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Sample records for brazil region medida

  1. El prejuicio racial en Brasil: medidas comparativas O preconceito racial no Brasil: medidas comparativas Racial prejudice in Brazil: comparative measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio trataba de medir las manifestaciones del prejuicio racial en una muestra de la población brasileña, utilizando las escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981 y la escala de racismo cordial de Turra y Venturi (1995 y Venturi (2003. Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 101 estudiantes de diversas universidades en la región sur de Brasil. Los resultados muestran que las dos escalas difieren entre si respecto a captar las expresiones del prejuicio. Las personas declararon mayor racismo moderno que racismo cordial. También hemos estudiado las variables que influyen en el prejuicio racial declarado por los participantes. La variable género y orientación a la dominancia social son variables que predicen el racismo moderno en la muestra estudiada. Los participantes indicaron, en mayor medida, la manifestación del prejuicio racial de forma encubierta y lo hacen más abiertamente cuando hay la posibilidad del contacto personal y estrecho.O estudo avaliou as manifestações de preconceito racial em uma amostra da população brasileira, usando escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee e Batts (1981, escala racismo cordial do Datafolha (1995 e Venturi, G. (2003. Os questionários foram aplicados a um total de 101 estudantes de várias universidades da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados mostram que as duas escalas diferem entre si sobre como capturar as expressões de preconceito. As pessoas relataram mais racismo moderno que racismo cordial. Estudamos também as variáveis que influenciam o preconceito racial declarado pelos participantes. As variáveis gênero e orientação à dominância social são preditores do racismo moderno na amostra estudada. Os participantes indicaram, em maior medida, a manifestação do preconceito racial dissimulado e o fazem mais abertamente quando existe a possibilidade do contato pessoal e estreito.This study measured the manifestations of racial prejudice in a sample of

  2. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  3. Energy balance measurements over a banana orchard in the Semiarid region in the Northeast of Brazil Medidas do balanço de energia sobre pomar de bananeira na região Semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the reliability of eddy covariance measurements, analyzing the energy balance components, evapotranspiration and energy balance closure in dry and wet growing seasons, in a banana orchard. The experiment was carried out at a farm located within the irrigation district of Quixeré, in the Lower Jaguaribe basin, in Ceará state, Brazil. An eddy covariance system was used to measure the turbulent flux. An automatic weather station was installed in a grass field to obtain the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 from the combined FAO-Penman-Monteith method. Wind speed and vapor pressure deficit are the most important variables on the evaporative process in both growing seasons. In the dry season, the heat fluxes have a similar order of magnitude, and during the wet season the latent heat flux is the largest. The eddy covariance system had acceptable reliability in measuring heat flux, with actual evapotranspiration results comparing well with those obtained by using the water balance method. The energy balance closure had good results for the study area, with mean values of 0.93 and 0.86 for the dry and wet growing seasons respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a confiabilidade da técnica das correlações turbulentas, analisando as componentes do balanço de energia, a evapotranspiração e o fechamento do balanço de energia nas estações de crescimento seca e úmida, na cultura da banana. O experimento foi realizado em uma fazenda localizada no distrito irrigado de Quixeré, na Bacia do Baixo Jaguaribe, Ceará. Foi utilizado um sistema de correlações turbulentas na obtenção das medidas dos fluxos turbulentos. Uma estação meteorológica automática foi instalada em um gramado para a obtenção da evapotranspiração de referência (ET0 pelo método FAO-Penman-Monteith. A velocidade do vento e o deficit de pressão do vapor são as variáveis mais importantes no processo evaporativo em

  4. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  5. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  6. Chemical correlations in Caetite (BA) region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil's economic situation is responsible for an urgent demand for energy. There are several ways to generate energy, in some localities of our country, energy generation occurs almost exclusively by nuclear route, as in Rio de Janeiro state. Brazil has the sixth largest reserve of the uranium ore in the world. Nowadays there is only one mine under exploration (Uraniferous District of Lagoa Real - Caetite-BA). Unfortunately, nuclear power generation is better known, by common citizen, more for its unwanted effects than for its benefits. This fact is also powered by some Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), such as Greenpeace, who claim the uranium mine is dangerous since it causes environmental contamination. However, Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) rejected these accusations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that doses of the Caetite (BA) population are consistent with those usually found in other countries. We stated also the higher concentration of 238U determined, in only one water sample, is probably due to natural processes, as soil leaching. In order to verify the existing natural processes, macro and micro chemical elements present in water and soil samples collected in the Caetite (BA) region were determined by ICP-MS. The results were transformed into dendrograms where chemical correlations are evidenced and they are consistent with existing natural chemical processes. It was also possible to observe a correlation between samples corroborating with the Geographic Information Systems data to be presented in this same scientific event. (author)

  7. Poverty and Shared Prosperity in Brazil's Metropolitan Regions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th Century, Brazil rapidly urbanized and is now not only an urban nation but a metropolitan one. Brazils sprawling regioes metropolitanas (metropolitan regions, or RMs, which are municipal clusters) are now home to almost 50 million people and much of the countrys economic vitality. The RM spatial level and its supporting governmental institutions have thus become critical to Braz...

  8. Incidence of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Anie Savi Serafim; Gustavo Pasquali Moretti; Guilherme Savi Serafim; Cintia Vieira Niero; Maria Inês da Rosa; Maria Marlene de Souza Pires; Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo Simões

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to establish the incidence rates of congenital syphilis in the South Region of Brazil from 2001 to 2009. Methods Temporal ecological and descriptive study based on the cases recorded by the System of Information of Notifiable Diseases. Results The incidence of congenital syphilis has been increasing in the South Region of Brazil since 2004; the highest incidence rates were in women who received prenatal care (113.5 new cases per 100,000 births, p

  9. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  10. Education, cost of living and regional wage inequality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana M.S. Servo; Carlos R. Azzoni

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze wage inequality among the 10 largest metropolitan regions in Brazil in the 1990s. We assess the extent to which worker characteristics (education, age, gender, race, position in the family) and job characteristics (occupational position, sector, experience) can explain wage inequality. The analysis is made both with regional-nominal and with regional-real wage data. In the second case regional price indexes are used to control for differences in cos...

  11. Regional and demographic determinants of poverty in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azzoni, Carlos; Souza, Andre; Nogueira, Veridiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper identifies the role of regional and demographic determinants of poverty in Brazil. We first estimate the probability of a household being classified as poor or indigent. We then apply decomposition techniques to identify the role of demographic variables (family size, parent’s education, etc.) and of regional variables in explaining those probabilities. We found out that parent’s education is the most important determinant, but regional aspects also play a role in determining povert...

  12. Mimivirus Circulation among Wild and Domestic Mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dornas, Fábio P.; Rodrigues, Felipe P.; Boratto, Paulo V.M.; Silva, Lorena C. F.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G.; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle.

  13. Mimivirus circulation among wild and domestic mammals, Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornas, Fábio P; Rodrigues, Felipe P; Boratto, Paulo V M; Silva, Lorena C F; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2014-03-01

    To investigate circulation of mimiviruses in the Amazon Region of Brazil, we surveyed 513 serum samples from domestic and wild mammals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 15 sample pools, and mimivirus DNA was detected in 9 pools of serum from capuchin monkeys and in 16 pools of serum from cattle. PMID:24564967

  14. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  15. Economic integration, poverty and regional inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of how trade integration can affect poverty and income distribution in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through a static General Equilibrium and Microsimulation Model of Brazil, calibrated with the PNAD 2001 data. The model comprises 112,055 Brazilian households and 263,938 adults, distinguishing 42 activities, 52 commodities, and 27 regions. The FTAA formation is simulated, and its impacts upon poverty and income distribution in Brazil analyzed. Results point to the fact that even a large shock like the one simulated wouldn't have a strong impact on poverty reduction in Brazil, although the results are concentrated on the poorest households.Este trabalho analisa os efeitos potenciais da formação da ALCA sobre os níveis de pobreza e distribuição de renda no Brasil. A análise é conduzida através de um Modelo Aplicado de Equilíbrio Geral e de Micro-simulação estático, calibrado com os dados da PNAD 2001. O modelo distingue na sua estrutura 112.055 domicílios e 263.938 adultos, 42 atividades produtivas, 52 produtos, e 27 regiões. Os resultados apontam para o fato de que mesmo mudanças tarifárias grandes como as aqui simuladas não trariam um forte impacto sobre a pobreza no Brasil, embora os resultados estejam concentrados nos domicílios mais pobres.

  16. Air pollution investigation in Vitoria Metropolitan Region, ES, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and PIXE in the characterization of the particulate matter in atmospheric aerosols in Metropolitan Region of Vitoria (MRV), Brazil have been investigated. The main sources of particulate matter, natural, industrial and antropogenic from human activities, have been studied to identify its contribution in the atmospheric particles. During the years 1995 to 1999 samples of total suspended particles (TSP, diameter ≤ 100 μm) were collected from four points within MRV. The inhalable particles (PM10, diameter ≤ 10μm) and sedimented particles (SP) were also collected from the same region. A receptor modeling was used for the identification of the source of particulate matter in the collected urban aerosol. (author)

  17. Ultrapotassic rocks geology from Salgueiro region, Pernambuco state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt has Proterozoic age and is located in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. The ultrapotassic rocks from Salgueiro region intrudes the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt rocks. The ultrapotassics from Salgueiro region constitutes of three units; Serra do Livramento pluton, and two dyke swarms called respectively beige alkali feldspar granites and green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite. The Serra do Livramento pluton shows E-W direction, boudin shape, width between 0,15 and 2,10 km, and it is intruded into metamorphic rocks and into the Terra Nova complex. Detailed geological mapping at the Serra das Duas Irmas allowed us to establish the dyke swarm chronology. The mapping reveals seven intrusion episodes, into the Terra Nova pluton, of green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite and five episodes of bege alkali feldspar granite. They alternate between them in space and time, and there are evidence that they were intruded under the tectonic control of the Pernambuco lineament. A systematic whole-rock Rb-Sr geochronology was done in the green alkali feldspar syenite/quartz-syenite, and an age of 514,8 ± 20,3 Ma was obtained. The initial ratio is 0,710615 + 0,000441. The age obtained shows small error and an initial ratio compatible with a strong crustal contamination. (author)

  18. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN REGIONS OF BRAZIL: A VERSION OF MEDIA PARAENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Valquíria Rodrigues Gomes; Vera Lúcia de Azevedo Lima; Andrey Ferreira da Silva; Lidiane Xavier Sena; Alessandra Carla Baia dos Santos; Danielle Leal Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze violence against women in regions of Brazil narrated by print media Para. Exploratory research, quantitative. 1612 copies were consulted in a regional newspaper, published from August 2006 to December 2010, and selected 974 notes on violence against women. These were included in the study, 956 notes on violence against women residing in other regions of Brazil, regardless of place of birth and age. Of the 956 grades examined, 23,3% narrated violence against women in...

  19. Measuring the Contribution of Social Policies to Regional Inequality Dynamic in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Raul Silveira; Azzoni, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We decompose the recent changes in regional inequality in Brazil into its components, highlighting the role of spatially blind social programs. We aggregate personal income micro data to the state level, differentiating 9 income sources, and assess the role of these components in the observed changes in regional inequality indicators. The main results indicate that the largest part of the recent reduction in regional inequality in Brazil is related to the dynamics in the market-related labor ...

  20. Indoor radon distribution in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from many natural sources. Radon and its progeny have been recognized as the most important contributors to the natural radioactivity dose, accounting for about half of all human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon (222Rn) is a α-radioactive noble gas derived from the natural series of uranium (238U), which occurs in a wide concentration range in all geological materials, especially, in rocks, soils and waters. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to atmosphere and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important radon source in dwellings is its emanation from the construction material. The radon progeny concentration in dwellings has been receiving considerable global attention due to its potential effect in causing lung cancer if it deposited in upper respiratory tract when inhaled. This paper presents radon concentration distribution in dwellings in Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. The effective dose estimate is also presented for the RMBH inhabitants. The geological settings of the area are Archean rocks of Granitic Gnaissic Complex and of metasediments sequences of the great Precambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radon concentration measurements were carried out with continuous detector AlphaGUARD PQ200PRO (Genitron), in passive mode and with passive detectors E-PERMR Eletret Ion Chamber-EIC. The radon progeny concentration was carried out with a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO (Sarad). It was found an indoor radon concentration varying in a large range from 18.5 to 2671.4 Bq/m-3, with an average value of 148.0 Bqm-3 and geometric mean equal to 128.2 Bqm-3. The variable results are due mainly to region geological factors and building material composition of dwellings. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny were determined in dwellings, as 0.3 in average. (author)

  1. Protecting Brazil's tropical forest: a CGE analysis of macroeconomic, sectoral, and regional policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebelt, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    The 'deforestation problem' in Brazil consists of a variety of interrelated issues, of which this paper identifies a regional, sectoral and macroeconomic dimension. Using a regionally and sectorally disaggregated general equilibrium model of Brazil, it is shown that macroeconomic reform is complementary to conservation policies. Therefore, if not for other reasons, macroeconomic reform is urgently needed to provide an adequate framework for microeconomic conservation policies to be effective....

  2. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  3. Two thousand wind pumps in the arid region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North-East part of Brazil is an arid region where water pumping is of vital importance. The main strategy of the Wind Energy Group (Eolica) at the University of Pernambuco is to act as a 'catalyst' between the Brazilian government and the companies involved in wind energy. The company CONESP is a drilling company that is also responsible for choosing the appropriate pumping system and providing maintenance. CONESP already has drilled about 6,000 wells and installed 2,000 conventional windmills with piston pumps. Most of the wells have a very low capacity; thus wind pumps, having a relatively low water pumping capacity, are a suitable solution. However, one of the problems with the installed conventional wind pumps is that the drilled tube wells are not perfectly vertical, resulting in wear of the pump rod. Besides, the maintenance or replacement of the piston pump is time consuming and consequently costly. To reduce operation and maintenance costs, windmills coupled to pneumatic pumps have been developed. Examples are given of air-lift pumps and barc pumps, both using commercially available compressors. The main advantage is that there are no moving parts situated below ground level. Moreover, the windmill does not necessarily have to be placed above the well. Well and windmill can be situated up to 100 metres from each other. The starting torque of this system is also lower than the conventional wind pump. It is concluded that windmills with pneumatic pumps have a relatively low efficiency and higher investment costs compared with windmills coupled to piston pumps. However, CONESP's effort is to optimize the total performance of the pumping system. Due to the lower maintenance costs, pneumatic pumps seem to be a viable alternative to piston pumps. 7 figs., 3 refs

  4. Luminescence properties of feldspars from the Northeast region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, S. T.; Khoury, H. J.; Sullasi, H. L.; Guzzo, P. L.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) and infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) properties of three types of feldspars from the districts of Solonópole and Parelhas located in the Northeast region of Brazil in order to propose a preheat procedure to minimize the anomalous fading effect in these materials. The feldspar samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The XRD analysis showed that the feldspar from Solonópole and one of the samples from the Parelhas district were classified as microcline (K-feldspar). The other sample from Parelhas was classified as albite (Na-feldspar) mixed with low concentration of muscovite and quartz. Studies of the fading effects in TL and IRSL signals for 30 days and preheating effects from 50 to 250°C for 10 minutes were carried out with these samples. The results show that preheating at 125°C is sufficient to avoid the 30 days fading. The TL and IRSL dose responses for 60Co gamma radiation were studied in the range of 1 to 400 Gy. The results showed a linear response in the range of 1 to 100 Gy for the two types of Parelhas feldspars and from 50 to 400 Gy for the Solonópole feldspar. The low sensitivity showed by the feldspar from Solonópole is discussed in relation to its mineralogical composition. It is concluded that the TL and IRSL sensitivities are not associated with K- and Na- types of feldspar. The results of this paper will contribute to a standardized moderate annealing treatment for retrospective dosimetry and dating.

  5. Luminescence properties of feldspars from the Northeast region of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, S T; Khoury, H J; Sullasi, H L; Guzzo, P L, E-mail: sergiotsantana@hotmail.co

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL) and infrared-stimulated luminescence (IRSL) properties of three types of feldspars from the districts of Solonopole and Parelhas located in the Northeast region of Brazil in order to propose a preheat procedure to minimize the anomalous fading effect in these materials. The feldspar samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The XRD analysis showed that the feldspar from Solonopole and one of the samples from the Parelhas district were classified as microcline (K-feldspar). The other sample from Parelhas was classified as albite (Na-feldspar) mixed with low concentration of muscovite and quartz. Studies of the fading effects in TL and IRSL signals for 30 days and preheating effects from 50 to 250{sup 0}C for 10 minutes were carried out with these samples. The results show that preheating at 125{sup 0}C is sufficient to avoid the 30 days fading. The TL and IRSL dose responses for {sup 60}Co gamma radiation were studied in the range of 1 to 400 Gy. The results showed a linear response in the range of 1 to 100 Gy for the two types of Parelhas feldspars and from 50 to 400 Gy for the Solonopole feldspar. The low sensitivity showed by the feldspar from Solonopole is discussed in relation to its mineralogical composition. It is concluded that the TL and IRSL sensitivities are not associated with K- and Na- types of feldspar. The results of this paper will contribute to a standardized moderate annealing treatment for retrospective dosimetry and dating.

  6. Medidas difusas e integrales difusas

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Arenas-Díaz; Édgar René Ramírez-Lamus

    2013-01-01

    Presentar un estudio de las medidas difusas y de las integrales difusas, y mostrar algunos fenómenos donde estas son utilizadas. Se expone cómo es introducido el concepto de medida difusa y cómo a partir de él se introduce la noción de integral difusa. Se establecen propiedades de las medidas difusas y se clasifican de acuerdo a la propiedad aditiva y las λ-medidas, se observa cómo las medidas de probabilidad, plausibilidad, credibilidad, posibilidad y necesidad son ejemplos clásicos en la cl...

  7. Regional safeguards arrangements: The Argentina-Brazil experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material (SCCC) was established by Argentina and Brazil in July 1992. It is a full scope safeguard's system in both countries. The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was created to apply the SCCC. The main elements of the SCCC are presented. The main safeguards' procedures are described. A brief discussion of the inspection methodology and its impact for facility operators is performed. The safeguard's implementation from the operator's point of view is commented, taking as example a fuel fabrication plant in Argentina and a uranium enrichment plant in Brazil. (author)

  8. Agriculture In Brazil´s Midwest Region: Limitations And Future Challenges to Development

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, César Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Among the economic activities in Brazil´s Midwest region, agriculture has an important role in the regional economy, with the aim of this study to evaluate the recent situation of regional agriculture in order to identify constraints and opportunities for development and discuss actions that may contribute to the expansion of regional production. A region that increased its participation in national agricultural gross domestic product (GDP), from 7.4% in 1970 to 19.5% in 2009, demonstrated in...

  9. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century ...

  10. The 2014 southeast Brazil austral summer drought: regional scale mechanisms and teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Caio A. S.; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Reboita, Michelle Simões; Carpenedo, Camila Bertoletti; Campos, José Leandro Pereira Silveira; Tomaziello, Ana Carolina Nóbile; Pampuch, Luana Albertani; Custódio, Maria de Souza; Dutra, Lívia Marcia Mosso; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Rehbein, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    The southeast region of Brazil experienced in austral summer 2014 a major drought event leading to a number of impacts in water availability for human consumption, agricultural irrigation and hydropower production. This study aims to perform a diagnostic analysis of the observed climate conditions during this event, including an inspection of the occurred precipitation anomalies in the context of previous years, and an investigation of possible relationships with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation patterns. The sea surface temperature analysis revealed that the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean region near the coast of southeast Brazil showed strong negative association with precipitation over southeast Brazil, indicating that increased sea temperatures in this ocean region are consistent with reduced precipitation as observed in summer 2014. The circulation analysis revealed prevailing anti-cyclonic anomalies at lower levels (850 hPa) with northerly anomalies to the west of southeast Brazil, channeling moisture from the Amazon towards Paraguay, northern Argentina and southern Brazil, and drier than normal air from the South Atlantic Ocean towards the southeast region of Brazil. This circulation pattern was found to be part of a large-scale teleconnection wave train linked with the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific, which in turn was generated by an anomalous tropical heat source in north/northeastern Australia. A regional Hadley circulation with an ascending branch to the south of the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific was identified as an important component connecting the tropical and extratropical circulation. The ascending branch of this Hadley circulation in the south Pacific coincided with an identified Rossby wave source region, which contributed to establishing the extratropical component of the large-scale wave train connecting the south Pacific and the Atlantic

  11. The 2014 southeast Brazil austral summer drought: regional scale mechanisms and teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Caio A. S.; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Reboita, Michelle Simões; Carpenedo, Camila Bertoletti; Campos, José Leandro Pereira Silveira; Tomaziello, Ana Carolina Nóbile; Pampuch, Luana Albertani; Custódio, Maria de Souza; Dutra, Lívia Marcia Mosso; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Rehbein, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The southeast region of Brazil experienced in austral summer 2014 a major drought event leading to a number of impacts in water availability for human consumption, agricultural irrigation and hydropower production. This study aims to perform a diagnostic analysis of the observed climate conditions during this event, including an inspection of the occurred precipitation anomalies in the context of previous years, and an investigation of possible relationships with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation patterns. The sea surface temperature analysis revealed that the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean region near the coast of southeast Brazil showed strong negative association with precipitation over southeast Brazil, indicating that increased sea temperatures in this ocean region are consistent with reduced precipitation as observed in summer 2014. The circulation analysis revealed prevailing anti-cyclonic anomalies at lower levels (850 hPa) with northerly anomalies to the west of southeast Brazil, channeling moisture from the Amazon towards Paraguay, northern Argentina and southern Brazil, and drier than normal air from the South Atlantic Ocean towards the southeast region of Brazil. This circulation pattern was found to be part of a large-scale teleconnection wave train linked with the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific, which in turn was generated by an anomalous tropical heat source in north/northeastern Australia. A regional Hadley circulation with an ascending branch to the south of the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific was identified as an important component connecting the tropical and extratropical circulation. The ascending branch of this Hadley circulation in the south Pacific coincided with an identified Rossby wave source region, which contributed to establishing the extratropical component of the large-scale wave train connecting the south Pacific and the Atlantic

  12. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  13. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from Southeast region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cut off of 1:5 for birds and 1:25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals,...

  14. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  15. Intraplate Stress Field in Brazil Using Focal Mechanisms: Regional and Local Patterns: Examples of Regional Forces Controlling the Stress Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F. L.; Assumpcao, M.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. In Brazil, the stress field has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a breakout data and in-situ measurements. However, the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. We show a recent compilation of focal mechanism determined in Brazil (Fig 1). The focal mechanisms of some recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations (> 30°) with a good signal/noise ratio and we grouped then according to distance and azimuth. With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models ( Coblentz & Richardson, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). This compression is mainly due to the interaction of tectonic plate forces. Meanwhile in the Amazon region, we find an indication of SHMax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995) and Amazon Fan, we have flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load with is in agreement with local theoretical models (Watts et al., 2009) . In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998). We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to determine focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 5.0 mb) using distant or few seismograph stations. We find examples of stress perturbations induced by local effects (e.g. flexure and continental spreading). The results of this work should be useful for future

  16. CHANGES IN LAND COVER AND USE AFFECT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL CLIMATE IN PIRACICABA, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Pereira Coltri; Nelson Jesus Ferreira; Saulo Freitas; Valdemar Antonio Demetrio

    2008-01-01

    Land use and changes in land cover play an important role in local and regional climatic conditions, especially in tropical regions. Piracicaba, a city in southeastern Brazil, has an economy that is based primarily on sugar cane cultivation. The seasonality of this crop means that there are marked annual fluctuations in land use and cover in this municipality. In this work, we investigated the seasonal variation in urban heat-islands and local climatic variations by using remote sensing data,...

  17. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Junior, Olival Freire; Hurtado, Diego; Moreira, Ildeu C.; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democra...

  18. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN REGIONS OF BRAZIL: A VERSION OF MEDIA PARAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze violence against women in regions of Brazil narrated by print media Para. Exploratory research, quantitative. 1612 copies were consulted in a regional newspaper, published from August 2006 to December 2010, and selected 974 notes on violence against women. These were included in the study, 956 notes on violence against women residing in other regions of Brazil, regardless of place of birth and age. Of the 956 grades examined, 23,3% narrated violence against women in the Southeast, 3,9% in the Northeast, 2,8% in the South, 1,3% in the Midwest and 68,7% in the region North. Among the results, it was observed that women victims of violence in the states of regions of Brazil were aged between 01 to 20 years, high rates of violence were occurring at the residence where the predominant factor was physical violence. The media of Pará enables vehicular clearly cases of violence against women from other states, stating that these phenomena invade their daily lives, their families and society, intending signal and alert the public authorities and the population in general .

  19. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  20. COPING IN JOBLESS IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane de Castro; Helenides Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate which coping strategies are most widely used by people in unemployment condition. It also consider analyzing checking whether there are differences in the use and perception of these strategies by unemployed people. 200 unemployed subjects were contacted via SINE-GO and could participate. Data collection was made in person and the instrument used was the CRI-adult version. The results have indicated that unemployed people in the Midwest Brazilian region most...

  1. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui Hua Liang; Luz Amélia Vega-Pérez

    1995-01-01

    The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals) showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abund...

  2. Using Landsat 8 Image Time Series for Crop Mapping in a Region of Cerrado, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, H.; Sanches, I. D.; Körting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.; Luiz, A. J. B.; Formaggio, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to classify agricultural land use in a region of the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) biome using a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from Landsat 8 OLI. Phenological metrics extracted from EVI time series, a Random Forest algorithm and data mining techniques are used in the process of classification. The area of study is a region in the Cerrado in a region of the municipality of Casa Branca, São Paulo state, Brazil. The results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of phenological parameters obtained from time series of OLI vegetation indices for agricultural land use classification.

  3. COPING IN JOBLESS IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate which coping strategies are most widely used by people in unemployment condition. It also consider analyzing checking whether there are differences in the use and perception of these strategies by unemployed people. 200 unemployed subjects were contacted via SINE-GO and could participate. Data collection was made in person and the instrument used was the CRI-adult version. The results have indicated that unemployed people in the Midwest Brazilian region mostly perceive unemployment as a challenging situation and use approach strategies to deal with such a condition.

  4. Radiogeologic reconnaissance in Perus region, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the means and the identification of the radiometric anomalies, and the classification of this anomalies orgin, and it probable correlation with uraniferous secundary minerals from Perus and Taipas were studied. Petrological, stratigraphic, tectonic and geochronological studies in this region were done. The radiometric anomalies was observed in granitic-pegmatic massifs, later Sao Roque group. The radiocitivity of this area was affected by litology, being the pegmatite more radiogenic than granite. The topography is also a influent factor to detected radioactivity. The cinthylometry was efficient to U an Th anomalies detection. Three kinds of radioctive focus were detected by microautoradiography method

  5. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  6. Scenarios of suitable areas of sugarcane crops in Brazil regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga-Vicente, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of ethanol produced from sugarcane presents advantages to face climate changes as adaptation measure (reduce dependency of fossil fuel) and mitigation measure (reduce GHG emissions and captures CO2). Whereas the increasing demand of ethanol production and the importance of the planning in order to meet a future demand, this work aimed to evaluate suitable areas for sugarcane crops in two Brazilian regions in present and in possible climate change conditions. Scenarios were generated considering climatic risk to sugarcane crops (present and based in IPCC projections for changes in temperature and precipitation values); land available and able to cultivation (baseline is actual conditions and the projections consider public policies; urban and protected areas were eliminated; regions that already have sugarcane crops were eliminated) and food security (areas that are used to food production crops were eliminated). Scenarios show areas with potential for expansion of sugarcane crops in the present conditions and the possible changes that could occur in a climate change scenario. The results can be used to drive public policies in ethanol sector.

  7. Geochemical studies of the sediments of Barreiras group, Itaborai region-RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is purpused to study the lead, copper, chromium, manganese, vanadium and zinc geochemical bahavior of the clays obtained from outcrop samples of Barreiras group and weathered Pre-Cambriam situated at Itaborai region, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Field and laboratory description, grain size analyses, X-ray diffraction, emission spectrography, X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, transmission electronic microscopy and pH tests were applied to twenty-two samples selected. (Author)

  8. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros Adrianne Teixeira; Dias Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the la...

  9. Electrical load study for south region of Brazil using VALORAGUA and DECADES tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a methodology to establish the electrical load representation of the south region of Brazil to be used in a system expansion plan. This expansion plan is being carried out by CNEN using the DECADES software by IAEA. Predictions of the electrical load for the future were calculated as well as the parameters that are input to other modules used in the expansion plan studies as VALORAGUA and WASP. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), a...

  11. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: I. distribution and abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Tsui Hua; Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of chaetognath species off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Brazil, was studied during a program of multidisciplinary research. Ten species belonging to the genera Sagitta, Krohnita and Pterosagitta were identified. S. enflata was the dominant species followed by S.friderici and S. hispida. The species S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata and JC pacifica were found in the Shelf water whereas S. serratodentata, S. minima, S. hexaptera and P. draco in the Tropical w...

  12. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE TINTINNIDS (CILIOPHORA: SPIROTRICHEA) IN THE REGION OF ABROLHOS (BAHIA, BRAZIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Esteweson Santos Faustino da Costa; Sigrid Neumann-Leitão; Fabiano Lopes Thompson; Pedro Augusto Mendes de Castro Melo; Jana Ribeiro de Santana

    2015-01-01

    The tintinnid community in the region of Abrolhos (Bahia, Brazil) was studied during February 2012. We hypothesized that the tintinnid community structure varies significantly over a short temporal scale (photoperiod), as well as spatially over a short scale (on and away from the reefs), and a broad scale (distance of the reef area from the coast). Three areas in Abrolhos were studied. Two sampling points were delimited in each area, where the tintinnids were collected by horizontal subsurfac...

  13. Karyotype Patterns of Hypsolebias antenori (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): An Endangered Killifish of the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace Silva do Nascimento; Juliana Galvão Bezerra; Paulo Augusto Lima-Filho; Maria Emília Yamamoto; Sathyabama Chellappa; Wagner Franco Molina

    2014-01-01

    Annual fish which belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes constitute an excellent model for evolutionary studies. their short life cycle, distribution in ecologically dynamic environments, and low agility make them favorable for genetic analyses. The species Hypsolebias antenori (Rivulidae), encountered in seasonal pools located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, has been the object of surveys with a view to study its ecological and behavioral aspects. This study reports on the kar...

