrotic regions. These effects appear to be transient and limited in time. (orig.)

  7. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  8. Depth treatment of coal-chemical engineering wastewater by a cost-effective sequential heterogeneous Fenton and biodegradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yili; Yin, Weizhao; Jiang, Yanbin; Ge, Hengjun; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a sequential Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction and biological process was employed as a low-cost depth treatment method to remove recalcitrant compounds from coal-chemical engineering wastewater after regular biological treatment. First of all, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency of 66 and 63% was achieved at initial pH of 6.8, 25 mmol L -1 of H 2 O 2 , and 2 g L -1 of Fe 0 in the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis, the recalcitrant compounds were effectively decomposed into short-chain organic acids such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Although these acids were resistant to the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction, they were effectively eliminated in the sequential air lift reactor (ALR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 h, resulting in a further decrease of COD and color from 120 to 51 mg L -1 and from 70 to 38 times, respectively. A low operational cost of 0.35 $ m -3 was achieved because pH adjustment and iron-containing sludge disposal could be avoided since a total COD and color removal efficiency of 85 and 79% could be achieved at an original pH of 6.8 by the above sequential process with a ferric ion concentration below 0.8 mg L -1 after the Fe 0 /H 2 O 2 reaction. It indicated that the above sequential process is a promising and cost-effective method for the depth treatment of coal-chemical engineering wastewaters to satisfy discharge requirements.

  9. Evaluation of person-level heterogeneity of treatment effects in published multiperson N-of-1 studies: systematic review and reanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gowri; Balk, Ethan M; Lai, Lana; Shi, Jennifer; Chan, Jeffrey; Lutz, Jennifer S; Dubois, Robert W; Kravitz, Richard L; Kent, David M

    2018-05-26

    Individual patients with the same condition may respond differently to similar treatments. Our aim is to summarise the reporting of person-level heterogeneity of treatment effects (HTE) in multiperson N-of-1 studies and to examine the evidence for person-level HTE through reanalysis. Systematic review and reanalysis of multiperson N-of-1 studies. Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Web of Science and review of references through August 2017 for N-of-1 studies published in English. N-of-1 studies of pharmacological interventions with at least two subjects. Citation screening and data extractions were performed in duplicate. We performed statistical reanalysis testing for person-level HTE on all studies presenting person-level data. We identified 62 multiperson N-of-1 studies with at least two subjects. Statistical tests examining HTE were described in only 13 (21%), of which only two (3%) tested person-level HTE. Only 25 studies (40%) provided person-level data sufficient to reanalyse person-level HTE. Reanalysis using a fixed effect linear model identified statistically significant person-level HTE in 8 of the 13 studies (62%) reporting person-level treatment effects and in 8 of the 14 studies (57%) reporting person-level outcomes. Our analysis suggests that person-level HTE is common and often substantial. Reviewed studies had incomplete information on person-level treatment effects and their variation. Improved assessment and reporting of person-level treatment effects in multiperson N-of-1 studies are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Paracrine effects and heterogeneity of marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells: relevance for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conese, Massimo; Carbone, Annalucia; Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-based treatment may represent a hope for the treatment of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, and other chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is well established in preclinical models that bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells exert beneficial effects on inflammation, immune responses and repairing of damage in virtually all lung-borne diseases. While it was initially thought that the positive outcome was due to a direct engraftment of these cells into the lung as endothelial and epithelial cells, paracrine factors are now considered the main mechanism through which stem and progenitor cells exert their therapeutic effect. This knowledge has led to the clinical use of marrow cells in pulmonary hypertension with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and in COPD with mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs). Bone marrow-derived stem cells, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, MSCs, EPCs and fibrocytes, encompass a wide array of cell subsets with different capacities of engraftment and injured tissue-regenerating potential. The characterization/isolation of the stem cell subpopulations represents a major challenge to improve the efficacy of transplantation protocols used in regenerative medicine and applied to lung disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Electronic gaming machines and gambling disorder: A cross-cultural comparison between treatment-seeking subjects from Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Leppink, Eric W; Yaemi, Ana; Mariani, Mirella; Tavares, Hermano; Grant, Jon E

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a cross-cultural comparison of gambling disorder (GD) due to electronic gaming machines (EGM), a form of gambling that may have a high addictive potential. Our goal is to investigate two treatment-seeking samples of adults collected in Brazil and the United States, countries with different socio-cultural backgrounds. This comparison may lead to a better understanding of cultural influences on GD. The total studied sample involved 733 treatment-seeking subjects: 353 men and 380 women (average age=45.80, standard deviation ±10.9). The Brazilian sample had 517 individuals and the American sample 216. Subjects were recruited by analogous strategies. We found that the Brazilian sample was younger, predominantly male, less likely to be Caucasian, more likely to be partnered, tended to have a faster progression from recreational gambling to GD, and were more likely to endorse chasing losses. This study demonstrated that there are significant differences between treatment-seeking samples of adults presenting GD due to EGM in Brazil and in the United States. These findings suggest that cultural aspects may have a relevant role in GD due to EGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation of dental treatment needs in adults in Brazil and Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Alex Rodrigues do; Andrade, Fabíola Bof de; César, Cibele Comini

    2016-11-03

    This study sought to describe the agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation of dental treatment needs in adults and analyze associated factors. The sample comprised adult individuals who took part in SBBrazil 2010 and SBMinas Gerais 2012. The study's outcome was agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation of dental treatment needs. We used multiple Poisson regression in order to determine the factors associated with the outcome. Agreement between self-perception and clinical evaluation was 78.8% in Brazil and 73.8% in Minas Gerais. Clinical and self-reported oral health conditions that affect function and quality of life were associated with a higher agreement, while a recent visit to the dentist was associated with a lower agreement. Identifying associated factors may enable the development of questionnaires that favor correct self-perception regarding treatment needs.

  13. New Metrics for Economic Evaluation in the Presence of Heterogeneity: Focusing on Evaluating Policy Alternatives Rather than Treatment Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David D; Basu, Anirban

    2017-11-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) methods fail to acknowledge that where cost-effectiveness differs across subgroups, there may be differential adoption of technology. Also, current CEA methods are not amenable to incorporating the impact of policy alternatives that potentially influence the adoption behavior. Unless CEA methods are extended to allow for a comparison of policies rather than simply treatments, their usefulness to decision makers may be limited. We conceptualize new metrics, which estimate the realized value of technology from policy alternatives, through introducing subgroup-specific adoption parameters into existing metrics, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and Incremental Net Monetary Benefits (NMBs). We also provide the Loss with respect to Efficient Diffusion (LED) metrics, which link with existing value of information metrics but take a policy evaluation perspective. We illustrate these metrics using policies on treatment with combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate v. statin monotherapy for patients with diabetes and mixed dyslipidemia. Under the traditional approach, the population-level ICER of combination v. monotherapy was $46,000/QALY. However, after accounting for differential rates of adoption of the combination therapy (7.2% among males and 4.3% among females), the modified ICER was $41,733/QALY, due to the higher rate of adoption in the more cost-effective subgroup (male). The LED metrics showed that an education program to increase the uptake of combination therapy among males would provide the largest economic returns due to the significant underutilization of the combination therapy among males under the current policy. This framework may have the potential to improve the decision-making process by producing metrics that are better aligned with the specific policy decisions under consideration for a specific technology.

  14. Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: Role of Plasticity and Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Conese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are incurable and represent a very high social burden. Stem cell-based treatment may represent a hope for the cure of these diseases. In this paper, we revise the overall knowledge about the plasticity and engraftment of exogenous marrow-derived stem cells into the lung, as well as their usefulness in lung repair and therapy of chronic lung diseases. The lung is easily accessible and the pathophysiology of these diseases is characterized by injury, inflammation, and eventually by remodeling of the airways. Bone marrow-derived stem cells, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs and mesenchymal stromal (stem cells (MSCs, encompass a wide array of cell subsets with different capacities of engraftment and injured tissue regenerating potential. Proof-of-principle that marrow cells administered locally may engraft and give rise to specialized epithelial cells has been given, but the efficiency of this conversion is too limited to give a therapeutic effect. Besides the identification of plasticity mechanisms, the characterization/isolation of the stem cell subpopulations represents a major challenge to improving the efficacy of transplantation protocols used in regenerative medicine for lung diseases.

  15. Hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases: role of plasticity and heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conese, Massimo; Piro, Donatella; Carbone, Annalucia; Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incurable and represent a very high social burden. Stem cell-based treatment may represent a hope for the cure of these diseases. In this paper, we revise the overall knowledge about the plasticity and engraftment of exogenous marrow-derived stem cells into the lung, as well as their usefulness in lung repair and therapy of chronic lung diseases. The lung is easily accessible and the pathophysiology of these diseases is characterized by injury, inflammation, and eventually by remodeling of the airways. Bone marrow-derived stem cells, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs), encompass a wide array of cell subsets with different capacities of engraftment and injured tissue regenerating potential. Proof-of-principle that marrow cells administered locally may engraft and give rise to specialized epithelial cells has been given, but the efficiency of this conversion is too limited to give a therapeutic effect. Besides the identification of plasticity mechanisms, the characterization/isolation of the stem cell subpopulations represents a major challenge to improving the efficacy of transplantation protocols used in regenerative medicine for lung diseases.

  16. Heterogeneidade espacial da dengue em estudos locais, Niterói, RJ Heterogeneidad espacial del dengue en estudios locales, Niteroi, Sureste de Brasil Spatial heterogeneity of dengue fever in local studies, City of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Fernandes Flauzino

    2009-12-01

    Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sinan between 1998 and 2006, in the city of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil, were georeferenced according to census tracts. These tracts were classified into homogeneous areas for the occurrence of the disease: slum, shipyard and urban area. Cases were grouped into five periods - two inter-epidemic periods (1998-2000 and 2003-2005 and three epidemic periods (2001, 2002 and 2006 - and analyzed using operations between layers in a geographic information system (GIS environment. The kernel method was used to identify clusters of cases. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was used to confirm these clusters statistically. RESULTS: Of all cases, 57% were females. Age groups with the highest number of cases were 20-29-years (20.5% and 30-39-years (17.7%. The hill slum sector showed only 11% of households covered by garbage collection service, the highest percentage of illiterate individuals (8.7% and head of families with income lower than one monthly minimum wage (29.5%. Cases remained in the slum sectors. In the first epidemic year and in the inter-epidemic periods, the highest number of cases was found in the hill and flatland slum sectors; in the second and third epidemic years, in the flatland slum sector. CONCLUSIONS: The economically active portion of the population was that most affected in the study area. Census tracts show spatial heterogeneity in relation to life conditions. In addition, in some tracts, there are differences in spatial and temporal distribution of the risk of occurrence of dengue fever.

  17. Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users in Brazil: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, André Q C; Madruga, Clarice S; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Yamauchi, Rodolfo; Simões, Viviane; da Silva, Claudio J; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R

    2016-08-01

    Crack cocaine dependence has become a severe public health problem in Brazil, and current psychosocial approaches to this problem have shown little or no effectiveness. Although contingency management is among the most effective behavioral treatments for substance use disorders, it has never been applied in the treatment of crack cocaine-dependent individuals in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of incorporating contingency management into standard outpatient treatment for crack cocaine dependence, as well as the impact that doing so has on treatment attendance, retention in treatment, maintenance of abstinence, and the frequency of substance use. We evaluated 65 treatment-seeking, crack cocaine-dependent individuals, randomized to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment plus contingency management (STCM; n = 33) or 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32). Those in the STCM group received monetary incentives for being abstinent, earning up to US$235.50 if they remained abstinent throughout the entire treatment period. The STCM group participants attended a mean of 19.5 (SD = 14.9) treatment sessions, compared with 3.7 (SD = 5.9) for the STA group participants (p retained in treatment at weeks 4, 8, and 12 than were those in the STA group. The likelihood of detecting 4, 8, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was 17.7, 9.9, and 18.6 times higher in the STCM group than in the STA group (p < .05). Compared to the STA group, the STCM group submitted a significantly higher proportion of negative samples for crack cocaine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and alcohol (p < .001) when all expected samples were included in the denominator but not when only submitted samples were considered. The average monthly cost/participant for incentives was $29.00. Contingency management showed efficacy in a sample of Brazilian crack cocaine users. The intervention holds promise for broader application in international settings. (PsycINFO Database

  18. Risk factors for default from tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected individuals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruza, Magda; Albuquerque, Maria F P Militão; Coimbra, Isabella; Moura, Líbia V; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Miranda Filho, Demócrito B; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Rodrigues, Laura C; Ximenes, Ricardo A A

    2011-12-16

    Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study to identify risk factors for default from TB treatment in people living with HIV. We conducted a cohort study to monitor HIV/TB co-infected subjects in Pernambuco, Brazil, on a monthly basis, until completion or default of treatment for TB. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-values. From a cohort of 2310 HIV subjects, 390 individuals (16.9%) who had started treatment after a diagnosis of TB were selected, and data on 273 individuals who completed or defaulted on treatment for TB were analyzed. The default rate was 21.7% and the following risk factors were identified: male gender, smoking and CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. Age over 29 years, complete or incomplete secondary or university education and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were identified as protective factors for the outcome. The results point to the need for more specific actions, aiming to reduce the default from TB treatment in males, younger adults with low education, smokers and people with CD4 T-cell counts Default was less likely to occur in patients under HAART, reinforcing the strategy of early initiation of HAART in individuals with TB.

  19. Heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process using martite nanocatalyst prepared by high energy planetary ball milling for treatment of a textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindarsafa, Mahsa; Khataee, Alireza; Kaymak, Baris; Vahid, Behrouz; Karimi, Atefeh; Rahmani, Amir

    2017-01-01

    High energy planetary ball milling was applied to prepare sono-Fenton nanocatalyst from natural martite (NM). The NM samples were milled for 2-6h at the speed of 320rpm for production of various ball milled martite (BMM) samples. The catalytic performance of the BMMs was greater than the NM for treatment of Acid Blue 92 (AB92) in heterogeneous sono-Fenton-like process. The NM and the BMM samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDX and BET analyses. The particle size distribution of the 6h-milled martite (BMM 3 ) was in the range of 10-90nm, which had the highest surface area compared to the other samples. Then, the impact of main operational parameters was investigated on the process. Complete removal of the dye was obtained at the desired conditions including initial pH 7, 2.5g/L BMM 3 dosage, 10mg/L AB92 concentration, and 150W ultrasonic power after 30min of treatment. The treatment process followed pseudo-first order kinetic. Environmentally-friendly modification of the NM, low leached iron amount and repeated application at milder pH were the significant benefits of the BMM 3 . The GC-MS was successfully used to identify the generated intermediates. Eventually, an artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the AB92 removal efficiency based upon the experimental data with a proper correlation coefficient (R 2 =0.9836). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor Heterogeneity and Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, L.; Skolekova, S.; Kozovska, Z.

    2015-01-01

    New generation of sequencing methodologies revealed unexpected complexity and genomic alterations linked with the tumor subtypes. This diversity exists across the tumor types, histologic tumor subtypes and subsets of the tumor cells within the same tumor. This phenomenon is termed tumor heterogeneity. Regardless of its origin and mechanisms of development it has a major impact in the clinical setting. Genetic, phenotypic and expression pattern diversity of tumors plays critical role in the selection of suitable treatment and also in the prognosis prediction. Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a key role in the intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of intratumoral and inter tumoral heterogeneity and their relationship to the drug resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of tumor heterogeneity development before and during the therapy is important for the ability to design individual treatment protocols suitable in the given molecular context. (author)

  1. Imaging metabolic heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debanti; Pratx, Guillem

    2016-01-06

    As our knowledge of cancer metabolism has increased, it has become apparent that cancer metabolic processes are extremely heterogeneous. The reasons behind this heterogeneity include genetic diversity, the existence of multiple and redundant metabolic pathways, altered microenvironmental conditions, and so on. As a result, methods in the clinic and beyond have been developed in order to image and study tumor metabolism in the in vivo and in vitro regimes. Both regimes provide unique advantages and challenges, and may be used to provide a picture of tumor metabolic heterogeneity that is spatially and temporally comprehensive. Taken together, these methods may hold the key to appropriate cancer diagnoses and treatments in the future.

  2. I-125 seed dose estimates in heterogeneous phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Isabela S.L.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Yoriyaz, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Brachytherapy plays an important role in the healing process involving tumors in a variety of diseases. Several studies are currently conducted to examine the heterogeneity effects of different tissues and organs in brachytherapy clinical situations and a great effort has been made to incorporate new methodologies to estimate doses with greater accuracy. The objective of this study is to contribute to the assessment of heterogeneous effects on dose due to I-125 brachytherapy source in the presence of different materials with different densities and chemical compositions. The study was performed in heterogeneous phantoms using materials that simulate human tissues. Among these is quoted: breast, fat, muscle, lungs (exhaled and inhaled) and bones with different densities. Monte Carlo simulations for dose calculation in these phantoms were held and subsequently validated. The model 6711 I-125 seed was considered because it is widely used as a brachytherapy permanent implant and the one used in clinics and hospitals in Brazil. Thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD-700 (LiF: Mg, Ti) were simulated for dose assess. Several tissue configurations and positioning of I-125 sources were studied by simulations for future dose measurements. The methodology of this study so far shall be suitable for accurate dosimetric evaluation for different types of brachytherapy treatments, contributing to brachytherapy planning systems complementation allowing a better assessment of the dose actually delivered to the patient. (author)

  3. I-125 seed dose estimates in heterogeneous phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Isabela S.L.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: isabela.slbranco@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brachytherapy plays an important role in the healing process involving tumors in a variety of diseases. Several studies are currently conducted to examine the heterogeneity effects of different tissues and organs in brachytherapy clinical situations and a great effort has been made to incorporate new methodologies to estimate doses with greater accuracy. The objective of this study is to contribute to the assessment of heterogeneous effects on dose due to I-125 brachytherapy source in the presence of different materials with different densities and chemical compositions. The study was performed in heterogeneous phantoms using materials that simulate human tissues. Among these is quoted: breast, fat, muscle, lungs (exhaled and inhaled) and bones with different densities. Monte Carlo simulations for dose calculation in these phantoms were held and subsequently validated. The model 6711 I-125 seed was considered because it is widely used as a brachytherapy permanent implant and the one used in clinics and hospitals in Brazil. Thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD-700 (LiF: Mg, Ti) were simulated for dose assess. Several tissue configurations and positioning of I-125 sources were studied by simulations for future dose measurements. The methodology of this study so far shall be suitable for accurate dosimetric evaluation for different types of brachytherapy treatments, contributing to brachytherapy planning systems complementation allowing a better assessment of the dose actually delivered to the patient. (author)

  4. Using Length of Stay to Control for Unobserved Heterogeneity When Estimating Treatment Effect on Hospital Costs with Observational Data: Issues of Reliability, Robustness, and Usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Peter; Garrido, Melissa M; Cassel, J Brian; Morrison, R Sean; Normand, Charles

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of treatment effect estimates when length of stay (LOS) is used to control for unobserved heterogeneity when estimating treatment effect on cost of hospital admission with observational data. We used data from a prospective cohort study on the impact of palliative care consultation teams (PCCTs) on direct cost of hospital care. Adult patients with an advanced cancer diagnosis admitted to five large medical and cancer centers in the United States between 2007 and 2011 were eligible for this study. Costs were modeled using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. We compared variability in estimates of PCCT impact on hospitalization costs when LOS was used as a covariate, as a sample parameter, and as an outcome denominator. We used propensity scores to account for patient characteristics associated with both PCCT use and total direct hospitalization costs. We analyzed data from hospital cost databases, medical records, and questionnaires. Our propensity score weighted sample included 969 patients who were discharged alive. In analyses of hospitalization costs, treatment effect estimates are highly sensitive to methods that control for LOS, complicating interpretation. Both the magnitude and significance of results varied widely with the method of controlling for LOS. When we incorporated intervention timing into our analyses, results were robust to LOS-controls. Treatment effect estimates using LOS-controls are not only suboptimal in terms of reliability (given concerns over endogeneity and bias) and usefulness (given the need to validate the cost-effectiveness of an intervention using overall resource use for a sample defined at baseline) but also in terms of robustness (results depend on the approach taken, and there is little evidence to guide this choice). To derive results that minimize endogeneity concerns and maximize external validity, investigators should match and analyze treatment and comparison arms

  5. Statistical control process to compare and rank treatment plans in radiation oncology: impact of heterogeneity correction on treatment planning in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Balosso, Jacques

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a statistical process to compare different treatment plans issued from different irradiation techniques or different treatment phases. This approach aims to provide arguments for discussion about the impact on clinical results of any condition able to significantly alter dosimetric or ballistic related data. The principles of the statistical investigation are presented in the framework of a clinical example based on 40 fields of radiotherapy for lung cancers. Two treatment plans were generated for each patient making a change of dose distribution due to variation of lung density correction. The data from 2D gamma index (γ) including the pixels having γ≤1 were used to determine the capability index (Cp) and the acceptability index (Cpk) of the process. To measure the strength of the relationship between the γ passing rates and the Cp and Cpk indices, the Spearman's rank non-parametric test was used to calculate P values. The comparison between reference and tested plans showed that 95% of pixels have γ≤1 with criteria (6%, 6 mm). The values of the Cp and Cpk indices were lower than one showing a significant dose difference. The data showed a strong correlation between γ passing rates and the indices with P>0.8. The statistical analysis using Cp and Cpk, show the significance of dose differences resulting from two plans in radiotherapy. These indices can be used for adaptive radiotherapy to measure the difference between initial plan and daily delivered plan. The significant changes of dose distribution could raise the question about the continuity to treat the patient with the initial plan or the need for adjustments.

  6. Using Factor Mixture Models to Evaluate the Type A/B Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders in a Heterogeneous Treatment Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Sysko, Robyn; Bux, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The type A/B classification model for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has received considerable empirical support. However, few studies examine the underlying latent structure of this subtyping model, which has been challenged as a dichotomization of a single drinking severity dimension. Type B, relative to type A, alcoholics represent those with early age of onset, greater familial risk, and worse outcomes from alcohol use. Method We examined the latent structure of the type A/B model using categorical, dimensional, and factor mixture models in a mixed gender community treatment-seeking sample of adults with an AUD. Results Factor analytic models identified 2-factors (drinking severity/externalizing psychopathology and internalizing psychopathology) underlying the type A/B indicators. A factor mixture model with 2-dimensions and 3-classes emerged as the best overall fitting model. The classes reflected a type A class and two type B classes (B1 and B2) that differed on the respective level of drinking severity/externalizing pathology and internalizing pathology. Type B1 had a greater prevalence of women and more internalizing pathology and B2 had a greater prevalence of men and more drinking severity/externalizing pathology. The 2-factor, 3-class model also exhibited predictive validity by explaining significant variance in 12-month drinking and drug use outcomes. Conclusions The model identified in the current study may provide a basis for examining different sources of heterogeneity in the course and outcome of AUDs. PMID:28247423

  7. A systematic review of medicinal plants used for weight loss in Brazil: Is there potential for obesity treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, Luana M; White, Pollyanna A S; Nampo, Fernando K; Santos, Márcio R V; Camargo, Enilton A

    2015-12-24

    Obesity is a pandemic disease and its prevalence is still increasing. Moreover, it has important costs to public health. In Brazil, many plants are used for weight loss by overweight or obese people, but there is a lack of scientific basis for this practice. Many ethnobotanical studies aiming to characterize this usage have been published, but they are still limited by the region considered and the diversity of the popular knowledge. The present study was undertaken to systematically review the ethnobotanical surveys regarding the species utilized to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil. Ethnobotanical surveys related to this usage and performed in Brazilian regions were systematically found in MEDLINE, LILACS and Scopus. Thirty-three studies were included in this review. Fifty species were popularly utilized to lose weight. The most cited species were Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC, Annona muricata L. and Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were also cited and are supported by either animal or human investigations that indicate some beneficial activity against obesity. However, for the majority of species cited in the included studies, there is no scientific basis that assures the biological effects of this usage. Many studies have demonstrated important effects of these plants on glycemia, serum lipid levels or body weight control in non-obese conditions, which is not sufficient to recommend the use of these plants to reduce body weight in overweight or obese people. Although many plants are popularly used to reduce weight in overweight or obese people in Brazil, there is little scientific evidence corroborating its usage. Based on the ethnobotanical data presented, this review indicates the plants that should be considered for scientifically controlled studies devoted to investigating their effects on obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlândia-MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de; Filho, Guimes Rodrigues; Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Júlia Graciele; Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene; Alves Cerqueira, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. ► The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg −1 . ► The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. ► The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlândia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg −1 was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  9. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento Municipal de Agua e Esgoto de Uberlandia (DMAE) (Brazil); Filho, Guimes Rodrigues, E-mail: guimes@ufu.br [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Julia Graciele [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (Brazil); Alves Cerqueira, Daniel [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel da Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1} was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  10. Patients' costs and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment in DOTS and non-DOTS facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Steffen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Costs of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment may represent a significant burden for the poor and for the health system in resource-poor countries.The aim of this study was to analyze patients' costs of tuberculosis care and to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the directly observed treatment (DOT strategy per completed treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.We interviewed 218 adult patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Information on direct (out-of-pocket expenses and indirect (hours lost costs, loss in income and costs with extra help were gathered through a questionnaire. Healthcare system additional costs due to supervision of pill-intake were calculated considering staff salaries. Effectiveness was measured by treatment completion rate. The ICER of DOT compared to self-administered therapy (SAT was calculated.DOT increased costs during the treatment phase, while SAT increased costs in the pre-diagnostic phase, for both the patient and the health system. Treatment completion rates were 71% in SAT facilities and 79% in DOT facilities. Costs per completed treatment were US$ 194 for patients and U$ 189 for the health system in SAT facilities, compared to US$ 336 and US$ 726 in DOT facilities. The ICER was US$ 6,616 per completed DOT treatment compared to SAT.Costs incurred by TB patients are high in Rio de Janeiro, especially for those under DOT. The DOT strategy doubles patients' costs and increases by fourfold the health system costs per completed treatment. The additional costs for DOT may be one of the contributing factors to the completion rates below the targeted 85% recommended by WHO.

  11. Patterns of clozapine and other antipsychotics prescriptions in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in community mental health centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stella de Azevedo Silveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite of its global underuse, clozapine is still the golden standard antipsychotic for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS. Objective To evaluate the patterns of clozapine and other antipsychotic drugs prescription in TRS in community mental health centers in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A multiple-choice questionnaire was applied to fifteen psychiatrists at five centers inquiring about patients’ clinical condition, adherence to oral treatment and current antipsychotic treatment. History of previous and current antipsychotic treatment was collected through medical chart review. Results Out of 442 schizophrenia patients, 103 (23.3% fulfilled the criteria for TRS. Fifty-eight patients (56.3% were receiving polypharmacy; 30 (29.1% were on atypical antipsychotic monotherapy, 14 (13.6% were on typical antipsychotic monotherapy, 25 (24.3% were taking depot antipsychotic medication and only 22 (21.4% were receiving clozapine. Discussion As well as in other parts of the world, many TRS patients (78.6% receive other drugs instead of clozapine in São Paulo, the best evidence-based medication for patients with TRS. The government should make every effort to provide medical training and the equipment and logistic support to adequately serve those who could benefit from clozapine treatment at the community health centers.

  12. HABITS OF PATIENTS AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATOR IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II IN PALMAS, TOCANTINS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynard Noleto SALES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, a non-communicable disease that can affect men and women, can be classified as type I or type II. This disease is in the 4th position in numbers of deaths in Brazil, and therefore, involves attention, both from the government, as the patients and family. The aims of this study is describe the lifestyle in relation to diet, foot care and proper medication, and the point of view of patients with diabetes mellitus type II, on the importance of the practice of physical exercise, coordinated and programmed. We performed a study using Questionnaire of Self-Care Activities with Diabetes (QAD and a second questionnaire with questions related to the importance of exercise for patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Questionnaires were applied in 20 patients with the disease (08 men and 12 women, living in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. Result: We noticed that even with the recommendations of healthcare professionals, most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 has not adapted verification of blood glucose, proper nutrition and foot care. Moreover, despite the interviewees know the importance of performing regular physical activity, we noticed that these do not know how much of weekly days in which they must get physical exercise in order to control the disease. Most interviewees adopt just walk as the physical activity, and we have not verified from the answers of patients, if they know what the most beneficial exercises to control this disease.

  13. Tratamento de chorume de aterro sanitário por fotocatálise heterogênea integrada a processo biológico convencional Treatment of landfill leachates by heterogeneous photocatalysis integrated to a conventional biological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josmaria Lopes de Morais

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and microbiological decomposition of the garbage deposited in landfills leads to the generation of a dark and malodorous liquid residue that shows a chemical composition of extreme variability and complexity. When matured, the leachates show low biodegradability, which makes it difficult to treat by conventional biological processes. In this work a new strategy for the treatment of landfill leachates is proposed, involving a preliminary treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis followed by an activated sludge system. The results demonstrate that photochemical treatments of 60 and 90 min significantly enhance the leachates' biodegradability favoring subsequent biological treatment. The biodegradability rate (BOD/COD was also greatly enhanced.

  14. Monte Carlo evaluation of the AAA treatment planning algorithm in a heterogeneous multilayer phantom and IMRT clinical treatments for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Tomsej, M.; Smedt, B. de; Reynaert, N.; Vynckier, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is a new pencil beam convolution/superposition algorithm proposed by Varian for photon dose calculations. The configuration of AAA depends on linear accelerator design and specifications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of AAA for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator for small fields and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments in inhomogeneous media. The accuracy of AAA was evaluated in two studies. First, AAA was compared both with Monte Carlo (MC) and the measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom simulating lung equivalent tissues and bone ribs. The algorithm was tested under lateral electronic disequilibrium conditions, using small fields (2x2 cm 2 ). Good agreement was generally achieved for depth dose and profiles, with deviations generally below 3% in lung inhomogeneities and below 5% at interfaces. However, the effects of attenuation and scattering close to the bone ribs were not fully taken into account by AAA, and small inhomogeneities may lead to planning errors. Second, AAA and MC were compared for IMRT plans in clinical conditions, i.e., dose calculations in a computed tomography scan of a patient. One ethmoid tumor, one orophaxynx and two lung tumors are presented in this paper. Small differences were found between the dose volume histograms. For instance, a 1.7% difference for the mean planning target volume dose was obtained for the ethmoid case. Since better agreement was achieved for the same plans but in homogeneous conditions, these differences must be attributed to the handling of inhomogeneities by AAA. Therefore, inherent assumptions of the algorithm, principally the assumption of independent depth and lateral directions in the scaling of the kernels, were slightly influencing AAA's validity in inhomogeneities. However, AAA showed a good accuracy overall and a great ability to handle small fields in inhomogeneous media compared to other pencil beam convolution

  15. [Alteration of profile of treatment of the public psychiatric hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in the context of mental health care reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vívian Andrade Araújo; Volpe, Fernando Madalena; Diniz, Sabrina Stephanie Lana; Silva, Eliane Mussel da; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to describe the profile of treatment and internment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011. The changes in the characteristics of treatment and the profiles of the patients treated are analyzed in the context of health care reform. It is a study of temporal series with trend analysis by means of linear regression. There was a reduction in the total of patients treated in the period under scrutiny. Inversely, there was an increase in internments with a reduction in length of stay, though no change in readmission rates. Patients from Belo Horizonte prevailed, however a relative increase in demand from the surrounding area was observed. There was a reversal in the prevalence of morbidity switching from psychotic disorders to disorders resulting from the use of alcohol and/or other drugs. The alteration observed in the profile of treatment in public psychiatric hospitals in Belo Horizonte was concomitant with the progressive implementation of community mental health services, which have probably met the demand that was formerly directed to these hospitals. Currently the psychiatric hospital is not the first, much less the only venue for treatment in the mental health network in Minas Gerais.