  14. Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an anthropogenic radionuclide introduced in the environment in the early of 1960s to the end of 1970s. The Cesium-137 has very used to assess soil redistribution in the landscape because this is very tight in the fine soil particles and its movement in the landscape is due to soil redistribution. To use Cesium-137 to assess soil redistribution is need to known the Cesium-137 inventory in an area that not has experimented soil erosion neither soil deposition. So, this work present Cesium-137 inventories in undisturbed areas in different regions of Brazil, from South to Northeast of Brazil. The inventories in these areas represent the variational deposition of Cesium-137 in the whole national territory of Brazil. The inventories of Cesium-137 varied from 200 ± 15 Bq.m-2 for South region to 15 ± 2 Bq.m-2 for Northeast region. Moreover, was verified that the Cesium- 137 inventories depend on latitude and altitude of the area. (author)

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  16. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  17. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  18. Autoestima: un nuevo conceptoysu medida

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro ORTEGA RUIZ; Ramón MÍNGUEZ VALLEJOS; Rodes Bravo, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN: Este trabajo aborda un nuevo concepto, más amplio, de la autoestima que integre «el valor de la persona» como núcleo básico de la autoestima. Presenta una revisión del estado actual de la investigación sobre este constructo, a la vez que hace una reflexión sobre la inadecuación de los actuales instrumentos de medida si la autoestima integra el valor de la persona, y no sólo las cualidades-competencias y carencias del individuo. Por último se ofrece un nuevo instrumento de medida de l...

  19. Litiniferous pegmatites from Itinga-Aracuai region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explains the study of more a hundred pegmatites from Itinga and Aracuai, in middle Jequitinhonha. This area have cassiterite, tantalite-columbite, semiprecious stones ad lithium minerals. The lithium ores are the most economic importance. The predominate rocks are quartz-mica schist, rich in cordierite. Geochronological dating, by the Rb-Sr method, show ages about 650 m.a. to schist and 520 m.a. to the granites. Was dated muscovites from two pegmatites by K-Ar method showing ages about 4677+- 18 m.a and 490 +- 12 m.a. The pegmatites was classified in simple and complex, based in mineralogical and structural criterion. In the complex pegmatites was determinated notable accessory minerological association, in which the principal are lithium ores-petalite, spodumene, lepidolite, ambligonite, the cesium ore-polucite-and cassiterite, tantalite-columbite, and great variety of turmaline. Genetically the pegmatites are related with the granites of this region, with present high tenor of the lithium, cesium and beryllium, comparate with the normal granites. (C.D.G.)

  20. High frequency of Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus) infection in piglets from different geographic regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Aichivirus C infection in the three major industrial pig-producing regions of Brazil. This retrospective study evaluated 63 faecal samples that were collected between 2004 and 2011 from suckling piglets (1 to 3 weeks old) belonging to 46 pig herds located in the South, Southeast and Central-west regions of Brazil. The presence of Aichivirus C in the samples was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A 216-bp fragment of the aichivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene was amplified from 48 out of 63 (76.2 %) faecal samples. Aichivirus C was identified in all the evaluated regions, and variations in the frequency of virus detection among the different Brazilian regions were observed. Aichivirus C was detected at significantly higher rates in 2-week-old (18/20; 90.0 %) and 3-week-old (19/22; 86.4 %) piglets than in 1-week-old piglets (11/21; 52.4 %) (P Aichivirus C by region or age. This study demonstrated that Aichivirus C has been present in Brazilian pig herds for years and has spread to the major pig-producing regions of the country. PMID:23765550

  1. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: II. Feeding habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Hua Liang

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of chaetognath species were studied by examining the gut contents of 9466 specimens collected off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State. The greatest proportion of chaetognaths (7119 individuals showed their gut contents empty. Copepods, mollusc eggs, appendicularians, cladocerans and annelids were the most common food items in the gut contents of juveniles and mature stages. Cannibalism occurred in low frequency. In Summer the copepods Temora stylifera and Paracalanus spp were more abundant, whereas Oncaea spp and mollusc eggs were heavily preyed in Winter. There was a clear trend of increasing prey size with the developmental stage.O estudo dos hábitos alimentares das espécies de Chaetognatha foi realizado a partir da análise do trato digestivo de 9466 indivíduos dos estágios 0 - IV. Os quetógnatos foram coletados ao largo da região de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, com o auxílio da rede Bongo (Malha 0,200 mm e 0,303 mm, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987. Dos 9466 tratos digestivos analisados, 7119 estavam vazios e 2347 apresentaram de 1 a 3 presas. Grande quantidade de material amorfo e semi-digerido também foram detectados. A dieta esteve constituída basicamente de copépodos (Calanoida e Poecilostomatoida, cladóceros, ovos de moluscos, náuplios de crustáceos, apendiculárias e poliquetos, entre outros. O canibalismo foi observado a partir do estágio I, porém com baixa frequência. Os estágios jovens (0-1 mostraram preferência por presas de tamanho pequeno como náuplios e copépodos do gênero Oncaea, enquanto que os estágios maduros por presas maiores como Temora stylifera, Corycaeus sp e Eucalanus pileatus.

  2. Regional Labor Market Differences in Brazil and Search Frictions: Some Structural Estimates

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    Paulo Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate an equilibrium job search model for six metropolitan areas located in different regions of Brazil. Two mechanisms of wage determination are considered: wage posting by monopsony firms and Nash bilateral bargaining. In order to estimate the model, we use the non-parametric method developed by Bontemps, Robin, & van den Berg [2000. Equilibrium search with continuous productivity dispersion: Theory and nonparametric estimation. International Economic Review, 41(2, 305-358]. There is significant heterogeneity among the estimated structural parameters for these regions. We succeed in rationalizing some well-known regional differences in wages, unemployment rates and productivity prevalent in Brazilian labor markets, thus offering new interpretations. Metropolitan regions in the Northeast have much lower λ0 (arrival rate of wage offers for unemployed workers andλ1 (arrival rate of wage offers for employed workers vis a vis areas in the South or Southeast regions. This is a new, and much more precise, result worth considering on the regional inequality debate in Brazil. Regional inequality in wages, besides being an outcome of its regional human capital distribution, can be rationalized as inequality of search frictions brought by differences inλ1. We found a key (indirect role for search frictions when analysing productivity differences as well. Since search frictions impact simultaneously on monopsony power as well as on productivity, in order to understand better regional productivity differences we must deepen our analysis on how these structural parameters are differentiated by regions. Labor market frictions add important insights into the regional debate, something not captured by more traditional econometric reduced form approaches.

  3. On Frontal Zone Analysis in the Tropical Region of the Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Natalia; Levit, Vladimir; da Cruz, Cezar Duarte

    2016-04-01

    A frontal structure in the tropical region is different than in the extratropical region and traditional methods of frontal identification are not accurate. The use of a horizontal distribution of the equivalent potential temperature and its advection is the new aspect in frontal identification and will support forecasters in their daily operational practice. Six fronts over 3 years were identified by the method used in operational practice. Twenty fronts were registered by cloud bands together with the equivalent potential temperature and its advection maps. A cold front separated from the cyclone's center and affected weather on the Northeast Brazil.

  4. Virulence and genetic diversity among isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in two regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G F; Santos, V S; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2016-01-01

    Black sigatoka, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis (anamorphic stage: Paracercospora fijiensis), was first detected in Brazil in early 1998 in the Benjamin Constant and Tabatinga municipalities in the State of Amazonas, near to where the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru converge. Understanding how cultivars react to the pathogen, and characterizing the genetic variability of isolates from two distant and distinct banana-producing regions, are important for determining the virulence of M. fijiensis. In the present study, the genetic diversity of 22 M. fijiensis isolates was assessed using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, and their virulence was determined following inoculation on three different banana tree cultivars. All 22 isolates caused symptoms of the disease in the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars 45 days after inoculation, and at least two virulence groups were identified for the Maçã and Prata Comum cultivars. For the D'Angola cultivars, two virulence groups were observed only after 60 days post-inoculation, and three of the isolates were not virulent. Using SSR markers, the isolates from two different regions of Brazil were placed into two genetic groups, both genetically distant from the Mf 138 isolate collected in Leticia, Colombia. There was no evidence of correlation between the virulence groups and the genetic diversity groups. These results demonstrate variability in virulence between isolates as measured by the severity of black sigatoka in the analyzed cultivars. PMID:27173264

  5. Molecular detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Tatiane Teles; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira; Reis, Jenner Karlison Pimenta; de Sousa Rodrigues, Ana Paula; da Cunha Kassar, Telissa; Resende, Claudia Fideles; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Silva, Rafaela das Mercês; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2015-12-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency is a chronic progressive disease caused by a lentivirus that affects cattle and buffaloes. Although the infection has been described in cattle in some countries, including in Brazil, there are only two reports of infection in buffaloes: one in Pakistan and one in Cambodia. The aim of the present study was to survey the occurrence of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in water buffaloes from the Amazon region, Pará state, Brazil. BIV proviral DNA was surveyed in 607 whole blood samples of water buffaloes from 10 farms located in the state of Pará using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (PCR-SN) to amplify the pol region of the viral genome. Of the 607 samples tested, 27 (4.4 %) were positive for BIV proviral DNA. The amplified fragments were confirmed by sequence analysis after cloning and nucleotide sequencing. The sequence obtained had 99 % similarity to the reference strain (R-29). The present study provides important epidemiological data because BIV was detected for the first time in water buffaloes in Brazil. Further, the results suggest the possibility of the virus being a risk factor for herd health because it may be a potential causal agent of chronic disease and, also may be associated to other infectious diseases. PMID:26174574

  6. Quinine levels in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the plasmatic concentrations of quinine in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of the Amazon region in Brazil in a prospective clinical trial, in which a standard three-day course of oral quinine plus doxycycline was used. We measured the quinine in the plasma samples on days 0 and 3by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentration of quinine was 6.04 ±2.21 µg/mL in male patients and 5.98 ±1.95 µg/mL in female patients. No significant differences in quinine concentration were observed between these two groups. All samples collected before starting treatment were negative for quinine. This information could help in the development of strategies for the rational use of antimalarial drugs in Brazil.

  7. Diagnostic nuclear medicine in Brazil: Current status in the five geographical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Brazil has a population of 170 millions of inhabitants distributed into five geographical regions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast and Medium West). Health indicators like child mortality, cardiovascular and cancer mortality rates as well as life expectancy at birth have great disparities between northeast and southeast regions. In Brazil there are 215 nuclear medicine centers having 704 equipments, both public and private. More than 80% of operating equipment are in private institutions. The Southeast region constitutes about 60% of the radiopharmaceuticals consumption and the image equipment on the country. The state of Sao Paulo, located in Southeast region, has 37% of 99mTc consumption and is the only 18FDG consumer in the country. Aiming to evaluate the correlation between consumption of radiopharmaceuticals, number of equipment and frequency of procedures performed, as well as the activity administered per procedure, a national survey is going on. This includes both public and private institutions representing general and specialised public hospitals and private institutions. The preliminary results indicated that the diagnostic procedures range from 712 to 12,682 exams per year with the majority being myocardial and bone imaging. Differences were noticed in the amount of administered activities between public and private institutions both in Southeast and Northeast regions. This may be due to the differences in the availability of state of the art equipment, routine quality control and performance procedures. (author)

  8. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  9. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  10. FFT analysis on NDVI annual cycle and climatic regionality in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón Juárez, Robinson I.; Liu, William T.

    2001-11-01

    By considering that the climate of Northeast Brazil (NEB) has distinct wet and dry seasons, the mixed radix fast Fourier transform (mrFFT) algorithm, developed at the National Aerospace Centre of the Netherlands, was applied to a monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series from July 1981 to June 1993, to generate phase, amplitude and mean NDVI data using a 1-year frequency in order to improve the analysis of its spatial variation.The NDVI mean values varied from >0.7, which occurred in northwest and southeast regions, to 0.25 in the northeast region. By using spatial variations of phase, amplitude and mean NDVI values, 15 climate types were delineated for the NEB.The spatial distribution of climate types in the NEB delineated by the NDVI FFT analysis agreed mostly with the climatic types presented by Hargreaves (Precipitation dependability and potentials for agricultural production in Northeast Brazil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária-EMBRAPA, Brazil, 1974), except regions with higher spatial variability and limited surface meteorological data. Among the three components: phase, amplitude and mean NDVI, the phase image, informing the initiation and duration of rainy season, was the most important component for climate-type delineation. Nevertheless, while the extreme values of amplitude, inferring a high wet-dry rainfall regime contrast, and mean NDVI, inferring annual rainfall total, occurred in the same phase area, amplitude and mean NDVI images were used for further delineation. It is concluded that the application of the mrFFT algorithm to NDVI time series analysis is an effective method for identifying vegetation phenology and hence to delineate the transit spatial change of climate types. Our further study is to construct and validate the alternative El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drought onset model for each of the 15 climate types delineated for the NEB.

  11. Access to prenatal care: inequalities in a region with high maternal mortality in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Katrini Guidolini Martinelli; Edson Theodoro dos Santos Neto; Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama; Adauto Emmerich Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim This article aims to evaluate access to prenatal care according to the dimensions of availability, affordability and acceptability in the SUS microregion of southeastern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-2013 that selected 742 postpartum women in seven hospitals in the region chosen for the research. The information was collected, processed and submitted to the chi-square test and the nonparametric Spearman’s test, with p-values less than 5% (p < 0.05)...

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  13. Genetics of the Pantaneiro horse of the Pantanal region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cothran E. Gus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation at seven red blood cell alloantigen, blood group loci and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 102 Pantaneiro horses from the Pantanal region of Brazil and compared to that of other domestic horse breeds. Measures of both individual genic variation and populational genetic diversity within the Pantaneiro were near the average for domestic horse breeds. From the standpoint of genetic conservation there is no immediate concern for loss of variation within the Pantaneiro. Analysis of genetic relationship showed that the Pantaneiro was clearly of Iberian Peninsula descent and that it was most closely related to other Brazilian breeds.

  14. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

    2008-01-01

    The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil. PMID:18279250

  16. Haplotype diversity in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region in a population of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, C; Gonzalez, R S; Pereira, A C; Cardena, M M S G

    2014-07-01

    Brazilian population derives from Native Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. Southeastern Brazil is the most populous region of the country. The present study intended to characterize the maternal genetic ancestry of 290 individuals from southeastern (Brazil) population. Thus, we made the sequencing of the three hypervariable regions (HV1, HV2, and HV3) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The statistical analyses were made using Arlequin software, and the median-joining haplotype networks were generated using Network software. The analysis of three hypervariable regios showed 230 (79.3 %) unique haplotypes and the most common haplotype was "263G" carried by 12 (4.1 %) individuals. The strikingly high variability generated by intense gene flow is mirrored in a high sequence diversity (0.9966 ± 0.0010), and the probability of two random individuals showing identical mtDNA haplotypes were 0.0068. The analysis of haplogroup distribution revealed that 36.9 % (n = 107) presented Amerindian haplogroups, 35.2 % (n = 102) presented African haplogroups, 27.6 % (n = 80) presented European haplogroups, and one (0.3 %) individual presented East Asian haplogroup, evidencing that the southeastern population is extremely heterogeneous and the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with three different phylogeographic origins. The genetic diversity found in the mtDNA control region in the southeastern Brazilian population reinforces the importance of increased national database in order to be important and informative in forensic cases. PMID:24846100

  17. Nuclear Weapons in Regional Contexts: The Cases of Argentina and Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Junior, Olival Freire; Moreira, Ildeu C; Barros, Fernando de Souza

    2015-01-01

    South America is a region which is free from nuclear weapons. However, this was not an inevitable development from the relationships among its countries. Indeed, regional rivalries between Brazil and Argentina, with military implications for both countries, lasted a long time. After WWII these countries took part in the race to obtain nuclear technologies and nuclear ambitions were part of the game. In the mid 1980s, the end of military dictatorships and the successful establishing of democratic institutions put an end to the race. Thus regional and national interests in addition to the establishment of democracies in Latin America have been responsible for the building of trust between the two countries. Meaningful international initiatives are once again needed in the framework of worldwide cooperation. This cooperation is better developed when democratic regimes are in place.

  18. Study of the shallow convection over the Belem region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi Marinho Pires, Luciana; Suselj, Kay; Rossato, Luciana; Teixeira, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The largest forest of the world, the Amazon, presents an interesting and very complex system mixing forests, various topographies, sites of deforestation, cities, and regions close and far from the coast, which influence the climatology of the region. This study was focused in the region of Belem which is considered the rainiest region in the eastern Amazon with precipitation around 2000 mm/year. Belem is the capital of Para state, which is located in northern Brazil, 2,146 kilometers from Brasilia with an area of about 1,059,458 km² and a population of 1,432,844 inhabitants with 26% of the area of the Brazilian Amazon and having 49% of its natural attractions, according to the Organization of American States. Shallow convection and deep convection are among the main components of the local energy balance. An analysis of the performance of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory /NASA model of shallow convection parameterization in a framework of the single column model (SCM) in relation to the cluster of cumulus clouds formed in the coastal region of the Amazon forest due to squall lines is provided. To achieve this purpose infrared images from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), visible images from the GOES-12/METEOSAT satellites, and data obtained by the "Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)" - CHUVA - campaign, during the month of June of 2011, were used. Results demonstrated that the parameterizations performed well in the case where only a core of clouds was observed.

  19. Arbitraje internacional y toma de medidas cautelares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Etel Rapallini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sin lugar a dudas, la evolución del arbitraje de Derecho Privado Comercial Internacional tanto como Regional ha evidenciado progresos técnicos como jurídicos. Sólo basta con reparar en la influencia cada vez más notoria de la “lex mercatoria”, en el avance en el uso de la video conferencia y otros medios de comunicación virtual, hasta llegar hoy día a la instalación progresiva del arbitraje “on-line” .Pese a ello, y a la difusión del procedimiento arbitral, el mismo coexiste con áreas aún discutidas que operan como un velo u obstáculo sobre su celeridad y eficacia .Las áreas que adolecen son conocidas y una de ellas responde a la toma de medidas cautelares sin recurrencia a la justicia estadual. Pese a tratarse de una medida de cooperación jurídica, escaso ha sido el avance en las fuentes normativas.

  20. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  1. New species and records of Anacroneuria (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas Silveira

    2016-01-01

    The genus Anacroneuria is widely distributed in the Neotropical Region. There are about 80 species listed from Brazil, five of which are recorded from the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil, an area characterized by irregular and low precipitation. Examination of adult Anacroneuria material from this including areas of Caatinga desert vegetation and Atlantic forest revealed two new species records, A. debilis (Pictet) and A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci. Additionally, two new species, A. calori n. sp. and A. singela n. sp., are described from this material. These new records and new species reflect a major effort to document the biodiversity of the aquatic insects of the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil by the Research Program in Semi-arid Biodiversity. PMID:27396007

  2. Acute leukemias in Piauí: comparison with features observed in other regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rego M.F.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in age and sex distribution as well as FAB (French-American-British classification types have been reported for acute leukemias in several countries. We studied the demographics and response to treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL between 1989 and 2000 in Teresina, Piauí, and compared these results with reports from Brazil and other countries. Complete data concerning 345 patients (230 ALL, 115 AML were reviewed. AML occurred predominantly in adults (77%, with a median age of 34 years, similar to that found in the southeast of Brazil but lower than the median age in the United States and Europe (52 years. FAB distribution was similar in children and adults and FAB-M2 was the most common type, as also found in Japan. The high frequency of FAB-M3 described in most Brazilian studies and for Hispanics in the United States was not observed. Overall survival for adults was 40%, similar to other studies in Brazil. A high mortality rate was observed during induction. No clinical or hematological parameter influenced survival in the Cox model. ALL presented the characteristic peak of incidence between 2-8 years. Most of the cases were CD10+ pre-B ALL. In 25%, abnormal expression of myeloid antigens was observed. Only 10% of the patients were older than 30 years. Overall survival was better for children. Age and leukocyte count were independent prognostic factors. These data demonstrate that, although there are regional peculiarities, the application of standardized treatments and good supportive care make it possible to achieve results observed in other countries for the same chemotherapy protocols.

  3. Avaliação antropométrica, fatores de risco para desnutrição e medidas de apoio nutricional em crianças internadas em hospitais de ensino no Brasil Anthropometric evaluation, risk factors for malnutrition, and nutritional therapy for children in teaching hospitals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli O. S. Sarni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores de risco para desnutrição, estado nutricional e medidas de apoio nutricional em crianças hospitalizadas. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo longitudinal, prospectivo, avaliou-se por 3 meses consecutivos todas as crianças hospitalizadas (OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for malnutrition, nutritional status and nutritional support provided in hospitalized children. METHODS: This longitudinal study prospectively followed, for 3 consecutive months, all children under 5 years of age (n = 907 hospitalized in general pediatric medical wards of 10 Brazilian university-based hospitals. For data collection, a standard questionnaire was used and nutritional condition was evaluated at hospital admission and discharge: weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age z score. RESULTS: Only 56.7% of the children had their nutritional classification documented in the medical record. At hospital admission, 16.3 and 30.0% of the children had moderate/severe malnutrition and low stature, respectively. Risk of malnutrition was associated with low birth weight and younger age. A high percentage of nutritional deficiencies was observed in the children analyzed, although child's nutritional condition and the adoption of appropriate nutritional therapy were not documented in the medical records of the malnourished children. CONCLUSION: These data underscore the importance of developing qualified hospital medical wards regarding diagnosis and therapeutic approach to malnutrition, based on the conduct guidelines already available in Brazil.

  4. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  5. Detection of flux increase of high-energy particles in the region of Brazil geomagnetic anomaly on September 10. 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case of abrupt increase of high-energy particle intensity recorded on 10.09.1985 in the region of Brazil anomaly is described. Experiment was carried out on board of Salyut-7 orbital station from 01.08 up to 30.11.85 (using measurement separate series) by means of MARIA scintillation time-of-flight magnetic spectrometer, which recorded high-energy electrons and positrons. Recorded increases of the instrument counting rate in the region of Brazil geomagnetic anomaly are linked with precipitation of high energy electrons and protons from the Earth radiation belt. Existance of correlation between the observed phenomena and earth-quakes is possible

  6. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting birds in an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Pacheco, Richard C; Uezu, Alexandre; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-09-01

    Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley. PMID:19769058

  8. U/Pb geochronology and paleo and proterozoic orthogneisses geochemistry from the Taquaritinga region - Pernambuco State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Taquaritinga region is located at the Borborema Province Transversal Zone, northeastern part of Brazil, and not existing geochronological data in this region, this study intended to furnish some information for a geotectonics evolution knowledge. It presents the geological characteristics of this region, describes the various kinds of chemical analysis realized in the gneisses, involving major, minor and rare earth elements, and shows the geochronological data that suggests the orthogneisse age and the epoch of this geotectonic event

  9. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations, insects (7, and reptiles (5. The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations; Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations; Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations; Ovis aries sheep (31 citations; Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations; Boa constrictor (12 citations; and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations. A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna.

  10. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Neta, Rita Oliveira de Sousa; Trovão, Dilma Maria de Brito Melo; Barbosa, Jose Etham de Lucena; Barros, Adrianne Teixeira; Dias, Thelma Lucia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB) in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates) distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations), insects (7), and reptiles (5). The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae "teju" lizards (44 citations); Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations); Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations); Ovis aries sheep (31 citations); Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations); Boa constrictor (12 citations); and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations). A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was "problems affecting the respiratory system". Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna. PMID:23050756

  11. X-Ray equipment in Brazil: Distribution by political region and equipment type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During 2001 e 2002 Brazil's Health Ministry performed a national census of health services, CNES - National Database of Health-Care Services. The resulting records contain the equipment and personnel available in each service. This data was processed, selected and compared to the most recent brazilian population census recently consolidated by IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. In order to generate useful data for planning radiation protection sanitary surveillance actions, queries were made in the National Database of Health Services to select distributions of X-ray equipment's by city, state and region. Population and number of physicians data we used to calculate coverage indexes, aiming to classify them according to health care levels adopted by UNSCEAR publication and make comparisons. Geographical maps were plotted from several different data distributions, showing X-ray equipment concentrations, medical and population coverage indexes. (orig.)

  12. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  13. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  14. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  15. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Figueiredo Filho Alberto Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25degreesC, 30degreesC, and 37degreesC for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  16. [Malaria in the triple border region between Brazil, Colombia and Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Paulo César; Franco, Vivian da Cruz; Gracie, Renata; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the malaria surveillance situation on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. This was a qualitative study using questionnaires in the border towns in 2011. The results were analyzed with the SWOT matrix methodology, pointing to significant differences between the malaria surveillance systems along the border. Weaknesses included lack of linkage between actors, lack of trained personnel, high turnover in teams, and lack of malaria specialists in the local hospitals. The study also showed lack of knowledge on malaria and its prevention in the local population. The strengths are the inclusion of new institutional actors, improvement of professional training, distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and possibilities for complementary action between surveillance systems through cooperation between health teams on the border. Malaria control can only be successful if the region is dealt with as a whole. PMID:24356695

  17. Radiometric survey in the sites of Regional office in Fortaleza, research gallery and camp in Itataia, CE (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric survey in Regional officer sites in Fortaleza, Brazil, research gallery and camp in Itataia is presented. The measurings to be done, the instrumentation used and results obtained are described as well as the conclusions and recommendations. (C.M.)

  18. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  19. Common vampire bat attacks on humans in a village of the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Schneider Maria Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people in Amazonian communities have reported bat bites in the last decade. Bites by vampire bats can potentially transmit rabies to humans. The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with bat biting in one of these communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village of gold miners in the Amazonian region of Brazil (160 inhabitants. Bats were captured near people's houses and sent to a lab. Of 129 people interviewed, 41% had been attacked by a bat at least once, with 92% of the bites located on the lower limbs. A logistic regression found that adults were bitten around four times more often than children (OR = 3.75, CI 95%: 1.46-9.62, p = 0.036. Males were bitten more frequently than females (OR = 2.08, CI 95%: 0.90-4.76, p = 0.067. Nine Desmodus rotundus and three frugivorous bats were captured and tested negative for rabies. The study suggests that, in an area of gold miners, common vampire bats are more likely to attack adults and males. The control strategy for human rabies developed in this region should therefore place special emphasis on adult males. There should also be more research on how the search for gold in the Amazonian region places people and the environment at risk.

  20. Gold mineralization in the Serra de Jacobina region, Bahia Brazil: tectonic framework and metallogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; de Souza, Jorge André Braz; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Leite, Carlson Matos Maia; Barbosa, Johildo Salomão Figueiredo; Coelho, Carlos Eduardo Silva; Abram, Maisa Bastos; Filho, Valter Mônaco Conceição; Iyer, Sundaram S. S.

    2001-07-01

    Gold deposits in the Serra de Jacobina region in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, occur in a belt of siliciclastic metasedimentary rocks intercalated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, and underlain by a tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneiss-dominated (TTG) basement. The siliciclastic sequence probably represents the remnants of a sedimentary basin, which formed in an Archean passive margin-type setting. The basin was subsequently subjected to a complex history of deformation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal activity, as a result of oblique collisional events in Late Archean and Paleoproterozoic. The majority of the auriferous occurrences in the area are hosted by quartz-pebble conglomerates, and have been noted to resemble placer-type deposits. However, structurally-controlled hydrothermal orebodies, and the formation of gold occurrences also in quartzites and mafic and ultramafic rocks, support an epigenetic model for the mineralizing event. Gold mineralization is interpreted to be an integral part of the late (~1.9 Ga) tectonothermal evolution of the Serra de Jacobina region. It was roughly coeval with the emplacement of large volumes of post-collisional type, peraluminous granitic magmas, during a regional strike-slip regime.

  1. Karyotype patterns of Hypsolebias antenori (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): an endangered killifish of the semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Wallace Silva; Bezerra, Juliana Galvão; Lima-Filho, Paulo Augusto; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Chellappa, Sathyabama; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2014-01-01

    Annual fish which belong to the order Cyprinodontiformes constitute an excellent model for evolutionary studies. their short life cycle, distribution in ecologically dynamic environments, and low agility make them favorable for genetic analyses. The species Hypsolebias antenori (Rivulidae), encountered in seasonal pools located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, has been the object of surveys with a view to study its ecological and behavioral aspects. This study reports on the karyotype patterns of this species, which represents the first contribution to the cytogenetics of this genus. The karyotype of this species is composed of 2n = 48 chromosomes (6m + 4 sm + 36 st; NF = 96); the heterochromatic regions are located in centromeric or pericentromeric position and are more pronounced in the nucleolar organizer regions. Two sites Ag-NORs/CMA+/DAPI were identified in the short arms of pairs 2 (metacentric) and 21 (subtelocentric). Unlike the other species of this family which show an evolution modulated by events of centric fusions, H. antenori shows the maintenance of a basal diploid number and the large number of bibrachial elements indicates karyotypic diversification derived by pericentric inversions. Cytogenetic analyzes in this species will provide new taxonomic markers capable of being utilized in conservation issues and systematics. PMID:24693249

  2. Radioactive risk evaluation of mineral water in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Metropolitan Region of Recife (MRR), Pernambuco State, Brazil, is well supplied in groundwater resources, mainly because of the water quality and exploitation capability of the Beberibe aquifer. The MRR is also located over uranium-bearing phosphate deposits of the coastal region of the Northeastern Brazil. Such sedimentary rocks present U3O8 content of 30-500 mg kg-1 (average of 150 mg kg-1), being considered one of the highest occurrences of this kind of deposit in the world. The mineral water recharging areas, when in contact with the uranium-phosphate rocks, may increase the radioactive contamination of water due to the leaching and transport of U and other radioactive chemical elements from the rocks to the groundwater. Taking into account the continuous increasing of production and preferential drinking of bottled mineral water in the region, notoriously in the last decade, this study encompassed the first results of gross alpha and beta activities in the bottled mineral water of the MRR. The determination of the alpha and beta activities was carried out in nine commercial mineral water brands from springs located in different regions over the Beberibe aquifer, using a low background gas flow proportional counter, model CanberraR S5-XLB. The methodology consisting of concomitant water evaporation steps in planchets was modified from the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. The levels of activities ranged from (35 ± 3) to (85 ± 5), and (200 ± 9) to (330 ± 8) mBq L-1 for the gross alpha and beta activities, respectively. A consistent spatial variation in the radioactivity levels in mineral water was observed for MRR springs, in which radiation decreased according to the increasing of distance from the MRR area. Since outcrops of phosphate rocks containing uranium have been already detected in the urban area, mineral water resources within the MRR might be in contact with uranium enriched rocks in the deeper geological layers

  3. Implementation of regional centres for SPECT QC/QA in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: SPECT technology was introduced in Brazil at the early 80s and, presently, there are more than 230 systems installed in the whole country. In order to establish a quality standard for these systems, a RCP was submitted and received partial support from IAEA for the implementation of regional centres, so that clinics in different regions could be evaluated using the same protocols. Materials and Methods: Six centres were created in 5 public (federal and state) universities and one private philanthropic medical school in: USP-Sao Paulo, UNICAMP-Campinas, CNEN-Rio de Janeiro, UFBA-Salvador, UFPE-Recife and FM/Santa Casa-Porto Alegre. All sites have teaching and technical supports available and there is at least one nuclear medicine physicist in charge. The basic QC/QA set included: 57Co sheet source, orthogonal hole phantom, quadrant bar phantom, calibrated sources for dose calibrator (57Co, 133Ba, and 137Cs) and a DeLuxe SPECT phantom from Data Spectrum Corp. Basic and complete/acceptance protocols were defined as the reference procedures. Measurements and evaluations were performed in 21 (<10%) centres and inter-comparisons were made amongst the groups. Results: Some information about the centres and evaluated systems are presented. A large number of the visited clinics never had any QC tests done except for the manufacturer's installation tests and the daily uniformity test. On the average, most of the cameras needed tuning and one of them had to have the PM tubes re-coupled. The main difficulties encountered by all groups were the lack of physicists in almost all the visited clinics and the inadequate training of many local technologists, especially in the remote areas. In spite of the misunderstanding and scepticism from some of the visited MDs, the majority recognized the importance of proper QC/QA testing. Conclusions: It was shown that regional centres are essential if one aims quality and reliability in the nuclear medicine clinics, especially in a

  4. Upwelling processes along a western boundary current in the Abrolhos-Campos region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. L.; Cirano, M.; Pereira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.

    2014-08-01

    Upwelling events observed from the years 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Our focus was on the Abrolhos-Campos region (ACR, 15°S-23°S), which is located along the Brazilian Margin and influenced by a western boundary current, the Brazil Current (BC). Satellite sea surface temperature, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) wind data were used to complement the results of a high-resolution regional oceanic model to investigate the occurrence of and the mechanisms responsible for intense upwelling events in this region. These events were more frequent from 20°S to 23°S. Over 90% of the identified upwelling events were influenced by favorable wind stress. Surface Ekman transport was found to be more important for the region from Prado (17°S) to Marataízes (21°S), whereas upward Ekman pumping played a more important role from 22°S to 23°S. Current-driven upwelling processes associated with the location of the BC as well as its velocity and meso-scale activity were also analyzed. The results showed that these mechanisms are highly influenced by the local topography. Topographic effects exerted via the acceleration of the BC are more obvious in the southern ACR, while in the Prado region, BC cyclonic meanders tend to be more relevant. Moreover, eddy-driven upwelling increases in the southward direction after the passage of the Vitória-Trindade Ridge (20°S), an important submarine chain, which acts to constrain and modulate the southward flow of the BC.

  5. Assessment of drugs purchased in the public health network of the cities in the Ourinhos micro-region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Obreli Neto, Paulo R.; Nambu, Maurício M.; Cuman, Roberto K. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the criteria and procedures for the selection of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs purchased by the public health network of the cities in the Ourinhos Micro-region, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional, multi-center, exploratory, quantitative study was developed in the 12 cities that constitute the Ourinhos Micro-region. The data obtained showed that cities standardize and purchase a large number and diverse range of pharmaceutical specialties, i...

  6. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author)

  7. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  9. Relative intensity of bilateral trade flows, regional integration, and trade performance: the case of Brazil, 1984-1998

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    Silva Valquiria da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the component of trade that results specifically from bilateral relations and evaluate how the creation of trading blocs affects trade relations between countries. The trirapport coefficient of the relative intensity of bilateral agricultural sector trade flows between Brazil and other countries from 1984 and 1998 is used in the evaluation. In general, the results show that relative trade intensity between Brazil and its non-MERCOSUL trade partners fell after their entry into regional trade agreements (extra-bloc effect. The intra-bloc effect (trade expansion is reflected by changes in trade intensity between Brazil and the other MERCOSUL members and changes in trade intensity between NAFTA members Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

  10. Comparison between global solar radiation models in Aquidauana, “Alto Pantanal” region, Brazil

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    Gabriel Queiroz de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a meteorological component of great importance to soil-plant-atmosphere processes, and the majority of weather stations do not register this component since they do not have the equipment for its quantification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of models to estimate solar radiation for the annual, rainy and dry periods in Aquidauana “Alto Pantanal” region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This study was conducted using meteorological data obtained from January 2008 to December 201. The automatic meteorological station was located in Aquidauana, and belongs to the network of the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET. The data collected included maximum and minimum temperatures, and solar radiation. The Annandale, Bristow-Campbell, Hargreaves-Samani and Weiss empirical models were evaluated, and all were compared with the solar radiation value measured by the meteorological station. In Aquidauana, the Alto Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul, regardless of the time of year, the Bristow-Campbell model is recommended to estimate solar radiation.

  11. Provenience studies in archaeological sites in Araruama region, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work shows the results of provenience studies for ceramics collected at Sao Jose, Morro Grande, Serrano and Bela Vista archaeological sites in Araruama region, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The clays used in this study were collected in the same region. The elemental chemical composition were determined in ceramic and clay samples by INAA allowing the simultaneous determination of twenty five elements, most of them at trace level. The studies of classification and provenience were made by multivariate statistical methods. The Euclidean distance and the hierarchical means in the Ward subroutine were used in cluster analysis. besides, dilution effect was also taken into account to verify the relation between clays and the different groups defined. The results of the cluster analysis and of the average dilution factor calculated for each one of the clays in relation to each group defined show that ceramics without decorations from Sao Jose have a closer chemical composition collected at the closest point at Morro Grande, denominated as Corrego Cambuci. The elements Co, Cr, Hf, Ta, Ti and Sb show smaller concentration in the ceramic, suggesting that in some way those elements are lost during fabrication or probably are diluted by the addition of temper or other materials. (author)

  12. Monitoring of Radiation Levels in Mines of Kaolin Located in the Region Serido-PB, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaolin is formed mainly by kaolinite and is used in many industrial sectors. Kaolin may be associated with by-products such as quartz, mica, feldspar and sand. The background radiation from nature is very important, since it represents the main source of human exposure to radiation. In kaolin, radionuclides are present as the 40K and series 238U and 232Th. This study aimed to obtain the rates of effective doses of kaolin mines in the region of Serido-PB, Brazil, where there are several productions and mineral occurrences, including kaolin and uranium at nearby areas. Four kaolin mines located in the Serido-PB region were monitored by a portable discriminator detector NaI(Ti). Measurements were obtained outdoors in triplicate, at a distance of 1.0 meters from the Earth's surface. According to the report of UNSCEAR, the world average effective dose from exposure to natural radiation sources is 2.42 mSvy-1. the rates of effective doses identified in this study ranged from 1.37 mSvy-1, and provided the construction of isodose curves. The highest dose rate obtained may be related to pegmatite bodies in a nearby area that contain uranium minerals. However, based on the development of this research, the results indicate that further study in this area is needed in order to infer damage associated with mining of kaolin in the Serido-PB area. (Author)

  13. Neutron activation analysis - NAA: studies of environmental pollution in Steel Valley region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steel Valley region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, receives intense waste from anthropogenic activities: industries (steel, cellulose, ore mining); untreated domestic; sewage and agricultural discharges. This work presents results obtained from analysis of air quality (Ipatinga, Santana do Paraiso, Coronel Fabriciano Timoteo and Marlieria cities) and by the Piracicaba River (surface water, border sediment, and fish muscle - Acara (Geophagus Brasiliensis). Concentrations of Al, Mn, V, As, Br, K, La, Na, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Rb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn were determined for Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA. High concentrations were found in sediment and water (Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Al, Mn, V) and in fish muscle (As, Cr, Hg). Results were compared to the maximum limits for metal set by 357/2005 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA). Terrestrial epiphytic community samples have been used as biomonitor of air pollution. The samples were collected in trees Oiti (Licania tomentosa) and Angico (Piptadenia rigida), very common in studied region. The samples were collected in 17 points and two weather stations: January (rainy) and June (dried) of 2007. The results indicate high concentrations of the elements Al, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mg, Zn, V and Th when compared with the values cited in the literature. The biomonitor used in this work, terrestrial epiphytic community, showed an excellent capacity for metals retention by atmospheric contamination. (author)

  14. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE TINTINNIDS (CILIOPHORA: SPIROTRICHEA IN THE REGION OF ABROLHOS (BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Alejandro Esteweson Santos Faustino da Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The tintinnid community in the region of Abrolhos (Bahia, Brazil was studied during February 2012. We hypothesized that the tintinnid community structure varies significantly over a short temporal scale (photoperiod, as well as spatially over a short scale (on and away from the reefs, and a broad scale (distance of the reef area from the coast. Three areas in Abrolhos were studied. Two sampling points were delimited in each area, where the tintinnids were collected by horizontal subsurface plankton net (20 μm mesh-size hauls. Sampling was undertaken every 6 hours, during 24 hours in each area. 24 species were found, all of which are of neritic, cosmopolitan, and of warm-water distribution. The only hypothesis that is not rejected is that related to variability on an extensive spatial scale. There are significant differences between the samples collected in the three areas studied (ANOVA p = 0.017. The clustering of the species highlights a continent-ocean gradient. There is one community typical of the internal arc, composed mainly of neritic agglutinated tintinnids, and another community typical of the external arc, composed mainly of hyaline warm-water and cosmopolitan tintinnids. The factor which exercises the greatest influence on the tintinnid community in the Abrolhos region is the distance from the coast.

  15. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

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    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  16. Multiplier of employment and wages: A comparative study for southern region and the rest of Brazil in 1999 and 2004

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    Angel dos Santos Fachinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the multiplier effect of jobs and income for the formal and informal categories, in an inter-regional input-output system. Therefore, it was used the array in the Southern Region and the Rest of Brazil, estimated for the years 1999 and 2004 organized in 23 sectors, with microdata from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD in the same years. Consider one, the individuals’ characterization according to educational level, age, income, gender and employment category (formal and informal. The main results include a decrease of the contribution from the macros sectors of Agricultural and Services in the regions. The State of Paraná, Santa Catarina and the Rest of Brazil decreased multipliers wages in formal and informal categories for most sectors, which was not observed in Rio Grande do Sul. The largest employment multipliers for both formal and informal categories were to sectors linked to Industry.

  17. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

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    Érida Zoé Lustosa Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3% had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7% of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20 with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015, with no health insurance (p < 0.002 and from the countryside (p < 0.001 were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this

  18. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Érida Zoé Lustosa; Gomes, Keila Rejane Oliveira; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3%) had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7%) of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20) with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015), with no health insurance (p < 0.002) and from the countryside (p < 0.001) were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this access and

  19. Ion input via rainwater in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Francine Neves Calil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion input via rainfall alone and after interception by the forest canopy, constitutes an important path ofbiochemical cycling, although few studies have provided information on the subject so far. The objective of this work is toquantify ion inputs, via rainfall, in the southwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Ten rain gauges were mountedin a field area. The quantification of stored water volume, along with sample collection for determination of nitrate, nitrite,ammonium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium contents, was done fortnightly fromSeptember 2006 to August 2008. Local annual average precipitation in the relevant period was 1,588.3 mm. The concentrationof chemical elements in rainwater was found to vary throughout, being inversely correlated with the increase in rainfall, whilepotassium, ammonium, phosphate, sulfate, chloride and sodium were found to have a significant mutual correlation (p <0.01.Based on the annual amount of nutrient input via rainwater, it can be inferred that rainfall is an important source of chemicalelement input into the forest system.

  20. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  1. Access to prenatal care: inequalities in a region with high maternal mortality in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Katrini Guidolini; Santos Neto, Edson Theodoro Dos; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Oliveira, Adauto Emmerich

    2016-05-01

    Aim This article aims to evaluate access to prenatal care according to the dimensions of availability, affordability and acceptability in the SUS microregion of southeastern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-2013 that selected 742 postpartum women in seven hospitals in the region chosen for the research. The information was collected, processed and submitted to the chi-square test and the nonparametric Spearman's test, with p-values less than 5% (p access to health care, there are still inequalities between pregnant women from rural and urban areas in terms of the availability of health care and among families earning up to minimum wage and more than one minimum wage per month in terms of affordability; however, the acceptability of health care was equal, regardless of the modality of the health services. Conclusion The location, transport resources and financing of health services should be reorganised, and the training of health professionals should be enhanced to provide more equitable health care access to pregnant women. PMID:27166912

  2. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

  3. Avian influenza virus (H11N9 in migratory shorebirds wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil.

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    Jansen de Araujo

    Full Text Available Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR. The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres, that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America.

  4. Hepatitis B and C prevalences among blood donors in the south region of Brazil

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    H. C. F. F. Vasconcelos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection has been determined in a seroepidemiological survey among blood donors from the south of Brazil (Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina. These markers has also been correlated with the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, a surrogate marker to prevent post-transfusion hepatitis. Sera from 5000 donors were randomly collected in the period of April to November 1991. The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were respectively 0.78, 7.02 and 13.98. The anti-HCV prevalence after confirmation testing with line immunoassay (LIA, was 1.14. Normal values of ALT ( = 70 U/ml in 2.48. The positivity of anti-HCV antibodies increased with the elevation of ALT levels. This correlation was not observed in relation to HBsAg. There exists a diversity in the recognition of HCV epitopes among HCV positive donors. Via the confirmation test used, we could observe that 94.7 of donors recognize the structural core antigen. Besides that, we observed that 5.26 of the HCV reactive sera recognized only epitopes located in the NS4 and/or NS5 region, indicating the importance of these epitopes for the improvement of assays.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  6. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

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    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  7. Babesia canis vogeli infection in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Andreina C. Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

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    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  9. The effects of rainfall and vegetation on litterfall production in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

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    Lopes, M C A; Araújo, V F P; Vasconcellos, A

    2015-08-01

    Litterfall has a strong influence on biodiversity and on the chemical and physical characteristics of the soil. Its production can be quite variable over time and space, and can be influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. We evaluated litterfall production and its relationship with rainfall, species richness, and the densities of the arboreal vegetation. Thirty litter traps were constructed with 1.0 m2 nylon mesh (1.0 mm) and randomly installed within a 2000 m × 500 m area of arboreal/shrub Caatinga (dryland) vegetation. Litter samples were collected monthly from November/2010 to June/2012, and the collected material was classified, dried, and weighted. Species richness and tree densities were determined by conducting phytosociological surveys in 20 m × 20 m plots surrounding each of the litter traps. The litterfall accumulation rate was 3.673 Mgha-1yr-1, similar to values from other seasonally dry tropical forests. Litterfall production was continuous, and principally accompanied the rainfall rate, but with a time interval of 2 to 3 months, with the greatest accumulation at the beginning of the dry season and the least during the rainy season. The different fractions of materials demonstrated distinct accumulation rates, with leaves being the principal category. Litterfall production was found to be related to tree density, but no link was found to species richness. The observed temporal heterogeneity of litterfall production demonstrated a strong link between rainfall and the dynamics of nutrient cycling in the semiarid region of Brazil. PMID:26421774

  10. Geology and associated mineral occurrences of the Araxa Group, Mossamedes Region, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the region of Mossamedes, State of Goias, Brazil, the Precambrian metamorphic rocks of the Araxa group were mapped at the scale of 1:25,000, with emphasis on stratigraphic, structural, petrographic and economic aspects. These metamorphites represent a continous stratigraphic sequence which, from bottom to top can be subdivided into five informal lithostratigraphic units: 1) psamitic unit (quartzite, metaconglomerate); 2) psamitic-pelitic unit (quartzite, quartz schist, muscovite schist); 3) lower pelitic - volcanic unit (chlorite - biotite schist, fine grained blastoporphyritic gneiss, amphibolite and calc-schist); 4) upper pelitic - volcanic unit (garnet muscovite schist, biotite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, magnetite muscovite schist); 5) gneissic unit (epidote biotite gneiss, amphibolite). Three types of meta-intrusive rocks were found, besides basic dykes related to Mesozoic magmatism. Four phases of deformation affected the volcano-sedimentary sequence;D1, D2, D3 and D4, each of them developing distinct deformational features. Barrowian type metamorphism increases progressively from North to South from the biotite zone to the garnet zone (greenschist facies), reaching the staurolite-kyanite zone (amphibolite facies). The magmatism throughout the Group's evolution consists of mafic to felsic volcanic activity, mustly intermediary, as well as three intrusive events. Gold, copper and zinc minerals of economic interest occur within the studied area. The gold mineralizations are related to the pelitic-volcanic sequences. Copper occurs in several rocks from the pelitic-volcanic and gneissic sequences. (Author)

  11. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

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    Camila Arguelo Biberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2% K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2% were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the blaKPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  12. Brucella spp. in equines slaughtered in the south region of Brazil

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    R.F. Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacteria of the genus Brucella are widespread in many countries. These microorganisms can infect humans and many wild and domestic animal species. These bacteria have zoonotic potential, and can cause economic and public health problems since they can be transmitted by direct contact with sick animals, through consumption of contaminated milk, raw meat and its derivatives (Soares et al., 2015. Brucellosis is considered a chronic evolving disease, unusual in horses, predominantly caused by Brucella abortus. However, it is not characterized by reproductive disorders in horses, but primarily by abscess in the cervical region, bursa, tendons, and joints. Transmission is likely to occur via ingestion of contaminated water and pastures, especially in areas endemic for bovine brucellosis (Ribeiro et al., 2008. The slaughterhouse is a strategic point for obtaining information about the animal and animal products, edible or not. This study investigated the presence of anti-Brucella spp. immunoglobulins in the serum samples from horses slaughtered in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil, to estimate the frequency of Brucella spp. antibodies and determine the spatial distribution of the cases.

  13. Brazil in regional cooperation over the fight against violence and organised crime

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    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the 1980s, organised crime and urban violence were not considered a major political challenge in Brazil. This belief was encouraged by a great reluctance to introduce coercive police measures that might act as reminders of the repression experienced under the dictatorial government of the 1960s and 70s. At present, however, the collective strategy for the fight against transnational crime represents a fundamental challenge. Brazil’s domestic successes and its growing influence as a global actor could be tarnished if the country does not succeed in containing the presence of drug trafficking and related crime. The costs of insecurity, furthermore, are calling into question Brazil’s ability to constitute itself as a platform for South American development. The creation of Unasur and its South American Council on the World Drug Problem reflect South America’s commitment to support a forum for dialogue on the subject, and point to the way ahead: consolidating regional multilateralism. More than four years later, effective instruments are still being sought, but the successful experience of collaboration with Bolivia is being presented as a model for future actions. Strengthening coordination in Unasur will bring the added benefit of the ability to make progress in a more mature and balanced dialogue with the United States with respect to a joint hemispheric agenda.

  14. [Analysis of fluoride concentration in mineral waters in the Araraquara region in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, I M; Valsecki Júnior, A

    1998-10-01

    It has been shown that people of all ages can benefit from the topical and systemic effects of water fluoridation. However, the increase in consumption of bottled water, either to substitute for or supplement consumption of water from public sources, has implications for safe fluoride supplementation. Taking that into consideration, in 1995 we analyzed the fluoride content in 31 commercial brands of mineral water in the region of Araraquara, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fluoride concentration as determined by our analysis was compared to the concentration of fluoride specified on each label. Only 25% of the products studied listed the fluoride concentration on their labels. In addition, among 31 mineral water brands, 26 listed the date when the chemical analysis to determine chemical composition had been performed. Of these, 20 had not been put through the annual chemical analysis determined by Brazilian law. Based on these results, if the mineral waters tested had been the only source of drinking water, fluoride supplementation would have been necessary in 69% of the samples analyzed. In the case of children up to 6 years of age who use products containing fluoride, such as topical gels, mouthwashes or toothpastes, supplementation should be recommended only if commercially bottled water is the only source of water used, not only for drinking but for cooking as well. PMID:9924506

  15. Characterization of Fricke dosimeter developed at Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, Recife, PE, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) is a modified Fricke dosimeter system that was tested at the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/CNEN), in Recife, Brazil. The Fricke dosimeter system has been used in our laboratory successfully. We decided to test the FXG in our laboratory because this dosimetric system presents some advantages in relation to the Fricke dosimeter, such as: easy preparation, more sensitivity for doses between 5 - 30 Gy, good reproducibility, tissue equivalence and multidimensional dose information. The dosimetric solution was synthesized with 0.392 g of ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.0060 g of sodium chloride, 0.0076 g of xylenol orange, 5.0 g of gelatine (270 bloom porcine) and 300 μl of sulphuric acid in 100 ml of water. First, the water-gelatin mixture was heated and continuously stirred with a magnetic stirrer while the others reagents were added and the temperature was raised to 45 deg C. Once the solution ready it was transferred to acrylic cuvettes and kept in dark under refrigeration at 5 deg C during 12 h. Characteristics such as absorption spectrum, stability and linearity were evaluated by spectrophotometry (Beckman DU-640 UV-visible spectrophotometer). The developed material presented a good performance: ferric ion concentration at 589 nm, after irradiation; linear dose-response curve between 5 and 30 Gy; and saturation region for doses higher than 30 Gy. One disadvantage of the FXG system is its poor storage stability, because the non-irradiated samples suffer a selfdegradation and this could be a limitation for the use of FXG system. (author)

  16. Prenatal Transmission of Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Brazil: Achieving Regional Targets for Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Rodrigo; Perez, Freddy; Domingues, Rosa Maria S M; Luz, Paula M; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G; Caffe, Sonja; Francke, Jordan A; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Ciaranello, Andrea L

    2015-04-01

    Background.  The Pan-American Health Organization has called for reducing (1) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) to ≤0.30 infections/1000 live births (LB), (2) HIV MTCT risk to ≤2.0%, and (3) congenital syphilis (CS) incidence to ≤0.50/1000 LB in the Americas by 2015. Methods.  Using published Brazilian data in a mathematical model, we simulated a cohort of pregnant women from antenatal care (ANC) through birth. We investigated 2 scenarios: "current access" (89.1% receive one ANC syphilis test and 41.1% receive 2; 81.7% receive one ANC HIV test and 18.9% receive birth testing; if diagnosed, 81.0% are treated for syphilis and 87.5% are treated for HIV) and "ideal access" (95% of women undergo 2 HIV and syphilis screenings; 95% receive appropriate treatment). We conducted univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses on key inputs. Results.  With current access, we projected 2.95 CS cases/1000 LB, 0.29 HIV infections/1000 LB, 7.1% HIV MTCT risk, and 11.11 intrauterine fetal demises (IUFD)/1000 pregnancies, with significant regional variation. With ideal access, we projected improved outcomes: 1.00 CS cases/1000 LB, 0.10 HIV infections/1000 LB, HIV MTCT risk of 2.4%, and 10.65 IUFD/1000 pregnancies. Increased testing drove the greatest improvements. Even with ideal access, only HIV infections/1000 LB met elimination goals. Achieving all targets required testing and treatment >95% and reductions in prevalence and incidence of HIV and syphilis. Conclusions.  Increasing access to care and HIV and syphilis antenatal testing will substantially reduce HIV and syphilis MTCT in Brazil. In addition, regionally tailored interventions reducing syphilis incidence and prevalence and supporting HIV treatment adherence are necessary to completely meet elimination goals. PMID:26180825

  17. Doenças em eucaliptos destinados à produção de energia na região Sul do Brasil Impacts of diseases on eucalypts used for energy forests in southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Garcia Auer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O eucalipto é o segundo gênero florestal mais plantado na região Sul do Brasil, para a produção de celulose, papel e energia. A expansão contínua dos plantios comerciais de eucalipto na região Sul do Brasil tem levado ao aumento na incidência e severidade de doenças. O presente trabalho discute a ocorrência e a distribuição de doenças do eucalipto nessa região, as espécies suscetíveis e os agentes causais. Estratégias de controle como o mapeamento de áreas de risco, o uso de material genético resistente e o controle químico são medidas adequadas para minimizar os impactos negativos na produção de madeira para energia. As doenças, em especial a ferrugem do eucalipto, que reduzem a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira foram consideradas as mais importantes e que devem ser controladas.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.373

    Eucalypts are the second forest species most planted in Southern Brazil, for production of cellulose, paper and energy. The continued expansion of commercial plantations in southern Brazil region has led to an increase on incidence and severity of diseases. The present work discusses the occurrence and distribution of diseases associated to this region, susceptible species, and causal agents. Strategies for control such as mapping of risk areas, use of resistant genetic material and chemical control are adequate measures to minimize negative impacts on wood production for energy. Diseases, as eucalypt rust, that reduce the productivity and wood quality were considered the most important and must be controlled.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.373

  18. Social Marketing for Women's Health Campaigns: An Analysis in the Abc Region, Greater São Paulo, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Coutinho da Silva; José Afonso Mazzon

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to identify and evaluate the Social Marketing principles (and practices) in women’s health programme in the ABC Region, located in the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. The Social Marketing orientation seeks to potentialise public health campaigns using five principles: customer focus; focus on the benefits to customers; endeavour to create value; involving the whole organisation in the process; being aware that customers are different. In methodological terms, this re...

  19. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria T.S. Frade; Luiza F. de Melo; Clarice R.M Pessoa; Jeann L. de Araújo; Rafael A Fighera; Almir P. Souza; Francisco Uzal; Antonio F.M. Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the...

  20. Occurrence and risk factors assessment associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in chickens in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvio G. de Sá; José W. Pinheiro Júnior; Sineide M. de Oliveira Vilela; Erica P.B.X. Moraes; Pedro P.F. Albuquerque; Débora R.A. Ferreira; Rinaldo A. Mota

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection and risk factors of this disease in three hundred serum samples from on 23 familiar agricultural properties in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. ELISA was used to study antibodies anti-Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The univariate analysis (chi-squared test or Fischer's exact test) followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression) were used to assess the risk f...

  1. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia de Brito Valente; Kátia Cavalcanti Pôrto; Cid José Passos Bastos; Jana Ballejos-Loyola

    2013-01-01

    Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colon...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante; Lidilhone Hamerski; Walmir Silva Garcez; Ana Lucia Batista; Marilene Rodrigues Chang; Vali Joana Pott; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), a...

  3. Distribution, abundance and biomass of Chaetognaths off São Sebastião region, Brazil in February 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui-Hua Liang; Luz Amelia Vega-Perez

    2002-01-01

    The distribution, abundance, biomass, population structure and feeding habits of chaetognaths collected off São Sebastião region, Brazil, in February 1994 are described. Bongo nets were hauled obliquely to collect zooplankton samples. Forty-three samples obtained with the 333 urn mesh were analysed. In this study, 7 chaetognath species belonging to two genera were identified. Sagitta friderici, S. tenuis and S. bipunctata were grouped into the neritic category, and Sagitta enflata, S. hispida...

  4. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  5. Injuries and envenoming by aquatic animals in fishermen of Coxim and Corumbá municipalities, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: identification of the causative agents, clinical aspects and first aid measures Traumas e envenenamentos por animais aquáticos em pescadores de Coxim e Corumbá, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil: identificação de agentes causadores, aspectos clínicos e medidas de primeiros socorros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovane Cândido da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The fishes of continental Brazil have socioeconomic importance due to their potential for sport fishing and commercial and subsistence uses, as seen in the Upper Paraguay River Basin, particularly in the municipalities of the Pantanal region, where it is the second largest economic activity. Injuries caused in professional fishermen are common and poorly studied, as in other regions of the country. METHODS: Data were obtained from questionnaires and interviews with 100 professional fishermen, 50 in each municipality, between December 2008 and October 2009. RESULTS: All the fishermen reported some kind of injury caused by fish stings (78% of injuries and fish, alligator and snake bites (22% on the hands (46% of cases and feet (35% of cases. Most of the patients had mild symptoms. The most severe cases were associated with secondary bacterial infections and required specific treatment and prolonged recovery associated with social and economic losses. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the stressful work conditions, inattention to basic preventive measures and carelessness were factors that contributed to accidents and that the toxicity and ability to inflict mechanical trauma of some aquatic species, plus the ineffective use of first aid and hospital treatment, contributed to the high morbidity and complications in many cases. Data from this study are relevant to the fishing communities of the Pantanal region, since they reveal high rates of accidents, lack of knowledge concerning first aid, initial treatment, injury prevention and lack of medical follow-up of the population.INTRODUÇÃO: Os peixes continentais do Brasil têm grande importância socioeconômica, tanto pelo potencial para a pesca esportiva, quanto para a pesca comercial e de subsistência, como é notado na bacia do Alto Rio Paraguai, particularmente, nos municípios da região do Pantanal. Ferimentos e envenenamentos em pescadores profissionais s

  6. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (Collembola: Paronellidae) from Atlantic Forest, Northeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Dias da Silva; Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2015-01-01

    Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in DBEZ from Brazil, state of Rio Grande do Norte State, municipality of Bani Formosa), a new springtail from the Atlantic Forest domain, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species is diagnosed by unique coloration pattern, presence of 8+8 eyes, reduced number of setae on metatrochanteral organ, unguiculi truncated and dorsal chaetotaxy. Trogolaphysa formosensis sp. nov. is the first species of the genus f...

  7. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Minharro; Cristiane de Morais Alves; Pedro Moacyr Pinto Coelho Mota; Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles; Andréa Padilha de Alencar; Raimundo Magalhães dos Santos; Bruno Meireles Leite; Andrey Pereira Lage

    2016-01-01

    Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buf...

  8. Shallow landslide prediction and analysis with risk assessment using a spatial model in the coastal region in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camarinha, P. I. M.; V. Canavesi; R. C. S. Alvalá

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, most of the disasters involving landslide occur in coastal regions, with population density concentrated on steep slopes. Thus, different approaches have been used to evaluate the landslide risk, although the greatest difficulty is related to the scarcity of spatial data with good quality. In this context, four cities located on the southeast coast of Brazil – Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba – in a region with the rough reliefs of the Serra do Mar and w...

  9. Cretaceous biota of the Triângulo Mineiro region (Brazil: A review of recent finds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candeiro, C. R. A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bauru Group (Adamantina, Uberaba, and Marília Formations crop out in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and yield a rich continental biota. Invertebrate and vertebrate taxa from underlying and overlying strata, as well as biostratigraphical correlations with other fossil sites in Argentina, suggest an Upper Cretaceous age for this biota. The diversity of the fossil assemblage recorded in these formations is summarized here and includes: frogs, lizards, crocodiles, titanosaurs, abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs. This fossil assemblage provides important clues to understand faunas from other southern landmasses, particularly those from the Cretaceous of the African continent.Los afloramientos del Grupo Bauru (formaciones Adamantina, Uberaba y Marília en la región del Triângulo Mineiro, Provincia de Minas Gerais, Brasil, posee un rico contenido de biota continental. Los taxa de invertebrados y vertebrados de estos estratos, así como las correlaciones biostratigráficas con otros yacimientos fósiles de Argentina, sugieren una edad del Cretácico Tardío. La diversidad de la asociación fósil registrada en las formaciones del Triângulo Mineiro se resume en el presente trabajo e incluye: sapos, lagartos, tortugas, cocodrilianos, titanosaurideos, dinosaurios abelisaurideos y carcharodontosaurideos. Esta asociación es importante para la comprensión de las faunas del sur de América y también de las del Cretácico de África.

  10. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk. - Highlights: ► Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. ► Lack of clear reentry restrictions can intensify the exposure in greenhouses. ► Specific regulations dealing with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment are needed. ► Distribution of simple guidelines relying on greenhouse working can improve OSH practices. ► Training interventions are important to change the workers' perception of hazards and behavior towards risk.