  16. Epidemiological Profile and Treatment Outcomes in Young Adults (19-29 Years of Age) Treated for Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Ribeiro, Taynan Nunes; Chinen, Ludmilla T Domingos; Alves, Vanessa; Curado, Maria Paula; Fanelli, Marcello Ferretti

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of cancer in young adults (20-39 years) is increasing, and represents an important cause of mortality in this age group. A retrospective study was undertaken to provide information that may lead to improved treatment outcomes. Epidemiological, clinicopathological, treatment, and survival information were retrieved from the electronic database registry of a tertiary referral hospital in São Paulo, Brazil for patients 19-29 years of age diagnosed with cancer between January 2007 and December 2012. There were 960 patients with a median age at diagnosis of 26 years; female patients comprised 59.2%. A previous diagnosis of malignancy was present in 2.3%; 0.4% had malignant tumors that were radiation-associated; regular alcohol use was present in 10.4%; 9% of patients reported tobacco use; a family history of cancer was present in 41.7%. Malignant tumors included carcinomas (45.7%), germ cell and trophoblastic neoplasms (12.3%), and lymphomas (12.1%). Median follow-up was 47.7 months (range: 0.62-100.9 months) during which time 111 patients (13.5%) died. Carcinomas (n = 43, 38.7%), soft tissue sarcomas (n = 18, 16.2%), and leukemias (n = 10, 9.0%) were the most common causes of death. This study has shown that carcinomas represent the most common malignancy in adolescents and young adults referred to a tertiary cancer center in Brazil and are the most common cause of mortality. Because clinical outcome may be affected by multiple factors in this patient population, further global studies are needed to characterize this population and improve clinical care.

  17. Coupling of acrylic dyeing wastewater treatment by heterogeneous Fenton oxidation in a continuous stirred tank reactor with biological degradation in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Boaventura, Rui A R; Maldonado-Hódar, F J; Madeira, Luís M

    2016-01-15

    This work deals with the treatment of a recalcitrant effluent, from the dyeing stage of acrylic fibres, by combination of the heterogeneous Fenton's process in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with biological degradation in a sequential batch reactor (SBR). Three different catalysts (a commercial Fe/ZSM-5 zeolite and two distinct Fe-containing activated carbons - ACs - prepared by wet impregnation of iron acetate and iron nitrate) were employed on the Fenton's process, and afterwards a parametric study was carried out to determine the effect of the main operating conditions, namely the hydrogen peroxide feed concentration, temperature and contact time. Under the best operating conditions found, using the activated carbon impregnated with iron nitrate, 62.7% of discolouration and 39.9% of total organic carbon (TOC) reduction were achieved, at steady-state. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the effluent's biodegradability was attained (BOD5:COD ratio increased from <0.001 to 0.27 and SOUR - specific oxygen uptake rate - from <0.2 to 11.1 mg O2/(gVSS·h)), alongside a major decrease in its toxicity (from 92.1 to 94.0% of Vibrio fischeri inhibition down to 6.9-9.9%). This allowed the application of the subsequent biological degradation stage. The combination of the two processes provided a treated effluent that clearly complies with the legislated discharge limits. It was also found that the iron leaching from the three catalysts tested was very small in all runs, a crucial factor for the stability and long-term use of such materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment adherence and duration among victimized children and adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Scivoletto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of substance abuse and mood disorders among victimized children and adolescents, few studies have investigated the association of these disorders with treatment adherence, represented by numbers of visits per month and treatment duration. We aimed to investigate the effects of substance abuse and mood disorders on treatment adherence and duration in a special program for victimized children in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 351 participants were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and classified into one of five groups: mood disorders alone; substance abuse disorders alone; mood and substance abuse disorders; other psychiatric disorders; no psychiatric disorders. The associations between diagnostic classification and adherence to treatment and the duration of program participation were tested with logistic regression and survival analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Children with mood disorders alone had the highest rate of adherence (79.5%; those with substance abuse disorders alone had the lowest (40%; and those with both disorders had an intermediate rate of adherence (50%. Those with other psychiatric disorders and no psychiatric disorders also had high rates of adherence (75.6% and 72.9%, respectively. Living with family significantly increased adherence for children with substance abuse disorders but decreased adherence for those with no psychiatric disorders. The diagnostic correlates of duration of participation were similar to those for adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Mood and substance abuse disorders were strong predictive factors for treatment adherence and duration, albeit in opposite directions. Living with family seems to have a positive effect on treatment adherence for patients with substance abuse disorders. More effective treatment is needed for victimized substance-abusing youth

  19. A novel representation of inter-site tumour heterogeneity from pre-treatment computed tomography textures classifies ovarian cancers by clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Micco, Maura; Lakhman, Yulia; Meier, Andreas A.; Sosa, Ramon; Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Veeraraghavan, Harini; Deasy, Joseph [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Nougaret, Stephanie [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Service de Radiologie, Institut Regional du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); INSERM, U1194, Institut de Recherche en Cancerologie de Montpellier (IRCM), Montpellier (France); Soslow, Robert A.; Weigelt, Britta [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Levine, Douglas A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Aghajanian, Carol; Snyder, Alexandra [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the associations between clinical outcomes and radiomics-derived inter-site spatial heterogeneity metrics across multiple metastatic lesions on CT in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). IRB-approved retrospective study of 38 HGSOC patients. All sites of suspected HGSOC involvement on preoperative CT were manually segmented. Gray-level correlation matrix-based textures were computed from each tumour site, and grouped into five clusters using a Gaussian Mixture Model. Pairwise inter-site similarities were computed, generating an inter-site similarity matrix (ISM). Inter-site texture heterogeneity metrics were computed from the ISM and compared to clinical outcomes. Of the 12 inter-site texture heterogeneity metrics evaluated, those capturing the differences in texture similarities across sites were associated with shorter overall survival (inter-site similarity entropy, similarity level cluster shade, and inter-site similarity level cluster prominence; p ≤ 0.05) and incomplete surgical resection (similarity level cluster shade, inter-site similarity level cluster prominence and inter-site cluster variance; p ≤ 0.05). Neither the total number of disease sites per patient nor the overall tumour volume per patient was associated with overall survival. Amplification of 19q12 involving cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1) predominantly occurred in patients with more heterogeneous inter-site textures. Quantitative metrics non-invasively capturing spatial inter-site heterogeneity may predict outcomes in patients with HGSOC. (orig.)

  20. Heterogeneity of HVR-1 quasispecies is predictive of early but not sustained virological response in genotype 1b-infected patients undergoing combined treatment with PEG- or STD-IFN plus RBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, I; Cappiello, G; Lo Iacono, O; Longo, R; Ferraro, D; Antonucci, G; Di Marco, V; Di Stefano, R; Craxì, A; Solmone, M C; Spanò, A; Ippolito, G; Capobianchi, M R

    2003-01-01

    ISDR mutation pattern and HVR-1 quasispecies were analyzed in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients treated with either PEG- or STD-IFN plus ribavirin, in order to find virological correlates of therapy outcome. ISDR region analysis, performed at baseline (T0) and at 4 weeks of therapy (T1), indicated that ISDR mutation pattern was not predictive of response to treatment. Moreover, no selection of putative resistant strains in the first month of therapy was observed. Viral load was not correlated with any parameter of HVR-1 heterogeneity. Among the HVR-1 heterogeneity parameters considered, complexity was inversely correlated to viral load decline at T1. In univariate analysis, complexity, proportion of non synonymous substitutions (NS) and NS/S ratio were lower in patients showing virological response at 6 months of treatment. Complexity was the only parameter independently associated with both decline of viral load at T1 and virological response after 6 months, even after adjustment for confounding variables. At the end of treatment or later, these correlations were lost. Evolution pattern of the HVR-1 quasispecies indicated a strong selective pressure in sustained responders, with complete substitution of pre-existing quasispecies, while minor changes occured in non responders. In relapsers both patterns were present at a similar rate. In conclusion, this study shows that HVR-1 heterogeneity may be involved in the early response to combined IFN-RBV therapy. The loss of correlation between viral heterogeneity and therapy outcome at 6 months of therapy, or later, suggests that other factors may play a role in maintaining sustained response to treatment.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of soils of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Isabela Codolo de; Amorim, Ricardo Santos Silva; Lobo, Francisco de Almeida; Baldoni, Raquel Negrão; Matos, Dalva Maria da Silva

    2014-01-01

    In areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Brazil, the soil displays features which are inherent to the processes of soil formation, both of the Central Plateau and the Pantanal Plain. Given this premise, the area should be noteworthy for its high level of edaphic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to determine the physical, chemical and physico-hydric attributes that best explain the heterogeneity of soils in areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone, and to assess whether these attributes ...

  2. Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquelline Carla Valamiel de Oliveira-Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA and non-conventional (FC-ALTA serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100% phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05% and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase, associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.

  3. Impact of the two different iron fortified cookies on treatment of anemia in preschool children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Liejy Agnes; Pessoa, Marcia Luiza Dos Santos Beserra; Brandão, Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Marcos Antônio de Mota Araújo, Marcos Antônio De Mota Araújo; Rocha, Maurisrael De Moura; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva Dos Reis

    2016-09-20

    Nutritional intervention in pre-school children using cookies prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CWFFeFA) and cookies prepared with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) flour fortified with iron and zinc and wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CCFFeZn + WFFeFA). To assess the impact of the ingestion of CWFFeFA and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA by pre-school children, using the cowpea variety BRS-Xiquexique, to control iron-deficiency anaemia. Nutritional intervention was conducted in municipal day care centres selected at random (n = 262) involving pre-school children aged 2 to 5 years living in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. To assess the socioeconomic data, BMI-for-age, haemoglobin levels before and after intervention, and dietary intake, the children were divided into group 1 (G1), which received CWFFeFA (30 g), and group 2 (G2), which received CCFFeZn + WFFeFA (30 g). Food acceptance was evaluated daily. The prevalence of anaemia in G1 and G2 before the nutritional intervention was 12.2% (n = 18) and 11.5% (n = 30), respectively. After intervention, the prevalence decreased to 1.4% in G1 (n = 2) and to 4.2% in G2 (n = 11). Food acceptance by pre-school children in G1 and G2 was 97.4% and 94.3%, respectively. The use of both types of cookie formulations decreased the prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children, and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA yielded the greatest decrease.

  4. Isotoxic dose escalation in the treatment of lung cancer by means of heterogeneous dose distributions in the presence of respiratory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, Olfred

    2011-01-01

    To test, in the presence of intrafractional respiration movement, a margin recipe valid for a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution and to test whether the use of smaller margins combined with heterogeneous dose distributions allows an isotoxic dose escalation when respiratory motion...

  5. Micro-costing analysis of guideline-based treatment by direct-acting agents: the real-life case of hepatitis C management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Hugo; Jorge, Marcelino Jose; Silva, Julio Castro; Avellar, Alexandre Monken; Silva, Patrícia Santos; Romero, Carmen; Veloso, Valdilea Gonçalves; Mujica-Mota, Ruben; Anderson, Rob; Hyde, Chris; Castro, Rodolfo

    2017-11-23

    Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) using direct-acting agents (DAA) has been associated with a financial burden to health authorities worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the guideline-based treatment costs by DAAs from the perspective of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMoH). The activity based costing method was used to estimate the cost for monitoring/treatment of genotype-1 (GT1) HCV patients by the following strategies: peg-interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin (RBV) for 48 weeks, PEG-IFN/RBV plus boceprevir (BOC) or telaprevir (TEL) for 48 weeks, and sofosbuvir (SOF) plus daclastavir (DCV) or simeprevir (SIM) for 12 weeks. Costs were reported in United States Dollars without (US$) and with adjustment for purchasing power parity (PPP$). Drug costs were collected at the National Database of Health Prices and an overview of the literature was performed to assess effectiveness of SOF/DCV and SOF/SIM regimens in real-world cohorts. Treatment costs of GT1-HCV patients were PPP$ 43,176.28 (US$ 24,020.16) for PEG-IFN/RBV, PPP$ 71,196.03 (US$ 39,578.23) for PEG-IFN/RBV/BOC and PPP$ 86,250.33 (US$ 47,946.92) for PEG-IFN/RBV/TEL. Treatment by all-oral interferon-free regimens were the less expensive approach: PPP$ 19,761.72 (US$ 10,985.90) for SOF/DCV and PPP$ 21,590.91 (US$ 12,002.75) for SOF/SIM. The overview reported HCV eradication in up to 98% for SOF/DCV and 96% for SOF/SIM. Strategies with all oral interferon-free might lead to lower costs for management of GT1-HCV patients compared to IFN-based regimens in Brazil. This occurred mainly because of high discounts over international DAA prices due to negotiation between BMoH and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Barriers to HIV testing, linkage to care, and treatment adherence: a cross-sectional study from a large urban center of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Hoffmann, Michael; Nunn, Amy; Silva, Luís Augusto Vasconcelos da; Dourado, Ines

    2016-12-01

    Early, continued engagement with the HIV treatment continuum can help achieve viral suppression, though few studies have explored how risk factors for delays differ across the continuum. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of delayed diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and nonadherence to treatment in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Data were collected during 2010 in a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 1 970) of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified sociodemographic variables, behaviors, and measures of health service quality that were associated with delayed diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and treatment nonadherence. For delayed diagnosis, male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.0-4.6); age 45 years and older (AOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5); and provider-initiated testing (AOR, 3.00; 95% CI, 2.1-4.4) increased odds, while drug use (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.2-0.5) and receiving results in a private space (AOR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8) decreased odds. For delayed linkage to care, unemployment (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.9) and difficulty understanding or speaking with a health care worker (AOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.2-2.1) increased odds, while posttest counseling (AOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7) decreased odds. For nonadherence, experiencing verbal or physical discrimination related to HIV (AOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and feeling mistreated or not properly attended to at HIV care (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5) increased odds, while posttest counseling (AOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6) decreased odds. More attention is needed on how policies, programs, and research can provide tailored support across the treatment continuum.

  7. A dominated and resistant subpopulation causes regrowth after response to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea treatment of a heterogeneous small cell lung cancer xenograft in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, K; Roed, H; Vindeløv, L L

    1994-01-01

    In order to address the question of the influence of a primarily chemoresistant tumor cell subpopulation on the progression of a heterogeneous tumor after cytotoxic therapy, in vitro established human small cell lung cancer cell lines of a 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)-sensitive (592...... was demonstrated in the 9:1 mixed tumors in which only 592 cells were detectable at the start of the treatment. The response was short and less pronounced compared with tumors containing only 592. In the regrowing tumors after treatment, only NYH was detected. In untreated 9:1 mixed control tumors, only 592 cells...

  8. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Imaging of Femoral Neck Bone: Reduced Heterogeneity of Mineral-to-Matrix and Carbonate-to-Phosphate and more Variable Crystallinity in Treatment-Naïve Fracture Cases compared to Fracture-Free Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L.

    2012-01-01

    After age 60 hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and non-fractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck’s axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed Tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared to controls. While our treatment-naïve patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone’s toughness as a material. PMID:22865771

  9. Fourier transform infrared imaging of femoral neck bone: reduced heterogeneity of mineral-to-matrix and carbonate-to-phosphate and more variable crystallinity in treatment-naive fracture cases compared with fracture-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    After the age of 60 years, hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and nonfractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck's axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared with controls. Although our treatment-naive patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone's toughness as a material. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Analysis of dose in heterogeneity adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical treatment of cases of breast cancer; Analise da heterogeneidade de dose em radioterapia adjuvante apos tratamento cirurgico de casos de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechi, Bruna E.; Schwarz, Ana Paula, E-mail: anapaulaschwarz@yahoo.com.br [Centro Universitario Franciscano (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Teston, Adriano; Rodrigues, Joanilso S. [Clinica de Radioterapia Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Assuming the systems planning radiotherapy recognize all body structures of the same density (d=1 g/cm³), variations in electron density within the irradiated area, as is the case of patients who undergo reconstruction mammary processes and use tissue expanders, may influence the dose distribution in the treatment and may produce heterogeneities which are not measured by changing its actual distribution into healthy tissues or in the target volume to be irradiated. Through the calculation of the algorithms' dose distribution of the XiO® planning system (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition e Clarkson), when using correction of heterogeneity between tissues of different densities, there was obtained a percentage ratio of dose increase in the structures of interest, and of the amount of absorbed dose by healthy organs adjacent to the target volume. (author)

  11. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system XiO with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on; Validacao dos algoritmos de calculo de dose do sistema de planejamento XiO considerando as correcoes para heterogeneidade dos tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, L.R.; Barbi, G.L.; Silva, W.T. da; Reis, E.G.F. dos; Borges, L.F.; Bertucci, E.C.; Maciel, M.F.; Amaral, L.L. do, E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%; This is in accordance with the recommendation of several references.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%).

  12. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system Xi O with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on; Validacao dos algoritmos de calculo de dose do sistema de planejamento Xi O considerando as correcoes para heterogeneidade dos tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, Leandro R.; Barbi, Gustavo L.; Silva, Wiliam T.; Reis, Eduardo G.F.; Borges, Leandro F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Maciel, Marina F.; Amaral, Leonardo L., E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2011-07-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%). (author)

  13. Diabetes Care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Walmir F; Silva Júnior, Wellington Santana

    2015-01-01

    The diabetes epidemic affects most countries across the world and is increasing at alarming rates in Latin America. Nearly 12 million individuals have diabetes in Brazil, and the current prevalence ranges from 6.3% to 13.5%, depending on the region and the diagnostic criteria adopted in each study. To provide an overview of diabetes care in Brazil, focusing on studies of diabetes epidemiology, prevalence of patients within the standard targets of care, and economic burden of diabetes and its complications. SciELO and PubMed searches were performed for the terms "diabetes," "Brazil," "Brazilian," and "health system"; relevant literature from 1990 to 2015 was selected. Additional articles identified from reference list searches were also included. All articles selected were published in Portuguese and/or English. Recent studies detected a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus of nearly 20%. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, almost 90% fail to reach target of glycemic control, with less than 30% receiving treatment for both hypertension and dyslipidemia. More than 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese. Most of these patients fail to reach glycemic targets (42.1%) and less than 30% reached the target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only 0.2% of patients reach all these anthropometric and metabolic targets. Brazil is the fourth country in the world in number of patients with diabetes. Regardless of the diabetes type, the majority of patients do not meet other metabolic control goals. The economic burden of diabetes and its complications in Brazil is extremely high, and more effective approaches for preventions and management are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Increased thiol levels in antimony-resistant Leishmania infantum isolated from treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lucas S; Bomfim, Lays Gs; Mota, Sthefanne G; Cruz, Geydson S; Corrêa, Cristiane B; Tanajura, Diego M; Lipscomb, Michael W; Borges, Valéria M; Jesus, Amélia R de; Almeida, Roque P de; Moura, Tatiana R de

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND Treatment-refractory visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become an important problem in many countries. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the antimony-resistance mechanisms of Leishmania infantum isolated from VL patients refractory or responsive to treatment with pentavalent antimony. METHODS Strains isolated from antimony-refractory patients (in vitro antimony-resistant isolates) and antimony-responsive patients (in vitro antimony-sensitive isolates) were examined. Morphological changes were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy after trivalent antimony exposure. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump activity was evaluated using the pump-specific inhibitor verapamil hydrochloride, and the role of thiol in trivalent antimony resistance was investigated using the enzymatic inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine. FINDINGS Antimony treatment induced fewer alterations in the cellular structure of L. infantum resistant isolates than in that of sensitive isolates. P-gp efflux activity was not involved in antimony resistance in these isolates. Importantly, the resistant isolates contained higher levels of thiol compared to the sensitive isolates, and inhibition of thiol synthesis in the resistant isolates recovered their sensitivity to trivalent antimony treatment, and enhanced the production of reactive oxygen species in promastigotes exposed to the drug. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that isolates from patients with antimony-refractory VL exhibited higher thiol levels than antimony-sensitive isolates. This indicates that redox metabolism plays an important role in the antimony-resistance of New World VL isolates.

  15. Determination of heavy metals and other elements in lake dwellers sediments of the Barueri, Brazil, wastewater treatment plat by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2002-01-01

    The Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in Barueri, Sao Paulo, Brazil, processes a significant part of sewage generated in Sao Paulo city. Due to economic and technical problems, all the residual sludges produced in the STP in Barueri from 1988 to 1996 were cumulatively disposed over the land, in piles and in open areas, resulting in a quantity of about 215000 m 3 of residues, deposited directly on the soil. The STP has two ponds, which were built to landscape the place. In the present work, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, Mo, Rb, So, Ta, Zn), semi-metals (As, Sb, Se), actinides (U, Th) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in bottom sediments from one of the ponds, in order to verify whether it was contaminated due to the wastes generated by the plant. The results obtained were compared to the concentration determined in a soil profile and in a sample of rock, in natura, representing the lithologies of the region, and showed a homogeneous distribution of the elements all along the pond and indicated that only As, Cr and Zn can have their origin associated with the residues disposed around the pond. (author)

  16. Polymerase chain reaction and nested-PCR approaches for detecting Cryptosporidium in water catchments of water treatment plants in Curitiba, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important protozoan cause of waterborne disease worldwide of concern to public health authorities. To prevent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, the monitoring of this parasite in drinking water is necessary. In the present work, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and nested-PCR techniques were used to detect Cryptosporidium in raw water from catchment points of four water treatment plants (WTP in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Methods First, DNA extraction techniques were tested in samples containing decreasing amount of oocysts in reagent water, and PCR and nested-PCR with specific primers for 18SSU rDNA of Cryptosporidium were conducted to determine their sensitivity. In reagent water, a commercial extraction kit provided the best analytical sensitivity, and PCR and nested-PCR allowed the detection of five and two oocysts, respectively, with the primers XIAOR/XIAOF and XIAO1F/XIAO2R. Results In the spiking experiments, only the PCR with the primers AWA995F/AWA1206R was successful at detecting concentrations of 0.1 oocysts/mL. Two catchments samples of raw water and/or water sludge from four WTPs were contaminated with Cryptosporidium. Conclusions The application of the techniques to monitor Cryptosporidium in water and detect contamination in water catchments of WTPs in Curitiba are discussed in the present work.

  17. Comparative study of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection due to genotypes 1 and 3 referred for treatment in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçales Fernando L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is influenced by host and viral factors. Distinct clinical outcomes in patients infected with different HCV genotypes have been described in the literatute. However, the association between specific HCV genotype and clinical outcome remains unclear. We set out to study the natural history of HCV genotype 1 and 3 infections in Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil, focusing on epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, and histological characteristics. Methods Patients with HCV infection referred for treatment between January 2003 and December 2006 were included in this study. We collected epidemiological, clinical, and laboratorial data using standard forms. Results A total of 283 patients were included; genotype 1 was idenfied in 163 (57.6% patients, genotype 3 in 112 (39.6%, genotype 2 in 7 (2.5%, and genotype 4 in 1 (0.35%. Patients with genotype 2 and 4 were excluded from analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that intravenous energetic drug, positive cryoglobulin, and cirrhosis were independently and significantly associated with HCV genotype 3 (p Conclusion Genotype 3 currently seems to be associated with intravenous energetic drug, high frequency of cryoglobulinemia, and advanced liver disease in our region. Understanding the distribution of the different HCV genotypes can elucidate transmission of HCV and support optimal prevention strategies.

  18. Examination of the suitability of an implementation of the Jette localized heterogeneities fluence term L(1)(x,y,z) in an electron beam treatment planning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Raymond Francis, Jr.

    2000-11-01

    In this project we applied modifications of the Fermi- Eyges multiple scattering theory to attempt to achieve the goals of a fast, accurate electron dose calculation algorithm. The dose was first calculated for an ``average configuration'' based on the patient's anatomy using a modification of the Hogstrom algorithm. It was split into a measured central axis depth dose component based on the material between the source and the dose calculation point, and an off-axis component based on the physics of multiple coulomb scattering for the average configuration. The former provided the general depth dose characteristics along the beam fan lines, while the latter provided the effects of collimation. The Gaussian localized heterogeneities theory of Jette provided the lateral redistribution of the electron fluence by heterogeneities. Here we terminated Jette's infinite series of fluence redistribution terms after the second term. Experimental comparison data were collected for 1 cm thick x 1 cm diameter air and aluminum pillboxes using the Varian 2100C linear accelerator at Rush-Presbyterian- St. Luke's Medical Center. For an air pillbox, the algorithm results were in reasonable agreement with measured data at both 9 and 20 MeV. For the Aluminum pill box, there were significant discrepancies between the results of this algorithm and experiment. This was particularly apparent for the 9 MeV beam. Of course a one cm thick Aluminum heterogeneity is unlikely to be encountered in a clinical situation; the thickness, linear stopping power, and linear scattering power of Aluminum are all well above what would normally be encountered. We found that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the choice of the average configuration. This is an indication that the series of fluence redistribution terms does not converge fast enough to terminate after the second term. It also makes it difficult to apply the algorithm to cases where there are no a priori means of choosing the best average

  19. Statistical treatment of the data related to Environment Monitoring Program of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia M.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F.; Pego, Valdivio Damasceno

    1999-01-01

    The basic goal in all environmental data analysis is to characterize the value of some parameter in a portion of the environment over some period of time to a stated degree of accuracy from a limited number of data points. More reliability in the results can be acquired if a proper statistical treatment of the data including estimates of precision, frequency distribution analysis and group comparisons, is performed as part of an environmental surveillance program. The main objective of this paper is to describe the procedures adopted for performing the analysis and statistical treatment of the data obtained in the Environmental Monitoring Program of CDTN during the period of 1993 to 1995. In this study, the results of total alpha and beta concentrations in airborne particulates and surface water samples are considered. In this case, the statistical treatment involved the variability estimation and frequency distribution analysis. Time series analysis of the results is carried out through sequential graphics, which give information about the long-term behavior of the variables. (author) work. (author)

  20. Estimated annual cost of arterial hypertension treatment in Brazil Costo estimado anual del tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial en Brasil

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    Murilo W. Dib

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct annual cost of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH treatment in Brazil's public and private health care systems, assess its economic impact on the total health care budget, and determine its proportion of the 2005 gross domestic product (GDP. METHODS: A decision tree model was used to determine direct costs based on estimated use of various resources in SAH diagnosis and care, including treatment (medication and non-medication, complementary exams, doctor visits, nutritional assessments, and emergency room visits. RESULTS: Estimated direct annual cost of SAH treatment was approximately US$ 398.9 million for the public health care system and US$ 272.7 million for the private system, representing 0.08% of the 2005 GDP (ranging from 0.05% to 0.16%. With total health care expenses comprising about 7.6% of Brazil's GDP, this cost represented 1.11% of overall health care costs (0.62% to 2.06%-1.43% of total expenses for the Unified Healthcare System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS (0.79% to 2.75% and 0.83% of expenses for the private health care system (0.47% to 1.48%. Conclusion. To guarantee public or private health care based on the principles of universality and equality, with limited available resources, efforts must be focused on educating the population on prevention and treatment compliance in diseases such as SAH that require significant health resources.OBJETIVOS: Estimar el costo directo anual del tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS en los sistemas sanitarios público y privado de Brasil, evaluar su impacto económico en el presupuesto total de salud y determinar la proporción del producto interno bruto (PIB que ocupó en 2005. MÉTODOS: Se empleó un modelo de árbol de decisión para determinar los costos directos según el uso estimado de varios recursos en el diagnóstico y la atención de la HAS, incluidos el tratamiento (con medicamentos y sin ellos, los exámenes complementarios

  1. Evaluation of the distribution of rare earths elements in fluvial sediments, rocks and wastes correlated to the Caldas Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possas, Clara R.; Moura, Rodrigo R. de; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A. de; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C.

    2017-01-01

    The Caldas Ore Treatment Unit (UTM-Caldas), located at the municipality of Caldas (Minas Gerais-Brazil), was a site for the exploration and treatment of uranium between 1982 and 1995. The area is located in the Alcalino Complex of Poços de Caldas, a geologically peculiar region, composed of alkaline igneous rocks with exotic minerals, some rich in rare earth elements (REE). The UTM-Caldas uranium deposit was defined as a U, Th, Zr, Mo and REE mineralization. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of REEs in river sediments adjacent to UTM-Caldas and to verify if effluents from the mine are interfering in the concentration of REEs in these sediments. To develop the research, five samples were collected in 2011, including sediments from the Soberbo river, the waste dam and the tank of radio precipitation. The samples were prepared in the Sedimentology Laboratory of the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), where the rocks and tailings were crushed, ground and pulverized while the sediments were sieved and an aliquot of the silt-clay fraction was separated for analysis at the CDTN. The analytical method employed was Neutron Activation Analysis (ANA), method k 0 . The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor, and the REEs identified by gamma-spectrometry in the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-CDTN). The results showed a distribution model of the REEs in the study area, which may be useful in evaluating of the environmental impacts of effluents from UTM-Caldas, now in the process of decommissioning

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  3. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: I. Efficiency of diagnostic and treatment procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Bananal is an important focus of Schistosoma mansoni in the State of São Paulo. Accordingly, programmed active search for human cases, annual coproscopic surveys and treatment of infected cases were started in 1998, aiming at producing a sharp prevalence rate drop by the year 2000. S. mansoni eggs were searched for in two Kato-Katz slides per patient. Cases were followed up according to the routine of the local Family Health Program. In 1998, 130 samples out of 3,860 showed S. mansoni eggs; in 1999, 105 out of 3,550, and in 2000, 64 out of 3,528. Prevalence rates were 3.4%, 2.9%, and 1.8%, and average egg-counts 59, 64, and 79 eggs per gram of feces respectively. Prevalence rates decreased steadily after treatment, but persistently positive cases showed no significant decrease in parasite burdens. Egg count variation depended on sex and age bracket. Persistent residual cases admittedly preclude the eradication of this infection by only searching for and treating carriers. In addition, resistance to therapy and low sensitivity of fecal examinations, can not be ignored. Moderate to heavy worm burdens, frequently associated with hepatomegaly elsewhere, produced no serious cases in Bananal.