  11. Epidemiologia e controle da tristeza parasitária bovina na região sudeste do Brasil Epidemiology and control of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Macêdo Gonçalves

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A babesiose bovina e a anaplasmose (Tristeza Parasitária Bovina são enfermidades transmitidas pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus e por moscas hematófagas, respectivamente, ocorrendo em caráter endêmico no Brasil, acarretando elevadas perdas econômicas na pecuária. Nesse país, observa-se uma grande variedade de fatores epidemiológicos influenciando sua ocorrência, tais como: variação climática, práticas de manejo, controle de carrapato e introdução de bovinos susceptíveis. Assim, esta revisão aborda aspectos epidemiológicos do controle da anaplasmose e da babesiose bovina do Brasil, com ênfase na região sudeste. Fatores que influenciam a instabilidade e a estabilidade enzoótica de ambas as espécies também são discutidos. As medidas de controle empregadas atualmente são: quimioprofilaxia, o uso de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato vetor B. microplus, a premunição e a vacinação.Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are diseases transmitted by Boophilus microplus and haematophagous diptera, respectively, occurring in endemic character in Brazil, resulting in high economic loss on livestock production. In this country a wide range of epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence, such as climate variations, husbandry practices, tick control and susceptible purebreed cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks have been described. This review focuses the epidemiological control and some aspects of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Brazil, with emphasis in southeast region. Factors influencing enzootic stability and instability of both species are also discussed. The control measures employed at present are chemoprophylaxis, use of acaricides for B. microplus, premunition and vaccination.

  12. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  13. Studies on chaetognaths off Ubatuba region, Brazil: I. distribution and abundance

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    Liang Tsui Hua

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of chaetognath species off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, Brazil, was studied during a program of multidisciplinary research. Ten species belonging to the genera Sagitta, Krohnita and Pterosagitta were identified. S. enflata was the dominant species followed by S.friderici and S. hispida. The species S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata and JC pacifica were found in the Shelf water whereas S. serratodentata, S. minima, S. hexaptera and P. draco in the Tropical water. Only S. friderici was found associated to Coastal water. Hydrological conditions affected population structure, size of individuals and abundance.A ocorrência, distribuição, freqüência dos estágios de maturidade e comprimento total do corpo das espécies do filo Chaetognatha foram estudados. As amostras foram obtidas com o auxílio de rede Bongo, nos verões de 1985 - 1987 e invernos de 1986 e 1987, durante o Projeto "Utilização Racional do Ecossistema Costeiro da Região Tropical Brasileira, Estado de São Paulo". Dez espécies foram identificadas, sendo Sagitta enflata, S. friderici e S. hispida as espécies mais abundantes. S. enflata, S. hispida, S. tenuis, S. bipunctata e Krohnita pacifica estão associadas à água de Plataforma enquanto que S. serratodentata, S. hexaptera, S. minima e Pterosagitta draco à água Tropical. Apenas S. friderici mostrou preferência por água Costeira. Diferenças sazonais na estrutura da população, tamanho dos indivíduos, abundância e distribuição estão associados à hidrodinâmica local. Nos verões, os quetognatos apresentaram maior número de estágios maduros nas amostras examinadas, comprimentos maiores e baixa abundância como conseqüência da intrusão da água Central do Atlântico Sul que provocou uma estratificação térmica característica. Em contraposição, nestas amostras, nos invernos, a população é formada por indivíduos de estágios jovens, de comprimentos menores e grande

  14. Yield and biological nitrogen fixation of cowpea varieties in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowpea is an important crop in small properties of the Brazilian semi-arid region, where it is cultivated without fertilizer application. In spite of the fundamental role played by biological Nitrogen fixation (BNF), little is known of the symbiosis between cowpea varieties and native rhizobia or recommended rhizobia strains. A field experiment was conducted aiming to estimate BNF and productivities of local varieties, in association with two previously described bradyrhizobial inoculant strains and native rhizobia (no inoculation). The plants received 20 kg ha−1 of enriched 15N fertilizer to allow the use of the isotopic dilution method. After harvest (80 days) straw and grain biomass was determined. The varieties differed in grain and straw productivity and in N and N derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa). Corujinha had the highest grain productivity (1147 kg ha−1), followed by Sempre Verde (920 kg ha−1), Azul (912 kg ha−1) and Cariri (889 kg ha−1). Costela de Vaca had the highest straw productivity (2258 kg ha−1), highest N content in the straw (28 g ha−1) and highest BNF (79 %Ndfa, corresponding to 45 kg ha−1 of N for total aboveground biomass and 39 kg ha−1 for the straw), but the lowest grain productivity (381 kg ha−1) and the lowest harvest index (0.14). The inoculations did not significantly alter productivities, N contents or %Ndfa but there was a tendency of lower grain productivities in the non-inoculated plants, which was reflected in lower total and biologically fixed N quantities, indicating that the native strains may be slightly less efficient. -- Highlights: ► We estimate N fixation and productivities of local cowpea varieties in Brazil. ► Plants were inoculated or not with two recommended rhizobia strains. ► All local varieties had high proportions of their N derived from the air (%Ndfa). ► They differed in BNF in grain and straw productivity. ► Inoculation did not alter productivities or %Ndfa but decreased fixed N amounts.

  15. Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea no Sul do Brasil Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea in the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento taxonômico das espécies de Nycteribiidae e de seus hospedeiros foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, utilizando material depositados em coleções e dados de literatura. Foram encontradas um total de 12 espécies de Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 sobre oito espécies de morcegos pertencentes as famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Considerando o número de espécies por estado, houve um decréscimo no sentido norte-sul. No Paraná, foram encontradas nove espécies, em Santa Catarina oito e no Rio Grande do Sul quatro. Basilia speiseri (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 é registrada pela primeira vez nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 e B. producta Maa, 1968 são novos registros para Santa Catarina e B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 é registrada pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 é registrado pela primeira vez como hospedeiro de B. producta e Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 de B. juquiensis. O macho de Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 é descrito. Chave para as espécies de Basilia encontradas é disponibilizada.A survey of nicteribiid bat flies was carried out in the Southern Region of Brazil. Twelve species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 were recorded on eight species of bats. The number of species of Basilia decreased north to south. In the State of Paraná nine species were found, eight in Santa Catarina and four in Rio Grande do Sul. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 and B. producta Maa, 1968 were recorded for the first time from Santa Catarina and B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 from Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 is been reported as a new host for B. producta and Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 for B. juquiensis. The male of Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 is described. Key for the collected species of Basilia is given.

  16. 78 FR 77370 - Importation of Beef From a Region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69851-69857, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034) a final rule that, among... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 68327-68331) on November 14, 2013, and effective on November 29... in Brazil AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule....

  17. Youth Well-Being in Brazil : An Index for Cross-Regional Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aglio, Debora; Cunningham, Wendy; Koller, Silvia; Cassepp Borges, Vicente; Severo Leon, Joana

    2007-01-01

    This study constructs three indices to measure how well Brazil's young people are surviving their transition to adulthood. Youth development is difficult to quantify because of the multi-dimensionality of youth behavior. Most monitoring use individual indicators in specific sectors, making it difficult to track overall progress. The study adapts to the Brazilian case a methodology develope...

  18. Phylogenetic and Similarity Analysis of HTLV-1 Isolates from HIV-Coinfected Patients from the South and Southeast Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Rosangela; Ferreira João L P; Morimoto Helena K; Magri Mariana C; Brigido Luis F M; Caterino-de-Araujo Adele

    2012-01-01

    HTLV-1 is endemic in Brazil and HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection has been detected, mostly in the northeast region. Cosmopolitan HTLV-1a is the main subtype that circulates in Brazil. This study characterized 17 HTLV-1 isolates from HIV coinfected patients of southern (n=7) and southeastern (n=10) Brazil. HTLV-1 provirus DNA was amplified by nested PCR (env and LTR) and sequenced. Env sequences (705 bp) from 15 isolates and LTR sequences (731 bp) from 17 isolates showed 99.5% and 98.8% similarity among...

  19. Risk of 226 Ra ingestion due to water consumption from phosphatic regions of the Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological survey performed in the coastal region of the Northeast of Brazil showed presence of uranium phosphate deposits in a land strip corresponding to the Pernambuco-Paraiba sedimentary basin. The local population uses the water that crosses phosphate area, with higher than normal concentration of uranium and its progeny. this work is aimed to determine the cancer risk, based on the rate of ingestion the 226 Ra due to water consumption. The results of the analyses showed increments of 7% for head sarcoma and 3% for osteosarcomas occurrences due to 226 Ra ingestion for the local population. (author)

  20. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão; Nathália Motta Delvaux Ramos; Maria Fantinatti; Marcus Vinícius Proença de Moraes; Halim Atique Netto; Luciane Moreno Storti-Melo; Elenir Alves Macedo de Godoy; Andréa Regina Baptista Rossit; Octávio Fernandes; Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent w...

  1. The panorama of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, regarding the seroepidemiology of the infection in tropical regions

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important disease caused by various serovars of Leptospira sp. It can affect humans as well as domestic and wild animals; therefore, it has importance for public health, animal production, and wild species. The aim of this paper is to discuss the epidemiology of animal leptospirosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a possible model for other tropical regions. In several studies conducted in the last 20 years, a total of 47 rats, 120 dogs, 875 cows, 695 horses, 1,34...

  2. Identification and analysis of local and regional impacts from the introduction of biodiesel production in the state of Piaui [Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent moves towards the insertion of biofuels in the energy matrix of a number of countries are opening new prospects for agricultural production and for agroindustrial chains. The emergence of this new productive base raises new research issues: in what circumstances are the structuring, organization and implementation of these biodiesel productive chains taking place in Brazil? What are the effects of biodiesel production on local economies? Hence, the central objective of this study is identifying their economic and social impacts at the regions where they are installed. The analytical structure was constructed based on theories of regional and spatial economy: location coefficient, shift-share, theories of industrial location. A preliminary analysis identified that a biodiesel productive arrangement is emerging in the State of Piaui, Northeastern Brazil, with the purpose of stimulating regional development using alternative oil-bearing crops. However, the agricultural project in the town of Canto do Buriti/PI has faced problems of both a cultural and productive nature. Preliminary findings reveal productive, organizational, managerial and governance related difficulties and challenges that need to be faced when establishing a new productive base in a location that up to that point lacks a productive tradition. (author)

  3. Social Marketing for Women's Health Campaigns: An Analysis in the Abc Region, Greater São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Coutinho da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and evaluate the Social Marketing principles (and practices in women’s health programme in the ABC Region, located in the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. The Social Marketing orientation seeks to potentialise public health campaigns using five principles: customer focus; focus on the benefits to customers; endeavour to create value; involving the whole organisation in the process; being aware that customers are different. In methodological terms, this research is exploratory and descriptive through a single case study, the ABC region; nine interviews have been carried out with health managers of women's health programmes in the three cities of the region. The qualitative methods were used to report the results. The authors of this study verified that Social Marketing strategies are present in women's health campaigns, but, not all processes and in the expected way, by the proposed the Social Marketing plan. 

  4. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFONSO C. R. NOGUEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.As cachoeiras da região de Presidente Figueiredo constituem um dos mais fascinantes cenários naturais do nordeste do Estado do Amazonas, norte do Brasil. As quedas, geralmente com menos de 10m de altura, são desenvolvidas em rochas siliciclásticas das formações Nhamundá (Siluriano inferior e Manacapuru (Siluriano superior-Devoniano inferior. Os estudos morfológico e estrutural dessas feições indicam que a maioria dessas quedas de água originaram-se por neotectônica quaternária e encontram-se instaladas em escarpas de falhas normais NE-SW. Ocorrem, ainda, com menor freqüência, cachoeiras evoluídas a partir de feições pseudocársticas. A origem das cachoeiras de Presidente Figueiredo provavelmente remonta ao Ne

  5. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  6. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semiarid region, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo RN; Mourão José S; Mendonça Lívia ET; Confessor Maine VA

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Traditional Medicine and this is true in Brazil as well both in rural and urban areas of the country. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine in the country. The use of these natural resources for medical purposes, however, is not restricted to human diseases treatment, being also widely used for the treatment of animal illnesses. Ethnoveterinary is a science that involves...

  7. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima; Cristiane Cunha Frota; Rosa Maria Salani Mota; Rosa Livia Freitas de Almeida; Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes; Heitor de Sá Gonçalves; Laura Cunha Rodrigues; Carl Kendall; Ligia Kerr

    2015-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive p...

  8. Brazil in regional cooperation over the fight against violence and organised crime

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Fortuna Biato

    2012-01-01

    Until the 1980s, organised crime and urban violence were not considered a major political challenge in Brazil. This belief was encouraged by a great reluctance to introduce coercive police measures that might act as reminders of the repression experienced under the dictatorial government of the 1960s and 70s. At present, however, the collective strategy for the fight against transnational crime represents a fundamental challenge. Brazil’s domestic successes and its growing influence as a glob...

  9. Assessment of the quality of compounded fluconazole capsules marketed in the region of Araraquara (SP, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Josilene Chaves Ruela Corrêa; Nathália Maia Vanzela; Taízia Dutra Silva; Cristina Duarte Vianna-Soares; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

    2014-01-01

    The quality control of drugs has an important role in public health, in ensuring the efficacy and safety of medicines. In the public health system, compounding pharmacies play a vital part. They provide medicines tailored to the individual patient, for example dermatological products and specific doses for children. Unfortunately, many cases of compounded products falling below the minimum quality standard have been reported in Brazil. In this study, the quality of ...

  10. The quaternary geological history of the Santa Catarina Southeastern Region (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCISCO CARUSO JR.; KENITIRO SUGUIO; TOSHIO NAKAMURA

    2000-01-01

    This paper supply subsidies for Quaternary geological reconstruction of the southeastern State of Santa Catarina coast in Brazil, being based on detailed geological mapping supported by a series of drilling data, which allowed to establish a stratigraphical hierarchy of the sedimentary deposits. Among the mapped geological units stand out the extensive Pleistocene shallow marine sandy sediments, which are commonly referred as a barrier island - lagoonal depositional system. A drilling campaig...

  11. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque; Michele de Souza Bastos; Wornei Silva Miranda Braga; Cintia Mara Costa de Oliveira; Márcia da Costa Castilho; Regina Maria Pinto de Figueiredo; Elizabeth dos Santos Galusso; Evaulino Ferreira Itapirema; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo; Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM), Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municip...

  12. Medidas dos níveis de radônio em diferentes tipos de ambientes internos na região da Baixada Santista, SP Measurements of radon levels in different indoor environments in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Geraldo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Exposições a altos níveis do gás radioativo radônio podem causar câncer de pulmão e, conseqüentemente, o conhecimento da concentração deste gás em ambientes internos é importante, do ponto de vista de proteção radiológica, para a população de um modo geral. Neste trabalho realizaram-se monitorações passiva e integrada de radônio em alguns tipos de ambientes fechados na região da Baixada Santista, SP, tais como túneis, galpão de fertilizantes, "shopping center", lojas de cerâmica e residências, com o objetivo de se avaliar os níveis de concentração existentes nestes locais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As medidas de concentração de radônio foram realizadas utilizando a técnica do registro de traços de partículas alfa em folhas plásticas de Makrofol E, na geometria de copo fechado ("cup method". RESULTADOS: Os teores de radônio encontrados nos ambientes internos estudados neste trabalho variaram entre 17 e 263 Bq/m³, em razoável acordo com os valores divulgados na literatura por outros autores para ambientes similares. CONCLUSÃO: De modo geral, os resultados obtidos estão abaixo dos limites máximos recomendados pela Comissão Internacional de Proteção Radiológica (ICRP, não necessitando, portanto, que sejam implementadas ações de intervenção nos locais estudados.OBJECTIVE: Exposure to high levels of radioactive radon gas can cause lung cancer, therefore, it is important to measure the concentration levels of this gas in indoor environments in order to provide radiological protection for the general population. In this study, passive and time-integrated radon monitoring was performed in different types of indoor environments in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil including tunnels, fertilizer shops, shopping malls, ceramics shops and houses to evaluate the actual radon levels in these locations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radon concentration measurements were performed using the alpha particle track

  13. Characterization of Rhodnius neglectus from Two Regions of Brazil Using Isoenzymes, Genitalia Morphology and Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Rodrigo Pedro Pinto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the triatomines considered as secondary in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, Rhodnius neglectus is frequently captured in artificial ecotopes, especially peridomiciliary ones, rarely producing colonies indoors. Nevertheless, the presence of breeding colonies in houses was unquestionably demonstrated in some areas of the State of Goiás, Brazil. Previous isoenzyme comparisons of this species with morphologically close triatomines, such as R. prolixus, R. robustus or R. nasutus, did not produce definitive conclusions because of doubt about the geographical origin of the R. neglectus. We present here, for the first time, the isoenzyme profile of topotypes of R. neglectus. In addition, wild caught specimens from the type locality, Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compared to wild caught specimens from Jaraguá (Goiás, Brazil, where R. neglectus is more frequently reported invading houses. We used isoenzyme, morphology and morphometry analysis. Neither morphological nor enzymatic differences were found between areas, but metric, size-related divergence was evidenced between them.

  14. Risk factors associated with hantavirosis fatality: a regional analysis from a case-control study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Antunes Willemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Brazil, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has a high lethality rate that varies by region. This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with fatal hantavirosis. Methods: This study was a case-control study that included all laboratory confirmed cases of hantavirosis. The cases were stratified by the different Brazilian regions using data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System. “Cases” were patients who progressed to death, whereas “controls” were patients who were cured. The odds ratio (OR and the adjusted OR were calculated. Results: Overall, 158 cases and 281 controls were included in this study. In the Midwest region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with flank pain, and the time between the beginning of symptoms and death was shorter than the time between the beginning of symptoms and a cure. In the Southeast region, the cases were 60% less likely to present with thrombocytopenia or reside in rural areas compared to those who progressed to a cure. Additionally, the cases sought medical assistance, notification and investigation more quickly than the controls. In the Southern region, the cases that died were 70% less likely to be male compared to the controls. Conclusions: HCPS manifests with nonspecific symptoms, and there are few published studies related to the condition, so determining a patient's therapeutic strategy is difficult. This study presents findings from different Brazilian regions and highlights the need for further investigations to improve comprehension about regional risk factors associated with hantavirosis and to reduce morbimortality.

  15. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle

  16. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NOx, NMTOC and carbon monoxide

  17. Occurrence and risk factors assessment associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection in chickens in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio G. de Sá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG infection and risk factors of this disease in three hundred serum samples from on 23 familiar agricultural properties in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. ELISA was used to study antibodies anti-Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The univariate analysis (chi-squared test or Fischer's exact test followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression were used to assess the risk factors with two variables: management and sanity of the poultry. It was detected a frequence of 53.33% (157/300 of the birds were positive for MG, with 100% foci. The risk factors confirmed by multivariate analysis, in the present study, were the presence of other poultry species on the property, including Numida meleagris (OR=2.22; p=0.005, parrots (OR=1.72; p=0.027, and of passerines (OR=1.88; p=0.007. These results showed that Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection is endemic among backyard poultry in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco. These birds could be a source of infection for other wild or domestic poultry. . This is the first report of the occurrence of avian mycoplasmosis in backyard poultry in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. The risk factors identified should serve as a parameter for the health authorities to seek solutions related to controlling the disease.

  18. MIGRATION AND POPULATION OUTBREAKS OF MILLIPEDES IN THE COFFEE PLANTATIONS, REGION OF ALTO PARANAIBA, MG, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Silva Penteado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations and population outbreaks of millipedes are phenomena that, due to their unpredictability, have attracted the attention of researchers in order to obtain information for a better understanding of this occurrence and for the adoption of efficient control methods when these arthropods cause damage to urban and cultivated areas.Cloudsley-Thompson (1949 reported that individuals of Fontariavirginensis spread over an area of 75 acres in West Virginia (USA farms in such large numbers that cattle were unable to graze and workers were nauseated by the odor exhaled by dead diplopods. At night and on cloudy days they moved in large numbers; most of them (a number estimated at 65 million animals were killed by the heat of the sun. Niijima e Shinohara (1988, in turn, reported that in Hungary in 1878, in France in 1900, and in Germany in 1906 and 1938, railroad tracks had to be covered with sand for train wheels to be able to adhere to them. In the same article, they pointed out that in Japan the millipede Parafontaria laminata became known by interrupting railroad traffic and emphasized that the population explosions of this millipede occurred at 7 to 8 year intervals and that most of the animals found were adults or sub-adults. This fact has raised speculations about the fact that mating could be a probable cause of such explosions. In Brazil, since the beginning of the 90’s, a population expansion of the millipede Plusioporus setiger (Brolemann, 1901 (Spirostreptida: Spirostreptidae has been observed in coffee plantations in the Alto Paranaíba region, MG (18º37´-19º00´S; 46º52´-47º30´W – a "cerrado" region that was deforested in the 70’s for coffee culture. The infestations probably started in the coffee plantations of the Macaúbas Farm – Patrocínio, and today reach coffee plantations in Monte Carmelo, Iraí de Minas and Ibiá. The phenomenon has been attributed to organic fertilization and irrigation of the coffee plantations

  19. Study of fodder, urine and bovine milk in marginal region of the Rio das Vellhas, Curvelo - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parametric technique k0 of neutronic activation was used for determination of elements in samples of bovine urine and milk and fodder plant, of the region of farming production of Curvelo - Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples had been collected in farms next to the margins to the Rio das Velhas that periodically suffer flooding in the rainy station. Clinical veterinarians studies disclose that many animals created in this region present illnesses with nervous symptomatology, suggestive of a picture of poisoning, however without definite diagnosis. These pathologies frequently are observed after the flooding. In this work had been determined the elements, Cr, Co, Zn among others. The results gotten in the different samples of urine and milk of the studied animals, as well as in the fodder plants, suggest that it has influence of loaded metals for waters of the high course of the basin river of Velhas

  20. Length-weight relationship of 73 fish species caught in the southeastern inner continental shelf region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June F Dias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The a and b parameters of the length-weight relationship (LWR of the form W = aLb were estimated for 71 species of Actinopterygii and 2 Elasmobranchii, caught in the coastal region and inner shelf of southeastern Brazil. Estimates of b varied from 2.151 to 3.882. For the first time LWR for eight fish species is reported. Significant differences were observed among b values obtained for the same species caught in different ecosystems. Moreover, significant different results for b were observed among species caught in different ecosystems and between sexes of 12 species. Therefore, in order to obtain a reliable biomass estimate it is necessary to choose LWR data close in time and region with estimates for each sex.

  1. A study of the behavior of labor industrial productivity in the regions of Brazil during the period 1996 to 2010

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    Edileuza Vital Galeano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present an empirical study of the behavior of labor industrial productivity in the regions of Brazil during the period 1996 to 2010 by groups of technology intensity. It was used the shift-share method. The results indicated that in the groups of sectors that showed positive growth rates were the competitive advantages inherent to each region that explained, in most cases, the growth of labor productivity. There was predominance of technology absorbing sectors in prejudice of sectors that generate technological spillovers. The growth of labor productivity in the extractive industry showed a upward trend, while the manufacturing industry showed downward trend, evidencing a stagnation of labor productivity at the national level. There are evidences of a reprimarization process of industrial activities through the specialization in commodities.

  2. Environmental integrity and damselfly species composition in Amazonian streams at the "arc of deforestation" region, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Investigated how the loss of environmental integrity affects damselfly species composition in nine sites with different levels of environmental integrity in a Cerrado-Amazon transition region known as "arc of deforestation" in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We also tested the influence of environmental variables on species composition. METHODS: We collected in transects of 100 m and used ordination (PCoA and simple linear regression. RESULTS: Species composition was strongly influenced by the environmental quality of sites, and the best model to explain species composition included variables related to channel morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These results are connected to the environmental homogenization and loss of environmental integrity as a result of extensive agricultural practices which alter stream communities of dragonflies in this region.

  3. Age and regional differences in clinical presentation and risk of hospitalization for dengue in Brazil, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, Marcelo N.; Lopez, Luis F.; Coutinho, Francisco A.B.; Siqueira, João B.; Homsani, Sheila; Sarti, Elsa; Massad, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dengue cases range from asymptomatic to severe, eventually leading to hospitalization and death. Timely and appropriate management is critical to reduce morbidity. Since 1980, dengue has spread throughout Brazil, affecting an increasing number of individuals. This paper describes age and regional differences in dengue’s clinical presentation and associated risk of hospitalization based on more than 5 million cases reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health from 2000-2014. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of ∼5,450,000 dengue cases, relating clinical manifestations and the risk of hospitalization to age, gender, previous infection by dengue, dengue virus serotype, years of formal education, delay to first attendance and the occurrence of dengue during outbreaks and in different Brazilian regions. RESULTS: Complicated forms of dengue occurred more frequently among those younger than 10 years (3.12% vs 1.92%) and those with dengue virus 2 infection (7.65% vs 2.42%), with a delay to first attendance >2 days (3.18% vs 0.82%) and with ≤4 years of formal education (2.02% vs 1.46%). The risk of hospitalization was higher among those aged 6-10 years old (OR 4.57; 95% CI 1.43-29.96) and those who were infected by dengue virus 2 (OR 6.36; 95% CI 2.52-16.06), who lived in the Northeast region (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.11-2.10) and who delayed first attendance by >5 days (composite OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.33-8.9). CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil, the occurrence of severe dengue and related hospitalization is associated with being younger than 10 years old, being infected by dengue virus 2 or 3, living in the Northeast region (the poorest and the second most populated) and delaying first attendance for more than 2 days.

  4. Operaciones de Flujo de Fluidos. Tema 5: Medida de caudales

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Díaz, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Apuntes del tema 5. Medida de caudales. En este tema se resumen las principales características de los medidores de caudal, analizando de manera especial los que basan su medida en diferencias de presión.

  5. Seroreactivity to new Mycobacterium leprae protein antigens in different leprosy-endemic regions in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Emerith Mayra Hungria; Regiane Morillas Oliveira; Ana Lúcia Osório Maroclo de Souza; Maurício Barcelos Costa; Vânia Nieto Brito de Souza; Eliane Aparecida Silva; Fátima Regina Vilani Moreno; Maria Esther Salles Nogueira; Maria Renata Sales Nogueira Costa; Sônia Maria Usó Ruiz Silva; Samira Bührer-Sékula; Reed, Steven G.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani

    2012-01-01

    New Mycobacterium leprae protein antigens can contribute to improved serologic tests for leprosy diagnosis/classification and multidrug therapy (MDT) monitoring. This study describes seroreactivity to M. leprae proteins among participants from three highly endemic leprosy areas in Brazil: central-western Goiânia/Goiás (GO) (n = 225), Rondonópolis/Mato Grosso (MT) (n = 764) and northern Prata Village/Pará (PA) (n = 93). ELISA was performed to detect IgG to proteins (92f, 46f, leprosy IDRI diag...

  6. Growth of yellow ipe in central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Zimmermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the growth in diameter and height of individuals Handroanthus chrysotrichus through models based on age, in a stand in the municipality of São Pedro do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data are from three representative trees of the population and were obtained from stem analysis. The diameter growth of Handroanthus chrysotrichus trees in a function of age was best explained by the allometric model. For height the negative exponential model showed better statistical parameters. Selected models explain more than 92% of the variation and configure as adequate tools for the management of this species.

  7. Medidas de la felicidad nacional bruta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResumen. La felicidad está abriéndose hueco en la agenda política, lo cual reclama medir el éxito alcanzado por los distintos países en crear felicidad para un gran número de personas, de un modo análogo a las medidas del éxito en la creación de riqueza, como el PNB. La felicidad se defi

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection among leprosy patients in a leprosy-endemic region of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Hernández Ramos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy and hepatitis B virus (HBV are highly endemic in some regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in central Brazil. The association of leprosy with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV was assessed using a seroprevalence study and 191 leprosy outpatients were included. Demographic data and the clinical classification of leprosy were recorded. Evidence of previous HBV infection was present in 53 patients (27.7%, 95% confidence interval: 21.9-34.5 and two (1% were HBsAg positive. Five (2.6% had antibodies to HCV. The prevalence of previous exposure to HBV was higher than expected for an adult population in central Brazil. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was not much higher regarding the age range of participants. HBV markers were associated with a higher number of sex partners and the use of injections without proper sterilisation of the syringes. The number of HBV carriers was small, suggesting that there was no increased likelihood of chronification among these patients.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. PMID:24731964

  10. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, and ensemble prediction, combining different outputs of climate models through the arithmetic average, in other words, a postprocessing of the output data species. Thus, this paper proposes a method of postprocessing outputs of regional climate models. This method consists in using the statistical tool multiple linear regression by principal components for combining different simulations obtained by dynamic downscaling with the regional climate model (RegCM4. Tests for the Amazon and Northeast region of Brazil (South America showed that the method provided a more realistic prediction in terms of average daily rainfall for the analyzed period prescribed, after comparing with the prediction made by set through the arithmetic averages of the simulations. This method photographed the extreme events (outlier that the prediction by averaging failed. Data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM were used to evaluate the method.

  11. Assessment of water and seafood microbiology quality in a mangrove region in Vitória, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Regina; Justino, Juliana F; Cassini, Sérvio Túlio

    2013-09-01

    Mangroves are vital part of the local economy for some communities in the region of Vitória, Brazil. Oysters, mussels, and crabs, which are naturally abundant in the mangroves, are harvested and largely consumed in restaurants and by the population. In recent years, unusually high rates of annual gastroenteritis cases have been reported in the region suggesting an association between the consumption of contaminated shellfish and the development of gastrointestinal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate water samples and mussels collected in the mangrove region using bacterial indicator Escherichia coli and enteric viruses (adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus). Our results showed that the region of study is impacted by a continuous discharge of domestic sewage. Although E. coli was detected at low densities in water samples, mussels were shown to be 400 times more contaminated throughout the period of the study. Adenovirus and rotavirus genomes were detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction respectively in 76 and 88% of water samples and 100% of mussel samples. Norovirus was found in 4.8% of water samples and was not detected in the mussels. The screening of bivalves for the presence of health-significant enteric viruses can help in the prevention of outbreaks among shellfish consumers and contribute to improvement of the estuarine environment. PMID:23981884

  12. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colonized, life forms and floristic similarity between areas and regions. In 2007 and 2008, we collected specimens from six forest sites, located from the north to the south of the Chapada Diamantina region. We identified a total of 205 infrageneric taxa. In comparison with the lower montane forests, the upper montane forests presented higher diversity and species richness, as well as greater numbers of substrates colonized, life form types, species of restricted geographic distribution and species typical of shaded areas. We also found low similarity in the species composition, the populations of the upper and lower montane forests forming two large and distinct groups. Although presenting relatively high floristic homogeneity among themselves, the Chapada Diamantina areas presented little similarity with those of the Atlantic Forest. This can be explained by the differences between the two regions in terms of environmental conditions, precipitation, seasonality, elevation and continentality.

  13. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality

  14. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes; Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes; Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  15. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry

  16. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Superintendency of Biodiversity and Protected Areas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources of Maranhão (SEMA), Brazil janainnadantas@gmail.com (Brazil); Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Castro, Jonatas da Silva [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima [Degree in Biological Sciences, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres [Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Federal University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  17. Seroreactivity to new Mycobacterium leprae protein antigens in different leprosy-endemic regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerith Mayra Hungria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available New Mycobacterium leprae protein antigens can contribute to improved serologic tests for leprosy diagnosis/classification and multidrug therapy (MDT monitoring. This study describes seroreactivity to M. leprae proteins among participants from three highly endemic leprosy areas in Brazil: central-western Goiânia/Goiás (GO (n = 225, Rondonópolis/Mato Grosso (MT (n = 764 and northern Prata Village/Pará (PA (n = 93. ELISA was performed to detect IgG to proteins (92f, 46f, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1, ML0405, ML1213 and IgM to phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I. Multibacillary (MB leprosy had positive rates for PGL-I that were similar to those for proteins; however, some anti-PGL-I-negative subjects were positive for proteins, suggesting that adding protein antigen to PGL-I can enhance the sensitivity of MB leprosy detection. In MT, different degrees of seroreactivity were observed and ranked for MB, former patients after MDT, paucibacillary (PB leprosy, household contact (HHC and endemic control (EC groups. The seroreactivity of PB patients was low in GO and MT. HHCs from different endemic sites had similar IgG antibody responses to proteins. 46f and 92f were not recognised by most tuberculosis patients, ECs or HHCs within GO, an area with high BCG vaccination coverage. Low positivity in EC and HHC was observed in PA and MT. Our results provide evidence for the development of an improved serologic test that could be widely applicable for MB leprosy testing in Brazil.

  18. Coadministration of nematophagous fungi for biological control over gastrointestinal helminths in sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo Ribeiro Vilela, Vinícius; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Dos Santos, Antonielson; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; de Oliveira Souto, Diego Vagner; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed to evaluate coadministration of Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in a sodium alginate matrix for controlling gastrointestinal helminths in young and adult sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. An area of 1ha was divided into two paddocks, in which two experimental groups (fungus and control) were formed, each consisting of six adult females and ten young males. In each group, two subgroups were formed in accordance with the animal category (adult or young). In the fungus group, each animal received 3g of pellets containing 0.6g of fungal mycelium, with 0.3g of D. flagrans and 0.3g of M. thaumasium for each 10kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months. In the control group, each animal received 3g of pellets without fungus for each 10kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months, serving as a witness group. Reductions in numbers of eggs per gram of feces of 76% among the adult sheep in the fungus group and 83% among the young sheep in the fungus group were observed, in comparison with their respective control subgroups. The groups that received these fungi needed less salvage deworming and presented better packed cell volume percentages, better weight gain and lower levels of L3/kg dry matter in their paddock than the control groups. Thus, it was concluded that coadministration of D. flagrans and M. thaumasium was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths of adults and young sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. PMID:27084486

  19. Food insecurity measurement and indicators Indicadores e medidas de insegurança alimentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations define food security as "People having at all times, physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." There are five methods that are commonly applied in national surveys that can be used to assess food insecurity. Of these, four are indirect or derivative measures of food insecurity (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization method, household expenditure surveys, dietary intake assessment and anthropometry. The only method that represents a fundamental or direct measure of food insecurity is the one based on experience-based food insecurity scales. All the methods complement each other and the method of choice depends on the question being answered and the economic and logistical resources available to collect valid data. All the methods have serious measurement error issues that can be reduced by fully understanding the principles underlying them and the use of highly trained and standardized research field workers. As shown in Brazil, the use of experience-based food insecurity measurement scales for mapping, targeting, and understanding the determinants and consequences of food insecurity is very promising. Thus, we recommend the Latin American and Caribbean Region to work towards the adoption of a single regional module that can be adapted to the local contexts based on qualitative cognitive research followed by quantitative confirmation of the scale's psychometric properties. The Brazilian experience-based food insecurity measurement project is likely to provide useful insights to other countries in the region.As Nações Unidas definem Segurança Alimentar como a situação em que "as pessoas têm a todo tempo, acesso físico, social e econômico a alimentação segura, nutritiva e que atende suas necessidades dietéticas, com alimentos de sua preferência para uma vida ativa e saudável". Existem

  20. Food resources used by three species of fish in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio J. da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary and semi-permanent aquatic habitats in semi-arid Brazil have been reported as important sites supporting a diverse fish fauna. As such, they must be able to trophically sustain fish species that feed at different trophic levels. This study aims to describe the diets of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Hoplias malabaricus and Prochilodus brevis in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, providing evidence of the importance of these habitats as supporters of large consumers like fish. The diet of the three species studied was diverse, feeding on a range of food items, from microalgae to fish. Despite that, a few items were more important to each of the study species. These results and the relatively high rates of stomach fullness indicate that a diverse and abundant food range is available in the study sites, but species seem to select some food resources. The present study provides evidence that despite being highly variable, intermittent and semi-permanent aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil are able to trophically sustain large consumers.Os ambientes aquáticos temporários e semi-permanentes do semiárido brasileiro tem sido mostrados como importantes sítios que possuem uma diversa fauna de peixes. Desta forma, esses ambientes devem ser capazes de sustentar, do ponto de vista trófico, populações de peixes que se alimentam em diversos níveis tróficos. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever o hábito alimentar de Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Hoplias malabaricus e Prochilodus brevis em ambientes aquáticos do semiárido brasileiro, fornecendo evidências da importância desses habitats para manutenção da diversidade de consumidores como os peixes. A composição da dieta das espécies estudadas foi diversificada, já que alimentaram-se de uma variedade de classes de itens, desde microalgas até peixes. Apesar disso, alguns itens foram mais importantes para cada uma das três espécies. Estes resultados, e as altas taxas de reple

  1. Determination of 228Th, 232Th, and228Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine 232Th, 228Th, and 228Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. 228Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. 232Th and 228Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to 228Th than to 232Th. This is due to higher 228Ra mobility, which decays to 228Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  2. Environmental outdoor gamma dose rate in air by using TLD dosimeters in Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-Brazil) and region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, an Environmental Monitoring Programme is being applied for investigating the background radioactive concentrations and chemical parameters in samples collected in Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA) and region. This assessment has been carried out by the Radioecological laboratory. For dosimetric purposes, the experimental results are described obtained with CaF2:Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-200) for the measurement of natural outdoor gamma radiation background measured in 26 sample points located in CEA (Centro Experimental Aramar) (CTMSP-Brazil) and surroundings to determine natural gamma radioactivity, from 1998 to 2007. The estimated average annual outdoor gamma dose rate in air in this period is (865 ± 143) μGy.y-1. The average value obtained in the pre-operational conditions is (1006 ± 210) μGy.y-1. The conclusions, by taking into account these results are: the average annual outdoor gamma dose rate is comparable with the background data obtained during the pre-operational conditions indicating low interference in the environment in CEA and region; the average annual outdoor gamma dose rate is analogous as compared with average values of other regions. (author)

  3. Compromisso organizacional : a validade da sua medida

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Avelino Rodrigo Araújo Semelhe Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia (área de especialização em Psicologia do Trabalho, das Organizações e dos Recursos Humanos) Existe pouco consenso entre os investigadores, relativamente ao conceito de compromisso organizacional e às suas medidas. A investigação que tem sido realizada sobre este constructo sugere que maiores níveis de compromisso organizacional podem acarretar vantagens tanto para as organizações como para os próprios colaboradores. Neste sentido, da...

  4. Medida de descargas parciales en radiofrecuencia

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracín Sánchez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    La detección de la actividad de Descargas Parciales (DPs) es de gran importancia para establecer cuál es el estado del aislamiento eléctrico de un equipo y poder aplicar un mantenimiento basado en la condición del mismo, condition-based maintenance. El método más común de medida de DPs es el eléctrico, en el que se miden pequeños cambios en la corriente que se fuga a tierra cuando se producen DPs en el equipo. En este sentido, se utilizan los esquemas propuestos en la norma ...

  5. Traditional Quasi-geostrophic modes and Surface Quasi-geostrophic solutions in the Brazil Current region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C. B.; Tandon, A.; Da Silveira, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent literature has focused theoretically on whether the Quasi-geostrophic (QG) modes and Surface Quasi-geostrophic (SQG) solutions can account for the vertical structure of oceanic flows. In an attempt to resolve this from data, we analyzed the vertical structure of the mesoscale variability in three moorings off Brazil -- two in the Brazil Current domain (MARLIM mooring at 22.45oS, 40.2oW; and WOCE 333 mooring, hereafter W333, at 27.5oS, 46.7oW) and one off-shore (WOCE 335 mooring, hereafter W335, at 28.5oS, 45.3oW). The MARLIM mooring has 9 conventional current meters and spans 300 days. The W333 (W335) has 4 (5) conventional current meters and an upward-looking ADCP and spans 650 days. We evaluated the ability of the QG modes and SQG solutions to account for the vertical structure of the EOFs at these moorings. Only the 1st EOF is statistically significant for three moorings, containing up to 90% of the variance. Although the traditional barotropic (BT) and 1st baroclinic (BC1) modes together contain up to 70% of the variance in the MARLIM and W335 moorings, their combination fails to represent the sharp near surface vertical decay. Higher order modes (2nd and 3rd baroclinic) are needed to account for this near surface variance. A mesoscale broad-banded linear combination of SQG solutions accounts for up to 90% of the variance at these moorings and it represents the near surface decay particularly well. Therefore either the inclusion of higher order QG modes, or, the SQG solutions, is consistent with the data. Indeed, the projection of the SQG solutions onto the traditional QG modes reveals that these two models do not exclude each other. For the W333 moorings the BT/BC1 linear combination accounts for 91% of the variance and does reproduce the near surface decay accurately. In this case, the SQG solutions contains 79% of the 1st EOF variance, although its exponential decay is not present in the data. In order to evaluate how these results can be changed by

  6. Managing Security in a Zone of Peace: Brazil's Soft Approach to Regional Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés MALAMUD; Alcañiz, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Brazil’s home region has two peculiarities: first, it is essentially fuzzy as its extension and membership have changed overtime; second, regardless of its limits, its inner core has been characterized by a long period of interstate peace. These factors have led to two outcomes: first, high politics has been conducted through diplomatic rather than military means; second, region-building has remained under the strictest control of the governments rather than becoming self-sustaining. Regional...

  7. Household consumption of food: An analysis for Midwest Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Madalena Maria Schlindwein; Marciele de Freitas Oliveira; Diane Aparecida Ostroski

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Midwest has been increasing over time as an important food production area, both for domestic consumption and for export. However, it has been discussing in a little way about the dietary patterns of the population that live in this region. Meanwhile, the central objective of this study was to characterize the food consumption of households of people that live in the Brazilian Midwest region, as well as a comparison among the data for the Federative Units of that region. This st...

  8. Prevalence and intensity of Streblidae in bats from a Neotropical savanna region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Antonini, Yasmine

    2016-01-01

    Bats of the family Phyllostomidae are common hosts to streblids known as bat flies. Here, we discuss the component community, prevalence and intensity of infection with species of Streblidae on an assemblage of phyllostomid bats in the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area (APA Cafuringa) in the core area of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. A total of 1 841 streblid individuals of 24 species occurred on 752 bats of 14 species. Ten species of streblids infected Glossophaga soricina (Pallas), whereas seven or fewer streblid species infected the other bat species. Nine bat fly species presented a prevalence of more than 50%, whereas some differences in the abundance of bat flies among hosts were observed. Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856 and Trichobius furmani Wenzel, 1966 were more host-specific compared to the other streblids, and they occurred in greater abundance on their preferred hosts. Trichobius uniformis Curran, 1935 and Strebla mirabilis (Waterhouse, 1879) were the least host-specific, occurring on five and six hosts, respectively. PMID:27507561

  9. Genetic variability of broodstocks of Tambaqui (Teleostei – Characidae from the northeast region of Brazil

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the genetic diversity within three Tambaqui broodstocks (Colossoma macropomum. Eight primers were used to analyze 67 individuals collected from three fish farming in the municipalities: Porto Real do Colégio – Alagoas (PRC, Araujo 1 – Sergipe (AR1 and Araujo 2 – Sergipe (AR2, in Brazil. Differences in the frequencies of 88 fragments and four exclusive fragments in PRC were found. High polymorphism values (from 54.38% to 64.38% and Shannon´s index (from 0.33 to 0.37 were observed. The AMOVA showed that high variation is within each broodstock. The identity and the genetic distance among the groups ranged from 0.845 to 0.975 and from 0.025 to 0.156 respectively, and the shortest distance was found in the groups PRC x AR1 and PRC x AR2. The genetic differentiation ranged from lower to higher (Fst = 0.03 and 0.178 as well as the migratory number per generation (Nm = 5.07 to 12.8. In general, the broodstocks had high intra-population variability, and high differentiation and genetic distance within themselves.

  10. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. PMID:26541807

  11. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil

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    Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM. A control group (Co (n = 136 was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP positive prevalence, an external group (EG (n = 121, a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%, and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E, history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented.

  12. [Practice of physical activity among youths in a city in the semiarid region of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Santos, Marcio Neres Dos; Teixeira, Lisiane Ortiz; Cazeiro, Cristine Coelho; Mazza, Sheynara Emi Ito; Cesar, Juraci Almeida

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to establish the prevalence of physical activity among young people and to analyze its association with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors. All youths aged 13 to 19 years of age living in the city of Caracol, Piauí, Brazil, were studied, comprising a total of 1,112 individuals. Data collection was conducted by means of household interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The dependent variable was the practice of physical activity in a typical week. Youths who performed moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity of at least one hour every day of the week were considered physically active. The prevalence of physically active youths was 12.6% (95% CI 10.6 to 14.5), being higher in males (20.3%; 95% CI 16.8 to 23.7) and those in the upper third of the asset indicator variable (16.5; 95% CI 12.7 to 20.3), and inversely related to age. Among males, afro-descendants were more active (32.3%; 95% CI 14.9 to 49.7), whereas the Arian females were more active (12.7%; 95% CI 5.2 to 20.2). The prevalence of physical activity was low in this population, particularly among females (5.9%; 95% CI 4.0 to 7.8), older youths and youth from the less privileged socioeconomic brackets. PMID:27076007

  13. Low titanium magmatism in northwest region of Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil: volcanological aspects

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    F. B. Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The early Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalts (PCFB is considered as one of the largest volcanic provinces in the world. In Brazil, it completes the last sequence of the sedimentary Paraná Basin (Serra Geral Fm.. The geological unit is contemporary to desert sandstones of Botucatu Fm. and precedes the continental sediments of the Bauru Basin. This Large Igneous Province (LIP is divided into different types of geochemical magmas which basically are based on TiO2 content (higher – HTi or lower LTi than 2 wt.% in TiO2 and incompatible trace elements ratio. Therefore, we studied the magma LTi (TiO2 2 > 2.0 wt.%. Based on rheology data considering anhydrous environment and the composition of plagioclase (An(42–67 and clinopyroxene (Wo(30–40En(34–46Fs(17–32 showed that the LTi magma is hotter than HTi, with temperatures that range from 1069 °C to 1248 °C while for the second range from 1020 °C to 1201 °C.

  14. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD, located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%, Asteraceae (7.82% and Lamaceae (4.89% families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87, Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87, Solidago microglossa (1.80, Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73 and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50. The informant consensus factor (ICF ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78 having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77. The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems.

  15. Assessment of the quality of compounded fluconazole capsules marketed in the region of Araraquara (SP, Brazil

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    Josilene Chaves Ruela Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality control of drugs has an important role in public health, in ensuring the efficacy and safety of medicines. In the public health system, compounding pharmacies play a vital part. They provide medicines tailored to the individual patient, for example dermatological products and specific doses for children. Unfortunately, many cases of compounded products falling below the minimum quality standard have been reported in Brazil. In this study, the quality of compounded 150 mg fluconazole capsules was assessed and the results were compared with values stipulated in the Brazilian pharmacopoeia. The results suggest that, while it is certainly possible to prepare products meeting pharmacopoeial specifications, there are pharmacies where the quality control is deficient or nonexistent. Fluconazole is an important drug in combatting fungal infections. The use of fluconazole in dosage forms manufactured without high standards of quality control is strongly linked to treatment failure and cases of intoxication, as well as the emergence of resistant microorganisms. This highlights the urgent need for process improvement in compounding pharmacies. There are validated methods that can be successfully employed for routine quality control analysis that can be implemented by any compounding pharmacy.

  16. Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study

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    Angelita Fernandes Druzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4% of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8% and with incomplete immunization (56.3%. Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months.

  17. Topographical and hydrographical impacts on the structure of microphytoplankton assemblages on the Abrolhos Bank region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susini-Ribeiro, Sylvia M. M.; Pompeu, Mayza; Gaeta, Salvador A.; de Souza, Júlia S. D.; Masuda, Laura S. D.

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at the Abrolhos Bank (15°60‧-21°30‧S; 37°00‧-40°30‧W), Brazil, in July and August 2007, to evaluate the topographic and hydrographic influences on microphytoplankton composition and relative abundance. Net phytoplankton was collected from the top 200 m of the water column to assess diversity proxies (species richness, Shannon index, dominance and equitability) and compared with thermohaline, nutrient and chlorophyll profiles. A total of 326 taxa occurred in the area. Patterns in spatial distribution of microphytoplankton assemblages were two-fold: a north-south gradient linked to variations in temperature and nitrite, and a coast-offshore gradient associated with the depth of the mixed layer and the Brunt-Väisälä maximum frequency. Microphytoplankton assemblages were typical of tropical oligotrophic environments. However, the inshore community found on the Abrolhos Bank was enriched by bottom dwelling, large-sized cells ressuspended from local sediments as a result of the highly dynamic coastal circulation. Species diversity was high in oceanic sites where water column stability as measured by the Brunt-Väisälä frequency achieved its maxima, but high values of ecological indexes were also found in the southern part of the study area influenced by bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich oceanic waters, giving support to the notion that phytoplankton diversity increases at intermediate levels of environmental disturbance.

  18. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

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    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  19. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

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    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  20. Estudio de la relación entre la variabilidad anatómica regional del cerebro medida con RM 3-D y los estilos cognitivos y rasgos de la personalidad

    OpenAIRE

    López Sala, Anna

    2012-01-01

    El proceso de hominización probablemente ha implicado una serie de cambios morfológicos cerebrales. El grado de desarrollo anatómico de regiones cerebrales funcionalmente relevantes, caracterizadas por su gran variabilidad interindividual y por la existencia de una marcada asimetría hemisférica, podría estar relacionado con las diferencias individuales en los estilos cognitivos y rasgos de la personalidad. Hay numerosos estudios que exponen las diferentes asimetrías morfológicas hemisféricas ...

  1. CD 123 - Wheat bread for white flour in cool regions of Brazil

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    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultivar CD 123 is recommendable for the wheat-growing regions 1, 2 and 3 of the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. It is a white flour wheat destined for production in cooler regions. The mean potential yield is 3514 kg ha-1, exceeding that of the control cultivars by 5%.

  2. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

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    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians.

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in traditional agricultural and agroforestry systems in the semiarid region of Brazil

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    José Augusto Amorim Silva do Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the semiarid region of Brazil, inadequate management of cropping systems and low plant biomass production can contribute to reduce soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N stocks; therefore, management systems that preserve C and N must be adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in soil C and N stocks that were promoted by agroforestry (agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral and traditional agricultural systems (slash-and-burn clearing and cultivation for two and three years and to compare these systems with the natural Caatinga vegetation after 13 years of cultivation. The experiment was carried out on a typical Ortic Chromic Luvisol in the municipality of Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. Soil samples were collected (layers 0-6, 6-12, 12-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm with four replications. The plain, convex and concave landforms in each study situation were analyzed, and the total organic C, total N and densities of the soil samples were assessed. The silvopastoral system promoted the greatest long-term reductions in C and N stocks, while the agrosilvopastoral system promoted the smallest losses and therefore represents a sustainable alternative for soil C and N sequestration in these semiarid conditions. The traditional agricultural system produced reductions of 58.87 and 9.57 Mg ha-1 in the organic C and total N stocks, respectively, which suggests that this system is inadequate for these semiarid conditions. The organic C stocks were largest in the concave landform in the agrosilvopastoral system and in the plain landform in the silvopastoral system, while the total N values were highest in the concave landform in the native, agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems.

  4. Phylogenetic and similarity analysis of HTLV-1 isolates from HIV-coinfected patients from the south and southeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Ferreira, João Leandro de Paula; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2012-01-01

    HTLV-1 is endemic in Brazil and HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection has been detected, mostly in the northeast region. Cosmopolitan HTLV-1a is the main subtype that circulates in Brazil. This study characterized 17 HTLV-1 isolates from HIV coinfected patients of southern (n=7) and southeastern (n=10) Brazil. HTLV-1 provirus DNA was amplified by nested PCR (env and LTR) and sequenced. Env sequences (705 bp) from 15 isolates and LTR sequences (731 bp) from 17 isolates showed 99.5% and 98.8% similarity among sequences, respectively. Comparing these sequences with ATK (HTLV-1a) and Mel5 (HTLV-1c) prototypes, similarities of 99% and 97.4%, respectively, for env and LTR with ATK, and 91.6% and 90.3% with Mel5, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all sequences belonged to the transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype, clustering in two Latin American clusters. PMID:21591992

  5. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

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    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  6. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

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    Meri Bordignon Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast Asia/South Pacific and III were identified. This recent co-circulation of different DENV-3 genotypes in South America may have implications for pathological and epidemiological dynamics.

  7. Physicians for primary health care in rural and remote regions in Brazil: current situation and perspectives

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    Michael Schmidt Duncan

    2014-09-01

    contrapartida de moradia e alimentação, constrói-se uma grande dependência dos municípios sobre o programa, o que pode ser extremamente destrutivo para o processo de estruturação de sistemas de saúde locais. De fato, tem havido relatos de demissão de médicos para dar lugar a esses médicos novos temporários,6 mesmo isso estando contra as regras do programa.5.Por esse motivo, o consenso internacional é de que, paralelamente a estratégias de curto prazo para provimento de profissionais médicos, deveriam ser implementadas medidas de médio e longo prazo, multifacetadas e focadas na retenção dos profissionais.7 Deveria-se também investir na construção de um sistema de saúde forte, regionalizado e alicerçado nos atributos da atenção primária: primeiro contato, longitudinalidade, integralidade e coordenação do cuidado.8 Os interesses imediatistas de provimento não podem conflitar com a necessidade a longo prazo de fixação de profissionais e de integração destes em um sistema de saúde bem estruturado. Os incentivos para a estruturação a longo prazo do sistema de saúde local deveriam parecer aos gestores municipais mais atraentes do que o pagamento pelo governo federal de bolsas para os profissionais temporários do PMMB.Um componente fundamental de uma política de estruturação de sistemas de saúde para áreas rurais e remotas é a formação de recursos humanos capacitados para atuarem nessas regiões. Isso envolve a reorganização dos currículos médicos e a descentralização da formação em saúde, juntamente com medidas para facilitar o acesso de estudantes do interior aos cursos de medicina.7 O padrão-ouro para a formação pós-graduada de médicos para a atenção primária de áreas rurais e remotas é o treinamento em programas de residência em Medicina de Família e Comunidade, que os capacita para serem resolutivos no manejo dos problemas mais frequentes vistos nos territórios em que atuam, inclusive nas regiões rurais, bem como

  8. Evolutionary history of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (the Asian soybean rust in Brazil based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA

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    Maíra C. M. Freire

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi has dispersed globally and brought severe economic losses to soybean growers. The fungus has been established in Brazil since 2002 and is found nationwide. To gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation in P. pachyrhizi , we sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2. Total genomic DNA was extracted using either lyophilized urediniospores or lesions removed from infected leaves sampled from 26 soybean fields in Brazil and one field in South Africa. Cloning prior to sequencing was necessary because direct sequencing of PCR amplicons gave partially unreadable electrophoretograms with peak displacements suggestive of multiple sequences with length polymorphism. Sequences were determined from four clones per field. ITS sequences from African or Asian isolates available from the GenBank were included in the analyses. Independent sequence alignments of the ITS1 and ITS2 datasets identified 27 and 19 ribotypes, respectively. Molecular phylogeographic analyses revealed that ribotypes of widespread distribution in Brazil displayed characteristics of ancestrality and were shared with Africa and Asia, while ribotypes of rare occurrence in Brazil were indigenous. The results suggest P. pachyrhizi found in Brazil as originating from multiple, independent long-distance dispersal events.

  9. Interrelation of geomorphology and fauna of Lavrado region in Roraima, Brazil – suggestions for future studies

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    Thiago Morato de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In der vorgelegten Arbeit wird die Abhängigkeit von Geomorphologie und biologischen Interaktion unter Verwendung des Konzeptes morphoklimatischer Regionen Brasiliens vorgestellt. Die Diskussion fokussiert hierbei auf biogeographische und ökologische Aspekte. Die vorgelegte Studie wurde in den offenen Bereichen von Roraima – Lavrado – zwischen Brasilien, Venezuela und Guyana durchgeführt. Dieses Gebiet liegt im nördlichen Teil der morphoklimatischen Region Amazoniens. Zur Anwendung kamen Techniken der Fernerkundung, um das Relief der Region zu ermitteln und biologische Charakterisierungen durchzuführen. Die hierdurch erzielten Ergebnisse wurden genutzt, um Lebensräume der Region und die Verteilung der Lavrado Fauna zu beschreiben.

  10. Experiments on radionuclide accumulation by fishes from the Angra Dos Reis region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To follow the bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of 137Cs and 60Co in fish from tropical waters near the Angra nuclear power station in Brazil, juvenile grouper (Epinephelus sp.) were exposed under laboratory conditions to Angra sea water containing the two radionuclides initially added in chloride form. During the 4-month exposure period, the sea water was not changed and the fish received regular rations of non-radioactive food. Following uptake, the fish were dissected and composite tissue samples monitored for radioactivity. 137Cs concentration factors (CFs) were 3 and 5 in whole fish and muscle, respectively. The highest concentration of 137Cs was found in the muscle which accounted for 66% of the total body burden. In contrast, the highest concentration and greatest fraction (19%) of 60Co was located in the liver. Whole body and muscle CFs for 60Co, 0.2 and 0.08 respectively, were much lower than those for 137Cs. Compared with published data, only very small amounts of both radionuclides were taken up by bone in the present study. This observation and the fact that much higher 137Cs CFs have been reported in fish from field studies suggests that uptake through the food chain is the principal pathway for bioaccumulation in nature. Elution of freshly-prepared and previously-used radioactive sea water through chelating resins indicated that 60Co added in the cationic form was almost totally converted to neutral or anionic forms after four months. Additional experiments carried out with the previously-used experimental media demonstrated that the possibly ligand-bound 60Co was approximately 2.5 times more available for uptake by grouper than the cationic forms initially present. It is concluded that the uptake of 60Co by fish exposed to radioactive effluents would be a function of the different forms of 60Co present. 20 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Elisabete Schneider; Sofia Helena Zanella Carra

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese), located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans) used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water con...

  12. The impact of water pollution on fish species in southeast region of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz S Silva, Sabrina; Dias, Aurélio Henrique C; Dutra, Elaine S; Pavanin, Alfredo L; Morelli, Sandra; Pereira, Boscolli B

    2016-01-01

    The rivers from the region of Catalão, Southeast Goiás State, Brazil, are exposed to intense anthropogenic influences including agricultural activities, industry, and urban waste. The aim of this study was to determine the severity of water pollution by conducting an experiment involving in situ biomonitoring of water constituents on genotoxicity in fish inhabiting these sites. The genotoxicity of three sites of the region were analyzed utilizing the micronucleus (MN) test. It was of interest to determine whether there were differences between sampling sites such as urban perimeter, agriculture, and fertilizer industry in control, and monitored species including Astyanax fasciatus, Astyanax altiparanae, and Characidium fasciatum. Data demonstrated that the species at sites 1, 2, and 3 exhibited a marked increase in frequency of MN compared to fish from site 4. Significant elevation in frequency of MN occurred in erythrocytes of A. fasciatus and A. altiparanae at sites 1 and 2. At site 3 higher frequencies of MN were observed in C. fasciatum. MN induction in C. fasciatum was correlated with chromium levels in water and sediment, while A. fasciatum and A. altiparanae showed an association with zinc in water and sediment. Data suggest that benthic and nektonic fish species display different sensitivities in relation to anthropogenic contaminant influences. PMID:26699803

  13. Mercury in environmental and biological samples from a gold mining area in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palheta, D; Taylor, A

    1995-05-19

    A massive increase in gold mining in the Amazon region of Brazil has led to an enormous discharge of metallic mercury into the aquatic ecosystem. To investigate the dispersion, total and inorganic mercury concentrations were measured in water, fish and animal tissues, and in blood, urine and hair from members of the local populations. Mercury concentrations in river water, sediments and fish were high compared with those of non-contaminated areas. Cattle and pigs kept in the area and with access to the contaminated rivers had concentrations of mercury of 0.1-1.28 micrograms/g and 11.7-15.7 micrograms/l in hair and blood, respectively. These results are approximately twice those measured in specimens from control animals. Mean mercury concentrations in blood, urine and hair of residents were increased at 11.4 micrograms/l, 22.8 micrograms/l and 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively, and the urine mercury of workers from the gold mining sites were up to 155 micrograms/l. The results demonstrate widespread contamination of the environment by mercury with transfer of the metal to fish and animals used for food, and into the inhabitants of the region. Further investigations for possible adverse health effects need to be undertaken. PMID:7610384

  14. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  15. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  16. Estimates of cancer mortality due to the ingestion of mineral spring waters from a highly natural radioactive region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in order to evaluate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the ingestion of 226Ra, 228Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters from a highly natural radioactive region of Brazil. Water samples were randomly collected at 10 spring sites located in the Aguas da Prata region. A total of eight radium-induced cancers (four head carcinomas plus four bone sarcomas) per 106 exposed persons were predicted. For radon, a total of 23 cases of fatal stomach cancers per 106 exposed persons were estimated. These predictions suggest that chronic ingestion of radium and radon at the levels observed at these springs will result in incremental increases of fatal cancers of 2 and 0.5%, respectively, above the background incidence rate. The uncertainties in evaluating the carcinogenic effects due to radium and radon ingestion were analyzed. These investigations suggest that the true risk due to radium ingestions is likely to be within an order of magnitude in either direction of the risk estimated in the present paper. (author)

  17. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452{+-}10 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,19{sup {+-}} 0,63 and 0,32{sup {+-}} 0,12 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. The statistical analyses performed checked the measurements repeatability by means of the Tukey's average comparison test. A correlation analysis between standard deviations and the mean showed the absence of significant systematic deviation. Comparison the results obtained with literature, it was demonstrated that the values of the activities found are within the normal levels of radioactivity for this kind of product and below the maximum permissible levels established by CNEN, that is, the analyzed milk can be normally consumed. On the other hand, the implemented methodology present a good performance, faced to the available experimental conditions. (author)

  18. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures. PMID:26302373

  19. [The need for, and allocation of, regional prosthodontics laboratories in Brazil: an exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Violeta Rodrigues; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this study was to compare epidemiological indicators of the need for prosthetic rehabilitation in 2003 with the number of regional prosthodontic laboratories (LRPD) and technicians in prosthodontics (TPD) in the five Brazilian regions between 2012 and 2013. Data regarding health services were obtained from DATASUS and epidemiological data were obtained from SBBrasil 2003. The rates of dental prostheses produced and LRPD and TPD were calculated per 100,000 people. The Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square test were used for analysis. The results show that the sex/age adjusted prevalence of edentulism varied between regions (p < 0.01), being higher in the Southeast (13.9%). The highest mean number of missing teeth was found in the North (10.3 teeth). The highest availability of LRPD (1.16 per 100,000) and TPD (1.05 per 100,000) occurred in the Northeast region. The highest need for complete dentures (7.2%) was reported in the North, but was the lowest in delivery of dentures (9.71 per 100,000). There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) among regions for both LRPD, TPD rates for prostheses. It is considered that criteria other than epidemiological aspects influenced the opening of LRPD in the country. PMID:26465854

  20. Magmatism and cenozoic tectonism in the Cabo Frio region, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The western portion of the Campos Basin is limited by a hinge line that bounds the deposition of pre-Aptian sediments in the offshore region. The Cabo Frio arch corresponds to a platform with smaller relative subsidence, where Tertiary sediments are deposited directly on shallow basement rocks. Towards the continental slope of the Cabo Frio region, tectonic activity is also observed in the post-Aptian sequence, particularly in the region between the Santos and Campos basins, where a very large graben trends parallel to the pre-Aptian limit of the basin, and is controlled by faults that-affect Upper Miocene rocks. Eastwards of this region, an array of antithetic faults trends in a NE direction. These faults, apparently detaching an the Aptian salt, show unique geometric patterns. The rupturing of Pangea in the Lower Cretaceous is marked by widespread outpouring of mafic magmas in Campos and Santos basins. Radiometric age determinations for this volcanism show a mean of about 139 M.a. After the rift phase, another volcanic episode is observed in the Cabo Frio region, with K/Ar radiometric dating of about 50 M.a. Volcanic mounds are observed within the Eocene sedimentary sequence. An Eocene volcanic episode is characterized by the presence of volcaniclassic rocks, including autoclastic, hydroclastic, epiclastic and pyroclastic sediments. This tectonic episode is also identified within other stratigraphic intervals in the sedimentary column. (author)

  1. Biology of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey, 1867 (Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae in a continental shelf region of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Corrêa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the biology of C. bleekerianus from Paraná State coast, Brazil, assembling data about its abundance, size structure, diet and reproduction. Monthly collections were accomplished in 1999 and 2000 in the internal continental shelf, with trawl net. The catch-per-unit-effort did not vary significantly among the seasons. In the summer, the individuals were larger, followed by autumn, spring and winter. C. bleekerianus was predominantly planktivorous and the most frequent items in its diet were copepods followed by diatomaceous algae. Seasonal variation in the frequency values of the gonad maturation stages, gonadossomatic index and gonadal condition factor indicated that the reproductive period encompassed spring and summer. The mean total length at first maturity of females was estimated to be 76 mm.Este trabalho fornece dados sobre a biologia de C. bleekerianus do litoral do Estado do Paraná, reunindo dados sobre sua abundância, estrutura em tamanho, dieta e reprodução. Coletas mensais foram realizadas em 1999 e 2000 na plataforma continental interna, com rede de arrasto de fundo com portas. A captura por unidade de esforço não variou significativamente entre as estações do ano. No verão os indivíduos eram maiores, seguido do outono, primavera e inverno. C. bleekerianus é predominantemente planctívora, sendo copépodos seguidos de algas diatomáceas os itens alimentares mais freqüentes em sua dieta. As variações sazonais de valores da freqüência de estádios de maturação gonadal, do índice gonadossomático e do fator de condição gonadal indicam que o período reprodutivo compreende primavera e verão. O comprimento total médio de primeira maturação das fêmeas é estimado em 76 mm.