  4. Comparison of two heterogeneity correction algorithms in pituitary gland treatments with intensity-modulated radiation therapy; Comparacao de dois algoritmos de correcao de heterogeneidade em tratamentos de tumores de hipofise com radioterapia de intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, Lucas D.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: lucasdelbem1@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Radiologia; Weltman, Eduardo; Braga, Henrique F. [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-12-15

    The dose accuracy calculated by a treatment planning system is directly related to the chosen algorithm. Nowadays, several calculation doses algorithms are commercially available and they differ in calculation time and accuracy, especially when individual tissue densities are taken into account. The aim of this study was to compare two different calculation algorithms from iPlan®, BrainLAB, in the treatment of pituitary gland tumor with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These tumors are located in a region with variable electronic density tissues. The deviations from the plan with no heterogeneity correction were evaluated. To initial validation of the data inserted into the planning system, an IMRT plan was simulated in a anthropomorphic phantom and the dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film. The gamma analysis was performed in the film, comparing it with dose distributions calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm and pencil beam convolution (PBC). Next, 33 patients plans, initially calculated by PBC algorithm, were recalculated with XVMC algorithm. The treatment volumes and organs-at-risk dose-volume histograms were compared. No relevant differences were found in dose-volume histograms between XVMC and PBC. However, differences were obtained when comparing each plan with the plan without heterogeneity correction. (author)

  5. Heterogeneidade de variâncias na avaliação genética de búfalas no Brasil Heterogeneity of variances on genetic evaluation of buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kécya França Moita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Registros de produção de leite de 754 búfalas da raça Murrah foram utilizados com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da heterogeneidade de variâncias na avaliação genética. Os componentes de covariância foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita utilizando-se quatro modelos bicaracterísticos, considerando, como efeitos fixos, estação de parto e rebanho-ano de parto, e idade da vaca como covariável (efeito linear e quadrático. Os quatro modelos utilizados foram: modelo aditivo; modelo de repetibilidade; modelo aditivo com inclusão interação reprodutor x rebanho-ano; modelo de repetibilidade com inclusão da interação reprodutor x rebanho-ano. Os rebanhos foram classificados em duas classes de desvio-padrão fenotípico para produção de leite e análises bicaracterísticas foram realizadas considerando cada classe de desvio-padrão como característica diferente. Foi conduzida também uma análise unicaracterística desconsiderando as classes de desvio-padrão fenotípico, incluindo o efeito da interação reprodutor x rebanho-ano. As estimativas de componentes de variância genética aditiva foram maiores na classe de alto desvio-padrão, comparadas às de baixo desvio-padrão. A maioria dos animais selecionados nos arquivos sem estratificação foi selecionada para alto desvio-padrão. Apesar do aumento nas variâncias aditivas e do erro nas de classes de alto desvio-padrão, suas herdabilidades foram menores, com exceção do modelo 2, cujo herdabilidade foi maior para a classe de alto desvio-padrão. Quando rebanhos são classificados em alto e baixo desvio-padrão fenotípico e a produção de leite nas diferentes classes é avaliada em modelo multicaracterística, a avaliação genética considera a heterogeneidade de variâncias entre rebanhos.Milk yield records of 754 Murrah female buffaloes were used to evaluate the effects of heterogeneity of variance among herds on genetic evaluation. The

  6. Clinical heterogeneity in Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Salogub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked, lysosomal storage disease (OMIM: 301500, caused by α-galactosidase A deficiency, resulting in accumulation of its substrates, glycosphingolipids, primarily – globotriaosylceramide, in the lysosomes of multiple cell types with multi-system clinical manifestations, even within the same family, including abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, organ of vision. Clinical heterogeneity is often the reason of the delayed diagnosis. Nowadays enzyme replacement therapy has proved its efficiency in the treatment of Fabry disease. Including Fabry disease in the differential diagnosis of a large range of disorders is important because of its wide clinical heterogeneity and the possibility of an earlier intervention with a beneficial treatment.

  7. Limited activity and social participation after hospital discharge from leprosy treatment in a hyperendemic area in north Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Dias Monteiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neural damages are among the main factors that contribute to physical disability in leprosy. Systematic monitoring using a broad physical, psychological and social approach is necessary. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the limitation of activity and social participation and its correlation with disabilities and/or impairment in individuals after being discharged from a multidrug leprosy therapy. METHOD: A cross-sectional study conducted in Araguaína, state of Tocantins, which is a leprosy hyperendemic municipality. We included cases of patients who were discharged from treatment considered as cured from January 2004 to December 2009. We performed dermatological examination and applied the Screening Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness (SALSA and social participation scales. RESULTS: We included 282 individuals (mean age: 45.8 years old. The paucibacillary operational classification was more common (170; 60.3%. The eye-hand-foot score ranged from 0 to 12 (mean: 0.7. A total of 84 (29.8% individuals presented limited activity. A slight restriction in social participation occurred in 18 (6.3% cases. There was a statistically significant correlation between activity limitation, age (r = 0.40; p < 0.0001 and degree of functional limitation (r = 0.54; p < 0.0001, as well as of restricted social participation, activity limitation (r = 0.56, p < 0.0001 and functional limitations (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Functional limitation due to leprosy had an impact on the conduct of activities and social participation after the discharge from a leprosy treatment. The association between Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness and participation scales will assist in designing evidence-based assistance measures.

  8. Iron oxide-mediated semiconductor photocatalysis vs. heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment of viruses in wastewater. Impact of the oxide particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Liu, Siting; Carratalà, Anna; Rtimi, Sami; Talebi Amiri, Masoud; Bensimon, Michaël; Pulgarin, César

    2017-10-05

    The photo-Fenton process is recognized as a promising technique towards microorganism disinfection in wastewater, but its efficiency is hampered at near-neutral pH operating values. In this work, we overcome these obstacles by using the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process as the default disinfecting technique, targeting MS2 coliphage in wastewater. The use of low concentrations of iron oxides in wastewater without H 2 O 2 (wüstite, maghemite, magnetite) has demonstrated limited semiconductor-mediated MS2 inactivation. Changing the operational pH and the size of the oxide particles indicated that the isoelectric point of the iron oxides and the active surface area are crucial in the success of the process, and the possible underlying mechanisms are investigated. Furthermore, the addition of low amounts of Fe-oxides (1mgL -1 ) and H 2 O 2 in the system (1, 5 and 10mgL -1 ) greatly enhanced the inactivation process, leading to heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes on the surface of the magnetically separable oxides used. Additionally, photo-dissolution of iron in the bulk, lead to homogeneous photo-Fenton, further aided by the complexation by the dissolved organic matter in the solution. Finally, we assess the impact of the presence of the bacterial host and the difference caused by the different iron sources (salts, oxides) and the Fe-oxide size (normal, nano-sized). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of lymphedema in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer in a referral center in southeastern Brazil

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    Paiva Daniella MF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphedema is a highly prevalent condition in women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer. Lymphedema negatively affects the quality of life. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lymphedema and associated factors in women treated for breast cancer in the municipality of Juiz de Fora. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that evaluated 250 women who were being treated for breast cancer. Pre-screening of the sample by analysis of medical records was performed to select women who met the inclusion criteria as follows: women who had an operation more than 6 months ago; absence of active disease, locoregional or distant; the absence of functional change in the affected limb before surgery, which could lead to swelling of the limb; and simulating or masking symptoms of lymphedema, such as bursitis, tendonitis, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Women with bilateral breast cancer, absence of axillary intervention (partial or complete axillary dissection and/or SLN biopsy, active disease in the region, or lympho-venous alteration of the limb before surgery were excluded. Data were collected from the medical records of the selected cases, and they subsequently underwent an interview and a physical assessment. Results The prevalence of lymphedema was 44.8%. There were medical records on the presence of this condition in 5.4% of cases. With regard to shoulder joint mobility, restrictions on abduction movements, internal and external rotation, and anterior shoulder adduction were significantly associated with lymphedema. Variables, including the presence of seroma, vascular changes, time elapsed after surgery, episodes of redness in the extremities, and cuticle removal from the hand with pliers were considered as major associated factors for lymphedema (p Conclusions The prevalence of 44.8% for lymphedema found in this study is considered to be relevant because it is a morbidity that

  10. Historical assessment of uranium release by the ore treatment unit - at Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil from 1999 to 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F.; Py Junior, D.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is located at the source of three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas, Ribeirao do Soberbo and Corrego da Consulta. Each interface of installation with the environment, at the tree rivers, has been monitored for the release of radionuclides. At Ribeirao das Antas a weekly sample collection was made at point 014. At Ribeirao Soberbo there was a weekly sample collection at point 025, and at Corrego da Consulta a monthly collection was carried out at point 076. This work analyses the average annual releases of uranium from the historical series started in 1999 and ended in 2011. Points 014 and 025 showed average release of 0.12 Bq L{sup -1}. Point 076 showed somewhat higher average release, 1.27 Bq L{sup -1}. An Analysis Of Variance test (ANOVA) has been carried out to verify the existence of different means between these collecting points. The averages were considered statistically different. As a complementary analysis, the Student's t test was performed between the averages at considered points. Between points 014 and 025, the averages were considered identical. Between points 014 and 076, the average release at point 076 was considered higher than that at point 014. The same behavior was observed between points 025 and 076. The releases at point 076 were considered higher than those at point 025. Thus it can be concluded that releases at points 014 and 025 are identical and both are lower than releases at point 076. (author)

  11. Retrospective analysis of post-exposure to human anti-rabies treatment in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Ayres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis aimed to identify characteristics of accidents that would, probably, provoke rabies infection. A total of 14,409 survey questionnaires for surveillance of human rabies from the Brazilian Information System for Disease Notification (SINAN, from 2000 to 2005, were analyzed. Regarding demographics, it was observed that 7,377 (51.5% of the victims were white, 4,458 (30.93% were children and 8,008 (55.58% were males. Urban cases were prevalent (88.10% while dogs were the animals most frequently involved in accidents, in 11,700 cases (81.19%. Bites (84.35% and scratches (19.15% were the most prevalent exposure types, and occurred predominantly on victims' extremities (38.79%. The prophylactic measure taken in 6,179 cases comprised anti-rabies vaccine; of these victims, 421 (2.92% showed systemic reactions while 693 (4.80% reported no response. The importance of developing awareness in professionals that should correctly report post-exposure immunoprophylaxis cases is emphasized given the high number of individuals who receive this type of treatment annually.

  12. Historical assessment of uranium release by the ore treatment unit - at Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil from 1999 to 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F.; Py Junior, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is located at the source of three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas, Ribeirao do Soberbo and Corrego da Consulta. Each interface of installation with the environment, at the tree rivers, has been monitored for the release of radionuclides. At Ribeirao das Antas a weekly sample collection was made at point 014. At Ribeirao Soberbo there was a weekly sample collection at point 025, and at Corrego da Consulta a monthly collection was carried out at point 076. This work analyses the average annual releases of uranium from the historical series started in 1999 and ended in 2011. Points 014 and 025 showed average release of 0.12 Bq L -1 . Point 076 showed somewhat higher average release, 1.27 Bq L -1 . An Analysis Of Variance test (ANOVA) has been carried out to verify the existence of different means between these collecting points. The averages were considered statistically different. As a complementary analysis, the Student's t test was performed between the averages at considered points. Between points 014 and 025, the averages were considered identical. Between points 014 and 076, the average release at point 076 was considered higher than that at point 014. The same behavior was observed between points 025 and 076. The releases at point 076 were considered higher than those at point 025. Thus it can be concluded that releases at points 014 and 025 are identical and both are lower than releases at point 076. (author)

  13. SU-F-SPS-02: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using the Monte Carlo and Sequential Dose Calculation Algorithms of Multiplan Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Cyberknife M6 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serin, E.; Codel, G.; Mabhouti, H.; Cebe, M.; Sanli, E.; Pacaci, P.; Kucuk, N.; Kucukmorkoc, E.; Doyuran, M.; Canoglu, D.; Altinok, A.; Acar, H.; Caglar Ozkok, H. [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In small field geometries, the electronic equilibrium can be lost, making it challenging for the dose-calculation algorithm to accurately predict the dose, especially in the presence of tissue heterogeneities. In this study, dosimetric accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) advanced dose calculation and sequential algorithms of Multiplan treatment planning system were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Methods: Small open fields of fixed cones of Cyberknife M6 unit 100 to 500 mm2 were used for this study. The fields were incident on in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities and also homogeneous phantom. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using CK with the 60 mm fixed cone by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of MC and sequential algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement between two algorithms and film measurement For MC algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.7% and 98.3% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields in the case of lung and bone respectively. For sequential algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 92.5% for for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for used all cone sizes. In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculation algorithms. Overall, when compared to measurement, the MC had better agreement than sequential algorithm. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo calculation algorithm in the Multiplan treatment planning system is an improvement over the existing sequential algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  14. SU-F-SPS-02: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using the Monte Carlo and Sequential Dose Calculation Algorithms of Multiplan Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Cyberknife M6 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, E.; Codel, G.; Mabhouti, H.; Cebe, M.; Sanli, E.; Pacaci, P.; Kucuk, N.; Kucukmorkoc, E.; Doyuran, M.; Canoglu, D.; Altinok, A.; Acar, H.; Caglar Ozkok, H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In small field geometries, the electronic equilibrium can be lost, making it challenging for the dose-calculation algorithm to accurately predict the dose, especially in the presence of tissue heterogeneities. In this study, dosimetric accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) advanced dose calculation and sequential algorithms of Multiplan treatment planning system were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Methods: Small open fields of fixed cones of Cyberknife M6 unit 100 to 500 mm2 were used for this study. The fields were incident on in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities and also homogeneous phantom. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtained using CK with the 60 mm fixed cone by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of MC and sequential algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement between two algorithms and film measurement For MC algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.7% and 98.3% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields in the case of lung and bone respectively. For sequential algorithm, the minimum gamma analysis passing rates were 98.9% and 92.5% for for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for used all cone sizes. In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculation algorithms. Overall, when compared to measurement, the MC had better agreement than sequential algorithm. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo calculation algorithm in the Multiplan treatment planning system is an improvement over the existing sequential algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  15. Fotocatálise heterogênea com TiO2 aplicada ao tratamento de esgoto sanitário secundário TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis in secondary wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Vasconcelos Lopes Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da aplicação da fotocatálise heterogênea utilizando dióxido de titânio imobilizado sobre placa de vidro, irradiado por luz solar, para desinfecção de esgoto sanitário secundário. Utilizou-se o efluente de um reator anaeróbio/aeróbio com leito expandido de carvão ativado que trata o esgoto do Campus da USP/São Carlos, e também de contribuições domésticas. Os experimentos foram do tipo batelada, com tempo de recirculação de 4 horas. As vazões estudadas foram 15, 22,5 e 30 L/h. Foram avaliadas as remoções de matéria orgânica (DQO e COT e a inativação de microrganismos indicadores de contaminação fecal (coliformes totais, E. coli, Clostridium perfringens e colifagos.The results of wastewater anaerobic-aerobic reactor effluent disinfected with heterogeneous photocatalysis using titanium dioxide fixed in a glass plate and solar radiation are presented in this work. The anaerobic-aerobic reactor has a granular activated carbon expanded bed and it receives the wastewater collected in the Campus of São Paulo University at São Carlos-SP, Brazil, and from the surrounding neighborhood of the campus. The assays were conducted in batch with recirculation time of 4 hours. The flow rate used was of 15, 22.5 and 30 L/h. The removal of organic matter (COD and TOC and inactivation of total coliforms, E. coli, Clostridium perfringens and coliphages was evaluated.

  16. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described......Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  17. Gamma-rays and heat-treatment conversions of point defects in massive rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Pedro L.; Barreto, Sandra B.; Miranda, Milena R.; Gonzaga, Raysa S. G.; Casals, Sandra A.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive characterization of trace elements and point defects in rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province (BPP) in the northeast of Brazil was carried out by complementary spectroscopic methods. The aim here was to document the change in the configuration of point defects into the quartz lattice induced by heat-treatment and ionizing radiation. The samples were extracted from the core of two granitic rare element (REL) pegmatites, Taboa (Carnaúba dos Dantas, RN) and Alto do Feio (Pedra Lavrada, PB). The contents of Al, P, Ti, Ni, Fe, Ge, Li, Be, B and K were measured by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Polished plates were heat-treated at 500 and 1000 °C and then irradiated with 50 kGy of γ rays. Point defects were characterized by optical (UV-Vis), infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. In the as-received condition, [AlO4/H]0 centers, Li- and B-dependent OH defects were observed. Point defects related to Al and Li species were significantly affected by heat-treatment at 1000 °C and/or γ radiation. Paramagnetic centers such as [AlO4]0, [GeO4/Li]0, [TiO4/Li]0 and [O2 3-/Li]0 were created by the diffusion of Li+ ions from their original diamagnetic centers related to substitutional Al3+ and OH-species. The smoky color developed after irradiation and the signal intensities of the paramagnetic centers were independent from the original rose color grade. The samples from the Taboa (TB) pegmatite showed the highest concentration of Al, Ti, Fe and Li elements as well as the highest signal intensities for [AlO4]0, [AlO4/H]0, [GeO4/Li]0 and [TiO4/Li]0 centers. Although TB also showed the higher concentration of B element, the intensity of the 3597 cm-1 IR band related to [BO4/H]0 centers was higher for Alto do Feio (AF) samples. This result suggests that the uptake of B into the quartz core of each pegmatite took place through different mechanisms. It was concluded that the change in

  18. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  19. Heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment for the reduction of pharmaceutical contamination in Madrid rivers and ecotoxicological evaluation by a miniaturized fern spores bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gil, José L; Catalá, Myriam; Alonso, Silvia González; Maroto, Raúl Romo; Valcárcel, Yolanda; Segura, Yolanda; Molina, Raúl; Melero, Juan A; Martínez, Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Fifty-six pharmaceuticals of various chemical groups, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and cardiovascular drugs, were detected in four selected river waters receiving sewage effluents in the Community of Madrid (Spain). A promising approach for the degradation of those residues is the application of a photo-Fenton treatment. Several new bioassays using fern spores were employed for the evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity based on mitochondrial activity, DNA and chlorophyll quantifications of as-received river water and photo-Fenton-treated samples. photo-Fenton treatment provided a high degree of total organic carbon mineralization with up to 70% reduction for river water samples. In addition, the elimination of most of the studied pharmaceutical compounds was confirmed. A few compounds, however (salicylic acid, ofloxacin, caffeine, cotinine and nicotine), seemed more resistant, with after-treatment concentrations between 4 and 44ngL(-1). Nicotine showed the most refractory behaviour with concentrations ranging from 29 to 224ngL(-1) for treated samples. Photo-Fenton treatment yielded a significant decrease in acute and chronic toxicity, even though some residual toxicity remained after treatment. This fact seemed to be related to the presence of toxicants in the water matrix, probably of inorganic nature, rather than the toxic effect of the studied pharmaceutical compounds, as revealed by the effective removal of these compounds and high TOC mineralization of photo-Fenton treatments.

  20. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  1. Intratumor and Intertumor Heterogeneity in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywa, Tomasz M; Paskal, Wiktor; Włodarski, Paweł K

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma is a cancer that exhibits one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous features. The incidence rate escalates. A high number of clones harboring various mutations contribute to an exceptional level of intratumor heterogeneity of melanoma. It also refers to metastases which may originate from different subclones of primary lesion. Such component of the neoplasm biology is termed intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity. These levels of tumor heterogeneity hinder accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. The increasing number of research on the topic reflects the need for understanding limitation or failure of contemporary therapies. Majority of analyses concentrate on mutations in cancer-related genes. Novel high-throughput techniques reveal even higher degree of variations within a lesion. Consolidation of theories and researches indicates new routes for treatment options such as targets for immunotherapy. The demand for personalized approach in melanoma treatment requires extensive knowledge on intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity on the level of genome, transcriptome/proteome, and epigenome. Thus, achievements in exploration of melanoma variety are described in details. Particularly, the issue of tumor heterogeneity or homogeneity given BRAF mutations is discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intratumor and Intertumor Heterogeneity in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz M. Grzywa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a cancer that exhibits one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous features. The incidence rate escalates. A high number of clones harboring various mutations contribute to an exceptional level of intratumor heterogeneity of melanoma. It also refers to metastases which may originate from different subclones of primary lesion. Such component of the neoplasm biology is termed intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity. These levels of tumor heterogeneity hinder accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. The increasing number of research on the topic reflects the need for understanding limitation or failure of contemporary therapies. Majority of analyses concentrate on mutations in cancer-related genes. Novel high-throughput techniques reveal even higher degree of variations within a lesion. Consolidation of theories and researches indicates new routes for treatment options such as targets for immunotherapy. The demand for personalized approach in melanoma treatment requires extensive knowledge on intratumor and intertumor heterogeneity on the level of genome, transcriptome/proteome, and epigenome. Thus, achievements in exploration of melanoma variety are described in details. Particularly, the issue of tumor heterogeneity or homogeneity given BRAF mutations is discussed.

  3. Quantitative imaging reveals heterogeneous growth dynamics and treatment-dependent residual tumor distributions in a three-dimensional ovarian cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan P.; Rizvi, Imran; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable in vitro research tools, though the power of such systems as quantitative reporters of tumor growth and treatment response has not been adequately explored. We introduce an approach combining a 3-D model of disseminated ovarian cancer with high-throughput processing of image data for quantification of growth characteristics and cytotoxic response. We developed custom MATLAB routines to analyze longitudinally acquired dark-field microscopy images containing thousands of 3-D nodules. These data reveal a reproducible bimodal log-normal size distribution. Growth behavior is driven by migration and assembly, causing an exponential decay in spatial density concomitant with increasing mean size. At day 10, cultures are treated with either carboplatin or photodynamic therapy (PDT). We quantify size-dependent cytotoxic response for each treatment on a nodule by nodule basis using automated segmentation combined with ratiometric batch-processing of calcein and ethidium bromide fluorescence intensity data (indicating live and dead cells, respectively). Both treatments reduce viability, though carboplatin leaves micronodules largely structurally intact with a size distribution similar to untreated cultures. In contrast, PDT treatment disrupts micronodular structure, causing punctate regions of toxicity, shifting the distribution toward smaller sizes, and potentially increasing vulnerability to subsequent chemotherapeutic treatment.

  4. Analysis of polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum genes related to drug resistance: a survey over four decades under different treatment policies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Juliana; Lopes, Dinora; do Rosário, Virgílio; Machado, Marta; Hristov, Angélica D; Lima, Giselle Fmc; Costa-Nascimento, Maria J; Segurado, Aluísio C; Di Santi, Silvia M

    2014-09-19

    Anti-malarial resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains an obstacle for malaria control. Resistance-associated genes were analysed in Brazilian samples over four decades to evaluate the impact of different treatment regimens on the parasite genetic profile. Samples were collected on filter paper from patients infected in the Amazon region from 1984 to 2011. DNA was extracted with Chelex® 100 and monoinfection confirmed by PCR. SNPs in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were assessed by PCR-RFLP. The pfmdr1 copy number was estimated using real time quantitative PCR with SYBR® Green. Parasite response was assessed ex vivo with seven concentrations of each anti-malarial. Patients were treated according to Brazilian guidelines: quinine plus tetracycline or mefloquine in period 1 and ACT in period 2. All 96 samples presented the pfcrt 76T mutant throughout the assessed periods. In addition, all isolates showed ex vivo chloroquine resistance. The pfmdr1 86Y was detected in 1.5% of samples in period 1, and in 25% in period 2. All samples presented the pfmdr1 1246Y. The analysis of pfmdr1 copy number showed amplification in 37.3% in period 1 and in 42% in period 2. Mutations in pfdhfr were shown as follows: 51I in all samples in period 1 and in 81.2% in period 2; 59R in 6.4% in period 2. The pfdhfr 108N and the pfdhps 437G were seen in all samples along time; the pfdhps 540E in 93.7% in period 1 and in 75% in period 2. The 76T mutation associated to chloroquine resistance is still present in the parasite population, although this anti-malarial was withdrawn from the chemotherapy of P. falciparum in Brazil in the mid-1980s. All isolates assayed ex vivo for chloroquine showed resistant phenotype and 76T. No association was observed between pfmdr1 mutations and resistance to quinine, mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives. Additionally, the pfdhfr 108N mutation was detected in all samples throughout the evaluated periods, demonstrating fixation of the mutant

  5. Neurobiological heterogeneity in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, P.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder clinically. Symptoms take many forms, from subtle but pervasive attention problems or dreaminess up to disruptive and unpredictable behavior. Interestingly, early neuroscientific work on ADHD assumed either a

  6. Heterogeneous Calculation of {epsilon}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-15

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of {epsilon}. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer.

  7. Heterogeneous Calculation of ε

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Alf

    1961-02-01

    A heterogeneous method of calculating the fast fission factor given by Naudet has been applied to the Carlvik - Pershagen definition of ε. An exact calculation of the collision probabilities is included in the programme developed for the Ferranti - Mercury computer

  8. HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0168 HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...Final September 1, 2016 – May 1, 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A...provide a structure for this review. The history and the current status of integration technologies in each category are examined and product examples are

  9. Implications of Heterogeneity in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay de Mel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the world. Despite improvement in outcome, the disease is still incurable for most patients. However, not all myeloma are the same. With the same treatment, some patients can have very long survival whereas others can have very short survival. This suggests that there is underlying heterogeneity in myeloma. Studies over the years have revealed multiple layers of heterogeneity. First, clinical parameters such as age and tumor burden could significantly affect outcome. At the genetic level, there are also significant heterogeneity ranging for chromosome numbers, genetic translocations, and genetic mutations. At the clonal level, there appears to be significant clonal heterogeneity with multiple clones coexisting in the same patient. At the cell differentiation level, there appears to be a hierarchy of clonally related cells that have different clonogenic potential and sensitivity to therapies. These levels of complexities present challenges in terms of treatment and prognostication as well as monitoring of treatment. However, if we can clearly delineate and dissect this heterogeneity, we may also be presented with unique opportunities for precision and personalized treatment of myeloma. Some proof of concepts of such approaches has been demonstrated.

  10. Limited Documentation and Treatment Quality of Glycemic Inpatient Care in Relation to Structural Deficits of Heterogeneous Insulin Charts at a Large University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanz, Julia; Lichtenegger, Katharina M; Sendlhofer, Gerald; Semlitsch, Barbara; Cuder, Gerald; Pak, Andreas; Pieber, Thomas R; Tax, Christa; Brunner, Gernot; Plank, Johannes

    2018-02-09

    Insulin charts represent a key component in the inpatient glycemic management process. The aim was to evaluate the quality of structure, documentation, and treatment of diabetic inpatient care to design a new standardized insulin chart for a large university hospital setting. Historically grown blank insulin charts in use at 39 general wards were collected and evaluated for quality structure features. Documentation and treatment quality were evaluated in a consecutive snapshot audit of filled-in charts. The primary end point was the percentage of charts with any medication error. Overall, 20 different blank insulin charts with variable designs and significant structural deficits were identified. A medication error occurred in 55% of the 102 audited filled-in insulin charts, consisting of prescription and management errors in 48% and 16%, respectively. Charts of insulin-treated patients had more medication errors relative to patients treated with oral medication (P international standards, a new insulin chart was developed to overcome these quality hurdles.

  11. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues da; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months) involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (> 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%).

  12. Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health-rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months-involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment), as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (≥ 18 years of age) treated with the basic regimen at either of two primary health care facilities in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 40 tuberculosis patients. The rate of cure was 67.5%, the rate of treatment abandonment was 17.5%, and there were no cases of treatment failure. Of the 40 patients in the sample, 19 (47%) reported adverse reactions, which were mild and moderate, respectively, in 87% and 13% of the cases. It was not necessary to alter the regimen or discontinue the treatment in any of the cases evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cure obtained with the self-administered, fixed-dose combination tablet form of the new basic regimen was similar to the historical rates of cure obtained with the previous basic regimen. The rate of treatment abandonment in our sample was much higher than that considered appropriate (up to 5%). PMID:23503489

  13. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  14. Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Viana, Thércia Guedes; Peixoto, Eliane R de M; Barros, Fabiana C R de; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009) were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug in Brazil was conducted. Five companies were granted a permission to market unfractioned heparin in Brazil. Three of them are porcine in origin and two of them are bovine in origin, with only one explicitly showing this information in the package insert. The effectiveness and safety of heparin studied in non-Brazilian populations may not represent the Brazilian reality, since most countries no longer produce bovine heparin. The currently marketed heparin has approximately 10% less anticoagulant activity than that previously produced and this change may have clinical implications. Evidence about the lack of dose interchangeability between bovine and porcine heparins and the unique safety profile of these drugs indicates the need to follow the treatment and the patients' response. Events threatening the patient's safety must be reported to the pharmacovigilance system in each particular country.

  15. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  16. Utilization of a hybrid finite-element based registration method to quantify heterogeneous tumor response for adaptive treatment for lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hoda; Zhang, Hong; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Lu, Wei; Ajlouni, Munther I.; Jin, Jian-Yue; (Spring Kong, Feng-Ming; Chetty, Indrin J.; Zhong, Hualiang

    2018-03-01

    Tumor response to radiation treatment (RT) can be evaluated from changes in metabolic activity between two positron emission tomography (PET) images. Activity changes at individual voxels in pre-treatment PET images (PET1), however, cannot be derived until their associated PET-CT (CT1) images are appropriately registered to during-treatment PET-CT (CT2) images. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using deformable image registration (DIR) techniques to quantify radiation-induced metabolic changes on PET images. Five patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with adaptive radiotherapy were considered. PET-CTs were acquired two weeks before RT and 18 fractions after the start of RT. DIR was performed from CT1 to CT2 using B-Spline and diffeomorphic Demons algorithms. The resultant displacements in the tumor region were then corrected using a hybrid finite element method (FEM). Bitmap masks generated from gross tumor volumes (GTVs) in PET1 were deformed using the four different displacement vector fields (DVFs). The conservation of total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in GTVs was used as a criterion to evaluate the quality of these registrations. The deformed masks were united to form a large mask which was then partitioned into multiple layers from center to border. The averages of SUV changes over all the layers were 1.0  ±  1.3, 1.0  ±  1.2, 0.8  ±  1.3, 1.1  ±  1.5 for the B-Spline, B-Spline  +  FEM, Demons and Demons  +  FEM algorithms, respectively. TLG changes before and after mapping using B-Spline, Demons, hybrid-B-Spline, and hybrid-Demons registrations were 20.2%, 28.3%, 8.7%, and 2.2% on average, respectively. Compared to image intensity-based DIR algorithms, the hybrid FEM modeling technique is better in preserving TLG and could be useful for evaluation of tumor response for patients with regressing tumors.

  17. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  18. Cancer heterogeneity and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James P B

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in identifying and quantifying tumor heterogeneity at the genomic, tissue pathology and clinical imaging scales, as this may help better understand tumor biology and may yield useful biomarkers for guiding therapy-based decision making. This review focuses on the role and value of using x-ray, CT, MRI and PET based imaging methods that identify, measure and map tumor heterogeneity. In particular we highlight the potential value of these techniques and the key challenges required to validate and qualify these biomarkers for clinical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  20. SU-E-T-131: Dosimetric Impact and Evaluation of Different Heterogenity Algorithm in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plan for Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Lung Treatment with the Flattening Filter Free Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, J; Kim, J [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Kyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y [Choonhae College of Health Sciences, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the dosimetric impacts of the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros XB (AXB) plan for lung stereotactic ablative radiation therapy using flattening filter-free (FFF) beam. We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients. The dosimetric parameters for the target and organs at risk (OARs) from the treatment plans calculated with these dose calculation algorithms were compared. The technical parameters, such as the computation times and the total monitor units (MUs), were also evaluated. Results: A comparison of DVHs from AXB and AAA showed that the AXB plan produced a high maximum PTV dose by average 4.40% with a statistical significance but slightly lower mean PTV dose by average 5.20% compared to the AAA plans. The maximum dose to the lung was slightly higher in the AXB compared to the AAA. For both algorithms, the values of V5, V10 and V20 for ipsilateral lung were higher in the AXB plan more than those of AAA. However, these parameters for contralateral lung were comparable. The differences of maximum dose for the spinal cord and heart were also small. The computation time of AXB was found fast with the relative difference of 13.7% than those of AAA. The average of monitor units (MUs) for all patients was higher in AXB plans than in the AAA plans. These results indicated that the difference between AXB and AAA are large in heterogeneous region with low density. Conclusion: The AXB provided the advantages such as the accuracy of calculations and the reduction of the computation time in lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) with using FFF beam, especially for VMAT planning. In dose calculation with the media of different density, therefore, the careful attention should be taken regarding the impacts of different heterogeneity correction algorithms. The authors report no conflicts of interest.