  2. Geology and Geochemistry of the Poco de Fora region-Curaca river valley-Bahia-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Poco de Fora region level rocks of light metamorphism, from Caraiba group, corresponding to: - a meta-sedimentar sequence from Lower Pre-cambrian (Archean) - maphic-ultramaphic bodies with Fe and Cu sulphides of volcanogenic origin, and - sienitic ortho-gneiss. Geological, petrographic, geochemistry and geochronological studies were done. The sienitic-intrusion, from the upper crust, occur during the Archean-beginning of the Proterozoic. All the region was re-mobilized, and the sienitic was metamorphosed during Transamazonic Orogeny (2.200 to 1.800 m.y.). (C.D.G.)

  3. Environmental Impact Report for thermoelectric from coal in Candiota region - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles for executing the Environmental Impact Studies and the elaboration of Environmental Impact Report, referring to the first module of Candiota III Thermoelectric Plant, near to the Electric Energy State Company are described, with some aspects about the mine, plant, region, executor corporations and comprehend area for the environmental impact studies. (C.G.C.)

  4. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane Lima Gurgel; José Roberto Verani; Sathyabama Chellappa

    2012-01-01

    The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, ...

  5. Medidas radiométricas em casas de vegetação com cobertura plástica na região de Campinas - SP Radiometric measurement of greenhouses with plastic cover at Campinas region- SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar as relações e alterações radiométricas em três casas de vegetação, cobertas com filme transparente de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD de camada simples com 150µm de espessura, tratado contra raios ultravioleta, sob ambientes distintos, foram realizados os experimentos durante o cultivo hidropônico de alface, cultivar Vera, na região de Campinas - SP, em diferentes períodos do ano, visando ao uso de dados experimentais de postos meteorológicos em substituição à necessidade de adquirir equipamentos de radiação para medições internas. As casas de vegetação eram de estrutura metálica de aço, de forma e volume idênticos. Coletaram-se a radiação solar global interna e externa (RSGI e RSGE, W m-2, a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (RFA, µmol m-2 s-1 e a radiação ultravioleta, em 254; 312 e 365 nm (RUV, W m-2. Os resultados mostraram que as equações de regressão linear são estimativas aceitáveis na obtenção da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa em função da radiação solar global externa. Em ambientes fechados e climatizados, existe maior correlação entre a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e a radiação solar global externa. A orientação das casas de vegetação não climatizadas não influencia no espalhamento interno da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.The objective of this study was to characterize the radiometric relationship and changing in three greenhouses covered with transparent low density polyethylene film (PEBD with a 150µm single layer of low density polyethylene film, treated with compounds that inhibit rapid degradation by ultraviolet radiation, under effects of different environments. The experiments were conducted during hydroponics lettuce production of Vera variety at Campinas region-SP in different periods of the year, aiming the use of experimental data from meteorological stations in substitution of the needs to pursue radiometric

  6. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the five urban regions of Brazil-the Brazilian COPCORD study (BRAZCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis-Neto, Edgard Torres; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, Sérgio Candido; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Sato, Emilia Inoue

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSK-S) in the five urban geographical regions of Brazil using the Portuguese version of the Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire (CQ)-BRAZCO study. From April to May 2013, a population-based survey was conducted by applying the CQ for 5000 individuals aged over 15 years in 16 capitals of the Brazilian regions. Trained teams assessed the MSK-S and socioeconomic status. The sample consisted of representative quotas of the Brazilian population, proportional to the capitals' population density. It respected the groups' quotas of gender and age and included all socioeconomic classes, educational levels, and occupations. There were 1342 (26.9 %) participants who presented MSK-S unrelated to trauma in 7 days preceding the interview. A higher prevalence of these complaints were in females (65.2 %), elderly people, in the north region of the country (30.7 %), and a lower prevalence was found in single individuals (41.7 %) and in the south (23.3 %). The most frequent pain sites were the spine (76.7 %) and knees (49.6 %), and the mean pain intensity was 6.8 (VAS). The BRAZCO study shows that Brazilian population presents a higher rate of MSK-S unrelated to trauma than many Asian countries. These results can be applied to guide the assessment of prevalence of rheumatic diseases. Additionally, it can help in the design of policies for health care workforce organization and its accessibility, as well as to reduce the risk of rheumatic diseases at the community level. PMID:25963999

  7. Water and nutrient dynamics at various spatial scales of a tropical agricultural watershed in Eastern Amazon region, Brazil: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickel, A. J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Sa, T.; Vlek, P. L.; Vielhauer, K.; Denich, M.

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the German-Brazilian Studies project on Human Impacts on Floodplains In the Tropics (SHIFT) the small agricultural "Cumaru" watershed (16 km2), Eastern Amazon region, Brazil, was monitored at various spatial scales for a period of one and a half year. The overall aim of this project is to provide sustainable alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture. With the current study an attempt is made to close the water and nutrient balance for two sub-watersheds (1 km2) and the fields surrounding their source. In order to understand the processes of water and nutrient dynamics from a field to watershed scale, a wide variety of hydrological and micro-meteorological measurements were made. An automatic weather station, throughfall gauges, TDR-profiles, a piezometer network, and weirs were installed to monitor the main components of the water balance. A digital database of topography, soils, hydrological properties, land use, and vegetation was made to serve as the base input of the various models that are intended to be used. In order to evaluate nutrient dynamics samples were taken of rain-, soil-, ground- and runoff-water at various temporal scales. The modeling of water yield and runoff response will be performed with the physically based TOPOG model. This model is capable of solving water, energy, solute and sediment balances of a catchment in a fully distributed way. Regional (shallow) groundwater modeling will be done with a Finite Element Model (MicroFEM). Preliminary measurement and modeling results indicate that the regional water balance is mainly determined by shallow groundwater flow. A strong nutrient fixation is observed throughout the soil profile, and in the riparian forest zone.

  8. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  9. Levels of 40K in edible parts of some vegetables consumed in Brazil Middle West Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming to establish a consistent radiological database for the concentration of natural radionuclides in Brazilian Middle West region, concentration of 40K in different category of vegetables have been determined by gamma spectrometry. The analyzed vegetables (leafy vegetables, grains, roots, fruits) were bought in the distributor commercial market of Goiania city, being most of them produced in the Goias State. The concentration values of 40K found in this study varied between 47 and 677 Bq.kg-1wet. Beans and soybeans showed the highest levels of 40K. The estimated annual effective dose due to the ingestion of 40K of vegetables by the adult inhabitants of the Brazilian Middle West region was estimated as 263, 236, 243, 203 μSv. for the states of Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grossso do Sul e Distrito Federal respectively. Beans were responsible for the highest doses since they join the highest levels of 40K and high consumption by the population. (author)

  10. Sources of small family farm production inefficiency, recôncavo region, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Pereira Filho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify and analyze the sources of inefficiency in family operated small agricultural properties in the Brazilian state of Bahia’s Recôncavo region from a sample of 44 producers. A non-parametric approach, in the context of cost minimizing behavior under constant returns to scale, was used to estimate the indices of technical, scale, allocative, and total (economic or cost efficiency. Results indicated that the largest source small family farm inefficiency in the Recôncavo region is allocative inefficiency, that is to say, the non-observance of price relationships when making production decisions. On the average, 79.1% of these farms’ total inefficiency is due to allocative inefficiency, 9.3% to technical inefficiency, and 11.7% to scale inefficiency.

  11. Environmental monitoring programme: radiometric measurements in Centro Experimental Aramar and and region (CTMSP-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results are described obtained with gamma spectrometry (mainly radioactive elements of the U-238 and Th-232 natural series), and fluorometry techniques (total uranium contents) for the measurement of background radiation in different samples (surface water, sediments, soils, food(ashes), rain water, well water, air filters), collected in Centro Experimental Aramar(CEA) and surroundings, from 1987 to 2007. The conclusions are: the estimated average background radiation concentrations obtained in this period is similar with the data obtained during the pre-operational conditions, thus indicating low interference in the environment in CEA and region; these values are related to the Low Level Detection limits of the techniques, in almost all samples, indicating low radioactive level in region; low uranium and daughters contents found in some soil and sediment samples could not be transferred to other environmental compartments like pasture, agricultural products, well water and surface water. (author)

  12. Helicopter emergency medical rescue for the traumatized: experience in the metropolitan region of Campinas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Galesso Cardoso; Carina Fontana Francischini; Jorge Michel Ribera; Ricardo Vanzetto; Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile of patients served by the air medical rescue system in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, evaluating: triage and mobilization criteria; response time; on-site care and transport time; invasive procedures performed in the Pre-Hospital Care (PHC); severity of patients; morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, descriptive study in which we analyzed medical records of patients rescued between July 2010 and December 2012. During this pe...

  13. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Luiz CS; Vieira Washington LS; Confessor Maine VA; Mendonça Lívia ET; Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in ...

  14. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

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    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  15. Bionomic data and larval density of Scarabaeidae (Pleurosticti in sugarcane in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Gilmar Vieira Coutinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bionomic data and larval density of Scarabaeidae (Pleurosticti in sugarcane in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Phytophagous larvae of Scarabaeidae cause damage to diverse crops. Information on these pests is scarce; therefore, the objective of this study was to determine biological aspects and larval density of species occurring in an area of sugarcane. The studies were developed in Sidrolândia from April 2009 to March 2010. Scarab beetle larvae were collected in sugarcane roots every fifteen days, taken to the laboratory and reared to obtain the adults and determine biological parameters. A total of 2,656 larvae were collected, being 162 Liogenys fuscus, 120 Cyclocephala verticalis, 37 Cyclocephala forsteri, and 2337 Anomonyx sp. In January, 53.65 larvae m-2 were obtained, and the most abundant species was Anomonyx sp, representing 87.99% of the total larvae collected. From November to March, the greatest densities of Anomonyx were observed in the field. The adults of this species occurred from May to September, and egg laying from September to November. Eggs measured 1.1 x 1.7 mm, and incubation period last 15.4 days. First instar larvae were observed mainly in October; second instar larvae from November to April; and third instar from January to July. Pupae were observed from May to August. The most abundant scarab beetle, Anomonyx sp. in roots of sugarcane presents one generation per year in Sidrolândia, MS.

  16. Behavior of 226Ra in the aquatic environment of the uranium mine region of Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sampling and analytical program for 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb was started, at first, in the uranium mine region, at Pocos de Caldas, MG, Brazil. Afterwards, the interaction was studied between 226Ra and local river sediments and waters. Peliminary studies were also done on the mobility of 226Ra retained on solid matter or soil, induced by local waters. Above normal concentrations of 238U, 226Ra and 210Pb were found in local waters, sediments and plants collected on the imediate vicinity of the mine. 226Ra distribution coefficients are on the order of 103 for the different samples assayed. It was concluded that, in the future, 226Ra discharged into liquid environment should be only temporarily retained by sediments. Its transport by surface waters should be predominantly in the soluble form. 226Ra should become the critical radionuclide in terms of internal radiation dose on the local population, due to its ingestion with water. 226Ra retained on solid supports is mobilized by local waters and its solubilization is dependent on the volume of water passed through. (M.A.)

  17. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  18. N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

    2013-03-01

    Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

  19. N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha−1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha−1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies. (letter)

  20. Airborne Geophysical Surveys in the North-Central Region of Goias (Brazil): Implications for Radiometric Characterization of Subtropical Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, S N P; Justo, J S

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present progress obtained in analysis airborne geophysical survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil). The results obtained indicate that most of the subtropical soil types are characterized by Uranium contents of greater than one parts per million (ppm). Only ultisol and oxisol soils are found to have Uranium contents lower than one ppm. Thorium and Potassium abundances also display trends similar to those of Uranium. The K/U ratios fall in the expected range of values for common soils while the Th/U ratios are higher than normal. This latter observation may indicate a characteristic feature of subtropical soils. Alternatively it may be considered as indicative of disequilibrium conditions in radioactive series and consequent underestimation of Uranium in soil layers of the study area. In this context we point out the possibility of using results of radiometric surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in subtropical env...

  1. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  2. Radioactive pegmatites of the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Preliminary investigation on radiominerals and radioactive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DINOR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Serra da Borborema, in Northeast Brazil, along the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, is known for comprising thousands of pegmatitic bodies and it is called Borborema Pegmatite Province. The pegmatites are exploited for gems and non-metallic ores and also for metallic by-products. Many of these bodies are mined for radiominerals and radioactive minerals in so-called garimpos, illegal mines, with dangerous and insalubrious working conditions. In order to locate the sources of commercial batches of columbite-tantalite (coltan) ores, exported between 2000 and 2004, were made radiometric surveys in these mines in the region of the city of Parelhas and radioactive samples collected from the batches were analyzed for uranium, thorium, niobium, and tantalum. The gamma radiation was measured in the pegmatites, also from their enclosing rocks and from the surrounding soil. The results indicate that uraninite has been mixed with coltan ores, but these minerals themselves show considerable contents of uranium and thorium. Chemical analyses indicate four distinct trends for uranium, possibly correlated with previously and already observed four structural features which control the pegmatites, and also evidencing four magmatic-metasomatic events of their emplacement. Regarding the working conditions in the mines, the sparsely presence of uranium minerals does not necessarily represent a hazard for the workers. Laboring risks are much higher than any kind of radioactive risk. (author)

  3. Radioactive pegmatites of the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. Preliminary investigation on radiominerals and radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra da Borborema, in Northeast Brazil, along the border of the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, is known for comprising thousands of pegmatitic bodies and it is called Borborema Pegmatite Province. The pegmatites are exploited for gems and non-metallic ores and also for metallic by-products. Many of these bodies are mined for radiominerals and radioactive minerals in so-called garimpos, illegal mines, with dangerous and insalubrious working conditions. In order to locate the sources of commercial batches of columbite-tantalite (coltan) ores, exported between 2000 and 2004, were made radiometric surveys in these mines in the region of the city of Parelhas and radioactive samples collected from the batches were analyzed for uranium, thorium, niobium, and tantalum. The gamma radiation was measured in the pegmatites, also from their enclosing rocks and from the surrounding soil. The results indicate that uraninite has been mixed with coltan ores, but these minerals themselves show considerable contents of uranium and thorium. Chemical analyses indicate four distinct trends for uranium, possibly correlated with previously and already observed four structural features which control the pegmatites, and also evidencing four magmatic-metasomatic events of their emplacement. Regarding the working conditions in the mines, the sparsely presence of uranium minerals does not necessarily represent a hazard for the workers. Laboring risks are much higher than any kind of radioactive risk. (author)

  4. Genetic profile characterization of 10 X-STRs in four populations of the southeastern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joyce A; Costa, Jeane C; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; Gusmão, Leonor; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Carracedo, Angel; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2010-09-01

    Ten X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (DXS8378, DXS9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, GATA31E08 and DXS7423) were analyzed in four populations of the southeastern region of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Vitória and Belo Horizonte). No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for any of the analyzed loci in the four populations. The average diversity per locus varied between 68% for DXS8378, DXS7133, and DXS7423 and 83%, for DXS6809, with Rio de Janeiro being the most diverse population. Overall power of discrimination values in females varied between 0.99999999990 and 0.99999999997 and between 0.9999991 and 0.9999995 in males. These high values show the potential of this system for forensic application and relationships' testing in the studied groups. Genetic comparisons (exact tests of population differentiation and pairwise genetic distances) revealed significant differences between Brazilian and other populations from Europe, Latin America and Africa, as well as among different Brazilian populations. PMID:20552215

  5. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

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    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  6. The use of carbon isotopes in the study of groundwater of the Bambui calcareous-central region of Bahia (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater of 34 wells and of a spring of the Bambui limestone aquifer, in central Bahia, Brazil, were analized for the 14C and 13C content. One sample of soil CO2 and four of soil organic matter were analized for 13C. From these data were calculated the 14C ages of these waters. A major difficulty in the use of radiocarbon in groundwater hydrology is the estimation of the initial 14C concentration. In many cases, this can be simply determined by the fraction of carbon derived from soil gas, relative to the total carbon dissolved, by the use of Δ13C of the soil organic matter, limestone and dissolved carbon in water. This approach does not seem to be completely valid in arid ou semi-arid regions, specially where the pH of the soil is relatively high. In this case, the isotopic composition of the soil water can be determined if the pCO2 and pH of the soil can be estimated and if the isotopic composition of the soil CO2 can be known. The final isotopic composition of the groundwater is a combination of the isotopic composition of the soil water and any limestone thereafter dissolved. The 14C ages of the water samples analized ranged from modern to about 13000 years. The recharge areas of the aquifer are clearly indicated, as the probable underground flow directions. The interpretation of the radiocarbon data is in accord with the hydrologic data. (Author)

  7. Intake of uranium and radium-226 due to food crops consumption in the phosphate region of Pernambuco - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate region located in the Northeast of Brazil covers an area of approximately 150 km long with an average width of 4 km, along the coast of the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to natural radioactivity levels higher than the background values recorded in the literature, mainly due to the presence of uranium and its decay products in the phosphatic sediments. The main aim of this study was to determine the activity concentration of uranium and 226Ra in foodstuffs cultivated in this area, where the phosphate mineral has been extracted. The activity concentrations found for uranium and 226Ra in the foodstuffs analyzed varied from 13 to 186 mBq kg-1 (wet weight), with a mean value of 46 mBq kg-1 and from 43 to 2209 mBq kg-1 (wet weight), with a mean value of 358 mBq kg-1, respectively. The annual intake of these radionuclides, for rural residents, was 7.45 Bq for uranium and 69.3 Bq for 226Ra

  8. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  9. Molecular assays reveal the presence of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp. in Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; Silvestre, Bruna T; Albernaz, Tatiana T; Leite, Rômulo C; Barbosa, José D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 50% of buffalo herds in Brazil are located in Pará state in northern Brazil. There are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. Therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. Clinical disease caused by Theileria and Babesia parasites in the Asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, and the detection of these hemoparasites in buffaloes is as important as it is in cattle. Studies of the infection of buffaloes by hemoparasites in Brazil are scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Piroplasmida parasites in Asian water buffaloes in the state of Pará in the Amazon region of Brazil using nested PCR assays and phylogenetic analysis. The 18S rRNA gene and ITS complete region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 308 apparently healthy buffaloes bred on six properties in the state of Pará, Brazil. The prevalence of positive buffalo samples was 4.2% (13/308) for Theileria spp., 3.6% (11/308) for Babesia bovis and 1% (3/308) for Babesia bigemina. Animals infected with Theileria were detected in 50% (3/6) of the assessed properties. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Theileria species detected in this study were closely related to Theileria buffeli, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Theileria in Asian water buffaloes in the Americas. The majority of Theileria-positive buffaloes (11/13) belong to a property that has a history of animals presenting lymphoproliferative disease of unknown etiology. Therefore, the present research suggests that this disorder can be associated with Theileria infection in this property. Our results provide new insights on the distribution and biological aspects of hemoparasites transmissible from

  10. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia), state of Pará, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Bezerra Barros; Sílvia Renata Knispel

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia). Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Br...

  11. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  12. Diametric structure in a tropical dry forest fragment in the Cerrado Eco-Museum region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a tropical dry forest area of the Brazilian central region, the DBH distribution of 742 trees ≥ 5 cm was analyzed in a 4000 m2 area. Eighty three tree species were found, of which 25 species with more than 10 individuals were analyzed for this study. The frequency histograms were obtained through the Meyer and Gaussian equations. The DBH distribution of the population showed a negative exponential inverse J curve. Of the 25 species selected, 14 exhibited the same pattern. Eight species presented a tendency near the normal distribution while three species had an abnormal pattern. We concluded that the observed fragment is in a natural auto regenerative status.

  13. Characterization of ceramic product of the Apodi region in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the great precariousness of information on ceramics products, as the brick of Rio Grande do Norte state, the purpose of this work was to analyze the physical and mechanical characteristics of ceramic bricks for construction manufactured in Assu region of the state. Therefore, samples were collected in cities belonging to different potters poles. The bricks were subjected to several tests: visual, absorption, suction, compressive strength, dimensions and flatness deviation from the square. According to ABNT standard, the products need some improvement in quality

  14. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  15. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars. PMID:27542498

  16. DDT concentration in fish from the Tapajós River in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosivaldo de Alcântara; da Costa Lopes, Anna Sylmara; de Souza, Larissa Costa; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-06-01

    DDT and metabolites were measured in six species of fish collected from the Tapajós River in the village of Barreiras, near the town of Itaituba in the Brazilian Amazon region. The selected fish were the most consumed and economically important to the local people. DDT was used frequently in this region for malaria control. Fish samples were analyzed after extraction by microwave-assisted extraction in hexane/acetone (8:2, v/v) by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Residues of op'-DDT and pp'-DDT and metabolites were detected, including pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, and op'-DDE, in 98% of the samples, with a greater abundance of pp'-DDT. Total DDT levels were 7.1-249.5 ng g(-1) wet weight (w.w). The DDE/DDT ratio was low, indicating recent exposure to DDT. The study area that may be related to generated waste used in public health campaigns to combat mosquitos (Anopheles spp.), still present in the Amazon environment, that transmit malaria. DDT levels and metabolites found in fish species do not present risks to human health because they are below acceptable limits for consumption. PMID:27027561

  17. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO{sub 2} contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  18. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  19. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  20. El prejuicio racial en Brasil: medidas comparativas O preconceito racial no Brasil: medidas comparativas Racial prejudice in Brazil: comparative measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires

    2010-01-01

    El estudio trataba de medir las manifestaciones del prejuicio racial en una muestra de la población brasileña, utilizando las escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981) y la escala de racismo cordial de Turra y Venturi (1995) y Venturi (2003). Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 101 estudiantes de diversas universidades en la región sur de Brasil. Los resultados muestran que las dos escalas difieren entre si respecto a captar las expresiones del prejuicio. Las person...

  1. Emissions of Nitrous Oxide and Nitric Oxide from Soils of Native and Exotic Ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric A.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.; Alexandre de Siqueira Pinto

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these ...

  2. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José R. de Oliveira Nascimento; Tae T. Fernandes; de Souza, Debora R.; Suguituru, Silvia S.; M. Santina de C. Morini

    2012-01-01

    Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In t...

  3. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Avian Poxvirus (APV) in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...

  4. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Badra Soraya Jabur; Pereira Luiz Eloy; Szabó Matias Pablo Juan

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivir...

  5. Candida species distribution, genotyping and virulence factors of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of kidney transplant recipients of two geographic regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Lemos, Vitor Luiz de Brito; Svidizisnki, Terezinha Inês Estivalet; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2014-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is a diploid yeast that in some circumstances may cause oral or oropharyngeal infections. This investigation aimed to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and to analyze the ABC genotypes of 76 clinical isolates of C. albicans obtained from the oral cavity of kidney transplant patients from two distinct geographic regions of Brazil. Methods We typed 48 strains with ABC genotyping and Microsatelitte using primer M13 and tested three virulence factors in vitro: phosp...

  6. Characterization of Shigella spp. by antimicrobial resistance and PCR detection of ipa genes in an infantile population from Porto Velho (Western Amazon region), Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Silva; Paulo Afonso Nogueira; Gleiciene Félix Magalhães; Andréa Fagundes Grava; Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da Silva; Patrícia Puccinelli Orlandi

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of Shigella spp. was assessed in 877 infants from the public hospital in Rondônia (Western Amazon region, Brazil) where Shigella represents the fourth cause of diarrhea. Twenty-five isolates were identified: 18 were Shigella flexneri, three Shigella sonnei, three Shigella boydii and one Shigella dysenteriae. With the exception of S. dysenteriae, all Shigella spp. isolated from children with diarrhea acquired multiple antibiotic resistances. PCR detection of ipa virulence genes a...

  7. Evolutionary history of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (the Asian soybean rust) in Brazil based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Maíra C. M. Freire; Luiz O. de Oliveira; Álvaro M. R. Almeida; Ivan Schuster; Maurilio A. Moreira; Merion M. Liebenberg; Charlotte M. S. Mienie

    2008-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi has dispersed globally and brought severe economic losses to soybean growers. The fungus has been established in Brazil since 2002 and is found nationwide. To gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation in P. pachyrhizi , we sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2). Total genomic DNA was extracted using either lyophilized urediniospores or lesions removed from infected leaves sampled from 26 soybean fields...

  8. Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus ("Fogo selvagem"): a series from the Northeastern region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1973-1998

    OpenAIRE

    CHIOSSI Maria Paula do Valle; Ana Maria F. Roselino

    2001-01-01

    Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus (EPF) is a bullous autoimmune skin disease whose incidence used to be high in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, during the forties, but has declined thereafter. OBJECTIVES: to report a series of EPF patients from the northeastern region of SP. METHODS: a retrospective study concerning demographic and epidemiological data of patients seen from 1973 to 1998 was conducted at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, SP. RESULTS: bullous diseas...

  9. Evaluation of 137Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by 137Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for 137Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to 137Cs soil and can be used in the

  10. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

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    Sônia Aparecida Sgarioni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25% raw and 2 (4% pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum. M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  11. Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in Botucatu region, SP, Brazil

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    CB Zetun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of natural ecosystems has caused several problems to humans and other animals; herein we investigate the close relationship among vampire bats, humans and domestic animals. Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. infections are two worldwide zoonoses that provoke serious damage to animals. To determine the prevalence of bats seropositive for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in the Botucatu region, 204 serum samples of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (MAT-t and for Leptospira spp. by microscopic agglutination test (MAT-l. No animal was tested positive for T. gondii while leptospiral positivity was 7.8% for Pyrogenes, Shermani and Javanica serovars, with titers varying from 100 to 1,600. Thus, it was verified that D. rotundus does not play a relevant role in toxoplasmosis epidemiology. However, these bats can be important in the maintenance of Leptospira spp. in the environment.

  12. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

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    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  13. Reproductive ecology of Prochilodus brevis an endemic fish from the semiarid Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Liliane de Lima; Verani, José Roberto; Chellappa, Sathyabama

    2012-01-01

    The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish. PMID:22629205

  14. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water consumed by animals during the growing and finishing phases. The total water footprint of slaughtered pigs was 0.19825 km3, the largest component of which was water used for the cultivation of grains (99.6%. The municipality of Nova Prata had the largest water footprint of Corede Serra (0.02343 km3 year1, followed by the municipalities of Paraí (0.02187 km3 year-1 and Serafina Corrêa (0.01658 km3 year-1. The municipalities of São Marcos (0.000006 km3 year-1, Bento Gonçalves (0,00002 km3 year-1 and Boa Vista do Sul (0.0004 km3 year-1 had the lowest water footprints, due to low corn productivity associated with the low number of hogs slaughtered. From this assessment, it was found that the management of water resources associated with pig chain production should include water used in the production of feed grain as well as the water used directly in animal husbandry.

  15. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Mendonça, Lívia E T; Confessor, Maine V A; Vieira, Washington L S; Lopez, Luiz C S

    2009-01-01

    Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo"), a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó"), iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca"), wooden cages with bait ("arapuca"), iron-cage traps ("gaiola'), "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão"), buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo"), and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado") have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region - with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities. PMID:19386121

  16. Hunting strategies used in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Luiz CS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hunting for wild animals is stimulated by the many different human uses of faunal resources, and these animals constitute important subsistence items in local communities in the Caatinga region. In order to gain access to these resources, hunters have developed a series of techniques and strategies that are described in the present work. The principal hunting techniques encountered were: waiting, especially directed towards hunting diurnal birds; calling ("arremedo", a technique in which the hunters imitate the animal's call to attract it to close range; hunting with dogs, a technique mostly used for capturing mammals; tracking, a technique used by only a few hunters who can recognize and follow animal tracks; and "facheado", in which the hunters go out at night with lanterns to catch birds in their nests. Additionally, many animal species are captured using mechanical traps. The types of traps used by the interviewees were: dead-fall traps ("quixó", iron-jaw snap traps ("arataca", wooden cages with bait ("arapuca", iron-cage traps ("gaiola', "visgo", multi-compartment bird cages ("alçapão", buried ground traps with pivoted tops ("fojo", and nooses and cages for carnivorous. The choice of which technique to use depends on the habits of the species being hunted, indicating that the hunters possess a wide knowledge of the biology of these animals. From a conservation perspective, active hunting techniques (waiting, imitation, hunting with dogs, and "facheado" have the greatest impact on the local fauna. The use of firearm and dogs brought greater efficiency to hunting activities. Additional studies concerning these hunting activities will be useful to contribute to proposals for management plans regulating hunting in the region – with the objective of attaining sustainable use of faunal resources of great importance to the local human communities.

  17. Humic Haplustox under different land uses in a high altitude environment in the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Jane Kelly Silva Araujo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Garanhuns Plateau in the Agreste region of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil is characterized by humid climatic conditions due to orographic rains, unlike the surrounding semiarid region. These soils are subjected to intense agricultural use and are extremely important for the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Brejão in the Agreste region with the aim of assessing changes in humic Haplustox soils subjected to different land uses. Four plots with different vegetation covers (native forest, secondary shrubby vegetation (capoeira, traditional cropping system, and planted pasture were selected, and samples were taken from a soil profile and four small pits surrounding it at each site. Physical and chemical properties were assessed, including aggregate stability, humic organic fractions, and a microbiological evaluation through determination of basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon, and metabolic quotient. The soils under study showed physical and chemical properties typical of a Haplustox, such as low nutrient content, low cation exchange capacity, and high levels of acidity and Al saturation. The total organic carbon (TOC contents were high regardless of the type of land use. Aggregates < 2 mm were dominant in all the conditions under study. The TOC content was higher in the soil under capoeira, 43.91 g kg-1 on the surface, while 34.36 and 33.43 g kg-1 of TOC were observed in the first layer of forest and pasture soils, respectively. While the microbial biomass C (MBC was greater than 700 mg kg-1 in the forest and pasture areas (in the 0-5 cm layer, and 588 mg kg-1 in the soil under capoeira, these numbers were not statistically different. In the cultivated soil area, there was a reduction of around 28 % in TOC and MBC contents. Agricultural activity contributed to degradation of the humic horizon, as can be seen from a significant decrease in the TOC and changes in the relative distribution of the humic

  18. Tests of high-resolution simulations over a region of complex terrain in Southeast coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Sin Chan; Luís Gomes, Jorge; Ristic, Ivan; Mesinger, Fedor; Sueiro, Gustavo; Andrade, Diego; Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The Eta Model is used operationally by INPE at the Centre for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies (CPTEC) to produce weather forecasts over South America since 1997. The model has gone through upgrades along these years. In order to prepare the model for operational higher resolution forecasts, the model is configured and tested over a region of complex topography located near the coast of Southeast Brazil. The model domain includes the two Brazilians cities, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, urban areas, preserved tropical forest, pasture fields, and complex terrain where it can rise from sea level up to about 1000 m. Accurate near-surface wind direction and magnitude are needed for the power plant emergency plan. Besides, the region suffers from frequent events of floods and landslides, therefore accurate local forecasts are required for disaster warnings. The objective of this work is to carry out a series of numerical experiments to test and evaluate high resolution simulations in this complex area. Verification of model runs uses observations taken from the nuclear power plant and higher resolution reanalyses data. The runs were tested in a period when flow was predominately forced by local conditions and in a period forced by frontal passage. The Eta Model was configured initially with 2-km horizontal resolution and 50 layers. The Eta-2km is a second nesting, it is driven by Eta-15km, which in its turn is driven by Era-Interim reanalyses. The series of experiments consists of replacing surface layer stability function, adjusting cloud microphysics scheme parameters, further increasing vertical and horizontal resolutions. By replacing the stability function for the stable conditions substantially increased the katabatic winds and verified better against the tower wind data. Precipitation produced by the model was excessive in the region. Increasing vertical resolution to 60 layers caused a further increase in precipitation production. This excessive

  19. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

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    F. Rossi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  20. Cesium-137 inventory of the undisturbed soil areas in the Londrina Region, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is an artificial radionuclide introduced in the environment through the radioactive fallout of the superficial tests of nuclear weapons. The cesium-137 deposition occurred to middles of the 1980-decade and, due to the Chernobyl accident, great part of Europe had a additional fallout of cesium-137. The contaminations of this accident do not have reached Southern Hemisphere. Cesium-137 is an alkaline metal, high electropositive, that in contact with the soil is strongly adsorbed to the clay in the FES (Frayed Edge Sites) and RES (Regular Edge Sites) positions, and it movement by chemical processes in the soil is insignificant. Because of this, cesium-137 became a good soil marker, and its movement is related to the soil movement particles, so that the cesium-137 have been used in the study of the soil redistribution processes, as a tool of quantifying the rates of soil losses and gain. To use this methodology, it is necessary the knowledge of the reference inventory of cesium-137, that is given as function of the total concentration of cesium-137 deposited in an area by the radioactive fallout. If a sampling point presents less cesium-137 than the reference inventory, this point is considered a point with soil loss; otherwise, the point is considered a point with soil deposition. To evaluate the cesium-137 inventory in the Londrina region, four areas of the undisturbed soil were sampling in grid of 3x3, with a distance of 9 meters among the points. Of these four sampling areas, three areas were of native forest (labeled Mata1, Mata2 and Mata UEL), and one was a pasture area. Cesium-137 inventory was 223 ± 41 Bq m-2, 240 ± 65 Bq m-2 and 305 ± 36 Bq m-2 for Mata UEL, Mata1 and Mata2, respectively, and of 211 ± 28 Bq m-2 for the native pasture. Considering the deviation in each value, it is not possible to conclude that there are differences among the values of cesium-137 inventory, so that the average reference inventory of cesium-137 for the Londrina

  1. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

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    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  2. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

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    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  3. Edafic macrofauna in three different environments in agreste region of paraibano, Brazil

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    Edimar Alves Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to quantify the density and diversity of soil invertebrate macrofauna community, in three different field cultivated with acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC., cassava (Manihot esculenta and an area of edge forest. The work was led at the Sítio Araticum, in the municipal district of Lagoa Seca - PB, Agreste region of the State of Paraiba. It was used traps of the type Provid constituted by a plastic bottles with capacity of two liters, containing four openings in the form of windows with dimensions of 3x3 cm in the height of 20 cm of your base, containing 200 mL of a detergent solution to a concentration of 10%. The traps were in the field for a period of four days, having been accomplished two collections sequential. The adopted design was completely randomized, whose treatments corresponded to the areas of acerola cultivation, cassava and an area of forest border entirely, with ten repetitions. The predominant groups of the macrofauna were Hymenoptera, Arachnida, Isoptera and Coleoptera and the low value in the Shannon index with consequent reduction in the uniformity represented by the Pielou index, it evidenced the prevalence of the group Hymenoptera.

  4. Helminthic Parasites of Chickens (Gallus Domesticus in Different Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    GS da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian poultry industry is an outstanding national and international agribusiness sector. Among the Brazilian states, São Paulo is the largest producer of commercial eggs and the fourth largest producer and exporter of chicken meat. Alternatively, semi-intensive and/or organic poultry production have also obtained a significant share of the domestic market as a result of consumer demand. Helminths affect the performance of the birds, causing significant direct or indirect losses. The objective of the present study was to identify the main helminth species present in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo. In total, 359 adult birds were investigated. The birds were reared in different housing systems and were obtained from 69 farms in the selected regions. The birds were submitted to procedures for the detection and identification of helminth parasites, following international standards. The evaluation of the small intestine employed the Mello-Campos method (Mello & Campos, 1974, which allows better recovery of cestode scolices attached to the intestinal mucosa. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the collected materials, and light microscopy was used to identify the species based on their morphological characteristics. The following helminth species were diagnosed in chickens reared in 17 municipalities of the state of São Paulo: nematodes (Ascaridia galli, Capillaria sp., Cheilospirura hamulosa, Heterakis gallinarum, Oxyspirura mansoni, and Strongyloides sp., cestodes (Amoebotaenia cuneata, Choanotaenia infundibulum, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina cesticillus, Raillietina echinobothrida, and Raillietina tetragona, and trematodes (Zygocotyle lunata and Postharmostomum commutatum.

  5. Quadrilatero ferrifero, MG, Brazil. Regional characteristics justify application for global geoparks network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geopark, a concept created in 2000, is neither strictly geological nor a park in the usual sense. Geopark is a holistic concept, aimed at promoting sustainable economic development based on unique geological features (represented by “geosites”, outcrops with special value, under some point of view), but also having a social objective. The Global Geoparks Network (GGN), working in synergy with UNESCO, has 64 members in 19 countries. This paper presents a brief history and some characteristics of a few European Geoparks, followed by some aspects of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. As shall be seen, this area is rich in geosites, and in historical, social and cultural attractions. On the other hand, foreseeing a decline in mineral exploitation in mid-century, it urgently seeks a good plan for regional development. As a conclusion, it will be seen that its characteristics fit the Geopark concept, and justify the support of the geoscientific community, and that of society in general, to its application, recently submitted to UNESCO, for admission to the GGN

  6. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in the native forest soil at Londrina region (Parana, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 137 Cs depth distribution has been studied in several areas in the world and its knowledge is very important to verify its behavior in the soil matrix. The form of 137 Cs depth distribution more observed in an undisturbed soil it is exponential type. In this work, the study of 137 Cs depth distribution was accomplished at three native forests and a coffee yard, built before the 137 Cs fallout, in the region of Londrina (Parana). The sampling was conducted in 1 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm increment depth. The 137 Cs inventory observed for the forests was 248 Bq m-2 (Mata1), 338 Bq m-2 (Mata2) and 325 Bq m-2 (MataUEL). No 137 Cs activity was detected in the coffee yard. The 137 Cs depth distribution for the three forests presented the exponential type. For the soil class of the forests, 137 Cs adsorbed on the soil particles can be considered fixed or slowly exchangeable. (author)

  7. Isotope discrimination of carbon in humus of Latosols and Podzols from the Amazon region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of 13C/12C (Δ13C) and humus composition was studied in two Podzol profiles and three Latosols of Manaus region. The relative proportions of the humic fractions were determined using a selective dissolution method. Humus of Podzols was of the same nature, with over 50% carbon in the alkaline-soluble fractions of horizons A. Sodium hydroxide extractable fractions are predominant in the upper part, and decrease in A, when pirophosplate extractable fractions become more expressive. Δ13C in Podzols is low: - 28 a 30 per mille at top of A, - 27 per mille in A2. Latosol humus is greatly different from Podzol humus; it is poor in alkaline-soluble fractions and rich in free fulvic acids and humine. The Δ13C is in average - 28 per mille in the first/upper centimeters of soil, poor in free fulvic acids and showing a small concentration of alkaline-solubles. With depth it can reach values close to - 25 per mille. Both in Podzols and Latosols, a 13C enrichment is observed when alkaline-solubles decrease and free fulvic acids concentrate, which is related to alterations in the composition of the alkaline-soluble fractions and disappearance of plant material not totally humified in horizons A. A higher concentration of 13C is noted in sub-superficial horizons of Latosols. For Podzols there is lixiviation of free fulvic acids at depth. There is an isotopic discrimination of carbon in soils, which is a consequence of the selective distribution of 13C in the different humic substances and of the humus dynamics. (M.A.)

  8. CHARCOAL PRICE ANALYSIS IN FOUR REGIONS OF MINAS GERAIS STATE-BRAZIL

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    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The State of Minas Gerais is the largest producer and consumer of charcoal, that is used as term-reducer of iron ore,for producing pig iron. This study analyzed the time series of charcoal prices in four regions of Minas Gerais State. For the analysisof the price series, the SARIMA model was used, for finding a model that better forecasts prices for the four studied areas. The mostappropriate models were chosen using graphical analyses of the standardized residues, autocorrelation functions and partialautocorrelations, stochastic tests and criteria of evaluation of the order of the model. It concluded that: the differences of charcoalprices occur, basically, due to the geographical location; the analyses of domain of the time and domain of the frequency showed thatthere is difference in the price series of the four studied areas; the areas of Sete Lagoas and Belo Horizonte, giving that they are closelylocated, possess similar prices and they generated similar model; the studied areas presented differentiated models and supplied goodadjustments for the observed series. The best models were SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Belo Horizonte; SARIMA (2,0,0x(2,1,212,for Divinópolis; SARIMA (2,1,1x(1,0,012, for Sete Lagoas and SARIMA (1,1,1x(1,1,112, for Vertentes. Such models presented in aparsimonious way, containing a small number of parameters. All models SARIMA (p,d,q (P,D,Qs, for the four studied areas,presented white noise and supplied adequate price forecast.

  9. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SUCCESSIONAL STAGES OF CAATINGA IN THE SEMI-ARID REGION OF BRAZIL

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    Carla da Silva Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813331Caatinga is an exclusively Brazilian biome with areas in accentuated process of desertification. Arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi (AMF act in plant succession by favoring the establishment of plant species typical ofsuccessional stages and by accelerating recovery leading to a climax stage. The objective of the present workwas to evaluate the occurrence and diversity of AMF in successional stages of caatinga in the semi-aridregion of Paraíba State. Experimental plots (30 x 60 m were delimitated in 2007 in areas corresponding todifferent caatinga successional stages: early caatinga succession (natural revegetation during the previous15 years; intermediate (natural revegetation for about 35 years; late (mature caatinga with more than50 years without major disturbances; and also in pasture areas fenced and protected to represent the initialphase of succession. Plots of all four stages were implemented with three replicates. Soil and root sampleswere collected in the experimental plots, from the 0-15 cm soil layer in the dry and in the rainy seasons.All areas presented low infectivity potential suggesting that the introduction of mycorrhizal seedlings mayaccelerate the process of revegetation of degraded soils in this region. Except for the areas of late stage, theglomalin reservoirs increased along with the advancement of the succession process. Areas in the late stageof succession presented greater richness of AMF species, indicating that the establishment of the vegetationalso exerts a significant effect in the fungal community. Glomus and Acaulospora species were predominantin both seasons, possibly because they are well adapted to semi-arid conditions

  10. Changes in soil carbon stocks in Brazil due to land use: paired site comparisons and a regional pasture soil survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, E. D.; Pinto, H. S.; Martins, S. C.; Groppo, J. D.; Salgado, P. R.; Evangelista, B.; Vasconcellos, E.; Sano, E. E.; Pavão, E.; Luna, R.; Camargo, P. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we calculated soil carbon stocks in Brazil studying 17 paired sites where soil stocks were determined in native vegetation, pastures and crop-livestock systems (CPS), and in other regional samplings encompassing more than 100 pasture soils, from 6.58 to 31.53° S, involving three major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and the Pampa. The average native vegetation soil carbon stocks at 10, 30 and 60 cm soil depth were equal to approximately 29, 64, and 92 Mg ha-1, respectively. In the paired sites, carbon losses of 7.5 Mg ha-1 and 11.6 Mg ha-1 in CPS systems were observed at 10 cm and 30 cm soil depths, respectively. In pasture soils, carbon losses were similar and equal to 7.5 Mg ha-1 and 11.0 Mg ha-1 at 10 cm and 30 cm soil depths, respectively. Differences at 60 cm soil depth were not significantly different between land uses. The average soil δ13C under native vegetation at 10 and 30 cm depth were equal to -25.4‰ and -24.0‰, increasing to -19.6‰ and -17.7‰ in CPS, and to -18.9‰, and -18.3‰ in pasture soils, respectively; indicating an increasing contribution of C4 carbon in these agrosystems. In the regional survey of pasture soils, the soil carbon stock at 30 cm was equal to approximately 51 Mg ha-1, with an average δ13C value of -19.67‰. Key controllers of soil carbon stock in pasture sites were sand content and mean annual temperature. Collectively, both could explain approximately half of the variance of soil carbon stocks. When pasture soil carbon stocks were compared with the average soil carbon stocks of native vegetation estimated for Brazilian biomes and soil types by Bernoux et al. (2002) there was a carbon gain of 6.7 Mg ha-1, which is equivalent to a carbon gain of 15% compared to the carbon soil stock of the native vegetation. The findings of this study are consistent with differences found between regional comparisons like our pasture sites and plot-level paired study sites in estimating soil carbon stocks

  11. The alkaline and shoshonitic intrusives in the region of the Taquarembo plateau, southern Brazil: are they genetically related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Santo Antonio granitic massif and the Leoes ring complex represent, respectively, the shoshonitic and alkaline magmatic associations in the Taquarembo Plateau, southernmost Brazil. The two associations include cogenetic volcanic rocks, and both represent the late magmatic events of the Brasiliano Cycle (620-540 Ma) in the Sul-riograndense shield. The Santo Antonio granitic massif includes monzogranites and quartz-monzonites, whereas monzodiorites and quartz-syenites are exposed in the Leoes ring complex. The comparison of major and trace elements of the two associations, including also samples from other regions of the shield, reveals that their parental magmas are derived from a slightly enriched lithospheric mantle; the differences among them are due to the genetic particularities and to the evolution in crustal magma chambers at distinct depths. trace-element modeling for upper mantle partial melting is made from the composition of a lithospheric mantle depleted by previous melting events and later enriched in incompatible elements. The results indicate low-degree of melting (2,-3%) of a source with distinct garnet/clinopyroxene ratios for producing parental magmas of the two associations. However, a more diversified origin of the shoshonitic rocks can be also suggested. The behavior of some LILE and HFSE, such as Ba, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb and Ti is not entirely explained by the modeling. In the same way, the observed divergences are hardly adjusted to the influence of subduction, or to the bulk assimilation of lower crustal segments by mantle-derived magmas. The mixing of basaltic magmas with partial melts produced crustal rocks with distinct compositions at different conditions is able to justify the compositional peculiarities between and within the two associations. In the shoshonitic types, the geochemical characteristics are explained by mixing with partial melts derived from basic-to-intermediate compositions, either under more hydrous conditions at lower

  12. Tracer techniques applied to the study of the karstic aquifer of the central region of Bahia (Irece-Iraquara), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The karst of the central region of the state of Bahia (Brazil) has been studied by using different isotopic technics, which included: a) determination of the well profile with artificial radioisotopes for flow measurements; b) analyses of the environmental isotopes, deuterium, oxigen-18 and tritium. The isotopic profiles of the wells allowed determinations of the distribution of the fracturing and the karstic structure of the aquifer as well as the calculation of an approximate value for the effective porosity of the transmissivity. The transmissivity obtained by using these methods agree with those calculated using the pumping test. The stable water isotopes allowed the identification of four different aquifer zones being important to establish the general ground water flow. It was also verified that the water experiences evaporation before infiltration in two of these zones, characterizing them as recharging zones. An exponential model of water renewal was utilized to determine the aquifer recharge in different zones based on tritium determination. The water volume was also evaluated in the aquifer by using the porosity from the isotopic profiles. The following isotopic technics were used: 1) well profiles using artificial radiactive tracers; 2) measurements of the stable water isotop concentrations (deuterium and oxigen-18); 3) measurement of the thermonuclear tritium; 4) test with radioactive tracers to measure the effective porosity; 5) measurement of the source flow utilizing iodine-131 as a tracer. The present report describes the results of the first three items. Due to the reduced number of tests the results obtained are not statistically representative and measurement of the source flow were only completed to support the system hydrogeological interpretation. (Author)

  13. Muscoid Diptera as potential vectors of bacterial agents on dairy farms in the northern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josaine Leila Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the isolation frequency and microbial sensitivity profiles of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from synanthropic flies captured in entomological traps placed near the milking parlors of 30 dairy farms located in Northern Paraná, Brazil. In total, 192 flies were captured, and the isolation frequencies of muscids (21/30 = 70% and califorids (27/30 = 90% were significantly higher than that of sarcophagids (7/30 = 23.3%. Bacteriological tests on the internal contents and external surfaces of the flies showed that E. coli was present only in muscids (14.3% and caliphorids (33.3%. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 9.5% of the muscids, 7.4% of the caliphorids, and 14.29% of the sarcophagids. Staphylococcus spp. was isolated from 28.5% of the muscids and 29.6% of the caliphorids. E. coli isolation was more frequent in flies captured on farms at which domestic chickens were housed near the milking parlors (p = 0.031 and which did not use sugarcane for animal feed (p = 0.042. Two out of 27 (7.4% Staphylococcus spp. strains presented a phenotype of coagulase enzyme production. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Tetracycline was the least effective antibiotic against the isolates. The Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated did not show the phenotype of oxacillin resistance. We conclude that regional flies are potential mechanical vectors of microbial agents able to cause enteritis in goats, mastitis in cows, and contamination of milk products for human consumption.

  14. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgheroff, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Silva, George Allan Villarouco da; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves de; Domingues, André Luiz da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*), VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM) region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3), G1 (sublineage I-A), G9 (lineage III), G12 (lineages II and III), G8 (lineage II), G3 (lineage III), P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb), P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1), I2 (lineage VII), E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X), and H2 (lineage III) were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination). Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context. PMID:27266629

  15. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamarino, Atila; de Melo, Fernando Lucas; Braconi, Carla Torres; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN) genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes), 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes), 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2) that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL) or elvitegravir (EVG) resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS) indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population. PMID:22485165

  16. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  17. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  18. Medidas de pobreza: un enfoque alternativo

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    Luisa L. Lazzari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Una medida creíble de pobreza e indigencia puede ser un poderoso instrumento para concentrar la atención del policymaker en las condiciones de vida de los pobres. Las opciones elegidas para fijarlas tienen gran importancia para las decisiones políticas a tomar. El método indirecto o enfoque del ingreso parte de la valorización de una Canasta Básica Alimentaria (CBA que determina la cantidad de calorías mínimas necesarias para satisfacer las necesidades biológicas básicas de un individuo. Una canasta rígida de bienes, y un único valor de cada mercancía, no muestra fidedignamente la realidad. El cálculo de la CBA tradicional, presenta dificultades a la hora de identificar de manera rigurosa las personas que son indigentes y las que no lo son. Las herramientas que provee la teoría de los conjuntos borrosos, permiten modelar situaciones con alto contenido subjetivo o incierto. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la metodología existente para el cálculo de la CBA, tratar de identificar sus falencias y plantear un nuevo enfoque en su armado y valuación. El modelo propuesto se aplica al caso del cálculo de la Canasta Básica Alimentaria Fuzzy para los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 2004 para luego comparar los resultados obtenidos con el enfoque clásico.

  19. Hepatitis B Virus infection in HIV-positive population in Brazil: results of a survey in the state of Mato Grosso and a comparative analysis with other regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Azevedo e Silva Vergínia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-stage liver disease is currently a major concern among HIV-positive individuals due to co-infection with hepatotropic virus. Hepatitis C has been pointed out as a remarkable factor for that. More recently, hepatitis B virus (HBV infection has also been found to play a role on liver disease in this population. HIV-HBV co-infection prevalence remains largely unknown in vast areas of Brazil. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HDV infection in HIV-infected subjects living in the state of Mato Grosso, in the Central region of Brazil, and compare it to other Brazilian studies. We also assess epidemiologic data regarding risk factors and vaccinal status. Methods HIV-positive individuals followed at the Central Laboratory of the Department of Public Health of Mato Grosso in the city of Cuiabá composed the sample. Participants answered a specific questionnaire and had a blood sample taken and tested for serologic markers. Results A thousand individuals were interviewed and tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HDV if positive for HBsAg. Measurements of CD4 and viral load for HIV-1 were also performed. Overall prevalence of HBV exposure (anti-HBc +ve was 40.0%, and 3.7% for HBsAg. This prevalence data was similar or slightly lower than for other Brazilian regions, which ranged from 40% and 3% to 71% and 24%, respectively. Testing for anti-HDV in the 37 HBsAg positive patients was positive in only one subject. Factors that showed independent association with HBV exposure, after adjustment, were: male gender, older age groups, tattooing, and reporting more than ten sexual partners throughout life (p Conclusion Our data showed HBV infection prevalence similar or slightly lower than that reported in other regions of Brazil. In addition, our data revealed a less important role for drug injection in the spread of HIV and HBV in Mato Grosso compared to other regions of the country. The

  20. Assessment of natural and artificial radiation dose in the city urban area of Goiania, Goias, Brazil: results of Campinas - Centro and Sul regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T.Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    An assessment of external gamma dose was carried out in some urban areas in the city of Goiania - GO - Brazil, allowing to infer the contribution of this component to the average annual effective dose value for the population leaving in that region. The measurements were done using a vehicle with a mobile radioactivity measurement system, Thermo-Eberline FHT 1376, consisting of plastic scintillation detector and a Global Position System (GPS), which is able to collect gamma dose rate as well as the local spatial coordinates. These data, associated with those from national census, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic, were analyzed using the ArcGIS software, a well known Geographical Information System - GIS. As the main result, radiometric maps were produced, illustrating how effective dose values are distributed within the selected areas and also correlating the collective dose values for these populations. Around 57,000 geo referenced effective dose values were measured in the so-called Campinas-Centro and Sul Regions, which are two of the seven regions Goiania is divided in for administrative purposes. The dose rates ranging from 10.4 to 192.7 nSv/h with an average of 22.4 nSv/h, which means 0.20 mSv/year as the annual effective dose. This values are lower than the worldwide average effective dose value of 0.46 mSv/year for outdoor exposures from terrestrial radiation sources) and lower than the previous average values found in Brazil for the regions of Pocos de Caldas, Guarapari, Andradas and Caldas. Actually, the average value is comparable with those observed in the Ribeirao Preto - SP - Brazil City. (author)

  1. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

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    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  2. Medidas agroambientales y conservación de la biodiversidad: Limitaciones y perspectivas de futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Concepción

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las medidas agroambientales se consideran la principal herramienta disponible para frenar la pérdida de biodiversidad asociada a la intensificación de la agricultura. Sin embargo la cuestión sobre si constituyen o no una herramienta adecuada para cumplir este objetivo continúa siendo objeto de debate científico. Las evaluaciones realizadas hasta el momento ofrecen resultados muy variables al respecto. En general, las medidas resultan efectivas cuando su objetivo es la conservación de especies concretas en regiones bien delimitadas, pero esta efectividad suele ser menor cuando sus objetivos son más amplios, como la conservación de la biodiversidad en un país o región. Se han propuesto varias razones para explicar las limitaciones observadas con el fin de mejorar la efectividad de las medidas. En primer lugar se encuentra la dificultad de diseñar prescripciones que beneficien a conjuntos de especies con requerimientos diferentes e incluso contrastados. Otra de las principales limitaciones de las medidas agroambientales es su aplicación a escala local (campos de cultivo, lo que restringe su capacidad para compensar los efectos paisajísticos o regionales de la intensificación agrícola o de otros cambios de uso. Finalmente, las relaciones no lineales entre intensificación agrícola y diversidad a varias escalas espaciales y sus efectos interactivos implican que la efectividad de las medidas pueda variar dependiendo del grado de extensificación de la medida y del sistema en que se aplica. Es necesario que los programas agroambientales adopten un enfoque a múltiples escalas espaciales, combinando la extensificación de las prácticas agrícolas con la conservación del paisaje agrario. Las medidas de conservación más adecuadas en cada caso dependerán del contexto paisajístico, así como del nivel de intensificación del sistema agrícola de interés. En sistemas agrícolas intensivos, con niveles intermedios de complejidad paisaj

  3. Decisão de sazonalização de contratos de fornecimento de energia elétrica no Brasil através da otimização da medida Ômega (Ω Seasonnalization decision of contracts for the supply of electricity in Brazil through optimization of measure Omega Ω

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    Mario Domingues de Paula Simões

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde o final dos anos 90, o setor elétrico brasileiro vem passando por grandes reformas, cujos principais objetivos são aumentar a competição e a eficiência na alocação de recursos. Exatamente em função deste aumento de eficiência na alocação de recursos e devido ao consumo sazonal de energia no Brasil, foi estabelecida uma flexibilidade para as hidrelétricas conhecida como sazonalização. A sazonalização permite que a cada ano o agente de geração declare para o próximo ano o quanto é a energia mensal respeitando-se certos limites. Neste artigo, propõe-se um modelo de análise de decisão da sazonalização a partir da otimização da medida ômega com restrições de valor em risco, a qual consegue incorporar todos os momentos de uma distribuição de probabilidade numa análise de decisão. Para o cálculo desta medida, utiliza-se simulação dos preços de curto prazo. Aplica-se este modelo ao caso de uma pequena central hidrelétrica. Os resultados indicam que a decisão de sazonalização muda substancialmente quando há restrição de valor em risco (Value at Risk - VaR, fazendo com que a decisão ótima fique mais próxima de uma alocação uniforme ao longo do ano. Quando não há restrição de VaR, a decisão ótima difere consideravelmente da alocação uniforme.Since the late 1990s, the Brazilian electric power industry has been undergoing significant structural changes, the main objective being to increase competition and resources allocation efficiency. Due to this increase in efficiency and because of seasonal electricity consumption, there is the inclusion of a contractual flexibility, named seazonalization. This flexibility in the contract allows the generation agent (hydropower plant to choose the monthly electricity amount generated and supplied to the system, each year, within certain limits. In this article it is proposed a model for the analysis and decision of the best energy supply profile, for the

  4. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  5. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  6. Serovars of Salmonella spp isolated from broiler chickens and commercial breeders in diverse regions in Brazil from July 1997 to December 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMI Kanashiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Avian salmonellosis is a worldwide problem to the poultry industry, from the point of view of animal health and public health as well. The aim of the present study was to survey the most common Salmonella serovars in commercial breeders or broiler flocks from several regions in Brazil. The results of the present study indicated a high incidence of S enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis in breeders (57.5% and broilers flocks (84.0%. The importance of these findings lies in the fact that S. Enteritidis has become the most frequent serovar responsible for foodborne outbreaks and sporadic cases of salmonellosis in humans.

  7. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  8. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eldina Castro Sousa; Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-Thomaz; José Osvaldo Beserra Carioca; Selene Maia de Morais; Alessandro de Lima; Clécio Galvão Martins; Cristiane Duarte Alexandrino; Pablito Augusto Travassos Ferreira; Ana Livya Moreira Rodrigues; Suliane Praciano Rodrigues; Jurandy do Nascimento Silva; Larissa Lages Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82), moisture (3.33g/100g), acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g), and ash (4.65 g/100g). The amount of tota...