  1. SU-E-T-131: Dosimetric Impact and Evaluation of Different Heterogenity Algorithm in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plan for Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Lung Treatment with the Flattening Filter Free Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J; Kim, J; Lee, J; Kim, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the dosimetric impacts of the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) and the Acuros XB (AXB) plan for lung stereotactic ablative radiation therapy using flattening filter-free (FFF) beam. We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients. The dosimetric parameters for the target and organs at risk (OARs) from the treatment plans calculated with these dose calculation algorithms were compared. The technical parameters, such as the computation times and the total monitor units (MUs), were also evaluated. Results: A comparison of DVHs from AXB and AAA showed that the AXB plan produced a high maximum PTV dose by average 4.40% with a statistical significance but slightly lower mean PTV dose by average 5.20% compared to the AAA plans. The maximum dose to the lung was slightly higher in the AXB compared to the AAA. For both algorithms, the values of V5, V10 and V20 for ipsilateral lung were higher in the AXB plan more than those of AAA. However, these parameters for contralateral lung were comparable. The differences of maximum dose for the spinal cord and heart were also small. The computation time of AXB was found fast with the relative difference of 13.7% than those of AAA. The average of monitor units (MUs) for all patients was higher in AXB plans than in the AAA plans. These results indicated that the difference between AXB and AAA are large in heterogeneous region with low density. Conclusion: The AXB provided the advantages such as the accuracy of calculations and the reduction of the computation time in lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) with using FFF beam, especially for VMAT planning. In dose calculation with the media of different density, therefore, the careful attention should be taken regarding the impacts of different heterogeneity correction algorithms. The authors report no conflicts of interest

  2. FOTOCATÁLISIS HETEROGÉNEA CON TIO2 PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE DESECHOS LÍQUIDOS CON PRESENCIA DEL INDICADOR VERDE DE BROMOCRESOL Heterogeneous Photocatalysis with TIO2 for Liquid Wastes Treatment with Presence of the Bromocresol Green Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolay Yaneth Guarín Llanes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La fotocatálisis heterogénea es un proceso avanzado de oxidación que se aplica en este trabajo para determinar la degradación y mineralización del indicador verde bromocresol, presente en desechos líquidos de laboratorios de análisis químico y ambiental, comúnmente generados en universidades. En el tratamiento se empleó dióxido de titanio Degussa P-25 como catalizador, un reactor tipo Batch, y radiación UV artificial con una longitud de onda de 360 nm. La degradación se cuantificó por espectrofotometría UV-visible, y la mineralización se evaluó por el parámetro de DQO. Las condiciones óptimas de tratamiento para los desechos son: 260 ppm de TiO2 y un tiempo de retención de 60 minutos, con las que se obtuvo una degradación de 84,10% y una mineralización de 82.5 %. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el proceso de fotocatálisis heterogénea puede ser útil en el tratamiento de efluentes que tenga la presencia del indicador verde de bromocresol.Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process applied to this kind of work for determining degradation and mineralization of the Bromocresol Green indicator present in chemical and environmental analysis laboratory liquid wastes, commonly generated in universities. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide is used in the treatment as a catalyzer, as well as a batch-type reactor, and artificial UV radiation with a 360 nm wavelength. Degradation was quantified by UV-visible spectrophotometry and mineralization was evaluated through the DQO parameter. Optimal conditions of treatment for wastes are: 260 ppm TiO2 and a retention time of 60 minutes; degradation was 84.10% and mineralization was 82.5%. Results obtained show that the heterogeneous photocatalysis process can be useful for treatment of effluents with presence of the Bromocresol Green indicator.

  3. Treatment Efficiency by means of a Nonthermal Plasma Combined with Heterogeneous Catalysis of Odoriferous Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from the Thermal Drying of Landfill Leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Almarcha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to assess the odoriferous volatile organic compounds depuration efficiency of an experimental nonthermal plasma coupled to a catalytic system used for odor abatement of real emissions from a leachate thermal drying plant installed in an urban solid waste landfill. VOC screening was performed by means of HRGC-MS analysis of samples taken at the inlet and at the outlet of the nonthermal plasma system. Odor concentration by means of dynamic olfactometry, total organic carbon, mercaptans, NH3, and H2S were also determined in order to assess the performance of the system throughout several days. Three plasma frequencies (100, 150, and 200 Hz and two catalyst temperatures (150°C and 50°C were also tested. Under conditions of maximum capacity of the treatment system, the results show VOC depuration efficiencies around 69%, with average depuration efficiencies between 44 and 95% depending on the chemical family of the substance. Compounds belonging to the following families have been detected in the samples: organic acids, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, and reduced sulphur compounds, among others. Average total organic carbon removal efficiency was 88%, while NH3 and H2S removal efficiencies were 88% and 87%, respectively, and odor concentration abatement was 78%.

  4. Heterogeneity and Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, S.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter shows that networks can have large and differentiated effects on behavior and then argues that social and economic pressures facilitate the formation of heterogenous networks. Thus networks can play an important role in understanding the wide diversity in human behaviour and in economic outcomes.

  5. Heterogeneous Computing in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, M.P.; Grassi, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism (C++ AMP) recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (J Econ Dyn...

  6. Heterogeneity of Dutch rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall data for the Netherlands have been used in this study to investigate aspects of heterogeneity of rainfall, in particular local differences in rainfall levels, time trends in rainfall, and local differences in rainfall trend. The possible effect of urbanization and industrialization on the

  7. in Heterogeneous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Balouchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractured reservoirs contain about 85 and 90 percent of oil and gas resources respectively in Iran. A comprehensive study and investigation of fractures as the main factor affecting fluid flow or perhaps barrier seems necessary for reservoir development studies. High degrees of heterogeneity and sparseness of data have incapacitated conventional deterministic methods in fracture network modeling. Recently, simulated annealing (SA has been applied to generate stochastic realizations of spatially correlated fracture networks by assuming that the elastic energy of fractures follows Boltzmann distribution. Although SA honors local variability, the objective function of geometrical fracture modeling is defined for homogeneous conditions. In this study, after the introduction of SA and the derivation of the energy function, a novel technique is presented to adjust the model with highly heterogeneous data for a fractured field from the southwest of Iran. To this end, the regular object-based model is combined with a grid-based technique to cover the heterogeneity of reservoir properties. The original SA algorithm is also modified by being constrained in different directions and weighting the energy function to make it appropriate for heterogeneous conditions. The simulation results of the presented approach are in good agreement with the observed field data.

  8. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based

  9. Why does heterogeneity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.B. Pierce

    2007-01-01

    This is a review of the book "Ecosystem function in heterogeneous landscapes" published in 2005. The authors are G. Lovett, C. Jones, M.G. Turner, and K.C. Weathers. It was published by Springer, New York. The book is a synthesis of the 10th Gary conference held at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, in 2003.

  10. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  11. Heterogeneous Materials I and Heterogeneous Materials II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, K M

    2004-01-01

    In these two volumes the author provides a comprehensive survey of the various mathematically-based models used in the research literature to predict the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of hetereogeneous materials, i.e., materials containing two or more phases such as fibre-reinforced polymers, cast iron and porous ceramic kiln furniture. Volume I covers linear properties such as linear dielectric constant, effective electrical conductivity and elastic moduli, while Volume II covers nonlinear properties, fracture and atomistic and multiscale modelling. Where appropriate, particular attention is paid to the use of fractal geometry and percolation theory in describing the structure and properties of these materials. The books are advanced level texts reflecting the research interests of the author which will be of significant interest to research scientists working at the forefront of the areas covered by the books. Others working more generally in the field of materials science interested in comparing predictions of properties with experimental results may well find the mathematical level quite daunting initially, as it is apparent that the author assumes a level of mathematics consistent with that taught in final year undergraduate and graduate theoretical physics courses. However, for such readers it is well worth persevering because of the in-depth coverage to which the various models are subjected, and also because of the extensive reference lists at the back of both volumes which direct readers to the various source references in the scientific literature. Thus, for the wider materials science scientific community the two volumes will be a valuable library resource. While I would have liked to see more comparison with experimental data on both ideal and 'real' heterogeneous materials than is provided by the author and a discussion of how to model strong nonlinear current--voltage behaviour in systems such as zinc oxide varistors, my overall

  12. SU-F-T-152: Experimental Validation and Calculation Benchmark for a Commercial Monte Carlo Pencil BeamScanning Proton Therapy Treatment Planning System in Heterogeneous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L; Huang, S; Kang, M; Ainsley, C; Simone, C; McDonough, J; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Eclipse AcurosPT 13.7, the first commercial Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy treatment planning system (TPS), was experimentally validated for an IBA dedicated PBS nozzle in the CIRS 002LFC thoracic phantom. Methods: A two-stage procedure involving the use of TOPAS 1.3 simulations was performed. First, Geant4-based TOPAS simulations in this phantom were experimentally validated for single and multi-spot profiles at several depths for 100, 115, 150, 180, 210 and 225 MeV proton beams, using the combination of a Lynx scintillation detector and a MatriXXPT ionization chamber array. Second, benchmark calculations were performed with both AcurosPT and TOPAS in a phantom identical to the CIRS 002LFC, with the exception that the CIRS bone/mediastinum/lung tissues were replaced with similar tissues that are predefined in AcurosPT (a limitation of this system which necessitates the two stage procedure). Results: Spot sigmas measured in tissue were in agreement within 0.2 mm of TOPAS simulation for all six energies, while AcurosPT was consistently found to have larger spot sigma (<0.7 mm) than TOPAS. Using absolute dose calibration by MatriXXPT, the agreements between profiles measurements and TOPAS simulation, and calculation benchmarks are over 97% except near the end of range using 2 mm/2% gamma criteria. Overdosing and underdosing were observed at the low and high density side of tissue interfaces, respectively, and these increased with increasing depth and decreasing energy. Near the mediastinum/lung interface, the magnitude can exceed 5 mm/10%. Furthermore, we observed >5% quenching effect in the conversion of Lynx measurements to dose. Conclusion: We recommend the use of an ionization chamber array in combination with the scintillation detector to measure absolute dose and relative PBS spot characteristics. We also recommend the use of an independent Monte Carlo calculation benchmark for the commissioning of a commercial TPS. Partially

  13. Confidential telephone in constitutions of brazil and portugal: analysis of measure in law of treatment and jurisprudential and protection limit between poor and efficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Prezzi Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the requirements of the wiretapping Brazil and Portugal, basing the analysis on constitutional norms and standards infra. The analysis involves the understanding of rights linked to personal intimacy and privacy and the possibility that it has investigated the target of disclosure of telephone records through telephone interception, having secured the material access to justice, and, therefore, these respected rights. Checked out the concept of access to fair legal system (material and also the formal access to make possible the understanding and presentation of the results obtained from the Brazilian courts and the Portuguese courts.

  14. Rate tracer studies of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happel, J; Kiang, S

    1977-10-01

    An analysis is presented of the extent to which parameters involved in transient tracing of isotopic species in heterogeneous catalysis can be determined by experiments in which tracer concentrations are measured as a function of time. Different treatments for open and closed systems with the over-all reaction at equilibrium or irreversible were developed.

  15. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  16. Relação entre heterogeneidade ambiental e distribuição de espécies em uma floresta paludosa no Município de Cristais Paulista, SP, Brasil Floristic composition and relationship between environmental heterogeneity and species distribution in a swamp forest from Cristais Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysio de Pádua Teixeira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi caracterizada a composição florística e fitossociológica de uma floresta paludosa no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, onde variações no padrão de drenagem ocorrem principalmente no sentido perpendicular ao curso d'água, em função da topografia. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição das espécies em relação ao substrato e a entrada de luz na comunidade. Foram alocadas 60 parcelas de 10×10 m, distribuídas em seis grupos de 10 parcelas cada. Em cada parcela foram medidos e identificados os indivíduos com PAP > 10 cm, avaliadas as propriedades químicas e granulometria do solo, o desnível topográfico, a drenagem e a abertura do dossel. Foram registradas 88 espécies, das quais 61 foram observadas nas parcelas. Uma análise de correspondência canônica (CCA indicou correlações entre a distribuição das 29 espécies mais abundantes e drenagem, desnível topográfico e Fe no eixo 1 e abertura do dossel no eixo 2. O coeficiente de Spearman indicou correlações significativas entre 66% das 29 espécies e profundidade do lençol freático ou abertura do dossel. Como exemplo, Calophyllum brasiliense e Xylopia emarginata prevaleceram em solos mal drenados; Siphoneugena densiflora e Virola sebifera em solos bem drenados; Myrcia laruotteana e Xylopia sericea em parcelas com maior abertura de dossel. A heterogeneidade ambiental foi um importante fator na determinação da distribuição e a coexistência de espécies, resultando em um incremento na diversidade local.In the present study, we characterized the floristic composition and tree structure of a swamp forest in northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil, where the drainage pattern changes mainly across the watercourse due to the topography. We aimed to investigate the species distribution in relation to substrate and light entrance in the community. Sixty quadrats (10×10 m were divided into six groups of 10 plots. In each quadrat, individuals with PBH > 10

  17. Micromechanics of heterogeneous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Buryachenko, Valeriy

    2007-01-01

    Here is an accurate and timely account of micromechanics, which spans materials science, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, technical physics, geophysics, and biology. The book features rigorous and unified theoretical methods of applied mathematics and statistical physics in the material science of microheterogeneous media. Uniquely, it offers a useful demonstration of the systematic and fundamental research of the microstructure of the wide class of heterogeneous materials of natural and synthetic nature.

  18. Percolation in Heterogeneous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocka, Radim

    1999-01-01

    This work is a theoretical reflection on the problematic of the modeling of heterogeneous media, that is on the way of their simple representation conserving their characteristic features. Two particular problems are addressed in this thesis. Firstly, we study the transport in porous media, that is in a heterogeneous media which structure is quenched. A pore space is represented in a simple way - a pore is symbolized as a tube of a given length and a given diameter. The fact that the correlations in the distribution of pore sizes are taken into account by a construction of a hierarchical network makes possible the modeling of porous media with a porosity distributed over several length scales. The transport in the hierarchical network shows qualitatively different phenomena from those observed in simpler models. A comparison of numerical results with experimental data shows that the hierarchical network gives a good qualitative representation of the structure of real porous media. Secondly, we study a problem of the transport in a heterogeneous media which structure is evolving during the time. The models where the evolution of the structure is not influenced by the transport are studied in detail. These models present a phase transition of the same nature as that observed on the percolation networks. We propose a new theoretical description of this transition, and we express critical exponents describing the evolution of the conductivity as a function of fundamental exponents of percolation theory. (author) [fr

  19. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity...... generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...... distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little...

  20. Learning communities and overcoming poverty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Pitanga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Object: Brazil has implemented social programs to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and inequality. Despite the good results still there are ghettos and educational and social inequalities. Moreover Learning Communities are responding to these needs by promoting education based on successful actions scientifically proven of which promote educational change and social inclusion. The aim of this article is to highlight the characteristics of Learning Communities that allow overcoming poverty, and in this perspective, explain the implementation of the Learning Communities in Brazil and how, in this way, it is creating the conditions for effective overcoming give poverty and inequality in this country.Design / methodology: This article is based on documentary analysis of reports of the INCLUD-ED - the project on school education more scientific resources has been funded by the European Union, United Nations / ECLAC, Brazilian public agencies and websites of official institutions that promote Learning Communities in Brazil. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics are also collected.Contributions and results: It highlights successful actions that contribute to overcoming poverty and social exclusion. Such actions are based on dialogic learning, democratic management and the formation of heterogeneous groups. It is observed that in Brazil are carrying out such actions and the ongoing expansion of the project in the country is creating the conditions for effective poverty reduction.Added value: This article reveals specific elements of overcoming poverty through education.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono, Hartono

    2015-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity is a phenomenon in which a genetic disease can be transmitted by several modes of inheritance. The understanding of genetic heterogeneity is important in giving genetic counselling.The presence of genetic heterogeneity can be explained by the existence of:1.different mutant alleles at a single locus, and2.mutant alleles at different loci affecting the same enzyme or protein, or affecting different enzymes or proteins.To have an overall understanding of genetic heterogene...

  2. Treatment Heterogeneity and Individual Qualitative Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    dark- coloured individuals escape.” ~ Charles Darwin “What is food to one to some becomes Fierce poison” ~ Lucretius The quotations above...the evaluation of the plausibility and frequency of such IQIs. The ideas may also be useful in evaluating advertising claims. Consider the context

  3. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  4. Heterogeneous chromatin target model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    The higher order structure of the entangled chromatin fibers in a chromosome plays a key role in molecular control mechanism involved in chromosome mutation due to ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. The condensed superstructure of chromatin is not so rigid and regular as has been postulated in general. We have proposed a rheological explanation for the flexible network system ('chromatin network') that consists of the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters linked with supertwisting DNA in a chromatin fiber ('Supertwisting Particulate Model'). We have proposed a 'Heterosensitive Target Model' for cellular radiosensitivity that is a modification of 'Heterogeneous Target Model'. The heterogeneity of chromatin target is derived from the highly condensed organization of chromatin segments consist of unstable and fragile sites in the fluctuating assembly of nucleosome clusters, namely 'supranucleosomal particles' or 'superbeads'. The models have been principally supported by our electron microscopic experiments employing 'surface - spreading whole - mount technique' since 1967. However, some deformation and artifacts in the chromatin structure are inevitable with these electron microscopic procedures. On the contrary, the 'atomic force microscope (AFM)' can be operated in liquid as well as in the air. A living specimen can be examined without any preparative procedures. Micromanipulation of the isolated chromosome is also possible by the precise positional control of a cantilever on the nanometer scale. The living human chromosomes were submerged in a solution of culture medium and observed by AFM using a liquid immersion cell. The surface - spreading whole - mount technique was applicable for this observation. The particulate chromatin segments of nucleosome clusters were clearly observed within mitotic human chromosomes in a living hydrated condition. These findings support the heterogeneity of chromatin target in a living cell. (J.P.N.)

  5. Heterogeneous Active Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Klotsa, Daphne

    Active systems are composed of self-propelled (active) particles that locally convert energy into motion and exhibit emergent collective behaviors, such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Most works so far have focused on monodisperse, one-component active systems. However, real systems are heterogeneous, and consist of several active components. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of multi-component active matter systems and report on their emergent behavior. We discuss the phase diagram of dynamic states as well as parameters where we see mixing versus segregation.

  6. Assessing local outcomes in heterogeneous gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowson, Nicholas; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Rose, Stephen; Thomas, Paul; Fay, Michael; Jeffree, Rosalind L; Winter, Craig; Coulthard, Alan; Smith, Jye; Gal, Yaniv; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Tumours are known to be heterogeneous, yet typical treatment plans consider them as a single unit. This may influence treatment outcomes. However, treatment cannot be customised to intra-tumour variation without a method to establish outcomes at an intra-tumour scale. This work proposes a method to both assess and measure outcomes locally within tumours. Methods: Four patients were scanned at two post-surgery time points using contrast enhanced MRI and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18F]-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18F-DOPA) PET. The shell of active tumour tissue is divided into a set of small subregions at both time points. Local outcome is measured from changes in subregion volume over time. The utility of the proposed approach is evaluated by measuring the correlation between PET uptake and documented growth. Correlation with overall survival time was also examined. Results: Local outcomes were heterogeneous and evidence of a positive correlation between local 18F-DOPA uptake and local progression was observed. Conclusions: Given that intra-tumour outcomes are heterogeneous the consistently positive correlation between FDOPA uptake and progression, local analysis of tumours could prove useful for treatment planning.

  7. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do, E-mail: leilanebio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abruschi@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jouber_borba@hotmail.com, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Almeida, Tito C.M. de, E-mail: titoalmeida2008@gmail.com [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (CTT-Mar/UNIVALI), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar

    2013-07-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  8. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do; Almeida, Tito C.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  9. Impact of a provider training program on the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder at psychosocial care units in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop, implement, and verify the impact of a training program for health care providers working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD in psychosocial care centers for children and adolescents (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial à Infância e à Adolescência – CAPSi in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 14 professionals from four CAPSi units. The training program consisted of six phases: 1 pre-intervention observation; 2 meeting with staff to assess the main needs of the training program; 3 developing materials for training and evaluation; 4 meetings to discuss program implementation; 5 a final meeting for case discussion and evaluation; and 6 distance supervision. Three measures were used to evaluate the training program: i the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP questionnaire; ii videos containing questions designed to assess program comprehension; and iii a satisfaction survey. Results: Thirteen videos were produced to as visual aids for use during the training program, and a further 26 videos were developed to evaluate it. The program was well evaluated by the participants. The video responses and KAP questionnaire scores suggest that staff knowledge and attitudes improved after training. Conclusion: The positive findings of this study suggest that the tested training program is feasible for use with multidisciplinary teams working in the CAPSi environment.

  10. Impact of a provider training program on the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder at psychosocial care units in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana C; Teixeira, Maria C T V; Ribeiro, Edith L; Paula, Cristiane S

    2017-12-18

    To develop, implement, and verify the impact of a training program for health care providers working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in psychosocial care centers for children and adolescents (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial à Infância e à Adolescência - CAPSi) in São Paulo, Brazil. This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 14 professionals from four CAPSi units. The training program consisted of six phases: 1) pre-intervention observation; 2) meeting with staff to assess the main needs of the training program; 3) developing materials for training and evaluation; 4) meetings to discuss program implementation; 5) a final meeting for case discussion and evaluation; and 6) distance supervision. Three measures were used to evaluate the training program: i) the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) questionnaire; ii) videos containing questions designed to assess program comprehension; and iii) a satisfaction survey. Thirteen videos were produced to as visual aids for use during the training program, and a further 26 videos were developed to evaluate it. The program was well evaluated by the participants. The video responses and KAP questionnaire scores suggest that staff knowledge and attitudes improved after training. The positive findings of this study suggest that the tested training program is feasible for use with multidisciplinary teams working in the CAPSi environment.

  11. Factors associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy in adults with AIDS in the first six months of treatment in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Adriano Góes; Dourado, Inês; Brito, Ana Maria de; Silva, Carlos Alberto Lima da

    2015-06-01

    The control of viral replication is essential in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and adherence to therapy is instrumental for such control. Individual and external factors influence adhesion to the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. This is a cross-sectional study to investigate factors associated with non-adherence to HAART in AIDS patients in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, with age ≥ 13 years and first prescription in 2009. Data was collected from patient charts and pharmacy records. From a total of 216 patients, 65.3% were males; mean age 37.8 ± 9.5 years; single, 67.9%; heterosexual, 64%; more than 8 years of school education, 65.3%; alcohol users, 61.5%; non-smokers, 75,1% or non-illicit drug users, 93.7%. A proportion of 94% started ARV therapy with TCD4+ drug reaction. The prevalence of non-adherence was 25%. The variables associated were: longer time between HIV infection and AIDS (aOR = 3.9), adverse drug reaction (aOR = 2.4), under 34 years of age (aOR = 2.2), less than 8 years of school education (aOR = 2.2) and illicit drugs use (aOR = 2.6). A high-non-adherence rate is an important problem within the first six months of HAART.

  12. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS treatment dropouts in a special care unit in the City of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilkowsky, Louise Bastos; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Sá, Marilene de Castilho

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the health care of patients with HIV/AIDS who drop out. The study was developed in a specialized health care unit of a University hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, considering a stratified sample of adult patients including all dropout cases (155) and 44.0% of 790 cases under regular follow-up. Bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between health care dropout and demographic, socioeconomic and clinical variables. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to identify the independent effects of the explanatory variables on risk for dropout, in the latter by incorporating information on the outcome over time. Patients were, on average, 35 years old, predominantly males (66.4%) and of a low socioeconomic level (45.0%). In both models, health care dropout was consistently associated with being unemployed or having an unstable job, using illicit drugs and having psychiatric background--positive association; and with age, having AIDS, and having used multiple antiretroviral regimens--negative association. In the logistic regression, dropping out was also positively associated with time between diagnosis and the first outpatient visit, while in the Cox model, the hazard for dropping out was positively associated with being single, and negatively associated with a higher educational level. The results of this work allow for the identification of HIV/AIDS patients more likely to drop out from health care.

  13. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  14. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-21

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  15. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    A heterogeneous gas core nuclear reactor is disclosed comprising a core barrel provided interiorly with an array of moderator-containing tubes and being otherwise filled with a fissile and/or fertile gaseous fuel medium. The fuel medium may be flowed through the chamber and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a fluid which is flowed through the tubes and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a solid which may be cooled by a fluid flowing within the tubes and through an external heat extraction circuit. The core barrel is surrounded by moderator/coolant material. Fissionable blanket material may be disposed inwardly or outwardly of the core barrel

  16. Heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, M J; Delleman, J W

    1977-01-01

    Heterogeneity of Waardenburg syndrome is demonstrated in a review of 1,285 patients from the literature and 34 previously unreported patients in five families in the Netherlands. The syndrome seems to consist of two genetically distinct entities that can be differentiated clinically: type I, Waardenburg syndrome with dystopia canthorum; and type II, Waardenburg syndrome without dystopia canthorum. Both types have an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The incidence of bilateral deafness in the two types of the syndrome was found in one-fourth with type I and about half of the patients with type II. This difference has important consequences for genetic counseling. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:331943

  17. Quantifying hidden individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Ulrich; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    Aging is assumed to be driven by the accumulation of damage or some other aging factor which shapes demographic patterns, including the classical late age mortality plateaus. However to date, heterogeneity in these damage stages is not observed. Here, we estimate underlying stage distributions...... and stage dynamics, based on observed survival patterns of isoclonal bacteria. Our results reveal demographic dynamics being dominated by low damage stages and transmission of damage from mother to daughters is low. Still, our models are too simplistic and deterministic. Explaining the observed data...... requires more stochastic processes as our current models includes. We are only at the beginning of understanding the diverse mechanism behind aging and the shaping of senescence....

  18. Receiver Heterogeneity Helps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Erika R.; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity amongst devices and desired service are commonly seen as a source of additional challenges for setting up an efficient multi-layer multicast service. In particular, devices requiring only the base layer can become a key bottleneck to the performance for other devices. This paper...... studies the case of a wireless multi-layer multicast setting and shows that the judicious use of network coding allows devices with different computational capabilities to trade-off processing complexity for an improved quality of service. As a consequence, individual devices can determine their required...... effort, while bringing significant advantages to the system as a whole. Network coding is used as a key element to reduce signaling in order to deliver the multicast service. More importantly, our proposed approach focuses on creating some structure in the transmitted stream by allowing inter-layer...

  19. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  20. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis [CNRS UMR 7598, LJLL, & INRIA MAMBA team, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, luis@ann.jussieu.fr (France); Chisholm, Rebecca [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, rebecca.chisholm@gmail.com (Australia); Clairambault, Jean [INRIA MAMBA team & LJLL, UMR 7598, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, jean.clairambault@inria.fr, Corresponding author (France); Escargueil, Alexandre [INSERM “Cancer Biology and Therapeutics”, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR-S 938, CDR St Antoine, Hôpital St Antoine, 184 Fbg. St Antoine, 75571 Paris cedex 12, France, alexandre.escargueil@upmc.fr (France); Lorenzi, Tommaso [CMLA, ENS Cachan, 61, Av. du Président Wilson, 94230 Cachan cedex & INRIA MAMBA team, & LJLL, UMR 7598, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, tommaso.lorenzi@gmail.com (France); Lorz, Alexander [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LJLL, UMR 7598 & INRIA Boîte courrier 187, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, alex.lorz@ann.jussieu.fr (France); Trélat, Emmanuel [Institut Universitaire de France, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LJLL, UMR 7598, Boîte courrier 187, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 4 Pl. Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France, emmanuel.trelat@upmc.fr (France)

    2016-06-08

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as “bet hedging” of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  1. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  2. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  3. Use of bioremediation and treatment of wetland for remediation of the accidental crude-oil spill of July 16, 2000 at the Petrobras Refinery Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas (REPAR), Araucaria, PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millette, D. [Hydrogeo Plus Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Falkiewicz, F.; Zamberlan, E. [Petrobras-REPAR, Araucaria (Brazil); Campos Carvalho, F.J.P. de [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curifiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Neto, A.C.B.; Caicedo, N.O.L.; Motta Marques, D. [Universidad Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Instituto de pesquisas hidraulicas; Linhares, M. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    On July 16, 2000, a pipeline supplying oil to the PETROBRAS refinery Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas-REPAR, located in Araucaria, Brazil, ruptured. The resulting oil spill involved approximately 4 million litres of crude oil. Workers managed to retain a vast quantity of oil within a two-kilometre area called Ponto O. The banks and floodplain of a small stream, the Arroio Saldanha, were contaminated, as well as the soil of four small wetlands. The authors presented an overview of the remediation program implemented. They focused on the soil bioremediation and treatment of wetland programs. Some of the remediation technologies used were: in situ bioremediation, injection and recovery trenches, and treatment of wetland in the vicinity of the discharge. Most of the free product from the sector adjacent to the spill site seems to have been removed by the recovery trenches. The preliminary data obtained from soil monitoring points to the efficiency of in situ bioremediation. Wetland vegetation was successfully restored and hydrocarbons appear to have been removed from the groundwater. 2 figs.

  4. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  5. A comparative neutron activation analysis study of common generic manipulated and reference medicines commercialized in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A.S.; Menezes, M.A.B.C.; Rodrigues, R.R.; Andonie, O.; Vermaercke, P.; Sneyers, L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a comparative study of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed by the nuclear institutes: CDTN/CNEN-Brazil, CCHEN-Chile and the SCK.CEN-Belgium aiming to investigate some generic, manipulated and reference medicines largely commercialized in Brazil. Some impurities such as: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ti and Zn were found, and the heterogeneity of the samples pointed out the lack of an efficient public system of quality control

  6. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  7. Kinetics of heterogeneous systems; La cinetique des milieux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniz, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    In this report, a general transport theory treatment is presented for the kinetics study as applied to finite heterogeneous systems. The theory is applicable to experiments near the critical point as well as to pulsed neutron experiments on multiplying or non-multiplying lattices. The general method is also applied to exponential experiments on infinite non-diverging lattices. The particularity of the present study is the explicit introduction of heterogeneity in the formulation and the search for the dependence of the parameters on the buckling of the finite medium. As a result of this, the finite medium parameters are in the first place expressed in terms of the corresponding infinite medium ones through the buckling and the anisotropic migration areas, and in the second place all the parameters are expressed as integrals only over an unit cell instead of over the whole pile. A preliminary less detailed study is first made in order to distinguish clearly between what are called 'dynamic parameters' and 'static parameters', and to define the meanings given in this report to these two terms. In the appendices are given approximate one-group treatments for the study of the dynamic fine structure, the time constant in infinite lattices, and the anisotropic diffusion coefficients in non-multiplying lattices. (author) [French] On presente dans ce rapport une methode generale, utilisant la theorie du transport pour l'etude de la cinetique des milieux finis heterogenes. La theorie est applicable aussi bien aux experiences pres de la criticite qu'aux experiences par sources pulsees de neutrons sur des reseaux multiplicateurs ou non-multiplicateurs. La methode generale est aussi appliquee aux experiences exponentielles sur des reseaux infinis non-divergents. La particularite de l'etude est l'introduction explicite de l'heterogeneite dans la formulation et la recherche de la dependance des parametres par rapport au laplacien du reseau fini. Il en resulte d'une part que les

  8. Cogeneration for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Almost all the electric power in Brazil comes from large-scale hydroelectric plants: only about 3% comes from cogeneration. But, now that the barriers which discouraged cogeneration are being removed, there will be more and more investment in cogeneration and distributed generation. The circumstances which have brought about these changes are described. It is expected that cogeneration will be responsible for producing 10-15% of Brazil's electricity by 2010 and the demand for cogeneration will reach 11-17 GW. It is concluded that Brazil represents one of the world's most attractive market for cogeneration and distributed generation

  9. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human ailments, with residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Hefler, Sonia Marisa; Hefler, Sonia Regina; Dall'Oglio Chaves, Elisiane Inês; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2015-02-23

    This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro", a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forests. This vegetation is intensely fragmented and disturbed; despite its importance there are few records of the traditional knowledge of medicinal species. Twenty-four residents in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro" were interviewed. The residents were questioned about preparation techniques, recommended doses, ways of administration and healing properties of various parts of the plants and were invited to walk through the park to collect in situ some species of plants. The recognized medicinal species were identified and traditional knowledge was systematized. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC and Use Value - UV) were calculated. 115 species of medicinal plants belonging to 54 botanical families were cited. Asteraceae (n=14), Fabaceae (n=11), Myrtaceae (n=6), Bignoniaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (n=5) were the most species-rich. The highest use values were calculated for Achyrocline satureioides, Aristolochia triangularis and Bauhinia forficata (0.63). Moreover, the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.024 to 0.663, which shows high level of agreements among the informants for gastro-intestinal and respiratory system diseases. Furthermore, for the first time, new traditional medicinal uses of Asteraceae (Chromolaena pedunculosa Hook. & Arn.), Commelinaceae (Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.) and Polypodiaceae (Microgramma vacciniifolia Langsd. & Fisch.) species were reported. Present study revealed that the residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná are rich in ethno-medicinal knowledge and rely on plant-based remedies for common health problems. As in many parts of Brazil knowledge of the past is combined with new knowledge that has

  10. Energy Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Rosemary; de Paiva, Terezhina Villela O'Grady

    1980-01-01

    Compares energy education in Brazil and the United States. Topics discussed include the Brazilian setting, government initiatives, dependence on foreign fuel sources, public reaction, schools and energy education, and mass media involvement. (DB)

  11. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  12. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    local farmers — particularly women — ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC ... the roots of violence ... Wage inequalities in Brazil and India ... foreign policy efforts, IDRC supports research in developing countries.

  13. Heterogeneity: multilingualism and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Krumm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the part of individuals are aprerequisite and a constitutive condition of enabling people to live togetherin a world of growing heterogeneity. Foreign language teaching plays animportant part in democratic education because it can be seen as a trainingin respecting otherness and developing an intercultural, non-ethnocentricperception and attitude. This is all the more important because of the neces-sity of integrating children from migrant families into school life.My article argues that language education policy has to take this per-spective into account, i.e., of establishing a planned diversification so thatpupils (and their parents will not feel satisfied with learning English only,but also become motivated to learn languages of their own neighbourhood,such as migrant and minority languages. However, in order to make use ofthe linguistic resources in the classroom, relating it to the democratic impetusof foreign language education, it is necessary to revise existing languagepolicies and to develop a multilingual perspective for all educational institutions.

  14. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Sergio; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1989-01-01

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al 2 O 3 -B 4 C and Al 2 O 3 -Gd 2 O 3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B 4 C or Gd 2 O 3 in Al 2 O 3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author) [es

  15. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  16. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  17. Produced water silica removal treatment in PETROBRAS Fazenda Belem fields - Brazil; Tratamento da agua produzida do Campo de Fazenda Belem (PETROBRAS, UN/RNCE) para remocao de silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Agenor J.; Sampaio, Alberto C.; Silva, Arnaldo F. da; Christiano, Fernando P.; Freire, Norma de O.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Extracting oil from mature fields generates huge volumes of produced water whose pollutive character requires adequate treatment to minimize environmental impact. Nevertheless, produced water may be re-used, avoiding environmental contamination and helping in water resources preservation. According to future use, produced water receives specific treatment, intending to remove critical contaminants to the application involved. In the case o UN/RNCE's Fazenda Belem Field produced water is treated for steam generation Membrane Separation Processes are currently in test for this treatment. These processes are sensitive to high water hardness and silica concentrations. To avoid scaling, caustic soda is added in the water-oil separator outlet, precipitating calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. This treatment, however, helps solubilizing silica. Coagulation-flocculation laboratory tests were run with poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and magnesium chloride at constant temperature (45 deg C) and pH adjusted to 9,5, attempting to simulate the water-oil separator outlet conditions. Laboratory analysis showed good silica removal results only in samples treated with PAC, suggesting its use in produced water for steam generation pre-treatment, avoiding silica-based scaling in membranes. (author)

  18. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato de Andrade, C.

    2003-05-01

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  19. Acknowledging patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation : a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A

    2013-02-01

    Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the

  20. Quantifying spatial heterogeneity from images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantz, Andrew E; Song Yiqiao

    2008-01-01

    Visualization techniques are extremely useful for characterizing natural materials with complex spatial structure. Although many powerful imaging modalities exist, simple display of the images often does not convey the underlying spatial structure. Instead, quantitative image analysis can extract the most important features of the imaged object in a manner that is easier to comprehend and to compare from sample to sample. This paper describes the formulation of the heterogeneity spectrum to show the extent of spatial heterogeneity as a function of length scale for all length scales to which a particular measurement is sensitive. This technique is especially relevant for describing materials that simultaneously present spatial heterogeneity at multiple length scales. In this paper, the heterogeneity spectrum is applied for the first time to images from optical microscopy. The spectrum is measured for thin section images of complex carbonate rock cores showing heterogeneity at several length scales in the range 10-10 000 μm.

  1. [Tuberculosis in Amazonian municipalities of the Brazil-Colombia-Peru-Venezuela border: epidemiological situation and risk factors associated with treatment default].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Elsia Nascimento; Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall; Levino, Antônio; Basta, Paulo Cesar

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological situation and the incidence of tuberculosis and to investigate the factors associated with treatment default in the Amazonian municipalities located in the northern Brazilian international border. This retrospective study employed sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological tuberculosis data recorded in the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) between 2001 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment default. Tuberculosis affected mostly indigenous peoples (51.9%), males (57.9%), and people aged 25-44 years (31.4%). The predominant clinical presentation was pulmonary (89.7%), yet in 24.5% of the cases the patients did not undergo sputum smear microscopy, and only half received supervised treatment. In 70.0% of the cases notified, patients were discharged as cured. Treatment default was recorded in 10.0% of the patients. Of all deaths, 4.1% were by tuberculosis and other causes, and 1.7% by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The average incidence by race/color was greater among indigenous peoples, ranging from 202.3/100 000 in 2001 to 65.6/100 000 in 2010. Treatment default was associated with failure to perform the follow-up smear at the second, fourth, and sixth months (OR = 11.9, 95%CI: 7.4-19.0); with resuming treatment after default (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-5.9); and with living in specific subregions, particularly the Alto Solimões region (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 4.6-9.8). The present results show a high incidence of tuberculosis in the Amazon portion of the northern Brazilian international border, especially among indigenous peoples. Considering the socio-cultural specificities of these populations and the poor tuberculosis control in this area, the authors of the study conclude that the integration of different national health systems is both necessary and urgent.

  2. Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity in high content analysis: application of heterogeneity indices to drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H Gough

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

  3. Heterogeneity of reward mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, A; Sershen, H

    2010-06-01

    The finding that many drugs that have abuse potential and other natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity cause similar chemical changes in the brain, an increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAccS), indicated some time ago that the reward mechanism is at least very similar for all stimuli and that the mechanism is relatively simple. The presently available information shows that the mechanisms involved are more complex and have multiple elements. Multiple brain regions, multiple receptors, multiple distinct neurons, multiple transmitters, multiple transporters, circuits, peptides, proteins, metabolism of transmitters, and phosphorylation, all participate in reward mechanisms. The system is variable, is changed during development, is sex-dependent, and is influenced by genetic differences. Not all of the elements participate in the reward of all stimuli. Different set of mechanisms are involved in the reward of different drugs of abuse, yet different mechanisms in the reward of natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity; thus there are different systems that distinguish different stimuli. Separate functions of the reward system such as anticipation, evaluation, consummation and identification; all contain function-specific elements. The level of the stimulus also influences the participation of the elements of the reward system, there are possible reactions to even below threshold stimuli, and excessive stimuli can change reward to aversion involving parts of the system. Learning and memory of past reward is an important integral element of reward and addictive behavior. Many of the reward elements are altered by repeated or chronic stimuli, and chronic exposure to one drug is likely to alter the response to another stimulus. To evaluate and identify the reward stimulus thus requires heterogeneity of the reward components in the brain.

  4. Heterogeneous ice nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The classical theory of heterogenous ice nucleation is reviewed in detail. The modelling of ice nucleation in the adsorbed water films on natural particles by analogous ice nucleation in adsorbed water films on the walls of porous media is discussed. Ice nucleation in adsorbed films of purewater and the HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}0 binary system on the surface of porous aerosol (SiO{sub 2}) was investigated using the method of NMR spectroscopy. The median freezing temperature and freezing temperature region were shown to be highly sensitive both to the average thickness of the adsorbed films and to the amount of adsorbed nitric acid. The character of the ice phase formation tends to approach that of bulk liquid with increasing adsorbed film thickness. Under the given conditions the thickness of the adsorbed films decreases with an increasing amount of adsorbed nitric acid molecules The molar concentration of nitric acid in the adsorbed films is very small (of the order of 10{sup -}3 10{sup -}2 (M/l)). Nitric acid molecules tend to adsorb on the surface of aerosol to a greater extent than in subsequent layers. The concentration is greatest in layers situated close to the surface and sharply decreases with the distance from the surface. The difference between the median freezing temperatures for adsorbed pure water and for the binary system was found to be about 9 K for films of equal thickness. This is about 150 times greater than the difference between the median freezing temperatures of bulk pure water and a solution with the same concentration of nitric acid. (orig.)

  5. Heterogeneous dissipative composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris; Parshina, Ludmila

    2018-05-01

    The paper suggests mathematical models of decaying vibrations in layered anisotropic plates and orthotropic rods based on Hamilton variation principle, first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), as well as on the viscous-elastic correspondence principle of the linear viscoelasticity theory. In the description of the physical relationships between the materials of the layers forming stiff polymeric composites, the effect of vibration frequency and ambient temperature is assumed as negligible, whereas for the viscous-elastic polymer layer, temperature-frequency relationship of elastic dissipation and stiffness properties is considered by means of the experimentally determined generalized curves. Mitigation of Hamilton functional makes it possible to describe decaying vibration of anisotropic structures by an algebraic problem of complex eigenvalues. The system of algebraic equation is generated through Ritz method using Legendre polynomials as coordinate functions. First, real solutions are found. To find complex natural frequencies of the system, the obtained real natural frequencies are taken as input values, and then, by means of the 3rd order iteration method, complex natural frequencies are calculated. The paper provides convergence estimates for the numerical procedures. Reliability of the obtained results is confirmed by a good correlation between analytical and experimental values of natural frequencies and loss factors in the lower vibration tones for the two series of unsupported orthotropic rods formed by stiff GRP and CRP layers and a viscoelastic polymer layer. Analysis of the numerical test data has shown the dissipation & stiffness properties of heterogeneous composite plates and rods to considerably depend on relative thickness of the viscoelastic polymer layer, orientation of stiff composite layers, vibration frequency and ambient temperature.

  6. Malaria in humait a county, state of Amazonas, Brazil. XIX - evaluation of clindamycin for the treatment of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Alves Meira

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 207 patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum were submitted to 5 different treatment schedules with clindamycin from 1981 to 1984: A - 89 patients were treated intravenously and orally, or intramuscularly and orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily applications for 5 to 7 days; B-40 patients were treated orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses for 5 to 7 days; C-27 patients were treated with 20 mg/kg/day intravenously or orally divided into two daily applications for 3 days; D-16 patients were treated orally and/or intravenously with a single daily dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for 5 to 7 days; E-35 patients were treated orally with 5 mg/kg/day divided into two doses for 5 days. Patients were examined daily during treatment and reexamined on the 7th, 24th, 21st, 28th and 35th day both clinically and parasitologically (blood test. Eighty three (40.1% had moderate or severe malaria, and 97 (46.8% had shown resistance to chloroquine or to the combination ofsulfadoxin and pyrimethamine. The proportion of cured patients was higher than 95% among patients submitted to schedules A and B. Side effects were only occasional and of low intensity. Three deaths occurred (1.4%, two of them involving patients whose signs and symptoms were already very severe when treatment was started. Thus, clindamycin proved to be very useful in the treatment of patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and we recommend schedule A for moderate and severe cases and Bfor initial cases.

  7. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  8. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Luiz Carlos; Vitoreti, Cristiane da Silva; Moraes, Fabio Alceu Akiyama de

    2002-01-01

    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  9. Investigation on generalized Variational Nodal Methods for heterogeneous nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongping; Wu, Hongchun; Li, Yunzhao; Cao, Liangzhi; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed two heterogeneous nodal methods based on the Variational Nodal Method. • Four problems were solved to evaluate the two heterogeneous nodal methods. • The function expansion method is good at treating continuous-changing heterogeneity. • The finite sub-element method is good at treating discontinuous-changing heterogeneity. - Abstract: The Variational Nodal Method (VNM) is generalized for heterogeneous nodes and applied to four kinds of problems including Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) core problem with continuous cross section profile, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) control rod cusping effect problem, PWR whole-core pin-by-pin problem, and heterogeneous PWR core problem without fuel-coolant homogenization in each pin cell. Two approaches have been investigated for the treatment of the nodal heterogeneity in this paper. To concentrate on spatial heterogeneity, diffusion approximation was adopted for the angular variable in neutron transport equation. To provide demonstrative numerical results, the codes in this paper were developed in slab geometry. The first method, named as function expansion (FE) method, expands nodal flux by orthogonal polynomials and the nodal cross sections are also expressed as spatial depended functions. The second path, named as finite sub-element (FS) method, takes advantage of the finite-element method by dividing each node into numbers of homogeneous sub-elements and expanding nodal flux into the combination of linear sub-element trial functions. Numerical tests have been carried out to evaluate the ability of the two nodal (coarse-mesh) heterogeneous VNMs by comparing with the fine-mesh homogeneous VNM. It has been demonstrated that both heterogeneous approaches can handle heterogeneous nodes. The FE method is good at continuous-changing heterogeneity as in the MSR core problem, while the FS method is good at discontinuous-changing heterogeneity such as the PWR pin-by-pin problem and heterogeneous PWR core

  10. [Court-ordered access to treatment of rare genetic diseases: Fabry Disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori Junior, Dailor; Leivas, Paulo Gilberto Cogo; Souza, Mônica Vinhas de; Krug, Bárbara Corrêa; Balbinotto, Giacomo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein

    2012-10-01

    Court-ordered access to high-cost drugs for rare genetic diseases, such as Fabry Disease (alpha-galactosidase-A deficiency), is a growing phenomenon as yet lacking systematic study. An observational, cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted to characterize the lawsuits related to access to treatment for Fabry Disease by Enzyme Replacement Therapy in the State of Rio Grande do Sul prior to 2007. The study identified 13 lawsuits and 17 plaintiffs, 11 requesting alfa and 6 betagalsidase. The State of RS, the Federal Government, and 5 municipalities figured as defendants, in the form of joinder of parties or otherwise. There were 13 requests for interlocutory relief of which 12 were granted, and 2 sentences were handed down, both favorable. "Risk of death" was alleged by doctors in 4 prescriptions and by lawyers in the 13 lawsuits. The data suggest the lack of discussions combining aspects of medical efficacy and safety, cost-effectiveness, economic impact, and legal and constitutional arguments, which requires a specific policy for rare genetic diseases to standardize access to treatment.

  11. Determination of natural radionuclides in wastes generated in the potable water treatment plants of the Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Adriana M. de A.; França, Fernanda Cláudia S. da S.; Silveira, Patrícia B. da; Hazin, Clovis A.; Honorato, Eliane V.

    2017-01-01

    The water purification procedure aims to obtain a product appropriate for human consumption, minimizing the concentration of contaminants and toxic substances present in the water. Among these contaminants, some radionuclides of natural origin, such as uranium, thorium and their descendants, have been identified. Previous studies have shown that the stages of purification are quite effective in removing the radionuclides contained in the water. The removal is due to co-precipitation of the radionuclides with the suspended materials. The precipitated material is accumulated and characterized as a Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This wastes can present significant levels of radioactivity and, when discarded in the environment without any treatment, can generate a problem of environmental impact and a risk to the health of the population. In this way, some gamma emitters of the series of U and Th, as well as 40 K were determined in the residues generated at the Potable Water Treatment Plants PWTPs in six municipalities of Pernambuco. The results obtained corroborate the classification of the residues generated in the PWTPs as concentrators of the radioactive components contained in the water supplied to the system and reinforce the need for the release to the environment, which is the usual way of disposal of this waste, to be carried out only after considering the radiation protection standards established by CNEN. (author)

  12. PEGYLATED INTERFERON AND RIBAVIRIN FOR TREATMENT OF RECURRENT HEPATITIS C AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: a single-liver transplant center experience in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Huygens Parente GARCIA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTreatment of hepatitis C virus infection in post-transplantation patients is a challenge due to poor tolerance and low success rates.ObjectiveTo determine the response rate to pegylated interferon and ribavirin in post-liver transplant patients with hepatitis C recurrence.MethodsBetween 18 May 2002 and 18 December 2011, 601 patients underwent liver transplantation at our service (Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, University of Ceará, 176 (29.2% of whom were hepatitis C virus positive. Forty received antiviral therapy and were included in this cohort study. Twenty-eight (70% completed the treatment protocol, which consisted of pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks.ResultsThe sustained virological response rate was 55% according to intention-to-treat analysis. Recipient age and exposure to antiviral drugs prior to liver transplantation were associated with sustained virological response in the multivariate analysis. Patients were followed for 57 months on the average. Survival at 1 and 5 years was 100% in responders, versus 100% and 78%, respectively, in non-responders.ConclusionSustained virological response rates were satisfactory in our series of liver transplantation patients, and decreased with increasing recipient age. Non-exposure to antiviral drugs prior to liver transplantation was positively associated with sustained virological response. The overall survival of responders and non-responders was similar.

  13. Determination of natural radionuclides in wastes generated in the potable water treatment plants of the Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Adriana M. de A.; França, Fernanda Cláudia S. da S.; Silveira, Patrícia B. da; Hazin, Clovis A.; Honorato, Eliane V., E-mail: chazin@elogica.com.br, E-mail: valentim@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianamuniz.a@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The water purification procedure aims to obtain a product appropriate for human consumption, minimizing the concentration of contaminants and toxic substances present in the water. Among these contaminants, some radionuclides of natural origin, such as uranium, thorium and their descendants, have been identified. Previous studies have shown that the stages of purification are quite effective in removing the radionuclides contained in the water. The removal is due to co-precipitation of the radionuclides with the suspended materials. The precipitated material is accumulated and characterized as a Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This wastes can present significant levels of radioactivity and, when discarded in the environment without any treatment, can generate a problem of environmental impact and a risk to the health of the population. In this way, some gamma emitters of the series of U and Th, as well as {sup 40}K were determined in the residues generated at the Potable Water Treatment Plants PWTPs in six municipalities of Pernambuco. The results obtained corroborate the classification of the residues generated in the PWTPs as concentrators of the radioactive components contained in the water supplied to the system and reinforce the need for the release to the environment, which is the usual way of disposal of this waste, to be carried out only after considering the radiation protection standards established by CNEN. (author)

  14. Quali-quantitative characterization and wastewater treatment of a winery located in the mid-west of Santa Catarina state, South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigara, A R C; Sezerino, P H; Bento, A P; Scaratti, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses variations in the quali-quantitative characterization of winery wastewater, and the behavior of the treatment of these effluents. The wastewater produced is sent to two disposition systems: Point A receives the wastewater from the production area whereas Point B receives the wastewater from the area where the washing of bottles takes place. Two Aerated Submerged Biofilter (ASB) reactors (with oyster shells as support material) were built at lab scale to promote the treatment of the winery effluent. Water usage and effluent production values of the 2008 harvest season indicate that grape processing accounted for 30% of the total water usage. The median value found for the effluent at Point A was 8,260 mg COD L(-1) and at Point B 358 mg COD L(-1). The average C/N/P ratio found at Point A was 100/0.29/0.28 during the harvest and 100/0.27/0.25 during the non harvest. For ASB 1 the COD removal efficiency ranged from 56% to 90%, with the removed organic load ranging from 1.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) to 2.7 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. For ASB 2 the COD removal efficiency ranged from 63% to 82%, with the removed organic load ranging from 1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) to 1.7 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  15. Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale

  16. Aggregation Algorithms in Heterogeneous Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous tables are most used in the problem of aggregation. A solution for this problem is to standardize these tables of figures. In this paper, we proposed some methods of aggregation based on the hierarchical algorithms.

  17. Homogenisation of heterogeneous viscoplastic materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der O.; Schreurs, P.J.G.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Anderson, P.D.; Kruijt, P.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Heterogeneous materials have been used extensively in the past few decades, since their mechanical properties, such as strength, stiffness and toughness are being improved continuously. Experimental work has clearly demonstrated the significant influence of the micromechanical phenomena on the

  18. Using the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Persch, Karina Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has received influxes of people, mainly from Africa, Europe and Japan, forming one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world. Some groups, particularly in Southern Brazil, have retained their original cultural traditions, whilst acquiring elements of the typical local Brazilian cultural identity. This is the first study designed to formally evaluate biculturality in Brazil. To psychometrically assess and validate the Portuguese version of the Bicultural Scale (BS) in Brazil. The BS was adapted and translated to Portuguese and tested for the first time in Brazil in a sample of descendants (n = 160) from four immigrant groups and respective locations in Southern Brazil. A series of psychometric tests were conducted in order to examine the validity of the Portuguese version of the BS. Analyses of variance across scores for all subgroups were also conducted. Factor analysis revealed two main factors contributing to most of the variance in scores. The 10 items measuring affiliation with minority cultural characteristics and the typical Brazilian culture yielded Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.69 and 0.78 respectively, whereas the overall Cronbach's alpha for all 20 items of the BS was 0.67. There was a significant correlation between items related to the typical Brazilian culture and the generation since immigration of research participants (r = 0.23, p = 0.004). The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 7.4 minutes. The results indicate that the Portuguese version of the BS is a valid, reliable and easy-to-use instrument to assess biculturality experienced by descendants of immigrants in southern Brazil.

  19. Malaria in humait a county, state of Amazonas, Brazil. XIX - evaluation of clindamycin for the treatment of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Alves Meira

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 207 patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum were submitted to 5 different treatment schedules with clindamycin from 1981 to 1984: A - 89 patients were treated intravenously and orally, or intramuscularly and orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily applications for 5 to 7 days; B-40 patients were treated orally with 20 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses for 5 to 7 days; C-27 patients were treated with 20 mg/kg/day intravenously or orally divided into two daily applications for 3 days; D-16 patients were treated orally and/or intravenously with a single daily dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for 5 to 7 days; E-35 patients were treated orally with 5 mg/kg/day divided into two doses for 5 days. Patients were examined daily during treatment and reexamined on the 7th, 24th, 21st, 28th and 35th day both clinically and parasitologically (blood test. Eighty three (40.1% had moderate or severe malaria, and 97 (46.8% had shown resistance to chloroquine or to the combination ofsulfadoxin and pyrimethamine. The proportion of cured patients was higher than 95% among patients submitted to schedules A and B. Side effects were only occasional and of low intensity. Three deaths occurred (1.4%, two of them involving patients whose signs and symptoms were already very severe when treatment was started. Thus, clindamycin proved to be very useful in the treatment of patients with malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and we recommend schedule A for moderate and severe cases and Bfor initial cases.De 1981 a 1984, 207 doentes com malária, causada pelo Plasmodium falciparum, foram tratados com 5 esquemas de clindamicina: A - 89 doente tratados com 20 mg/kg/dia, pelas vias endovenosa e oral, ou intramuscular e oral, em duas aplicações diárias, durante 5 a 7 dias; B - 40 doentes tratados com 20 mg/kg/dia, por via oral, em duas tomadas diárias, durante 5 a 7 dias; C - 27 doentes tratados com 20 mg/kg/dia, por via oral ou endovenosa, em

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  1. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Naoto; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Murao, Takuro; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences. PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain. Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects. HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels (low, middle, high) of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion. This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG.

  2. the Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To face the forecasted increase of 4 % of the Gross Domestic Product, it is necessary to increase the energy capacity installed in Brazil. The action at first planned on 10 to 20 years, is oriented today on a shorter period from 2001 to 2004. The program proposes investment of 43 milliards or Reals from which 32 will come from the private sector. This report takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the actions in favor of the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  4. Communicating why land surface heterogeneity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, C.; Burke, W.; Bart, R. R.; Turpin, E.; Wood, T.; Gordon, D.

    2017-12-01

    As hydrologic scientists, we know that land surface heterogeneity can have nuanced and sometimes dramatic impacts on the water cycle. Land surface characteristics, including the structure and composition of vegetation and soil storage and drainage properties, alter how incoming precipitation is translated into streamflow and evapotranspiration. Land surface heterogeneity can explain why this partitioning of incoming precipitation cannot always be computed by a simple water budget calculation. We also know that land surface characteristics are dynamic - vegetation grows and changes with fire, disease and human actions and these changes will alter the partitioning of water - how much so, however depends itself on other site characteristics - soil water storage and the timing and magnitude of precipitation. This complex impact of space-time dynamics on the water cycle is something we need to effectively communicate to non-experts. For example, we may want to explain why sometimes forest management practices increase water availability but sometimes they don't - or why the impacts of urbanization or fire are location specific. If we do not communicate these dependencies we risk over-simplifying and eroding scientific credibility when observed effects don't match simple generalizations. On the other hand excessive detail can overwhelm and disengage audiences. So how do we help different communities public, private landowners, other scientists, NGOs, governments to better understand the role of space-time heterogeneity. To address this issue, we present some results from ongoing work that looks at the impact of fuel treatment of forest ecohydrology. This work stem from a collaboration between an ecohydrologic modeling team, social-scientists, a visual artist and compute graphics students. We use a coupled model, validated with field measurements, to show why spatial heterogeneity matters for understanding the impact of fuel treatments on the water cycle for the Sierra

  5. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  6. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  7. Detecção e tratamento de pacientes amblíopes na cidade de São Paulo, SP (Brasil Detection and treatment of amblyopic patients in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Jacob Bechara

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados retrospectivamente cem pacientes amblíopes de uma clínica particular na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, escolhidos aleatoriamente, com idades variando de 3 a 48 anos. Foram pesquisados: idade de detecção, meio de detecção, idade de início do tratamento e regularidade do retorno ao consultório. A maior parte dos casos (65% foi detectada antes dos 7 anos de idade e dentre estes, somente 10,8% iniciaram tratamento após os 8 anos de idade. Entre aqueles que iniciaram antes dos 7 anos de idade, 44,8% retornaram irregularmente ou não retornaram. A ambliopia foi detectada predominantemente pelos pais ou pelo oftalmologista, e raramente pelo pediatra ou na escola. Os autores discutem estas observações e propõem recomendações para melhorar os resultados terapêuticos na ambliopia.This report presents retrospective data concerning 100 amblyopic patients in São Paulo, Brazil, including: the age of detection, means of detection, age in which therapy was started and follow-up of the patients. Even though most of the cases (65% had been detected before the age of 7 years, 10.8% of them started the therapy only after 8 years of age, when the treatment of amblyopia may not be so successful. Among the patients who started their therapy before the age of 7 years, 44.8% of them returned only irregularly or didn't return at all. The amblyopia was detected, in the majority of cases, by the parents or the ophthalmologist, and rarely by the pediatrician or at school. The authors discuss such observations, and propose some ways ot improve the therapeutic results in amblyopia.

  8. The fallacy of "equal treatment" in Brazil's bill of rights for internet users A falácia da "igualdade de tratamento" na carta brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Sidak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Brazilian bill of rights for internet users," or "marco civil," has been under consideration at the brazilian congress since 2011. Marco civil's provisions for network neutrality have been particularly controversial. Proponents of network neutrality in Brazil advocate for the "equal treatment" of all data packets, including banning internet service providers from offering to content providers the option to purchase enhanced quality of service in the delivery of data packets. These network neutrality rules conflict with the other goals and principles of marco civil-particularly goals to promote internet access, to foster innovation, and to protect the constitutional right of freedom of speech and the free flow of information.A "carta Brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet," ou "marco civil," tramita no congresso Brasileiro desde 2011. As disposições do marco civil relativas à neutralidade de rede são particularmente controversas. Os defensores da neutralidade de rede no Brasil advogam pela "igualdade de tratamento" de todos os pacotes de dados, inclusive proibindo que provedores de serviço de acesso à internet ofereçam aos provedores de conteúdo a opção de adquirir uma melhor qualidade de serviço na entrega de pacotes de dados. Essas disposições relativas à neutralidade de rede conflitam com outros objetivos e princípios do marco civil - especialmente os objetivos de promover o acesso à internet, promover a inovação, e garantir o direito constitucional de liberdade de expressão e informação.

  9. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G Schatzmayr

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and SouthAmerican countries and in the Caribbean region, due to the weaning of the vector control programs in these countries. High demographic densities and poor housing conditions in large urban communities, made the ideal conditions for vector spreading. All four dengue types are circulating in the continent and there is a high risk of the introduction in the country of the other two dengue types in Brazil, with the development of large epidemics. After the Cuban episode in 1981, when by the first time a large epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome have been described in the Americas, both clinical presentations are observed, specially in the countries like Brazil, with circulation of more than one dengue virus type. A tetravalent potent vaccine seems to be the only possible way to control the disease in the future, besides rapid clinical and laboratory diagnosis, in order to offer supportive treatment to the more severe clinical infections.

  10. Optimal Control of Heterogeneous Systems with Endogenous Domain of Heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, Anton O.; Tsachev, Tsvetomir; Veliov, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with optimal control of heterogeneous systems, that is, families of controlled ODEs parameterized by a parameter running over a domain called domain of heterogeneity. The main novelty in the paper is that the domain of heterogeneity is endogenous: it may depend on the control and on the state of the system. This extension is crucial for several economic applications and turns out to rise interesting mathematical problems. A necessary optimality condition is derived, where one of the adjoint variables satisfies a differential inclusion (instead of equation) and the maximization of the Hamiltonian takes the form of “min-max”. As a consequence, a Pontryagin-type maximum principle is obtained under certain regularity conditions for the optimal control. A formula for the derivative of the objective function with respect to the control from L ∞ is presented together with a sufficient condition for its existence. A stylized economic example is investigated analytically and numerically.

  11. Deployment of independent method of culture to detect bacteria and archaean domains in drainage basin under the influence of uranium mining - ore treatment unit, Caldas/MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Azevedo, Heliana de; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Bortolan reservoir (BR), part of the Ribeirao das Antas Hydrographic Sub-Basin, is a dam located in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau region and characterized by the reception of industrial and domestic residue discharge from the city of Pocos de Caldas. Another important dam, found within the same hydrographic sub-basin and the focus of many studies as well, is Antas reservoir (AR), situated on the proximities of a uranium mine (Brazilian Nuclear Industries Ore Treatment Unit - UTM/INB), and the receiver of treated radioactive effluents originated there. The UTM/INB Pit Mine (PM) is an artificial pond characterized by its acidity and elevated electrical conductivity, besides the presence of radioactive and stable metals. The focus of this study is to determine the phylogenetic classification of the Bacteria and Archaea domains, in addition to quantify the bacterial community at points PM, BR and AR, seeking to compare the data to results from other analyzed water bodies. These microorganisms can be determined with the use of molecular techniques that allow their phylogenetic identification, such as the Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) that detects the presence of specific organisms' DNA or RNA. In the FISH method, probes produced from each domain's DNA fragments are used (EUB338 and ARC915), allowing the identification of oligonucleotide sequences with a higher degree of similarity. The bacterial cells quantification is verified by the use of the DAPI (4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) stain, allowing the density calculation of the bacteria found in the samples from AR and BR, as well as from the PM. (author)

  12. Dilemas da política de distribuição de medicamentos antirretrovirais no Brasil Policy dilemmas in providing antiretroviral treatment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ferro do Lago

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata dos constrangimentos institucionais que têm afetado a política brasileira de provisão de medicamentos contra a Aids. É analisado o conflito normativo observado na política de Aids entre as regras internacionais da propriedade intelectual, em especial a proteção de patentes, e a orientação de acesso universal e gratuito a medicamentos, que norteia a política brasileira. Esses constrangimentos não têm tido sucesso em alterar a configuração distributiva da política pública brasileira; contudo, vêm alterando as condições de sustentabilidade da política pública. Considerando que a principal barreira para a produção de medicamentos protegidos por patente é institucional e não tecnológica, o governo brasileiro tem enfrentado o dilema da tomada de decisão entre a manutenção da regra de monopólio ou o incentivo à competitividade que permita o posicionamento eficiente dos produtores nacionais e dos países emergentes.This paper addresses institutional constraints that have affected Brazilian politics regarding provision of anti-retroviral treatment (ART to HIV/Aids patients. We analyzed the normative conflict resulting from international agreements on intellectual property rights, especially patent protection, and the constitutional rights of Brazilian patients to universal and free access to ART. These constraints have not substantially changed the Brazilian public policy yet, but they may impact the future sustainability of this policy. As the main barrier to the production of patented drugs is not technological but institutional, Brazilian government faces a dilemma. It may either abide by existing monopolistic restrictions or it may incite competitiveness of domestic industries and developing countries in the pharmaceutical market.

  13. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  14. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  15. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin. BRAZIL. Macapá. Manaus. São Paulo. Belém. Fortaleza. Recife. Salvador. Rio de Janeiro. Porto. Alegre. Brasilia. ✪. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. ○. BOLIVIA. PERU. ECUADOR. COLOMBIA. VENEZUELA. CHILE. PARAGUAY. Atlantic Ocean. Pacific Ocean.

  16. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  17. Neutron radiography in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography studies being carried out in reactor centres in Brazil are discussed. These research projects are under way using the 5 MW swimming pool reactor at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN) in Sao Paulo and the Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) in Rio de Janeiro. (Auth.)

  18. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costamilan, L.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  19. Dental caries and treatment needs among indigenous people of the Potiguara Indian reservation in Brazil Caries dental y necesidades de tratamiento en los indígenas de la reserva india Potiguara de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the caries prevalence and treatment needs of Brazilian indigenous residents on an Indian reservation. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 1 461 individuals of ages 18-36 months and 5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years living in the Potiguara Indian villages of Brazil. Decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT and deciduous teeth (dmft were determined by calibrated examiners using the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Treatment needs were assessed with the guidelines of the 2003 Brazilian Oral Health Survey. RESULTS: Means ± standard deviations (SD for dmft of 18- to 36-month-old and 5-year-old children were 2.5 ± 3.7 and 5.8 ± 4.3, respectively. For the age groups 12, 15-19, 35-44, and 65-74 years, mean ± SD values of DMFT were 3.6 ± 3.1, 7.1 ± 4.9, 16.4 ± 7.5, and 22.8 ± 8.6. The mean ± SD number of deciduous teeth requiring treatment varied from 2.4 ± 3.5 to 5.0 ± 4.0 in the 18- to 36-month and 5-year-old age groups, respectively. Among adolescents and adults, it was observed that on average at least three permanent teeth required dental treatment such as fillings, crowns, endodontic treatment, and extractions. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of caries and many teeth needing treatment were observed in all age groups of the Potiguara Indians.OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de caries y las necesidades de tratamiento en los residentes indígenas brasileños de una reserva india. MÉTODOS: En este estudio transversal se incluyó a 1 461 personas de 18 a 36 meses de edad, y de 5, 12, 15-19, 35-44, y 65-74 años, que vivían en aldeas indias Potiguara de Brasil. Se determinaron los dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPO y los dientes deciduos mediante examinadores calibrados, con ayuda del método recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Las necesidades de tratamiento se evaluaron con las

  20. Deciphering cancer heterogeneity: the biological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eRoessler

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most lethal solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are considered incurable due to extensive heterogeneity in clinical presentation and tumor biology. Tumor heterogeneity may result from different cells of origin, patient ethnicity, etiology, underlying disease and diversity of genomic and epigenomic changes which drive tumor development. Cancer genomic heterogeneity thereby impedes treatment options and poses a significant challenge to cancer management. Studies of the HCC genome have revealed that although various genomic signatures identified in different HCC subgroups share a common prognosis, each carries unique molecular changes which are linked to different sets of cancer hallmarks whose misregulation has been proposed by Hanahan and Weinberg to be essential for tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that these specific sets of cancer hallmarks collectively occupy different tumor biological space representing the misregulation of different biological processes. In principle, a combination of different cancer hallmarks can result in new convergent molecular networks that are unique to each tumor subgroup and represent ideal druggable targets. Due to the ability of the tumor to adapt to external factors such as treatment or changes in the tumor microenvironment, the tumor biological space is elastic. Our ability to identify distinct groups of cancer patients with similar tumor biology who are most likely to respond to a specific therapy would have a significant impact on improving patient outcome. It is currently a challenge to identify a particular hallmark or a newly emerged convergent molecular network for a particular tumor. Thus, it is anticipated that the integration of multiple levels of data such as genomic mutations, somatic copy number aberration, gene expression, proteomics, and metabolomics, may help us grasp the tumor biological space occupied by each individual, leading to improved therapeutic intervention and outcome.

  1. How to measure genetic heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    Genetic information of organisms is coded as a string of four letters, A, T, G and C, a sequence in macromolecules called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA sequence offers blueprint of organisms and its heterogeneity determines identity and variation of species. The quantitation of this genetic heterogeneity is fundamental to understand biology. We compared previously-reported three measures, covariance matrix expression of list of loci (pair-wise r 2 ), the most popular index in genetics, and its multi-dimensional form, Ψ, and entropy-based index, ε. Thereafter we proposed two methods so that we could handle the diplotypic heterogeneity and quantitate the conditions where the number of DNA sequence samples is much smaller than the number of possible variants.

  2. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    This paper discusses the determinants of the retirement decision and the implications of retirement on economic well-being. The main contribution of the paper is to formulate the role of individual heterogeneity explicitly. We argue that individual heterogeneity in 1) productivity of market work...... choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  3. Pharmacogenomics Bias - Systematic distortion of study results by genetic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zietemann, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decision analyses of drug treatments in chronic diseases require modeling the progression of disease and treatment response beyond the time horizon of clinical or epidemiological studies. In many such models, progression and drug effect have been applied uniformly to all patients; heterogeneity in progression, including pharmacogenomic effects, has been ignored. Objective: We sought to systematically evaluate the existence, direction and relative magnitude of a pharmacogenomics bias (PGX-Bias resulting from failure to adjust for genetic heterogeneity in both treatment response (HT and heterogeneity in progression of disease (HP in decision-analytic studies based on clinical study data. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in electronic databases for studies regarding the effect of genetic heterogeneity on the validity of study results. Included studies have been summarized in evidence tables. In the case of lacking evidence from published studies we sought to perform our own simulation considering both HT and HP. We constructed two simple Markov models with three basic health states (early-stage disease, late-stage disease, dead, one adjusting and the other not adjusting for genetic heterogeneity. Adjustment was done by creating different disease states for presence (G+ and absence (G- of a dichotomous genetic factor. We compared the life expectancy gains attributable to treatment resulting from both models and defined pharmacogenomics bias as percent deviation of treatment-related life expectancy gains in the unadjusted model from those in the adjusted model. We calculated the bias as a function of underlying model parameters to create generic results. We then applied our model to lipid-lowering therapy with pravastatin in patients with coronary atherosclerosis, incorporating the influence of two TaqIB polymorphism variants (B1 and B2 on progression and drug efficacy as reported in the DNA substudy of the REGRESS

  4. Job Heterogeneity and Coordination Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    We develop a new directed search model of a frictional labor market with a continuum of heterogenous workers and firms. We estimate two versions of the model - auction and price posting - using Danish data on wages and productivities. Assuming heterogenous workers with no comparative advantage, we...... the job ladder, how the identification of assortative matching is fundamentally different in directed and undirected search models, how our theory accounts for business cycle facts related to inter-temporal changes in job offer distributions, and how our model could also be used to identify...

  5. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  6. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: Recent Advances and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Omo Ibhadon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor heterogeneous photocatalysis, the subject of this review, is a versatile, low-cost and environmentally benign treatment technology for a host of pollutants. These may be of biological, organic and inorganic in origin within water and air. The efficient and successful application of photocatalysis demands that the pollutant, the catalyst and source of illumination are in close proximity or contact with each other. The ability of advanced oxidation technology to remove low levels of persistent organic pollutants as well as microorganisms in water has been widely demonstrated and, progressively, the technology is now being commercialized in many areas of the world including developing nations. This review considers recent developments in the research and application of heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis for the treatment of low-level concentrations of pollutants in water and air using titanium dioxide as a “model” semiconductor. The review considers charge transport characteristics on the semiconductor surface, photocatalyst reactor design and organic degradation mechanistic pathways. The effects of photoreactor operating parameters on the photocatalytic process are discussed in addition to mineralization and disinfection kinetics.

  7. Heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2003-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in characterizing the phenomenology and psychobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in recent years. In many ways, such advances suggest a conceptualization of OCD as a relatively homogeneous neuropsychiatric entity, underpinned by particular mechanisms that manifest in universal symptoms. Nevertheless, some data have pointed to the heterogeneity of this disorder. A computerized literature search (MEDLINE: 1964-2001) was used to collect studies addressing the heterogeneity of OCD. In addition, reviews of the phenomenology, psychobiology, family studies, and treatment of OCD were examined in an attempt to collate data addressing this issue. There is a growing consensus that some subtypes of OCD are valid and provide a useful means of integrating data on its symptomatology, neurobiology, and treatment response; for example, OCD with comorbid tics is characterized by earlier onset, a particular range of OCD symptoms, and worse response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The heterogeneity of OCD has important clinical and research implications.

  8. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  9. Ethnic and Racial Inequalities in Notified Cases of Tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor de Sousa Viana

    Full Text Available This study analysed clinical and sociodemographic aspects and follow-up for notified cases of tuberculosis (TB and explored inequalities in incidence rates and outcome by colour or race and the geographic macro-regions of Brazil.This paper reports the results of a population-based descriptive epidemiological study of all notified cases of TB in Brazil during the period from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2011. We analysed sociodemographic and clinical variables according to colour or race (white, black, Asian, mixed, and indigenous and geographic macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Central-West, South, and Southeast.During the study period, the average incidence of TB in Brazil was 36.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, with the highest rates occurring in the North and Southeast regions. The analysis of TB notifications by colour or race revealed that the indigenous population presented the highest incidence rates in all macro-regions except the South, where higher rates were reported in black patients. 'Cured' was the most frequently reported treatment outcome for all skin colour categories. The highest cure rate occurred among the indigenous population (76.8%, while the lowest cure rate occurred among the black population (70.7%. Rates of treatment default were highest among blacks (10.5% and lowest among the indigenous population (6.9%. However, the fatality rate was similar across race categories, varying between 2.8% and 3.8% for whites and the indigenous population, respectively. The lowest cure rates were observed when follow-up was inadequate (58.3%, and the highest was observed when the follow-up was classified as excellent (96.8%.This study revealed that-apart from the heterogeneous distribution of TB among the Brazilian macro-regions-ethnic-racial inequalities exist in terms of clinical-epidemiological characteristics and incidence rates as well as follow-up for cases undergoing treatment. The highest rates of TB occurred among the

  10. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described

  11. Behavioral heterogeneity in stock prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, H.P.; Hommes, C.H.; Manzan, S.

    2007-01-01

    We estimate a dynamic asset pricing model characterized by heterogeneous boundedly rational agents. The fundamental value of the risky asset is publicly available to all agents, but they have different beliefs about the persistence of deviations of stock prices from the fundamental benchmark. An

  12. Prices and heterogeneous search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luis Moraga-Gonzalez, Jose; Sandor, Zsolt; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2017-01-01

    We study price formation in a model of consumer search for differentiated products in which consumers have heterogeneous search costs. We provide conditions under which a pure-strategy symmetric Nash equilibrium exists and is unique. Search costs affect two margins-the intensive search margin (or

  13. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  14. Morphology stabilization of heterogeneous blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A heterogeneous elastomer blend is described, consisting of at least two elastomer components which are cross-linkable by irradiation and having a stabilized morphology formed by subjecting the blend to high energy radiation to a point from below to slightly above the gel dose of the blend. (author)

  15. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  16. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  17. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  18. A Heterogeneous Quantum Computer Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Riesebos, L.; Lao, L.; Garcia Almudever, C.; Sebastiano, F.; Versluis, R.; Charbon, E.; Bertels, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high level view of the heterogeneous quantum computer architecture as any future quantum computer will consist of both a classical and quantum computing part. The classical part is needed for error correction as well as for the execution of algorithms that contain both

  19. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  20. SU-F-SPS-01: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms of Eclipse Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Trubeam 2.0 Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codel, G; Serin, E; Pacaci, P; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Doyuran, M; Kucukmorkoc, E; Kucuk, N; Altinok, A; Canoglu, D; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  1. SU-F-SPS-01: Accuracy of the Small Field Dosimetry Using Acuros XB and AAA Dose Calculation Algorithms of Eclipse Treatment Planning System Within and Beyond Heterogeneous Media for Trubeam 2.0 Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codel, G; Serin, E; Pacaci, P; Sanli, E; Cebe, M; Mabhouti, H; Doyuran, M; Kucukmorkoc, E; Kucuk, N; Altinok, A; Canoglu, D; Acar, H; Caglar Ozkok, H [Medipol University, Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, the comparison of dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms were investigated for small radiation fields incident on homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries Methods: Small open fields of Truebeam 2.0 unit (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 fields) were used for this study. The fields were incident on homogeneous phantom and in house phantom containing lung, air, and bone inhomogeneities. Using the same film batch, the net OD to dose calibration curve was obtaine dusing Trubeam 2.0 for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10 MV, 10 FFF, 15 MV energies by delivering 0- 800 cGy. Films were scanned 48 hours after irradiation using an Epson 1000XL flatbed scanner. The dosimetric accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA algorithms in the presence of the inhomogeneities was compared against EBT3 film dosimetry Results: Open field tests in a homogeneous phantom showed good agreement betweent wo algorithms and measurement. For Acuros XB, minimum gamma analysis passin grates between measured and calculated dose distributions were 99.3% and 98.1% for homogeneousand inhomogeneous fields in thecase of lung and bone respectively. For AAA, minimum gamma analysis passingrates were 99.1% and 96.5% for homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields respectively for all used energies and field sizes.In the case of the air heterogeneity, the differences were larger for both calculations algorithms. Over all, when compared to measurement, theAcuros XB had beter agreement than AAA. Conclusion: The Acuros XB calculation algorithm in the TPS is an improvemen tover theexisting AAA algorithm. Dose discrepancies were observed for in the presence of air inhomogeneities.

  2. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  3. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  4. Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Investigation of Intratumor Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluff, B; Hanselmann, M; Heeren, R M A

    2017-01-01

    One of the big clinical challenges in the treatment of cancer is the different behavior of cancer patients under guideline therapy. An important determinant for this phenomenon has been identified as inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. While intertumor heterogeneity refers to the differences in cancer characteristics between patients, intratumor heterogeneity refers to the clonal and nongenetic molecular diversity within a patient. The deciphering of intratumor heterogeneity is recognized as key to the development of novel therapeutics or treatment regimens. The investigation of intratumor heterogeneity is challenging since it requires an untargeted molecular analysis technique that accounts for the spatial and temporal dynamics of the tumor. So far, next-generation sequencing has contributed most to the understanding of clonal evolution within a cancer patient. However, it falls short in accounting for the spatial dimension. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool for the untargeted but spatially resolved molecular analysis of biological tissues such as solid tumors. As it provides multidimensional datasets by the parallel acquisition of hundreds of mass channels, multivariate data analysis methods can be applied for the automated annotation of tissues. Moreover, it integrates the histology of the sample, which enables studying the molecular information in a histopathological context. This chapter will illustrate how MSI in combination with statistical methods and histology has been used for the description and discovery of intratumor heterogeneity in different cancers. This will give evidence that MSI constitutes a unique tool for the investigation of intratumor heterogeneity, and could hence become a key technology in cancer research. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  6. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Reigosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a solid justification, and typically make use of target species that do not co-exist with the donor species under natural conditions. We also found that most studies do not take the additional steps in order to purify and identify the bioactive molecules. We recommend that further studies be conducted in order to explore the potential of plant biodiversity in Brazil. Such studies could lead to the development of new molecular structures (allelochemicals that could be used in the control of pests and weeds, thereby reducing the use of the harmful synthetic herbicides that are currently being widely employed.

  7. Tratamento da cefaléia em uma unidade de emergência da cidade de Ribeirão Preto Headache treatment in an emergency room of the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO EDUARDO BIGAL

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Cefaléia é dos sintomas mais comuns na prática clínica. Acarreta considerável impacto econômico e sobrecarrega as unidades de emergência. A maioria destas, em nosso país, não dispõe de triptans. O presente estudo analisa o tratamento instituído na Unidade de Emergência do Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto. Em 1996, 1254 pacientes foram atendidos com esta queixa e 64 necessitaram de internação. Dos pacientes não internados (NI, 77% apresentavam cefaléias primárias, contra 29,7% dos pacientes internados (I. A percentagem de melhora nos pacientes com migrânea com a dipirona endovenosa foi 83,8%, com o diclofenaco intramuscular 66,7% e com a clorpromazina (endovenosa 81,8%. As percentagens de pacientes com cefaléia do tipo tensional que melhoraram, frente às mesmas drogas foram, respectivamente 77,8%, 80% e 100%. Dos NI 16,3% tiveram melhora sem qualquer tratamento medicamentoso. Concluímos que as drogas utilizadas apresentam perfis semelhantes de eficácia e custo, podendo ser utilizadas em unidades básicas de saúde. O maior inconveniente é a administração parenteral.Headache is one of the most common symptoms observed in clinical practice. It has a considerable economic impact and overburdens emergency rooms. In Brazil, most emergency rooms have no tryptans. The present study analyses the treatment provided by the Emergency Room of the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto. In 1996, 1254 patients were treated for headache and 64 of them required hospitalization. Of the non-hospitalized (NH patients, 77% had primary headache, as opposed to 29.7% of hospitalized patients. Of the patients with migraine, 83.6% improved with intravenous dipyrone, 66.7% improved with intramuscular diclofenac and 81.8% improved with intravenous chlorpromazine. The percentages of patients with tension-type headache who improved with the same drugs were 77.8%, 80% and 100%, respectively. Among NH patients, 16.3% improved without any

  8. Combination of sunlight irradiated oxidative processes for landfill leachate: heterogeneous catalysis (TiO2 versus homogeneous catalysis (H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Cobra Guimarães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the treatment of landfill leachate liquid in nature, after the use of a combination of advanced oxidation processes. More specifically, it compared heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2 to homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, both under photo-irradiated sunlight. The liquid used for the study was the leachate from the landfill of the city of Cachoeira Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in a semi-batch reactor open to the absorption of solar UV radiation, with 120 min reaction time. The factors and their respective levels (-1, 0 and 1 were distributed in a experimental design 24-1 with duplicate and triplicate in the central point, resulting in an array with 19 treatment trials. The studied factors in comparing the two catalytic processes were: liquid leachate dilution, TiO2 concentration on the reactor plate, the H2O2 amount and pH level. The leachate had low photo-catalytic degradability, with NOPC reductions ranging from 1% to a maximum of 24.9%. When considering each factor alone, neither homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, nor heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2, could degrade the percolated liquid without significant reductions (5% level in total NOPC. On the other hand, the combined use of homogenous catalysis with H2O2 and heterogeneous catalysis H2O2 resulted in the greatest reductions in NOPC. The optimum condition for the NOPC reduction was obtained at pH 7, dilution of percolated:water at 1:1 (v v-1 rate; excess of 12.5% H2O2 and coating plate reactor with 0.025 g cm-2 TiO2.

  9. Out-patient drug treatment of pneumonia among children under two years of age in Fortaleza, Brazil Tratamento ambulatorial das pneumonias nas crianças menores de dois anos em Fortaleza, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizuru Misago

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are reported from a study on drug use in treatment of children with pneumonia in a pediatric hospital in the city of Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. There were 171 out-patients; prescription details were obtained for 149. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial drug was procaine penicillin, accounting for 33% of antimicrobial prescriptions, followed by benzathine penicillin (31%, ampicillin or amoxicillin (12%, and cotrimoxazole (8%. Benzathine penicillin was frequently given with other drugs, but was the sole antimicrobial agent for 31 children. Compliance with antimicrobial treatment was 52% overall and was higher for the injectables. Prescription patterns varied from child to child, and children were often prescribed more than one antimicrobial in the same or repeat prescriptions; combining this information with compliance, 81 (54% of the children were estimated to have received 5 or more days of appropriate antimicrobial treatment for pneumonia. This percentage is not high, and five days were often reached after using more than one antimicrobial and after repeat visits. The authors concluded that the need remains for simple antimicrobial regimes, attractive to comply with, that can be expected to be consistently used. Other drugs were chiefly analgesics and bronchodilators.Estudou-se a aderência ao tratamento de pneumonia em crianças, em serviço ambulatorial de hospital pediátrico em Fortaleza, Brasil. Foram investigadas 171 crianças com diagnóstico de pneumonia. Através de questionário foram coletadas informações referentes à prescrição médica e estimada a aderência ao tratamento de 149 crianças. Os antimicrobianos mais comumente prescritos foram penicilina procaína (33%, penicilina benzatina (31%, ampicilina ou amoxacilina (12% e cotrimoxazol (8%. Embora tenha sido freqüente a associação de antimicrobianos com outros medicamentos, tratamento exclusivo com penicilina procaina foi prescrito para 31 crianças. A

  10. Surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms: six-year experience in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil Tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas intracranianos: experiência de seis anos em Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodante Batista da Costa Jr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for 5 to 10 % of all strokes, with a worldwide incidence of 10.5 / 100000 person/year, varying in individual reports from 1.1 to 96 /100000 person/year. Angiographic and autopsy studies suggest that between 0.5% and 5% of the population have intracranial aneurysms. Approximately 30000 people suffer aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States each year, and 60% die or are left permanently disabled. We report our experience in the surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms in a six year period, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We reviewed the hospital files, surgical and out-patient notes of all patients operated on for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms from January 1997 to January 2003. Four hundred and seventy-seven patients were submitted to 525 craniotomies for treatment of 630 intracranial aneurysms. The majority of patients were female (72.1% in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Anterior circulation aneurysms were more common (94.4%. The most common location for the aneurysm was the middle cerebral artery bifurcation. The patients were followed by a period from 1 month to 5 years. The outcome was measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. At discharge, 62.1% of the patients were classified as GOS 5, 13.9% as GOS 4, 8.7% as GOS 3, 1.7% as GOS 2 and 14.8% as GOS 1.A hemorragia subaracnóidea espontânea é responsável por cerca de 5 a 10% de todos os acidentes vasculares cerebrais, com uma incidência mundial de 10,5 / 100000 pessoas/ano, variando em estudos individuais de 1,1 a 96 / 100000 pessoas / ano, de acordo com diferenças étnicas e geográficas. Estudos angiográficos e de necropsia sugerem que a presença de aneurismas intracranianos ocorre em 0,5-5% da população mundial. De acordo com estatísticas norte-americanas, ocorrem cerca de 30000 rupturas de aneurisma cerebral por ano naquele país, com conseqüências desastrosas para grande parte dos pacientes

  11. Brazilian guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Abensur Athanazio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by dysfunction of the CFTR gene. It is a multisystem disease that most often affects White individuals. In recent decades, various advances in the diagnosis and treatment of CF have drastically changed the scenario, resulting in a significant increase in survival and quality of life. In Brazil, the current neonatal screening program for CF has broad coverage, and most of the Brazilian states have referral centers for the follow-up of individuals with the disease. Previously, CF was limited to the pediatric age group. However, an increase in the number of adult CF patients has been observed, because of the greater number of individuals being diagnosed with atypical forms (with milder phenotypic expression and because of the increase in life expectancy provided by the new treatments. However, there is still great heterogeneity among the different regions of Brazil in terms of the access of CF patients to diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The objective of these guidelines was to aggregate the main scientific evidence to guide the management of these patients. A group of 18 CF specialists devised 82 relevant clinical questions, divided into five categories: characteristics of a referral center; diagnosis; treatment of respiratory disease; gastrointestinal and nutritional treatment; and other aspects. Various professionals working in the area of CF in Brazil were invited to answer the questions devised by the coordinators. We used the PubMed database to search the available literature based on keywords, in order to find the best answers to these questions.

  12. Shock interactions with heterogeneous energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington, Cole D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Damm, David L.

    2018-03-01

    The complex physical phenomenon of shock wave interaction with material heterogeneities has significant importance and nevertheless remains little understood. In many materials, the observed macroscale response to shock loading is governed by characteristics of the microstructure. Yet, the majority of computational studies aimed at predicting phenomena affected by these processes, such as the initiation and propagation of detonation waves in explosives or shock propagation in geological materials, employ continuum material and reactive burn model treatment. In an effort to highlight the grain-scale processes that underlie the observable effects in an energetic system, a grain-scale model for hexanitrostilbene (HNS) has been developed. The measured microstructures were used to produce synthetic computational representations of the pore structure, and a density functional theory molecular dynamics derived equation of state (EOS) was used for the fully dense HNS matrix. The explicit inclusion of the microstructure along with a fully dense EOS resulted in close agreement with historical shock compression experiments. More recent experiments on the dynamic reaction threshold were also reproduced by inclusion of a global kinetics model. The complete model was shown to reproduce accurately the expected response of this heterogeneous material to shock loading. Mesoscale simulations were shown to provide a clear insight into the nature of threshold behavior and are a way to understand complex physical phenomena.

  13. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  14. Replikasi Unidirectional pada Heterogen Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of diverse database technology in enterprise today can not be avoided. Thus, technology is needed to generate information in real time. The purpose of this research is to discuss a database replication technology that can be applied in heterogeneous database environments. In this study we use Windows-based MS SQL Server database to Linux-based Oracle database as the goal. The research method used is prototyping where development can be done quickly and testing of working models of the interaction process is done through repeated. From this research it is obtained that the database replication technolgy using Oracle Golden Gate can be applied in heterogeneous environments in real time as well.

  15. Thermal properties of heterogeneous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staicu, D.; Beauvy, M.

    1998-01-01

    Fresh or irradiated nuclear fuels are composites or solid solutions more or less heterogeneous, and their thermal conductivities are strongly dependent on the microstructure. The effective thermal conductivities of these heterogeneous solids must be determined for the modelling of the behaviour under irradiation. Different methods (analytical or numerical) published in the literature can be used for the calculation of this effective thermal conductivity. They are analysed and discussed, but finally only few of them are really useful because the assumptions selected are often not compatible with the complex microstructures observed in the fuels. Numerical calculations of the effective thermal conductivity of various fuels based on the microstructure information provided in our laboratory by optical microscopy or electron micro-probe analysis images, have been done for the validation of these methods. The conditions necessary for accurate results on effective thermal conductivity through these numerical calculations are discussed. (author)

  16. Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    Renewal-anomalous-heterogeneous files are solved. A simple file is made of Brownian hard spheres that diffuse stochastically in an effective 1D channel. Generally, Brownian files are heterogeneous: the spheres' diffusion coefficients are distributed and the initial spheres' density is non-uniform. In renewal-anomalous files, the distribution of waiting times for individual jumps is not exponential as in Brownian files, yet obeys: ψ α (t)∼t -1-α , 0 2 >, obeys, 2 >∼ 2 > nrml α , where 2 > nrml is the MSD in the corresponding Brownian file. This scaling is an outcome of an exact relation (derived here) connecting probability density functions of Brownian files and renewal-anomalous files. It is also shown that non-renewal-anomalous files are slower than the corresponding renewal ones.

  17. Hyphal heterogeneity in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    de Bekker, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mycelial fungi use hyphae to colonize substrates. These hyphae secrete enzymes that convert complex polymers into breakdown products that can be taken up to serve as nutrients. Using GFP as a reporter it has been shown that exploring hyphae of Aspergillus niger are heterogenic with respect to expression of the glucoamylase gene glaA; some hyphae strongly express the glucoamylase gene glaA, while others express it lowly. This was a surprising finding considering the fact that all hyphae were e...

  18. Macroeconomic Policies and Agent Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    GOTTLIEB, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Defence date: 24 February 2012 Examining Board: Giancarlo Corsetti, Arpad Abraham, Juan Carlos Conesa, Jonathan Heathcote. This thesis contributes to the understanding of macroeconomic policies’ impact on the distribution of wealth. It belongs to the strand of literature that departs from the representative agent assumption and perceives agent heterogeneity and the induced disparities in wealth accumulation, as an important dimension of economic policy-making. Within such economic envir...

  19. Heterogeneous inflation expectations and learning

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Carlos; Zafar, Basit

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers, we estimate a learning model of inflation expectations, allowing for heterogeneous use of both private information and lifetime inflation experience. “Life-experience inflation” has a significant impact on individual expectations, but only for one-year-ahead inflation. Public information is substantially more relevant for longer-horizon expectations. Even controlling for life-experience inflation and public information, idiosyncra...

  20. REPLIKASI UNIDIRECTIONAL PADA HETEROGEN DATABASE

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Nindito; Evaristus Didik Madyatmadja; Albert Verasius Dian Sano

    2013-01-01

    The use of diverse database technology in enterprise today can not be avoided. Thus, technology is needed to generate information in real time. The purpose of this research is to discuss a database replication technology that can be applied in heterogeneous database environments. In this study we use Windows-based MS SQL Server database to Linux-based Oracle database as the goal. The research method used is prototyping where development can be done quickly and testing of working models of the...

  1. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Nindito; Evaristus Didik Madyatmadja; Albert Verasius Dian Sano

    2014-01-01

    The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MyS...

  2. Acuros XB: Impact dosimetric heterogeneous geometric appliance low density AXB represents a step forward in terms of algorithms of calculation for the planning of treatments; Acuros XB: impacto dosimetrico de artefactos geometricos heterogeneos de baja densidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado Bruggeman, D.; Munoz Montplet, C.; Agramunt Chaler, S.; Bueno Vizcarra, M.; Duch Guillen, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    In some situations, the dose distributions which provides are significantly different from those obtained with other marketed algorithms, which entails new challenges for evaluation and optimization of the treatment. (Author)

  3. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  4. Interest rate rules with heterogeneous expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Assenza, T.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.

    2011-01-01

    The recent macroeconomic literature stresses the importance of managing heterogeneous expectations in the formulation of monetary policy. We use a simple frictionless DSGE model to investigate inflation dynamics under alternative interest rate rules when agents have heterogeneous expectations and

  5. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Vellenga, Edo; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome. Although

  6. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Hovenga, S; Vellenga, E; Bos, NA

    Multiple Myeloma ( MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome.

  7. A esquistossomose urbana e a heterogeneidade social e epidemiológica da população do município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Urban schistosomiasis and social and epidemiological heterogeneity in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgília L. C. de Lima

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo aborda as relações da esquistossomose com uma das características da urbanização intensa que vem sendo observada nos países de capitalismo tardio, que é a presença de um aglomerado de pessoas, vivendo nas periferias das cidades em precárias condições de vida. Foram estudados 610 casos autóctones notificados da endemia, no município de Campinas (situado a 98km da capital, correspondentes ao período de 1970 a 1990, por meio de suas fichas de notificação epidemiológica, visando avaliar as condições socioeconômicas dos portadores da doença. Constatou-se que a esquistossomose autóctone no município de Campinas apresenta distribuição mais heterogênea do que se poderia esperar com base nos estudos existentes sobre a endemia, em que ela é intimamente relacionada a condições precárias de saneamento básico e subsistência.This study deals with the relationship between schistosomiasis and urbanization, particularlv the urbanization process experienced by cities in dependent capitalist countries, with large groups of people in precarious living conditions. Six hundred and ten notified autochthonous cases in Campinas during the period from 1970 to 1990 are analyzed through notification files with regard to patients’ socio-economic conditions. Autochthonous cases of schistosomiasis were demonstrated as having a more heterogeneous geographical distribution within the urban area than could be inferred from previous studies that correlate the occurence of transmission with precarious sanitary conditions.

  8. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  9. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.; Iskin, M.C.L.; Palhares, L.C.; Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Breast cancer as heterogeneous disease: contributing factors and carcinogenesis mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Abernethy, Amy P; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-07-01

    The observed bimodal patterns of breast cancer incidence in the U.S. suggested that breast cancer may be viewed as more than one biological entity. We studied the factors potentially contributing to this phenomenon, specifically focusing on how disease heterogeneity could be linked to breast carcinogenesis mechanisms. Using empirical analyses and population-based biologically motivated modeling, age-specific patterns of incidence of ductal and lobular breast carcinomas from the SEER registry (1990-2003) were analyzed for heterogeneity and characteristics of carcinogenesis, stratified by race, stage, grade, and estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor status. The heterogeneity of breast carcinoma age patterns decreased after stratification by grade, especially for grade I and III tumors. Stratification by ER/PR status further reduced the heterogeneity, especially for ER(+)/PR(-) and ER(-)/(-) tumors; however, the residual heterogeneity was still observed. The number of rate-limiting events of carcinogenesis and the latency of ductal and lobular carcinomas differed, decreasing from grade I to III, with poorly differentiated tumors associated with the least number of carcinogenesis stages and the shortest latency. Tumor grades play important role in bimodal incidence of breast carcinoma and have distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Race and cancer subtype could play modifying role. ER/PR status contributes to the observed heterogeneity, but is subdominant to tumor grade. Further studies on sources of "remaining" heterogeneity of population with breast cancer (such as genetic/epigenetic characteristics) are necessary. The results of this study could suggest stratification rather than unification of breast cancer prevention strategies, risk assessment, and treatment.

  11. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  12. The many faces of hematopoietic stem cell heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Not all hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are alike. They differ in their physical characteristics such as cell cycle status and cell surface marker phenotype, they respond to different extrinsic signals, and they have different lineage outputs following transplantation. The growing body of evidence that supports heterogeneity within HSCs, which constitute the most robust cell fraction at the foundation of the adult hematopoietic system, is currently of great interest and raises questions as to why HSC subtypes exist, how they are generated and whether HSC heterogeneity affects leukemogenesis or treatment options. This Review provides a developmental overview of HSC subtypes during embryonic, fetal and adult stages of hematopoiesis and discusses the possible origins and consequences of HSC heterogeneity. PMID:27965438

  13. Fludized-bed process for complex municipal sewage treatment systems using micro-organisms immobilized on heterogenous polymer structures (biocompounds); Wirbelbettverfahren zur komplexen kommunalen Abwasserreinigung unter Verwendung von auf heterogenen Polymerstrukturen (Biocompounds) immobilisierten Mikroorganismen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochmann, C.

    2004-07-01

    Within the context of the present work, novel carriers for immobilizing microorganisms have been developed and tested both in the laboratory and on a semi-industrial scale. It was the primary target to optimize the known processes in deep biofilms such that, besides carbon compounds decomposition and nitrification, a directed (and sufficient) denitrification would also become possible. Prerequisite for purposefully influencing denitrification processes is to realize biofilms of a definite thickness. This cannot be ensured by means of the carriers used hitherto in practice. The approach consists in the use of heterogeneous polymer structures (biocompounds) made of two differently rapidly degradable biopolymers. The biopolymer that is more slowly degradable forms a matrix into which the rapidly degradable biopolymer is inserted in form of particles arranged from one another at a distance. Based on the primary biological decomposition of the more rapidly degradable component (''biocorrosion''), porosity is generated in the substrate, releasing carbon at the same time. In this way, anoxic zones are formed based on the existent material gradient, besides protection of the biofilm forming in the pores from mechanical wear and tear. Simultaneously this ensures the supply of carbon to the anoxic zone for denitrification. In examinations (laboratory and semi-technology), it has been shown that simultaneous and continuous degradation of carbon and nitrogen compounds can be achieved in a completely and steadily aerated reaction space through the use of biocompounds. No problems arose both in carbon compounds degradation and nitrification. The removal of nitrogen compounds from wastewater was limited by the denitrification performance, which allowed to identify denitrification as the limiting process within the total process. It was possible to show that the N{sub tot} elimination rate is a function of the C/N ratio in crude wastewater. (orig.)

  14. Transfers in heterogeneous environments; Transferts en milieux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesselles, J M [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France); Gouesbet, G; Mees, L; Roze, C; Girasole, Th; Grehan, G [Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires (LESP), UMR CNRS 6614, CORIA. Universite de Rouen et INSA de Rouen, 76 - Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Goyheneche, J M; Vignoles, G; Coindreau, O [Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux (LCTS), UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Moyne, Ch [LEMTA (UMR 7563) CNRS-INPL-UHP, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Coussy, O [Institut Navier - ENPC, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Lassabatere, Th [Electricite de France Les Renardieres, Dept. Materiaux Mecanique des Composants, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Tadrist, L [IUSTI - UMR 6595, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the invited talks given at the 2004 French congress of thermal engineering about transfers in heterogeneous environment. Content: transfer phenomena in industrial glass furnaces; simple and multiple scattering diagnosis by femto-second pulsed laser: application to particulate diagnoses; thermal modeling of thermo-structural composites; hybrid mixtures theory, average volumic measurement, periodical or stochastic homogenization: advance in scale change processes; thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical coupling in porous medium: application to young concrete structures and to clay barriers of disposal facilities; transfers and flows in fluidization: recent advances and future challenges. (J.S.)

  15. LDC nuclear power: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.

    1982-01-01

    Brazil has been expanding its nuclear power since 1975, following the Bonn-Brasilia sales agreement and the 1974 denial of US enriched uranium, in an effort to develop an energy mix that will reduce dependence and vulnerability to a single energy source or supplier. An overview of the nuclear program goes on to describe domestic non-nuclear alternatives, none of which has an adequate base. The country's need for transfers of capital, technology, and raw materials raises questions about the advisability of an aggressive nuclear program in pursuit of great power status. 33 references

  16. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  17. Handling preference heterogeneity for river services' adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios; Comiti, Francesco; Fischer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Climate projection models for the Southern Mediterranean basin indicate a strong drought trend. This pattern is anticipated to affect a range of services derived from river ecosystems and consecutively deteriorate the sectoral outputs and household welfare. This paper aims to evaluate local residents' adaptation preferences for the Piave River basin in Italy. A Discrete Choice Experiment accounting for adaptation scenarios of the Piave River services was conducted and the collected data were econometrically analyzed using Random Parameters Logit, Latent Class and Covariance Heterogeneity models. In terms of policy-relevant outcomes, the analysis indicates that respondents are willing to pay for adaptation plans. This attitude is reflected on the compensating surplus to sustain the current state of the Piave, which corresponds to a monthly contribution of 80€ per household. From an econometric point of view, the results show that it is not sufficient to take solely into account general heterogeneity, provided that distinct treatment of the heterogeneity produces rather different welfare estimates. This implies that analysts should examine a set of criteria when deciding on how to better approach heterogeneity for each empirical data set. Overall, non-market values of environmental services should be considered when formulating cost-effective adaptation measures for river systems undergoing climate change effects and appropriate heterogeneity approximation could render these values unbiased and accurate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Heterogeneous policies, heterogeneous technologies: The case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main finding is that, compared to privatisation and unbundling, reducing entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation, but that its effect varies across technologies and is stronger in technologies characterised by potential entry of small, independent power producers. In addition, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, ratification of the Kyoto protocol, which determined a more stable and less uncertain policy framework, amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. - Highlights: • We study the effect of market regulation and energy policy on renewable technologies. • Reducing entry barriers is a significant driver of renewable energy innovation. • The Kyoto protocol amplifies the effect of both energy policy and liberalisation. • These effects are heterogeneous across technologies and stronger for wind.

  19. Mechanical heterogeneity in ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Arno A.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of five ionic liquids based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, [CnC1im]+, have been performed in order to calculate high-frequency elastic moduli and to evaluate heterogeneity of local elastic moduli. The MD simulations of [CnC1im][NO3], n = 2, 4, 6, and 8, assessed the effect of domain segregation when the alkyl chain length increases, and [C8C1im][PF6] assessed the effect of strength of anion-cation interaction. Dispersion curves of excitation energies of longitudinal and transverse acoustic, LA and TA, modes were obtained from time correlation functions of mass currents at different wavevectors. High-frequency sound velocity of LA modes depends on the alkyl chain length, but sound velocity for TA modes does not. High-frequency bulk and shear moduli, K∞ and G∞, depend on the alkyl chain length because of a density effect. Both K∞ and G∞ are strongly dependent on the anion. The calculation of local bulk and shear moduli was accomplished by performing bulk and shear deformations of the systems cooled to 0 K. The simulations showed a clear connection between structural and elastic modulus heterogeneities. The development of nano-heterogeneous structure with increasing length of the alkyl chain in [CnC1im][NO3] implies lower values for local bulk and shear moduli in the non-polar domains. The mean value and the standard deviations of distributions of local elastic moduli decrease when [NO3]- is replaced by the less coordinating [PF6]- anion.

  20. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  1. Heterogeneity effects in neutron transport computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbard, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is, generally, an intricate heterogeneous structure whose adjacent components may differ radically in their neutronic properties. The heterogeneities in the structure of the reactor complicate the work of the reactor analyst and tend to degrade the efficiency of the numerical methods used in reactor computations. Two types of heterogeneity effects are considered. First, certain singularities in the solution of the neutron transport equation, induced by heterogeneities, are briefly described. Second, the effect of heterogeneities on neutron leakage rates, and consequently on effective diffusion coefficients, are discussed. (5 figures) (U.S.)

  2. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  3. Fundamental concepts in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Norskov, Jens K; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts.   Features include:First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysisBasis for understanding and designing experiments in the field   Allows reader to understand catalyst design principlesIntroduction to important elements of energy transformation technologyTest driven at Stanford University over several semesters

  4. Integrating heterogeneous healthcare call centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, K M; Reed, W C; Salter, K

    1998-01-01

    In a relatively short period, OHS has absorbed multiple call centers supporting different LOBs from various acquisitions, functioning with diverse standards, processes, and technologies. However, customer and employee satisfaction is predicated on OHS's ability to thoroughly integrate these heterogeneous call centers. The integration was initiated and has successfully progressed through a balanced program of focused leadership and a defined strategy which includes site consolidation, sound performance management philosophies, and enabling technology. Benefits have already been achieved with even more substantive ones to occur as the integration continues to evolve.

  5. Heterogeneous Economic Integration Agreement Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Scott L.; Bergstrand, Jeffrey H.; Clance, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Gravity equations have been used for more than 50 years to estimate ex post the partial effects of trade costs on international trade flows, and the well-known - and traditionally presumed exogenous – "trade-cost elasticity" plays a central role in computing general equilibrium trade-flow and welfare effects of trade-cost changes. This paper addresses theoretically and empirically the influence of variable and fixed export costs in explaining the likely heterogeneity in the trade-cost elast...

  6. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results

  7. Heterogeneity in magnetic complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenholz, Elke

    Heterogeneity of quantum materials on the nanoscale can result from the spontaneous formation of regions with distinct atomic, electronic and/or magnetic order, and indicates coexistence of competing quantum phases. In complex oxides, the subtle interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom gives rise to especially rich phase diagrams. For example, coexisting conducting and insulating phases can occur near metal-insulator transitions, colossal magnetoresistance can emerge where ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic domains compete, and charge-ordered and superconducting regions are present simultaneously in materials exhibiting high-temperature superconductivity. Additionally, externally applied fields (electric, magnetic, or strain) or other external excitations (light or heat) can tip the energy balance towards one phase, or support heterogeneity and phase coexistence and provide the means to perturb and tailor quantum heterogeneity at the nanoscale. Engineering nanomaterials, with structural, electronic and magnetic characteristics beyond what is found in bulk materials, is possible today through the technique of thin film epitaxy, effectively a method of `spray painting' atoms on single crystalline substrates to create precisely customized layered structures with atomic arrangements defined by the underlying substrate. Charge transfer and spin polarization across interfaces as well as imprinting nanoscale heterogeneity between adjacent layers lead to intriguing and important new phenomena testing our understanding of basic physics and creating new functionalities. Moreover, the abrupt change of orientation of an order parameter between nanoscale domains can lead to unique phases that are localized at domain walls, including conducting domain walls in insulating ferroelectrics, and ferromagnetic domain walls in antiferromagnets. Here we present our recent results on tailoring the electronic anisotropy of multiferroic heterostructures by

  8. Tratamiento de agua potable por filtración inducida en una laguna costera en el sur de Brasil Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Romero Esquivel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La filtración inducida (FI consiste en obtener agua potable de pozos situados en acuíferos de aluvión u otro tipo de depósitos no consolidados conectados hidráulicamente con una fuente de agua superficial. La posibilidad de aplicar esta técnica en las riberas de la laguna Lagoa do Peri, Brasil, se evaluó a nivel piloto. Por medio de observación y de análisis granulométricos se determinó que el fondo de la laguna y el acuífero aledaño presentan una textura arenosa. Además, ensayos de permeámetro de carga constante, de tubo de carga variable y de bombeo, mostraron que la conductividad hidráulica en las mismas zonas se encuentra cercana a 10-4 m/s, misma magnitud encontrada en otras latitudes donde la FI se aplica con éxito. El agua captada en un pozo a 20 m de la Lagoa do Peri presentó valores de turbidez y color aparente acordes con los patrones de calidad locales. Se observó un aumento en la dureza y la alcalinidad, atribuido a la erosión de los materiales del subsuelo, sin llegar a superar lo estipulado en la legislación. Finalmente, el agua producida por la FI mostró ser de mejor calidad en términos de turbidez y color aparente que el agua de la laguna tratada por filtración directa en una estación de tratamiento (ETA ubicada en el lugar. El agua producida por la FI presentó condiciones anóxicas que harían necesario el postratamiento por aireación y filtración, proceso en el cual se podría aprovechar la infraestructura de la ETA existente.Bank filtration (BF consists in obtaining drinking water from wells in alluvial aquifers or other unconsolidated deposits hydraulically connected with a surface water source. The possibility of applying this technique was evaluated in a pilot scale on the banks of the Lagoa do Peri lagoon, Brazil. Observation and grain size analysis showed that the bottom of the lagoon and the adjacent aquifer have sandy texture. In addition, tests of constant head permeameter, standpipe falling

  9. Infecção por clonorchis sinensis em imigrantes asiáticos no Brasil: tratamento com praziquantel Clonorchis sinensis infection in asian immigrants in Brazil: treatment with praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. M. Leite

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se quinze pacientes com infecção assintomática por Clonorchis sinensis, revelada através de exame parasitológico de fezes. Todos eram de origem asiática e procuraram o Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz para se submeterem a exames laboratoriais necessários à regularização de sua situação, face à nova legislação sobre imigrantes. Eram todos indivíduos adultos, seis pertencendo ao sexo feminino e nove ao masculino. Os quinze pacientes com clonorquíase foram internados no Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP e tratados com Praziquantel, na dosagem de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal, dividida em duas tomadas. Foram realizados exames coprológicos quantitativos (método de Kato-Katz, antes do tratamento específico e no 15º, 30º e 60º dias após a terapêutica. Na última avaliação (60? dia após terapêutica, em nove pacientes (60,0% não se encontraram ovos do trematódeo nas fezes e nos seis (40,0%, que continuavam eliminando ovos, notou-se redução na quantidade eliminada (superior a 90% em cinco e a 30% no paciente restante. Os pacientes foram também submetidos a exames subsidiários, para avaliação do estado geral e função hepática, antes da administração de Praziquantel e, posteriormente, no seguimento ambulatorial. A medicação foi relativamente bem tolerada pelos pacientes, verificando-se a ocorrência de efeitos colaterais representados por náuseas e vômitos (dois casos, vertigens e tonturas (dois casos, epigastralgia (dois casos e diarréia no 3? dia após tratamento (um caso.Fifteen adult patients with assymptomatic infection due to Clonorchis sinensis, diagnosed by coprological examination, were studied. They all came from Asia (twelve from Taiwan, two from South Korea and one from Hong Kong and were examined at the Adolfo Lutz Institute and the Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. Six patients were women and nine men. All

  10. Reconhecimento, tratamento e controle da hipertensão arterial: estudo Pró-Saúde, Brasil Awareness, treatment, and control of arterial hypertension: Pró-Saúde study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência, o reconhecimento, o tratamento e o controle da hipertensão em uma população brasileira em idade laboral. MÉTODO: Este projeto se insere em um estudo prospectivo com funcionários de uma universidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Estudo Pró-Saúde. A partir de aferições padronizadas de pressão arterial e da história de diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão, foi estimada a prevalência de hipertensão em 2 384 participantes de linha de base (1999 a 2001 do estudo. A partir daí, foram determinadas as proporções da população, segundo sexo e idade, que reconhecem o diagnóstico de hipertensão arterial, tratam essa condição e cuja doença encontra-se controlada com medicação anti-hipertensiva. RESULTADOS: Da população do estudo, 704 indivíduos (29,6% foram classificados como hipertensos; desses, 573 (81,5% reconheciam previamente sua condição (88,6% das mulheres e 71,6% dos homens. Dos hipertensos que reconheciam previamente a sua condição, 445 (77,8%; 88,8% das mulheres e 59,1% dos homens estavam em tratamento com anti-hipertensivos. Por sua vez, dos hipertensos que estavam em tratamento, 287 (60,1%; 61,5% das mulheres e 57,4% dos homens estavam controlados. Entre aqueles na menor faixa etária, os percentuais de reconhecimento e tratamento foram menores e o controle foi maior. CONCLUSÃO: Nessa população, reconhecimento, tratamento e controle da hipertensão foram superiores ao observado em grande parte dos estudos nacionais e internacionais. Considerando-se que a maioria da população reconhecia sua condição e se tratava, era esperada uma proporção maior de controle da doença. O controle adequado da hipertensão deve ser uma prioridade dos programas e serviços de saúde, especialmente entre os homens.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in a working-age population in Brazil. METHOD: This project is part of a prospective study

  11. Effects of soil nutrient heterogeneity on intraspecific competition in the invasive, clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Alpert, Peter; Li, Hong-Li; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Lei, Guang-Chun; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2012-03-01

    Fine-scale, spatial heterogeneity in soil nutrient availability can increase the growth of individual plants, the productivity of plant communities and interspecific competition. If this is due to the ability of plants to concentrate their roots where nutrient levels are high, then nutrient heterogeneity should have little effect on intraspecific competition, especially when there are no genotypic differences between individuals in root plasticity. We tested this hypothesis in a widespread, clonal species in which individual plants are known to respond to nutrient heterogeneity. Plants derived from a single clone of Alternanthera philoxeroides were grown in the greenhouse at low or high density (four or 16 plants per 27·5 × 27·5-cm container) with homogeneous or heterogeneous availability of soil nutrients, keeping total nutrient availability per container constant. After 9 weeks, measurements of size, dry mass and morphology were taken. Plants grew more in the heterogeneous than in the homogeneous treatment, showing that heterogeneity promoted performance; they grew less in the high- than in the low-density treatment, showing that plants competed. There was no interactive effect of nutrient heterogeneity and plant density, supporting the hypothesis that heterogeneity does not affect intraspecific competition in the absence of genotypic differences in plasticity. Treatments did not affect morphological characteristics such as specific leaf area or root/shoot ratio. Results indicate that fine-scale, spatial heterogeneity in the availability of soil nutrients does not increase competition when plants are genetically identical, consistent with the suggestion that effects of heterogeneity on competition depend upon differences in plasticity between individuals. Heterogeneity is only likely to increase the spread of monoclonal, invasive populations such as that of A. philoxeroides in China.

  12. Modeling HIV/AIDS Drug Price Determinants in Brazil: Is Generic Competition a Myth?

    OpenAIRE

    Meiners, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Hasenclever, Lia; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brazil became the first developing country to guarantee free and universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment, with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) being delivered to nearly 190,000 patients. The analysis of ARV price evolution and market dynamics in Brazil can help anticipate issues soon to afflict other developing countries, as the 2010 revision of the World Health Organization guidelines shifts demand towards more expensive treatments, and, at the same time, current evolution of internat...

  13. The effect of rib and lung heterogeneities on the computed dose to lung in Ir-192 High-Dose-Rate breast brachytherapy: Monte Carlo versus a treatment planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salehi Yazdi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Taking into account the ribs and entering the actual data for breasts, ribs, and lungs, revealed an average overestimation of the dose by a factor of 8% in the lung for TPS calculations. Therefore, the accuracy of the TPS results may be limited to regions near the implants where the treatment is planned, and is a more conservative approach for regions at boundaries with curvatures or tissues with a different material than that in the breast.

  14. Paradigm shift in LUNG SBRT dose calculation associated with Heterogeneity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Pinto Monedero, M.; Marti Asensjo, J.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of lung injury SBRT requires great dosimetric accuracy, the increasing clinical importance of dose calculation heterogeneities introducing algorithms that adequately model the transport of particles narrow beams in media of low density, as with Monte Carlo calculation. (Author)

  15. Quantum-dot-based immunofluorescent imaging of HER2 and ER provides new insights into breast cancer heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuang; Li Yan; Peng Jun; Xu Hao; Tang Hongwu; Zhang Zhiling; Pang Daiwen; Xia Heshun; Wu Qiongshui; Zeng Libo; Zhu Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous tumor, and better understanding of its heterogeneity is essential to improving treatment effect. Quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescent nanotechnology (QD-IHC) for molecular pathology has potential advantages in delineating tumor heterogeneity. This potential is explored in this paper by QD-IHC imaging of HER2 and ER. BC heterogeneity can be displayed more clearly and sensitively by QD-IHC than conventional IHC in BC tissue microarrays. Furthermore, the simultaneous imaging of ER and HER2 might help understand their interactions during the process of evolution of heterogeneous BC.

  16. Cell heterogeneity problems in the analysis of zero power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.; Stevenson, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described for treating plate and pin cell heterogeneity in the preparation of broad group cross-sections used in the analysis of zero power fast reactor experiments. Methods used at Karlsruhe and Winfrith are summarised and compared, with particular reference to the treatment of resonance shielding, the calculation of broad group spatial fine structure, the treatment of leakage and the calculation of anisotropic diffusion coefficients. The problems of cells near boundaries such as core-breeder interfaces and of singularities such as control rods are also considered briefly. Numerical studies carried out to investigate approximations in the methods are described. These include tests of the accuracy of one-dimensional cell modelling techniques, and the validation by Monte Carlo of methods for treating streaming in the calculation of diffusion coefficients. Comparisons are shown between the heterogeneity effects calculated by the Karlsruhe and Winfrith methods for typical pin and plate cells used in the BIZET experimental programme, and their effect in a whole reactor calculation is indicated. Comparisons are given with measurements which provide tests of the heterogeneity calculations. These include reaction rate scans within pin and plate cells, and reaction rate measurements across sectors of pin and plate fuel, where the flux tilt is determined by the relative reactivity of the pin and plate cells. Finally, the heterogeneity problems arising in the interpretation of reaction rate measurements are discussed. (author)

  17. Heterogeneity in Immune Cell Content in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnema-Luiting, Jorien; Vroman, Heleen; Aerts, Joachim; Cornelissen, Robin

    2018-03-30

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer with limited therapy options and dismal prognosis. In recent years, the role of immune cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) has become a major area of interest. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of heterogeneity in immune cell content and checkpoint expression in MPM in relation to prognosis and prediction of treatment efficacy. Generally, immune-suppressive cells such as M2 macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells are present within the TME, with extensive heterogeneity in cell numbers. Infiltration of effector cells such as cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells and T helper cells is commonly found, also with substantial patient to patient heterogeneity. PD-L1 expression also varied greatly (16-65%). The infiltration of immune cells in tumor and associated stroma holds key prognostic and predictive implications. As such, there is a strong rationale for thoroughly mapping the TME to better target therapy in mesothelioma. Researchers should be aware of the extensive possibilities that exist for a tumor to evade the cytotoxic killing from the immune system. Therefore, no "one size fits all" treatment is likely to be found and focus should lie on the heterogeneity of the tumors and TME.

  18. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-06-11

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation.

  19. Dispersivity in heterogeneous permeable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    When one fluid displaces another through a one-dimensional porous medium, the composition changes from pure displacing fluid at the inlet to pure displaced fluid some distance downstream. The distance over which an arbitrary percentage of this change occurs is defined as the mixing zone length, which increases with increasing average distance traveled by the displacement front. For continuous injection, the mixing zone size can be determined from a breakthrough curve as the time required for the effluent displacing fluid concentration to change from, say, 10% to 90%. In classical dispersion theory, the mixing zone grows in proportion to the square root of the mean distance traveled, or, equivalently, to the square root of the mean breakthrough time. In a multi-dimensional heterogeneous medium, especially at field scales, the size of the mixing zone grows almost linearly with mean distance or travel time. If an observed breakthrough curve is forced to fit the, clinical theory, the resulting effective dispersivity, instead of being constant, also increases almost linearly with the spatial or temporal scale of the problem. This occurs because the heterogeneity in flow properties creates a corresponding velocity distribution along the different flow pathways from the inlet to the outlet of the system. Mixing occurs mostly at the outlet, or wherever the fluid is sampled, rather than within the medium. In this paper, we consider the effects. of this behavior on radionuclide or other contaminant migration

  20. Dispersivity in heterogeneous permeable media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    When one fluid displaces another through a one-dimensional porous medium, the composition changes from pure displacing fluid at the inlet to pure displaced fluid some distance downstream. The distance over which an arbitrary percentage (typically 80%) of this change occurs is defined as the mixing zone length, which increases with increasing average distance traveled by the displacement front. Alternatively, for continuous injection, the mixing zone size can be determined from a breakthrough curve as the time required for the effluent displacing fluid concentration to change from, say, 10% to 90%. In classical dispersion theory, the mixing zone grows in proportion to the square root of the mean distance traveled, or, equivalently, to the square root of the mean breakthrough time. In a multi-dimensional heterogeneous medium, especially at field scales, the size of the mixing zone grows almost linearly with mean distance or travel time. If an observed breakthrough curve is forced to fit the classical theory, the resulting effective dispersivity, instead of being constant, also increases almost linearly with the spatial or temporal scale of the problem. This occurs because the heterogeneity in flow properties creates a corresponding velocity distribution along the different flow pathways from the inlet to the outlet of the system. Mixing occurs mostly at the outlet, or wherever the fluid is sampled, rather than within the medium. In this paper, we consider the effects of this behavior on radionuclide or other contaminant migration

  1. Heterogeneous Policies, Heterogeneous Technologies: The Case of Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and un-bundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol - determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. (authors)

  2. Opening up Brazil's hydrocarbon sector - the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which transports natural gas more than 3000 km from Bolivia to Brazil, cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it major challenge. neither of these countries has had a tradition of independent regulation or economic fuel pricing, and the pipeline was the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil. The presentation explains the historical features of the project and how the project was used to open up Brazilian oil and gas sector to private investment and competition. (author)

  3. Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous LWR MOX fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, D.; Barker, M.

    2013-11-01

    It is generally observed that the thermal conductivity of LWR MOX fuel is lower than that of pure UO2. For MOX, the degradation is usually only interpreted as an effect of the substitution of U atoms by Pu. This hypothesis is however in contradiction with the observations of Duriez and Philiponneau showing that the thermal conductivity of MOX is independent of the Pu content in the ranges 3-15 and 15-30 wt.% PuO2 respectively. Attributing this degradation to Pu only implies that stoichiometric heterogeneous MOX can be obtained, while we show that any heterogeneity in the plutonium distribution in the sample introduces a variation in the local stoichiometry which in turn has a strong impact on the thermal conductivity. A model quantifying this effect is obtained and a new set of experimental results for homogeneous and heterogeneous MOX fuels is presented and used to validate the proposed model. In irradiated fuels, this effect is predicted to disappear early during irradiation. The 3, 6 and 10 wt.% Pu samples have a similar thermal conductivity. Comparison of the results for this homogeneous microstructure with MIMAS (heterogeneous) fuel of the same composition showed no difference for the Pu contents of 3, 5.9, 6, 7.87 and 10 wt.%. A small increase of the thermal conductivity was obtained for 15 wt.% Pu. This increase is of about 6% when compared to the average of the values obtained for 3, 6 and 10 wt.% Pu. For comparison purposes, Duriez also measured the thermal conductivity of FBR MOX with 21.4 wt.% Pu with O/M = 1.982 and a density close to 95% TD and found a value in good agreement with the estimation obtained using the formula of Philipponneau [8] for FBR MOX, and significantly lower than his results corresponding to the range 3-15 wt.% Pu. This difference in thermal conductivity is of about 20%, i.e. higher than the measurement uncertainties.Thus, a significant difference was observed between FBR and PWR MOX fuels, but was not explained. This difference

  4. Serologic detection of coccidioidomycosis antibodies in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; da Costa, Ana Karoline Freire; Nagao, Maria Aparecida Tiemi Dias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2009-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in Brazil but its incidence is underreported as it is not a notifiable disease. This article presents the results of a serologic survey carried out with 229 volunteers in northeast Brazil by the immunodiffusion (ID) test with commercial Coccidioides spp. antigens. The commercial ID test detected 15 individuals without clinical diagnosis of the disease and two individuals in treatment for coccidioidomycosis. Regarding the epidemiological data, most of the positive individuals were male, between 18 and 65 years of age and were engaged in armadillo hunting. Three women who had never participated in armadillo hunts also displayed positive results for coccidioidal antibodies. Besides armadillo hunts, exposure to environmental dust in endemic areas may account for the serologic response detected in the study. The data from this study suggest the importance of performing epidemiological surveys for coccidioidomycosis in order to understand the prevalence of this disease in Brazil.

  5. Electoral Governance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Marchetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral governance has increasingly more frequently been the object of study of the comparative politics literature. This article examines the electoral governance institutional model adopted in Brazil and its consequences for political/electoral competition. It is argued herein that Brazil’s Electoral Justice System, motivated by the institutional design, has ended up becoming one of the main actors of the country’s recent democratic consolidation, being decisive not only with regard to rule adjudication and application, but also to rulemaking. With the purpose of assessing this governance model in action, three important recent rulings by Brazil’s Electoral Justice System are analysed here: verticalization of the coalitions, reduction in the number of councillors, and party loyalty.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity in light supply affects intraspecific competition of a stoloniferous clonal plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Wang

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity in light supply is common in nature. Many studies have examined the effects of heterogeneous light supply on growth, morphology, physiology and biomass allocation of clonal plants, but few have tested those effects on intraspecific competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (no competition or nine ramets (with intraspecific competition of a stoloniferous clonal plant, Duchesnea indica, in three homogeneous light conditions (high, medium and low light intensity and two heterogeneous ones differing in patch size (large and small patch treatments. The total light in the two heterogeneous treatments was the same as that in the homogeneous medium light treatment. Both decreasing light intensity and intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets and total stolon length of D. indica. As compared with the homogeneous medium light treatment, the large patch treatment significantly increased the growth of D. indica without intraspecific competition. However, the growth of D. indica with competition did not differ among the homogeneous medium light, the large and the small patch treatments. Consequently, light heterogeneity significantly increased intraspecific competition intensity, as measured by the decreased log response ratio. These results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in light supply can alter intraspecific interactions of clonal plants.

  7. Considerations on the Legal Treatment on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOS in Brazil 10 Years After the Advent of Law nº 11,105 and Protection of Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carolina Lemes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to contribute to the relevant studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs, contextualizing this issue after 10 years of enactment of Law No. 11,105. Its main objective is to present traces of the current GMO policy in Brazil, pointing its main characteristics, with considerations about the possible injury to diffuse rights, in addition to the commitment of the protection of human health, with the analysis of decision thereof by CTNBio and its motivation. The dialectical method shall be used as method of approach. The research technique used was indirect documentation, including documentary research and literature.

  8. Dental caries experience in 12-year-old schoolchildren in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cypriano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997 was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0, with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62. There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.

  9. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa; Parente, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  10. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R

    2008-01-01

    .... Lula was re-elected in the second round of voting with fairly broad popular support. His immediate tasks were to boost Brazil's lagging economic growth and address the issues of crime, violence, and poverty...

  11. Brazil's Difficult Road to Greatness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, David C

    2008-01-01

    Brazil is an emerging country that has made important strides in consolidating its democracy, constructing a diversified and financially sound economy, and enhancing its diplomatic participation on the world stage...

  12. Interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Men, Bin; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous Fenton reaction can generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) from reactions between recyclable solid catalysts and H2O2 at acidic or even circumneutral pH. Hence, it can effectively oxidize refractory organics in water or soils and has become a promising environmentally friendly treatment technology. Due to the complex reaction system, the mechanism behind heterogeneous Fenton reactions remains unresolved but fascinating, and is crucial for understanding Fenton chemistry and the development and application of efficient heterogeneous Fenton technologies. Iron-based materials usually possess high catalytic activity, low cost, negligible toxicity and easy recovery, and are a superior type of heterogeneous Fenton catalysts. Therefore, this article reviews the fundamental but important interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton reactions catalyzed by iron-based materials. OH, hydroperoxyl radicals/superoxide anions (HO2/O2(-)) and high-valent iron are the three main types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with different oxidation reactivity and selectivity. Based on the mechanisms of ROS generation, the interfacial mechanisms of heterogeneous Fenton systems can be classified as the homogeneous Fenton mechanism induced by surface-leached iron, the heterogeneous catalysis mechanism, and the heterogeneous reaction-induced homogeneous mechanism. Different heterogeneous Fenton systems catalyzed by characteristic iron-based materials are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, related future research directions are also suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Spatial coupling in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S. Y.; Surko, C. M.; Maple, M. B.

    1995-11-01

    Spatial coupling mechanisms are studied in the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum at atmospheric pressure under oscillatory conditions. Experiments are conducted in a continuous flow reactor, and the reaction rate is monitored using both infrared imaging and thermocouples. The catalysts are in the form of platinum annular thin films on washer-shaped quartz substrates, and they provide highly repeatable oscillatory behavior. Oscillations are typically spatially synchronized with the entire catalyst ``flashing'' on and off uniformly. Spatial coupling is investigated by introducing various barriers which split the annular ring in half. Infrared images show that coupling through the gas phase dominates coupling via the diffusion of CO on the surface or heat diffusion through the substrate. The introduction of a localized heat perturbation to the catalyst surface does not induce a transition in the reaction rate. Thus, it is likely that the primary mode of communication is through the gas-phase diffusion of reactants.

  14. Heterogeneities in nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladirat, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The industrial vitrification of high level radioactive wastes is a 2 stage process. During the first stage, the concentrated solution is heated in a spinning resistance oven at the temperature of 400 Celsius degrees till evaporation and calcination. The second stage begins when the dry residue falls into a melting pot that is maintained at a temperature of 1100-1150 Celsius degrees. Glass fretting is added and the glass is elaborated through the fusion of the different elements present in the melting pot. Heterogeneities in the glass may be associated to: - the presence in the solution to vitrify of insoluble elements from the dissolution of the fuel (RuO 2 , Rh, Pd), - the presence of minuscule metal scraps (Zr) that have been produced during the cutting of the fuel element, - the failures to conform to the technical specifications of the vitrification process, for instance, temperatures or flow rates when introducing the different elements in the melting pot. (A.C.)

  15. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    be readily solved with continuous exogenous worker heterogene- ity, where high type workers (high outside options and productivity) earn higher wages in high type jobs and are hired at least as frequently to the better job types as low type workers (low outside options and productivity). Third, we...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... of these results preserve the essential tractability of the baseline model with aggregate shocks. Therefore, we o¤er a parsimonious, general equilibrium framework in which to study the process by which the contin- uous dispersion of wages and productivities varies over the business cycle for a large population...

  16. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  17. Operando research in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Groot, Irene

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging field of techniques for visualizing atomic-scale properties of active catalysts under actual working conditions, i.e. high gas pressures and high temperatures. It explains how to understand these observations in terms of the surface structures and dynamics and their detailed interplay with the gas phase. This provides an important new link between fundamental surface physics and chemistry, and applied catalysis. The book explains the motivation and the necessity of operando studies, and positions these with respect to the more traditional low-pressure investigations on the one hand and the reality of industrial catalysis on the other. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of new experimental and theoretical tools for operando studies of heterogeneous catalysis. The book has a strong emphasis on the new techniques and illustrates how the challenges introduced by the harsh, operando conditions are faced for each of these new tools. Therefore, one can also read th...

  18. Surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    The catalytic reactions studied include hydrocarbon conversion over platinum, the transition metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and the photocatalyzed dissociation of water over oxide surfaces. The method of combined surface science and catalytic studies is similar to those used in synthetic organic chemistry. The single-crystal models for the working catalyst are compared with real catalysts by comparing the rates of cyclopropane ring opening on platinum and the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on rhodium single crystal surface with those on practical commercial catalyst systems. Excellent agreement was obtained for these reactions. This document reviews what was learned about heterogeneous catalysis from these surface science approaches over the past 15 years and present models of the active catalyst surface

  19. Intertumoral Heterogeneity within Medulloblastoma Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Florence M G; Remke, Marc; Rampasek, Ladislav; Peacock, John; Shih, David J H; Luu, Betty; Garzia, Livia; Torchia, Jonathon; Nor, Carolina; Morrissy, A Sorana; Agnihotri, Sameer; Thompson, Yuan Yao; Kuzan-Fischer, Claudia M; Farooq, Hamza; Isaev, Keren; Daniels, Craig; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Faure-Conter, Cecile; Jouvet, Anne; Giannini, Caterina; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Li, Kay Ka Wai; Ng, Ho-Keung; Eberhart, Charles G; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Gillespie, G Yancey; Olson, James M; Leary, Sarah; Weiss, William A; Lach, Boleslaw; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Cooper, Michael K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Hauser, Peter; van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Kros, Johan M; French, Pim J; Ra, Young Shin; Kumabe, Toshihiro; López-Aguilar, Enrique; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Massimino, Maura; Van Meir, Erwin G; Osuka, Satoru; Shofuda, Tomoko; Klekner, Almos; Zollo, Massimo; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; Jabado, Nada; Albrecht, Steffen; Mora, Jaume; Van Meter, Timothy E; Jung, Shin; Moore, Andrew S; Hallahan, Andrew R; Chan, Jennifer A; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Fouladi, Maryam; Pimentel, José; Faria, Claudia C; Saad, Ali G; Massimi, Luca; Liau, Linda M; Wheeler, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Elbabaa, Samer K; Perezpeña-Diazconti, Mario; Chico Ponce de León, Fernando; Robinson, Shenandoah; Zapotocky, Michal; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Huang, Annie; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Dirks, Peter B; Rutka, James T; Bader, Gary D; Reimand, Jüri; Goldenberg, Anna; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-06-12

    While molecular subgrouping has revolutionized medulloblastoma classification, the extent of heterogeneity within subgroups is unknown. Similarity network fusion (SNF) applied to genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data across 763 primary samples identifies very homogeneous clusters of patients, supporting the presence of medulloblastoma subtypes. After integration of somatic copy-number alterations, and clinical features specific to each cluster, we identify 12 different subtypes of medulloblastoma. Integrative analysis using SNF further delineates group 3 from group 4 medulloblastoma, which is not as readily apparent through analyses of individual data types. Two clear subtypes of infants with Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma with disparate outcomes and biology are identified. Medulloblastoma subtypes identified through integrative clustering have important implications for stratification of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Homogenization methods for heterogeneous assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The third session of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting is concerned with the problem of homogenization of heterogeneous assemblies. Six papers will be presented on the theory of homogenization and on practical procedures for deriving homogenized group cross sections and diffusion coefficients. That the problem of finding so-called ''equivalent'' diffusion theory parameters for the use in global reactor calculations is of great practical importance. In spite of this, it is fair to say that the present state of the theory of second homogenization is far from being satisfactory. In fact, there is not even a uniquely accepted approach to the problem of deriving equivalent group diffusion parameters. Common agreement exists only about the fact that the conventional flux-weighting technique provides only a first approximation, which might lead to acceptable results in certain cases, but certainly does not guarantee the basic requirement of conservation of reaction rates

  1. Thermoelectricity in Heterogeneous Nanofluidic Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Wang, Qinggong

    2018-05-01

    Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e.g., electronic chips and solar panels). The currents increase linearly with temperature gradient and nonlinearly with channel size. Contributions to ion motion from temperatures and channel properties are evaluated for this phenomenon. The findings provide insights into the study of confined ionic fluids in multiphysical fields, and suggest applications in thermal energy conversion, temperature sensors, and chip-level thermal management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Heterogeneity of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, Kristine; Hulman, Adam; Solomon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with large variation in the relative contributions of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction between subtypes and individuals. Some of these differences are reflected in the way people are diagnosed. However, differences in glucose regulation exist...... among individuals even in those with comparable diagnostic glucose levels. In this review we address the heterogeneity of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes with special emphasis on differences in the pathophysiology and treatment responses related to the diagnostic criteria. We also discuss whether novel...... glycaemic markers of diabetes risk can provide additional information to the established diagnostic criteria. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for elevated fasting versus postprandial glucose concentration, as well as knowledge about the expected responsiveness to treatment...

  3. Assessing the scale of tumor heterogeneity by complete hierarchical segmentation of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Ermoian, Ralph P; Hawkins, Douglas S; Trister, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    In many cancers, intratumoral heterogeneity has been found in histology, genetic variation and vascular structure. We developed an algorithm to interrogate different scales of heterogeneity using clinical imaging. We hypothesize that heterogeneity of perfusion at coarse scale may correlate with treatment resistance and propensity for disease recurrence. The algorithm recursively segments the tumor image into increasingly smaller regions. Each dividing line is chosen so as to maximize signal intensity difference between the two regions. This process continues until the tumor has been divided into single voxels, resulting in segments at multiple scales. For each scale, heterogeneity is measured by comparing each segmented region to the adjacent region and calculating the difference in signal intensity histograms. Using digital phantom images, we showed that the algorithm is robust to image artifacts and various tumor shapes. We then measured the primary tumor scales of contrast enhancement heterogeneity in MRI of 18 rhabdomyosarcoma patients. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we explored the influence of heterogeneity parameters on relapse-free survival. Coarser scale of maximum signal intensity heterogeneity was prognostic of shorter survival (p = 0.05). By contrast, two fractal parameters and three Haralick texture features were not prognostic. In summary, our algorithm produces a biologically motivated segmentation of tumor regions and reports the amount of heterogeneity at various distance scales. If validated on a larger dataset, this prognostic imaging biomarker could be useful to identify patients at higher risk for recurrence and candidates for alternative treatment. (paper)

  4. Assessing the scale of tumor heterogeneity by complete hierarchical segmentation of MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Hawkins, Douglas S; Ermoian, Ralph P; Trister, Andrew D

    2015-02-07

    In many cancers, intratumoral heterogeneity has been found in histology, genetic variation and vascular structure. We developed an algorithm to interrogate different scales of heterogeneity using clinical imaging. We hypothesize that heterogeneity of perfusion at coarse scale may correlate with treatment resistance and propensity for disease recurrence. The algorithm recursively segments the tumor image into increasingly smaller regions. Each dividing line is chosen so as to maximize signal intensity difference between the two regions. This process continues until the tumor has been divided into single voxels, resulting in segments at multiple scales. For each scale, heterogeneity is measured by comparing each segmented region to the adjacent region and calculating the difference in signal intensity histograms. Using digital phantom images, we showed that the algorithm is robust to image artifacts and various tumor shapes. We then measured the primary tumor scales of contrast enhancement heterogeneity in MRI of 18 rhabdomyosarcoma patients. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we explored the influence of heterogeneity parameters on relapse-free survival. Coarser scale of maximum signal intensity heterogeneity was prognostic of shorter survival (p = 0.05). By contrast, two fractal parameters and three Haralick texture features were not prognostic. In summary, our algorithm produces a biologically motivated segmentation of tumor regions and reports the amount of heterogeneity at various distance scales. If validated on a larger dataset, this prognostic imaging biomarker could be useful to identify patients at higher risk for recurrence and candidates for alternative treatment.

  5. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.D.; Fonte, J. da; Suckau, V.; Thakur, V.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  6. Transverse dispersion in heterogeneous fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dershowitz, Bill; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate; Outters, Nils; Hermanson, Jan

    2004-12-01

    This report evaluates the significance of transverse dispersion processes for solute transport in a single fracture. Transverse dispersion is a potentially significant process because it increases the fracture surface area available for sorptive and diffusive properties, and has the potential to transport solute between what would otherwise be distinctive, streamline pathways. Transverse dispersion processes are generally ignored in one-dimensional repository performance assessment approaches. This report provides an initial assessment of the magnitude of transverse dispersion effect in a single heterogeneous fracture on repository safety assessment. This study builds on a previous report which considered the network effects on transport dispersion including streamline routing and mixing at fracture intersections. The project uses FracMan software. This platform has been extensively used by SKB in other projects. FracMan software is designed to generate and analyze DFN's as well as to compute fluid flow in DFN's with the MAFIC Finite element method (FEM) code. Solute transport was modeled using the particle tracking inside MAFIC, the 2-D Laplace Transform Galerkin inside PAWorks/LTG, and the 1-D Laplace Transform approach designed to replicate FARF31 inside GoldSim.The study reported here focuses on a single, 20-meter scale discrete fracture, with simplified boundary conditions intended to represent the position of this fracture within a fracture network. The range of assumptions made regarding fracture heterogeneity were as follows: Base case, Heterogeneous fracture, geostatistical field, correlation length 0.01 m. Case 1a, Homogeneous fracture, transmissivity = 10 -7 m 2 /s. Case 1b, Heterogeneous fracture, non-channeled geostatistical field correlation length 5 m. Case 1c, Heterogeneous fracture, channeled, anisotropic geostatistical field. Case 1d, Heterogeneous fracture, fracture intersection zone (FIZ) permeability enhanced. Case 5, Simple channelized

  7. An analytical method for neutron thermalization calculations in heterogenous reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1965-07-01

    It is well known that the use of the diffusion approximation for stuheterogeneous reactors may result in considerable errors. On the other hand, more exact numerical methods are rather laborious and require the use of large digital computers. In this paper, the use of the diffusion approximation in absorbing media has been avoided, but the treatment remained analytical, thus simplifying practical calculations.

  8. An analytical method for neutron thermalization calculations in heterogenous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1965-01-01

    It is well known that the use of the diffusion approximation for studying neutron thermalization in heterogeneous reactors may result in considerable errors. On the other hand, more exact numerical methods are rather laborious and require the use of large digital computers. In this paper, the use of the diffusion approximation in absorbing media has been avoided, but the treatment remained analytical, thus simplifying practical calculations

  9. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  10. Heterogeneous inflation expectations, learning, and market outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Carlos; Zafar, Basit

    2012-01-01

    Using the panel component of the Michigan Survey of Consumers, we show that individuals, in particular women and ethnic minorities, are highly heterogeneous in their expectations of inflation. We estimate a model of inflation expectations based on learning from experience that also allows for heterogeneity in both private information and updating. Our model vastly outperforms existing models of inflation expectations in explaining the heterogeneity in the data. We find that women, ethnic mino...

  11. Separation of Process Wastewater with Extractive Heterogeneous-Azeotropic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András József

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of vapour-liquid equilibria-based separation alternatives can be extraordinarily complicated for the treatment of process wastewaters containing heterogeneous-azeotropic. Despite dissimilar successfully tested methods for separation, there is possibility to get better distillation method by enabling the separation of more and more specific process wastewater. Extractive heterogeneous-azeotropic distillation (EHAD is a new advance in treatment of fine chemical wastewater showing special features to cope with the treatment of highly non-ideal mixtures. This method combines the worth of heterogeneous-azeotropic and extractive distillations in one apparatus without addition of any extra materials. The study of the separations of ternary component process wastewater from the fine chemical industry shows both in the modelled and experimental results that EHAD can be successfully applied. The measured and modelled compositions at extreme purities, that is, close to 0% or 100%, can be different because of the inaccuracies of the modelling. This highlights the paramount importance of the experiments if special extra-fine chemicals with almost no impurities, e.g. of pharmacopoeial quality are to be produced by special distillation technique. This study expands the application of EHAD technique, this new field is the separation of process wastewaters.

  12. Heterogeneity in induced thermal resistance of rat tumor cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasovic, S.P.; Rosenblatt, P.L.; Heitzman, D.

    1983-01-01

    Four 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones were examined for their survival response to heating under conditions that induced transient thermal resistance (thermotolerance). Clones MTC and MTF7 were isolated from the subcutaneous locally growing tumor, whereas clones MTLn2 and MTLn3 were derived from spontaneous lung metastases. There was heterogeneity among these clones in thermotolerance induced by either fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating, but the order of sensitivity was not necessarily the same. The clones developed thermal resistance at different rates and to different degrees within the same time intervals. There was heterogeneity between clones isolated from within either the primary site or metastatic lesions. However, clones derived from metastatic foci did not intrinsically acquire more or less thermotolerance to fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating than did clones from the primary tumor. Further, there was no apparent relationship between any phenotypic properties that conferred more or less thermotolerance in vitro and any phenotypic properties that conferred enhanced metastatic success of these same clones by spontaneous (subcutaneous) or experimental (intravenous) routes in vivo. These tumor clones also differ in their karyotype, metastatic potential, cell surface features, sensitivity to x-irradiation and drugs, and ability to repair sublethal radiation damage. These results provide further credence to the concept that inherent heterogeneity within tumors may be as important in therapeutic success as other known modifiers of outcome such as site and treatment heterogeneity

  13. Characteristics of cannabis users seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil Características de los fumadores de marihuana que buscan tratamiento en São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Serebrenic Jungerman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This article describes a sample of 160 adults selected to participate in a randomized controlled trial conducted at a specialized outpatient clinic for cannabis users in Brazil. It correlates consumption with several measures of marijuana use, comparing it with other samples. METHODS: Instruments used were the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and Wender Utah Rating Scale for screening and demographic data interviews, and the ASI, time-line follow back (TLFB, Marijuana Withdrawal and Marijuana Problem Scales, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R Checklist for cannabis dependence. RESULTS: Participants in the study were mostly single, white men; their mean age was 32.3 years. They had a mean of 15.6 years of formal education and 61.6% worked. The cohort started using marijuana at a mean age of 16.5 years and developed daily use by a mean age of 21 years. Subjects in the sample had used marijuana for a mean of 15 years. They used it for 92.2% of the 90 days prior to the interview and smoked a mean of 1.99 marijuana cigarettes per day during this period. Individuals in the group had experimented with other drugs, especially cocaine. CONCLUSIONS: Marijuana users in this sample matched the profiles of those investigated elsewhere, although they reported fewer symptoms of dependence. Marijuana users should be considered independently in substance abuse programs, because they require specific attention and treatment. Broader epidemiological studies should be conducted to determine the extent of marijuana use within the Brazilian population.OBJETIVOS: Describir una muestra de 160 adultos seleccionados para participar en un ensayo aleatorizado controlado, realizado en una clínica ambulatoria especializada para consumidores de marihuana en Brasil. Se asoció el consumo de marihuana con varias medidas relacionadas con este hábito y se comparó con otras muestras. MÉTODOS: Se empleó la

  14. Stillbirth prevalence in Brazil: an exploration of regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Taiana Silva; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Doyle, Pat

    Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical placement in heterogeneous and long reach horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalker, Robert; Wahid, Fazrie; Graham, Gordon M.

    2006-03-15

    The effective placement of chemical squeeze treatments in heterogeneous wells and long reach horizontal wells has proved a significant challenge, with various factors including heterogeneity, crossflow and pressure gradients between otherwise non-communicating zones within the well, all contributing to an uneven placement of the scale squeeze treatment into the reservoir. Current methods to circumvent these problems often rely on extremely expensive coiled tubing operations, staged diversion (temporary shut off) treatments or by designing treatments to deliberately overdose some zones in order to gain placement in other (e.g. low permeability) zones. Moreover for deepwater sub sea horizontal wells the costs associated with ''spot'' treating along the length of horizontal wells by coil tubing tractor operations can often be prohibitively expensive. For other very near well bore treatments such as acid stimulation a number of self diverting strategies including gelled acid treatments, staged viscoelastic surfactant treatments and foams have been applied in field treatments with some success. However the properties which make such treatments applicable for acid stimulation may also make them inappropriate for bullhead scale squeeze treatments. Recent work by the current authors has however indicated the possible benefits of using modified injection fluids to aid uniform scale inhibitor placement in such wells in order to effect more even placement. In summary this paper will describe the various options available for achieving self diversion and describes the potential drawbacks associated with the viscous placement fluids commonly used for acid simulation techniques. In addition, various simulation packages commonly used for scale related calculations are reviewed and their limitations, primarily due to the inherent assumptions made and input parameters used, for modelling squeeze treatments using such modified fluids are described. The paper

  16. Heterogeneity wavelet kinetics from DCE-MRI for classifying gene expression based breast cancer recurrence risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Ashraf, Ahmed B; Daye, Dania; Mies, Carolyn; Feldman, Michael; Rosen, Mark; Kontos, Despina

    2013-01-01

    Breast tumors are heterogeneous lesions. Intra-tumor heterogeneity presents a major challenge for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Few studies have worked on capturing tumor heterogeneity from imaging. Most studies to date consider aggregate measures for tumor characterization. In this work we capture tumor heterogeneity by partitioning tumor pixels into subregions and extracting heterogeneity wavelet kinetic (HetWave) features from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to obtain the spatiotemporal patterns of the wavelet coefficients and contrast agent uptake from each partition. Using a genetic algorithm for feature selection, and a logistic regression classifier with leave one-out cross validation, we tested our proposed HetWave features for the task of classifying breast cancer recurrence risk. The classifier based on our features gave an ROC AUC of 0.78, outperforming previously proposed kinetic, texture, and spatial enhancement variance features which give AUCs of 0.69, 0.64, and 0.65, respectively.

  17. Converting Homogeneous to Heterogeneous in Electrophilic Catalysis using Monodisperse Metal Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witham, Cole A.; Huang, Wenyu; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-10-15

    A continuing goal in catalysis is the transformation of processes from homogeneous to heterogeneous. To this end, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis, where this conversion is supplemented by the ability to obtain new or divergent reactivity and selectivity. We report a novel method for applying heterogeneous catalysts to known homogeneous catalytic reactions through the design and synthesis of electrophilic platinum nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are selectively oxidized by the hypervalent iodine species PhICl{sub 2}, and catalyze a range of {pi}-bond activation reactions previously only homogeneously catalyzed. Multiple experimental methods are utilized to unambiguously verify the heterogeneity of the catalytic process. The discovery of treatments for nanoparticles that induce the desired homogeneous catalytic activity should lead to the further development of reactions previously inaccessible in heterogeneous catalysis. Furthermore, our size and capping agent study revealed that Pt PAMAM dendrimer-capped nanoparticles demonstrate superior activity and recyclability compared to larger, polymer-capped analogues.

  18. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images.

  19. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  20. Argentina and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamba-Stonehouse, V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that security is defined in different ways by many international actors. To some, security is tied to the definition of an external threat to borders, as in the case of the NATO countries. To other, security is related to development, as in the case of most Third World countries. but notwithstanding different definitions, all countries recognize that the essence of security is the survival of the nation-state itself. The nuclear programs of Argentina and Brazil are among the oldest, most sophisticated and advanced nuclear programs anywhere in the Third World. The programs have never been explained on the basis of threat perception, and in this regard perhaps they constitute the most atypical form of nuclear proliferation known to date. Not surprisingly, any attempt to explain the rationale for the Brazilian and Argentine nuclear programs based on common issues of threat =merely confuses the issue. Thus, nationalism, the search for national identity and pride, the need to express self-sufficiency and the desire to keep options open in an insecure and evolving world order must all be analyzed to comprehend the likelihood of future types of nuclear proliferation. Meanwhile, the study of the contemporary era of Argentine-Brazilian nuclear rapprochement may provide new insights into the complex reasoning behind the decision of countries to go nuclear

  1. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  2. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversi...... with performance of our tool with respect to each format. Finally, the different potential applications of the proposed tool are discussed with special emphasis on open source intelligence....... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...

  3. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  4. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  5. Monetary policy, banking and heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolski, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous expectations on monetary policy performance has gained a lot of attention in the recent years. It proved to be an important factor that, under some circumstances, may even destabilize the economy (Massaro, 2012). This paper investigates the phenomenon of heterogeneous

  6. Towards an Organizational Economics of Heterogeneous Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The notion of “capability” has long been influential in management research as an approach to address firm-level heterogeneity and heterogeneity in competitive outcomes. I discuss how recent advances in economics may allow for a more rigorous understanding and measurement of capability that take...

  7. Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2008-12-09

    Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.

  8. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  9. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are ... on linkage heterogeneity can help people to better understand complex .... χ2(F − 2) + cχ2 (1), where c is a constant (see Appendix). Here, it can be ..... gin, ancestry, gender, age, etc., for purpose of dividing sub- groups to ...

  10. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  11. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  12. The climate change/energy efficiencies market in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    In December 1997, one hundred and sixty countries negotiated the Kyoto Protocol, where a commitment was made by industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 5.2 per cent below their 1990 level. This objective was to be achieved by 2008 to 2012. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was promoted by Brazil in Kyoto. The CDM defines the mechanism by which investment, technologies and practices from developed countries are implemented in developing country projects. It is then possible to credit the emissions avoided by these projects against the supplier's own commitment to reducing GHG. An essential element of good business practice for the private sector and programs sponsored by the government in Brazil is sound environmental management. The Brazilian Federal Government, research institutes and few leading private companies are concerned with the climate change market. Climate change and environmental efficiency projects in Brazil are frequently funded by international financial institutions (IFIs), namely the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). International partners who can help in obtaining IFIs funds are sought after by Brazilian companies. Before entering the Brazilian market, Canadian entrepreneurs should examine all aspects of exporting environmental equipment. Some investment in Brazil might be required to achieve long term penetration of the market. Since national companies are offered preferential treatment for obtaining government contracts, a local partner is almost indispensable. The cost of doing business in Brazil might even be increased when considering the import taxes, such as federal excise taxes, state value-added taxes, and the merchant marine tax. Brazil can represent a springboard to the South American markets due to its membership in trade groups like the Mercosul and the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI). 14 refs

  13. Initial assessment of a model relating intratumoral genetic heterogeneity to radiological morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterdaeme, O; Kelly, M; Friend, P; Soonowalla, Z; Steers, G; Brady, M

    2010-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity has major implications for tumour development and response to therapy. Tumour heterogeneity results from mutations in the genes responsible for mismatch repair or maintenance of chromosomal stability. Cells with different genetic properties may grow at different rates and exhibit different resistance to therapeutic interventions. To date, there exists no approach to non-invasively assess tumour heterogeneity. Here we present a biologically inspired model of tumour growth, which relates intratumoral genetic heterogeneity to gross morphology visible on radiological images. The model represents the development of a tumour as a set of expanding spheres, each sphere representing a distinct clonal centre, with the sprouting of new spheres corresponding to new clonal centres. Each clonal centre may possess different characteristics relating to genetic composition, growth rate and response to treatment. We present a clinical example for which the model accurately tracks tumour growth and shows the correspondence to genetic variation (as determined by array comparative genomic hybridisation). One clinical implication of our work is that the assessment of heterogeneous tumours using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) or volume measurements may not accurately reflect tumour growth, stability or the response to treatment. We believe that this is the first model linking the macro-scale appearance of tumours to their genetic composition. We anticipate that our model will provide a more informative way to assess the response of heterogeneous tumours to treatment, which is of increasing importance with the development of novel targeted anti-cancer treatments. PMID:19690073

  14. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    In an incomplete market setting with heterogeneous prior beliefs, I show that public information and strike price of option have substantial infl‡uence on asset pricing in option markets, by investigating an absolute option pricing model with negative exponential utility investors and normally...... distributed dividend. I demonstrate that heterogeneous prior variances give rise to the economic value of option markets. Investors speculate in option market and public information improves allocational efficiency of markets only when there is heterogeneity in prior variance. Heterogeneity in mean is neither...... a necessary nor sufficient condition for generating speculations in option markets. With heterogeneous beliefs, options are non-redundant assets which can facilitate side-betting and enable investors to take advantage of the disagreements and the differences in con…dence. This fact leads to a higher growth...

  15. Design Technology for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Ian; Piguet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Designing technology to address the problem of heterogeneous embedded systems, while remaining compatible with standard “More Moore” flows, i.e. capable of handling simultaneously both silicon complexity and system complexity, represents one of the most important challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. While the micro-electronics industry has built its own specific design methods to focus mainly on the management of complexity through the establishment of abstraction levels, the emergence of device heterogeneity requires new approaches enabling the satisfactory design of physically heterogeneous embedded systems for the widespread deployment of such systems. This book, compiled largely from a set of contributions from participants of past editions of the Winter School on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design Technology (FETCH), proposes a broad and holistic overview of design techniques used to tackle the various facets of heterogeneity in terms of technology and opportunities at the physical ...

  16. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  17. Fiber Bundle Model Under Heterogeneous Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadeep; Goswami, Sanchari

    2018-03-01

    The present work deals with the behavior of fiber bundle model under heterogeneous loading condition. The model is explored both in the mean-field limit as well as with local stress concentration. In the mean field limit, the failure abruptness decreases with increasing order k of heterogeneous loading. In this limit, a brittle to quasi-brittle transition is observed at a particular strength of disorder which changes with k. On the other hand, the model is hardly affected by such heterogeneity in the limit where local stress concentration plays a crucial role. The continuous limit of the heterogeneous loading is also studied and discussed in this paper. Some of the important results related to fiber bundle model are reviewed and their responses to our new scheme of heterogeneous loading are studied in details. Our findings are universal with respect to the nature of the threshold distribution adopted to assign strength to an individual fiber.

  18. Simulating tumor growth in confined heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevertz, Jana L; Torquato, Salvatore; Gillies, George T

    2008-01-01

    The holy grail of computational tumor modeling is to develop a simulation tool that can be utilized in the clinic to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. In order to develop such a predictive model, one must account for many of the complex processes involved in tumor growth. One interaction that has not been incorporated into computational models of neoplastic progression is the impact that organ-imposed physical confinement and heterogeneity have on tumor growth. For this reason, we have taken a cellular automaton algorithm that was originally designed to simulate spherically symmetric tumor growth and generalized the algorithm to incorporate the effects of tissue shape and structure. We show that models that do not account for organ/tissue geometry and topology lead to false conclusions about tumor spread, shape and size. The impact that confinement has on tumor growth is more pronounced when a neoplasm is growing close to, versus far from, the confining boundary. Thus, any clinical simulation tool of cancer progression must not only consider the shape and structure of the organ in which a tumor is growing, but must also consider the location of the tumor within the organ if it is to accurately predict neoplastic growth dynamics

  19. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    A conspectus of the Lycopodiaceae in Brazil is presented, following a generic classification based on anatomy, chromosome numbers, spores and gametophytes, as well as recent molecular studies. The species of Lycopodiaceae occurring in Brazil, traditionally treated conservatively, were grouped...

  20. Properties of Brazil nuts: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... approaches different technologies applied in the Brazil nut products process. Key words: ... forest and adjacent areas in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru (Ferreira et al., 2011). ... ''Scientific evidence suggests”, but does not prove, that.

  1. All about neosporosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990’s N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  2. Spatial heterogeneity of soils of th