  9. Mortality due to pneumoconioses in macro-regions of Brazil from 1979 to 1998 Mortalidade por pneumoconioses nas macrorregiões do Brasil no período de 1979-1998

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    Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumoconioses make up a group of lung diseases related to exposure to mineral dusts in work environments. They represent a public health problem, considering that such diseases could already have been eradicated from Brazil, if control measures had been taken in such environments. The aim of this research was to map the distribution of deaths due to pneumoconioses in the different geographical areas and states of Brazil, by means of an ecological survey carried out in the working population older than 15 years. The preliminary results of this investigation in the Brazilian macro-regions from 1979 to 1998 are presented. This study used mortality data provided by the Mortality Information System of Datasus - Data Processing Department of the Unified Health System, using the codes of the ICD (International Classification of Diseases 9 and ICD 10. The results showed an increase in the mortality coefficient due to pneumoconioses per 1 million inhabitants per year along the studied period of time. By shifting from ICD 9 to ICD 10, the frequency of deaths doubled. We concluded that the mortality coefficients due to pneumoconioses do not reflect the problem properly, thus masking the transcendence and magnitude of the disease. In order to obtain more representative indicators, the actually exposed population and the territorial distribution of the disease have to be known.As pneumoconioses representam um conjunto de doenças pulmonares relacionadas à exposição às poeiras minerais nos ambientes de trabalho. Constituem um problema de saúde pública, visto que poderia ser uma doença já erradicada em nosso meio com o uso de medidas de controle nesses ambientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um mapeamento da distribuição de mortalidade das pneumoconioses nas regiões geográficas e nos Estados da Federação brasileira através de um estudo ecológico que utilizou como denominador a população ativa acima de 15 anos. Apresenta-se o

  10. Detection of the B"-GWGR variant in the southernmost region of Brazil: unveiling the complexity of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype B epidemic

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    Dennis Maletich Junqueira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Typical human immunodeficiency virus-1 subtype B (HIV-1B sequences present a GPGR signature at the tip of the variable region 3 (V3 loop; however, unusual motifs harbouring a GWGR signature have also been isolated. Although epidemiological studies have detected this variant in approximately 17-50% of the total infections in Brazil, the prevalence of B"-GWGR in the southernmost region of Brazil is not yet clear. This study aimed to investigate the C2-V3 molecular diversity of the HIV-1B epidemic in southernmost Brazil. HIV-1 seropositive patients were ana-lysed at two distinct time points in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS98 and RS08 and at one time point in the state of Santa Catarina (SC08. Phylogenetic analysis classified 46 individuals in the RS98 group as HIV-1B and their molecular signatures were as follows: 26% B"-GWGR, 54% B-GPGR and 20% other motifs. In the RS08 group, HIV-1B was present in 32 samples: 22% B"-GWGR, 59% B-GPGR and 19% other motifs. In the SC08 group, 32 HIV-1B samples were found: 28% B"-GWGR, 59% B-GPGR and 13% other motifs. No association could be established between the HIV-1B V3 signatures and exposure categories in the HIV-1B epidemic in RS. However, B-GPGR seemed to be related to heterosexual individuals in the SC08 group. Our results suggest that the established B"-GWGR epidemics in both cities have similar patterns, which is likely due to their geographical proximity and cultural relationship.

  11. Epidemiological profile of meningococcal disease in the State of Minas Gerais and in the Central, North, and Triângulo Mineiro regions, Brazil, during 2000-2009

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    Karynne Alves do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infection by Neisseria meningitidis, termed as meningococcal disease, can cause meningococcal meningitis and septicemia with or without meningitis. Meningococcal disease is endemic in Brazil and has a high potential to cause large-scale epidemics; therefore, it requires the immediate notification of cases to the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN in Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe an epidemiological profile using data from notified and confirmed cases in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from January 2000 to December 2009, obtained from the investigation records of individuals with meningitis registered with SINAN. METHODS: This was a retrospective, population-based study. Descriptive analysis of the data was made using the simple and relative frequencies of the categorical variables in the investigation records. RESULTS: There were 1,688 confirmed patients in Minas Gerais of which 45.5% lived in the Central, North, and Triângulo Mineiro regions. The highest frequencies of cases were in the 1-4-years age group (26.3%, males (54.7%, caucasian (36.4%, and lived in an urban area (80%. In the patients with specified education, 650 (60.9% patients had secondary education. Serogrouping of meningococci had been performed in 500 (29.6% patients by age and gender; 285 (57% belonged to serogroup C, 67 (13.4% were in the 1-to 4-years age group, and 168 (33.6% were male. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological profiles of patients in the Central, North, and Triângulo Mineiro regions were not significantly different from the profile of patients in Minas Gerais.

  12. Wild Trypanosoma cruzi I genetic diversity in Brazil suggests admixture and disturbance in parasite populations from the Atlantic Forest region

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, VS; Jansen, AM; Messenger, LA; Miles, MA; Llewellyn, MS

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) infection is an ancient and widespread zoonosis distributed throughout the Americas. Ecologically, Brazil comprises several distinct biomes: Amazonia, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Sylvatic T. cruzi transmission is known to occur throughout these biomes, with multiple hosts and vectors involved. Parasite species-level genetic diversity can be a useful marker for ecosystem health. Our aims were to: investiga...

  13. Adaptability of females buffaloes in milking parlor of “agreste” region Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Paula Felipe de Oliveira; Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel; Mayara Leilane de Jesus Barreto; Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior; Stela Antas Urbano; Igor de Paula Lopes Aureliano

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the environmental adaptability of female buffalo in primiparous and pluriparous parlor in rural Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Was done reading the climate elements relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (TA) weekly in morning and afternoon shifts for six weeks, and calculated the temperature and humidity index (THI) in the milking parlor. The surface temperature was also measured. In addition, behavioral observations of the environment milking were recorded twice...

  14. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle Eva I.; Feldman Robert H. L.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Bra...

  15. Using numerical classification of profiles based on Vis-NIR spectra to distinguish soils from the Piracicaba Region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Considering that information from soil reflectance spectra is underutilized in soil classification, this paper aimed to evaluate the relationship of soil physical, chemical properties and their spectra, to identify spectral patterns for soil classes, evaluate the use of numerical classification of profiles combined with spectral data for soil classification. We studied 20 soil profiles from the municipality of Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, which were morphologically described and cl...

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves; Talita Lucas Belizário; Janderson de Brito Pimentel; Mário Paulo Amante Penatti; Reginaldo dos Santos Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children a...

  17. Security policies of India, Brazil and South Africa: Regional security contexts as constraints for a common agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Flemes, Daniel; Costa Vaz, Alcides

    2011-01-01

    In the course of the last decade, the IBSA states (India, Brazil, South Africa) have increased their weight in the shifting global order, particularly in economic affairs. Can the same be said about the IBSA states' position in the international security hierarchy? After locating the IBSA coalition in the shifting world order, we analyze its member states' willingness and capacity to coordinate their security policies and build a common global security agenda. In addition, we explore the stat...

  18. Dengue: clinical forms and risk groups in a high incidence city in the southeastern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Macedo Cardoso; Aline de Souza Areias Cabidelle; Patrícia de Castro e Leão Borges; Carolina Ferreira Lang; Fabrício Greco Calenti; Larissa de Oliveira Nogueira; Aloisio Falqueto; Crispim Cerutti Junior

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The article describes the epidemiologic profile of dengue cases in Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009, aimed at identifying risk groups regarding the incidence and severity of the disease. METHODS: Confirmed cases of dengue among city residents during ten years were classified as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome and dengue with complications, and analyzed according to sex, age, race-color and education. RESULTS: The pro...

  19. Childhood overweight and obesity in a region of Italian immigration in Southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Geremia, Renata; Cimadon, Hosana Maria Speranza; de Souza, William Brasil; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The main modifiable risk factors for obesity are related to lifestyle and significantly influenced by the family, environment and culture. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and associated lifestyle factors in children from Bento Gonçalves, a southern Brazil city with strong Italian immigration influence. Italian traditional foods were locally adapted since the immigrants’ arrival in the XIX century, to include more fat and fewer vegetables, and physical acti...

  20. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the health services in different regions of Brazil El diagnóstico oportuno de la tuberculosis en los servicios de salud de varias regiones de Brasil Diagnóstico oportuno da tuberculose nos serviços de saúde de diversas regiões do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa; Maria Amélia Zanon Ponce; Anneliese Domingues Wysocki; Rubia Laine de Paula Andrade; Tiemi Arakawa; Beatriz Estuque Scatolin; Maria Eugenia Firmino Brunello; Aline Ale Beraldo; Lucia Marina Scatena; Aline Aparecida Monroe; Reinaldo Antonio da Silva Sobrinho; Lenilde Duarte de Sá; Jordana Almeida Nogueira; Marluce Maria Araújo Assis; Roxana Isabel Cardozo-Gonzales

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the infected person's first contact with the health services, for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in different regions of Brazil. METHOD: a cross-sectional study undertaken in 6 municipalities in the South-east, South and North-east regions of Brazil. Data collection involved secondary sources and interviews with the patients. The data was analyzed using descriptive techniques and multiple correspondence factor analysis. RESULTS: Primary Health Care (PHC) presen...

  1. Distribution, abundance and biomass of Chaetognaths off São Sebastião region, Brazil in February 1994

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    Tsui-Hua Liang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance, biomass, population structure and feeding habits of chaetognaths collected off São Sebastião region, Brazil, in February 1994 are described. Bongo nets were hauled obliquely to collect zooplankton samples. Forty-three samples obtained with the 333 urn mesh were analysed. In this study, 7 chaetognath species belonging to two genera were identified. Sagitta friderici, S. tenuis and S. bipunctata were grouped into the neritic category, and Sagitta enflata, S. hispida, S. minima and Krohnita pacifica into the semi-neritic group. The analysis of the community structure distinguished 3 zones: 1 a nearshore zone evidenced by low richness; 2 an offshore zone evidenced by higher number of species and 3 another offshore zone, located south and south-westward of São Sebastião Island, characterised by higher richness but with dominance of one species. The nearshore zone was dominated by the neritic species S. friderici and S. tenuis, whereas the offshore zone was dominated by S. enflata. Abundance and biomass increase from nearshore toward offshore zones by about two orders of magnitude. Gut content analysis revealed over 90% of empty guts. The chaetognath population was composed mainly of juveniles. The diets among the different chaetognath species was very similar, composed mostly of small copepods and appendicularians.No presente trabalho foram estudados a distribuição, abundância, biomassa, estrutura da população e hábito alimentar dos quetógnatos coletados na região de São Sebastião, Brasil, em fevereiro de 1994. As 43 amostras de zooplâncton utilizadas na elaboração deste trabalho foram obtidas através de arrastos oblíquos usando uma rede Bongô (333 um, providas de fluxômetro. Foram identificadas sete espécies de Chaetognatha pertencentes a dois gêneros. Sagitta friderici, S. tenuis e S. bipunctata foram agrupadas como espécies neríticas, enquanto que Sagitta enflata, S. hispida, S. minima e

  2. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season. PMID:21479561

  3. A Review of the Genus Oecetis (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) in the Northeastern Region of Brazil with the Description of 5 New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Fabio Batagini; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Within Leptoceridae, the genus Oecetis contains about 500 species around the world, including 53 in the Neotropics. In Brazil, there are 15 recorded species of Oecetis. These species were described over several decades by numerous authors with the results that descriptions are not comparable and diagnoses are incomplete. Also, the apparently unbranched M vein, in the forewing, a diagnostic character for Oecetis pointed by McLachlan, is controversial and no consensus has been reached about its homology. Additionally, the only revision for the genus was never published; thus the information and proposed taxa are not available according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. We analyzed specimens collected in the Brazilian Northeast Region and compared these with described species and literature descriptions and Oecetis from other regions. We provide herein the description of five new species, additional characters for diagnosing seven of the species recorded from Brazil, new distributional records, and a dichotomous key to the Brazilian species. Additionally, we contrast the two hypotheses of forewing M vein homology and support the unbranched hypothesis. In this way, we improve the knowledge of the genus in the Neotropics, making the species descriptions comparable in a way that facilitates species identification. PMID:26061538

  4. A Review of the Genus Oecetis (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae in the Northeastern Region of Brazil with the Description of 5 New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batagini Quinteiro

    Full Text Available Within Leptoceridae, the genus Oecetis contains about 500 species around the world, including 53 in the Neotropics. In Brazil, there are 15 recorded species of Oecetis. These species were described over several decades by numerous authors with the results that descriptions are not comparable and diagnoses are incomplete. Also, the apparently unbranched M vein, in the forewing, a diagnostic character for Oecetis pointed by McLachlan, is controversial and no consensus has been reached about its homology. Additionally, the only revision for the genus was never published; thus the information and proposed taxa are not available according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. We analyzed specimens collected in the Brazilian Northeast Region and compared these with described species and literature descriptions and Oecetis from other regions. We provide herein the description of five new species, additional characters for diagnosing seven of the species recorded from Brazil, new distributional records, and a dichotomous key to the Brazilian species. Additionally, we contrast the two hypotheses of forewing M vein homology and support the unbranched hypothesis. In this way, we improve the knowledge of the genus in the Neotropics, making the species descriptions comparable in a way that facilitates species identification.

  5. Measurement of S-100B for risk classification of victims sustaining minor head injury: first pilot study in Brazil Medida da proteína S-100B sérica para classificação de risco no trauma craniano leve: estudo piloto no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F Poli-de-Figueiredo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Release of the neuronal protein S-100B into the circulation has been suggested as a specific indication of neuronal damage. The hypothesis that S-100B is a useful and cost-effective screening tool for the management of minor head injuries was tested. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients sustaining isolated minor head injury were prospectively evaluated in the emergency room of a Brazilian hospital by routine cranial computed tomography scan. Venous blood samples (processed to serum were assssayed for S-100B using a newly developed immunoassay test kit. Twenty-one normal healthy individuals served as negative controls. Data are presented as median and 25 to 75 percentiles. RESULTS: Patients reached the emergency room an average of 45 minutes (range: 30-62 minutes after minor head injury. Six of 50 patients (12% showed relevant posttraumatic lesions in the initial cranial computed tomography scan and were counted as positive. The median systemic concentration of S-100B in those patients was 0.75 µg/L (range: 0.66-6.5 µg/L, which was significantly different (U-test, P INTRODUÇÃO: A liberação da proteína neuronal S-100B na circulação tem sido sugerida como indicadora de dano neuronal. Foi testada a hipótese de que a S-100B é um marcador útil e custo efetivo para a triagem de pacientes com trauma craniano leve. MÉTODO: Cinqüenta pacientes consecutivos com trauma craniano isolado foram prospectivamente avaliados na sala de emergência de um Centro de Trauma brasileiro pela tomografia computadorizada de crânio e por amostras de sangue venoso, para a medida no soro da proteína S-100B utilizando um teste recentemente desenvolvido; 21 pessoas normais foram utilizadas como controles negativos. Os resultados são apresentados como mediana e percentis 25-75. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes chegaram ao Centro de Trauma em média 45 min (30-62 após o trauma craniano leve. Seis dos 50 pacientes tiveram lesões pós-traumáticas relevantes

  6. Early diagnosis of tuberculosis in the health services in different regions of Brazil El diagnóstico oportuno de la tuberculosis en los servicios de salud de varias regiones de Brasil Diagnóstico oportuno da tuberculose nos serviços de saúde de diversas regiões do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the infected person's first contact with the health services, for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB in different regions of Brazil. METHOD: a cross-sectional study undertaken in 6 municipalities in the South-east, South and North-east regions of Brazil. Data collection involved secondary sources and interviews with the patients. The data was analyzed using descriptive techniques and multiple correspondence factor analysis. RESULTS: Primary Health Care (PHC presented the longest time to diagnosis and the lowest proportion of diagnoses. The services associated with diagnosis in the first consultation were the specialized services and the Tuberculosis Control Programs, which offer consultations and tests on-site. CONCLUSION: For the control of TB, it is necessary to organize the work in an integrated way between the different services' teams. In Primary Health Care, it is also necessary to observe the extent of incorporation and sustainability in the implementation of these actions into the health services' daily practice.OBJETIVO: Analizar el primer contacto del paciente con los servicios de salud para el diagnóstico oportuno de la tuberculosis (TB en diferentes regiones de Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal en seis ciudades en el sudeste, sur y noreste. La recolección de datos utilizó fuentes secundarias y entrevistas con los pacientes. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando técnicas descriptivas y el análisis factorial de correspondencias múltiples. RESULTADOS: La Atención Primaria obtuve menor proporción de diagnósticos y mayor tiempo. Los servicios asociados con el diagnóstico en la primera visita fueron los servicios especializados y los Programas de Control de la Tuberculosis, que ofrecen consultas y exámenes in situ. CONCLUSIÓN: Es necesaria la organización del trabajo integrado entre los equipos de los diferentes servicios para las acciones de control. En la Atención Primaria, es necesario tambi

  7. Spatial distribution and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in cattle slaughtered for human consumption in Rondônia, North region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Bianca Rocha; Soares, Vando Edésio; Maia, Maerle Oliveira; Pereira, Cleidiane Magalhães; Ferraudo, Antônio Sergio; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Pires Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Gonçalves, Walter Antonio; da Costa, Alvimar José; Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in cattle slaughtered for human consumption from rural properties in the state of Rondônia, North region, Brazil; the seroprevalence was determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFATs). Additionally, spatial distribution and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis were also analyzed. Of the 1000 cattle serum samples examined, 53 (5.3%) were determined to be seropositive for T. gondii with antibody titers (IgG) ≥64. In regard to results of the studied risk factors (presence of cats, cats with free access to cattle, breeding system, animal's gender, consumption of raw milk by humans on the property and cattle abortion in the last 12 months) and the odds ratio (OR) of each of these factors influencing cattle to acquire toxoplasmosis, only animals raised on a feeder/stocker/backgrounder system presented a higher probability of being seropositive for T. gondii (OR≥1, P=0.04) than cattle raised only in a feeder/stocker system. There was no association between the occurrence of reproductive problems and T. gondii seropositivity. Based on results obtained in the Brazilian state of Rondônia, it could be concluded that the presence of cats and their contact with cattle on each property, cattle breeding purpose and cattle abortion in the last 12 months were not considered risk factors for T. gondii infection in cattle. Considering that the presence of T. gondii was detected in animals slaughtered in the state of Rondônia, consuming raw or undercooked meat from seropositive cattle should be considered a route of transmission of T. gondii to humans. However, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis diagnosed in cattle from this state (5.30%) is lower than the prevalence of toxoplasmosis observed in South, Southeast and Center-West regions of Brazil, which may vary between 48.5% and 71.0%. The low prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle is highlighted in Rondônia, which is the sixth largest state

  8. Characterization of Shigella spp. by antimicrobial resistance and PCR detection of ipa genes in an infantile population from Porto Velho (Western Amazon region, Brazil

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    Tatiane Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Shigella spp. was assessed in 877 infants from the public hospital in Rondônia (Western Amazon region, Brazil where Shigella represents the fourth cause of diarrhea. Twenty-five isolates were identified: 18 were Shigella flexneri, three Shigella sonnei, three Shigella boydii and one Shigella dysenteriae. With the exception of S. dysenteriae, all Shigella spp. isolated from children with diarrhea acquired multiple antibiotic resistances. PCR detection of ipa virulence genes and invasion assays of bloody diarrhea and fever (colitis were compared among 25 patients testing positive for Shigella. The ipaH and ipaBCD genes were detected in almost all isolates and, unsurprisingly, all Shigella isolates associated with colitis were able to invade HeLa cells. This work alerts for multiple antibiotic resistant Shigella in the region and characterizes presence of ipa virulence genes and invasion phenotypesin dysenteric shigellosis.

  9. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P captive wild boars in Brazil. PMID:25056836

  10. Serological detection of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in beef cattle of the northern and central-western regions of Brazil. A total of 1703 blood samples were collected from cattle from 100 farms distributed among 37 municipalities in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Tocantins. The search for antibodies was conducted using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and antibodies were observed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and A. marginale in cattle from Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Pará at rates of 99%, 90% and 41%; 99%, 70% and 52%; and 97%, 97% and 75%, respectively. The results show that the analyzed regions exhibit enzootic stability for infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina, whereas the same result was not observed with A. marginale.

  11. Instrumentos de medida romanos hallados en Andalucía

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    Francisca CHAVES TRISTÁN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de instrumentos de medida de época romana no es excesivamente rara pero tampoco frecuente. Lo que resulta más difícil es encontrarlos con todos los elementos que lo componen de modo que se pueda realizar el estudio de las medidas para las que se utilizaban. En este breve artículo damos a conocer dos instrumentos que por fortuna conservan las partes suficientes para poder dilucidar las pesadas que se obtenían con ellos.

  12. Instrumentos de medida romanos hallados en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves Tristán, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    La aparición de instrumentos de medida de época romana no es excesivamente rara pero tampoco frecuente. Lo que resulta más difícil es encontrarlos con todos los elementos que lo componen de modo que se pueda realizar el estudio de las medidas para las que se utilizaban. En este breve artículo damos a conocer dos instrumentos que por fortuna conservan las partes suficientes para poder dilucidar las pesadas que se obtenían con ellos.

  13. Comparación de Instrumentos de Medida del Color

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Acosta, J.; Rubiño López, M.; Castillo Rubí, F. J.; Pons Aglio, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    [ES] Se presenta una comparación de instrumentos de medida del color pertenecientes a tres laboratorios. Las medidas se han realizado tanto por transmisión, transmitancia regular, como por reflexión, utilizando en este último caso las geometrías 0/d (incluyendo y excluyendo la componente especular), 0/45 y 45/0. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir, que si bien la repetibilidad de cada instrumento es muy alta y coincide con lo especificado por el fabricante, las incert...

  14. Sistema Automatizado de Lectura Visual de Datos de Medida

    OpenAIRE

    ESTEBAN AVIVAR, ÁNGEL EUGENIO

    2013-01-01

    Adquisición de imágenes de un instrumento de medida con una webcam. Procesado y segmentación de esas imágenes para realizar una clasificación y obtener el dato medido. Image acquisition of a measuring instrument with a webcam. Processing and segmentation of these images for classifying and obtaining the measured data. Esteban Avivar, ÁE. (2013). Sistema Automatizado de Lectura Visual de Datos de Medida. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/33592. Archivo delegado

  15. Use and traditional management of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Florentino Alissandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use and management of "angico" (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan by a rural community in northeastern Brazil was examined. By employing different techniques of data collection and population structure analysis, it was determined that this species had multiple uses within the local community (especially as timber and for other wood products, and that local management of this species is based on simple maintenance and harvesting of individuals in agroforest homegardens. The study of the population structure of this tree species indicated that management and conservation strategies must include the participation of the local community.

  16. Use and traditional management of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Júlio Marcelino; de Almeida, Cecília de Fátima C B Rangel; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; Florentino, Alissandra Trajano N; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Leonardo C

    2006-01-01

    The use and management of "angico" (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan) by a rural community in northeastern Brazil was examined. By employing different techniques of data collection and population structure analysis, it was determined that this species had multiple uses within the local community (especially as timber and for other wood products), and that local management of this species is based on simple maintenance and harvesting of individuals in agroforest homegardens. The study of the population structure of this tree species indicated that management and conservation strategies must include the participation of the local community. PMID:16420708

  17. Environmental forcing on phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity of the coastal ecosystem in Ubatuba region, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Airton Gaeta

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A time series of chlorophyll a and in situ primary production sampled over a period of 33 days during summer in Ubatuba region, southeastem Brazil, was subjected to multivariate and harmonic analysis. Principal Component Analysis has revealed four factors interpreted as (i South Atlantic Central Water forcing; (ii Transient ftontal systems and rain fali forcings; (iii Wind forcing normal to the coast; (iv Wind forcing parallel to the coast, as main factors in the variability of the phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity. Splitting of the time series according to four main events which had profound effects on the physicochemical characteristics of the region showed the following variations in the primary productivity integrated over the photic layer (g C m-2 day-1: mixing→stratification period, 0.40 ± 0.11; heavy rainfall, 1.24± 0.28; stratification after rainfall, 0.74± 0.10; stratification→mixing period, 0.90± 0.27; stratification after deep mixing, 0.63 ± 0.28. Harmonic analysis revealed two indistinguishable significant peaks of the phytoplankton biomass - one at a period of 8.25 days and one at a period of 6.6 days, contributing, respectively, about 17 and 32% ofthe total variance. Atmospheric forcing showed a characteristic period,of 200-264 hours while phytoplankton biomass response ranged over the 144-192 hours time scales and primary productivity was best related to the environment 360 hours before. Relative to total nitrogen' and ' biomass primary productivity oscillations were lagged about 96-144 hours. The interruption of steady-state conditions by transient atmospheric ev~nts and wind field intensification are the determining factors driving phytoplankton changes in this coastal environment.Uma série temporal de clorofila a e produção primária obtida em um período de 33 dias durante o verão na região de Ubatuba, sudeste do Brasil, foi submetida à análise multivariada e harmônica. A Análise de Componentes

  18. Sensitivity of tree ring growth to local and large-scale climate variability in a region of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-González, Alejandro; Chagas, Matheus Peres; Anholetto Júnior, Claudio Roberto; Alvares, Clayton Alcarde; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between tree growth in two tropical species and local and large-scale climate variability in Southeastern Brazil. Tree ring width chronologies of Tectona grandis (teak) and Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) trees were compared with local (Water Requirement Satisfaction Index—WRSI, Standardized Precipitation Index—SPI, and Palmer Drought Severity Index—PDSI) and large-scale climate indices that analyze the equatorial pacific sea surface temperature (Trans-Niño Index-TNI and Niño-3.4-N3.4) and atmospheric circulation variations in the Southern Hemisphere (Antarctic Oscillation-AAO). Teak trees showed positive correlation with three indices in the current summer and fall. A significant correlation between WRSI index and Caribbean pine was observed in the dry season preceding tree ring formation. The influence of large-scale climate patterns was observed only for TNI and AAO, where there was a radial growth reduction in months preceding the growing season with positive values of the TNI in teak trees and radial growth increase (decrease) during December (March) to February (May) of the previous (current) growing season with positive phase of the AAO in teak (Caribbean pine) trees. The development of a new dendroclimatological study in Southeastern Brazil sheds light to local and large-scale climate influence on tree growth in recent decades, contributing in future climate change studies.

  19. Dengue: clinical forms and risk groups in a high incidence city in the southeastern region of Brazil

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    Ivana Macedo Cardoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The article describes the epidemiologic profile of dengue cases in Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2009, aimed at identifying risk groups regarding the incidence and severity of the disease. METHODS: Confirmed cases of dengue among city residents during ten years were classified as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome and dengue with complications, and analyzed according to sex, age, race-color and education. RESULTS: The proportion of dengue cases was highest among women aged 20 to 29 years-old and similar between whites and blacks. A gradual decrease occurred in the percentage of dengue cases in the population aged 15 years-old or more, in the historical series of 10 years, and a growing increase in individuals less than 15 years-old, showing statistical significance. The fatality rate ranged from zero to 0.3% for all forms of dengue and from 0.2% to 18.2% for severe forms. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of those affected by the disease in the municipality is similar to those affected in Brazil. The increasing number of cases in individuals under 15 years-old corroborates the results of recent studies in other Brazilian municipalities.

  20. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009: epidemiological analysis of cases in a tropical/semi-arid region of Brazil

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    Roberto da Justa Pires Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The year 2009 marked the beginning of a pandemic caused by a new variant of influenza A (H1N1. After spreading through North America, the pandemic influenza virus (H1N1 2009 spread rapidly throughout the world. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases of pandemic influenza in a tropical/semi-arid region of Brazil. Methods A retrospective study analyzed all suspected cases of pandemic influenza (H1N1 2009 reported in the Ceará State through the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases during the pandemic period between 28 April, 2009 and November 25, 2010. Results A total of 616 suspected cases were notified, 58 (9.4% in the containment phase and 558 (90.6% in the mitigation phase. Most cases were of affected young people resident in the City of Fortaleza, the largest urban center in the State of Ceará. The most frequent symptoms presented by the cases with confirmed infection were fever, cough, myalgia, arthralgia, and nasal congestion. Mortality rate was 0.0009/1,000 inhabitants and lethality was 5.6%. Deaths were observed only in the mitigation phase. Mortality rates were similar for both sexes but were higher in the age group under 5 years. Conclusions The study suggests that the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic in this tropical/semi-arid region had a lower magnitude when compared to states in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil.

  1. Detection of the VP6 gene of group F and G rotaviruses in broiler chicken fecal samples from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Joana D P; Bezerra, Delana A M; Silva, René R; Silva, Mayara J M; Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa; Soares, Luana S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to detect rotavirus F (RVF) and rotavirus G (RVG) in fecal specimens of broiler chickens in Brazil. During 2008 and 2011, a total of 85 fecal samples were collected. The viral genome was extracted, followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and nucleotide sequencing. Samples were screened for rotaviruses by PAGE, and RVF and RVG genome banding patterns were not seen. Using RT-PCR, it was found that 9.4 % (8/85) of the pools contained RVF, whereas 10.6 % (9/85) contained RVG. The predicted amino acid sequences of RVF and RVG from Brazilian samples were 94.4-95.7 % and 96.8-96.9 % identical, respectively, to those of prototypes from Germany. The detection of RVF and RVG in this study provides important epidemiological data about the simultaneous circulation of rotaviruses affecting broiler flocks in the Amazon region of Brazil. PMID:27154557

  2. Use of passive samplers to detect organochlorine pesticides in air and water at wetland mountain region sites (S-SE Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Khairy, Mohammed; Targino, Admir Créso; Galvão, Petrus Magnus Amaral; Torres, Joåo Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) passive samplers were deployed in upland surface waters and the overlying atmosphere during May and June 2012, to determine the transport and trends of freely dissolved and gaseous organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along altitudinal gradients in mountain regions in south and southeast Brazil. Gaseous OCP concentrations were dominated by hexachlorobenzene (3.0-29 pg m(-3)) and endosulfans (Ʃ = α-endosulfan + β-endosulfan + endosulfan sulphate, 170-260 pg m(-3)), whereas freely dissolved endosulfans were significantly higher than all other OCPs (p exchange gradients indicated net deposition of most volatile and recently banned OCPs (e.g., HCB, endosulfan) over Brazilian mountains. Moreover, the exposure of these sites to large-scale continental airflows with varying source contributions may partly explain the atmospheric deposition of selected OCPs over upland freshwaters at tropical and subtropical mountains sites in Brazil. These findings, coupled with LDPE passive air and water sampling measurements, point out the potential inputs from distant sources of semi-volatile chemicals to the two high-altitude sites. PMID:26595311

  3. Analysis of clay smoking pipes from archeological sites in the region of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) by FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P; Ribeiro, Iohanna M; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L; Silva, Mariane L; Felix, Valter S; Ferreira, Douglas S; Coelho, Felipe A; Gaspar, Maria D; Pimenta, André R; Medeiros, Elanio A; Lopes, Ricardo T

    2016-06-15

    In this study, twenty samples of clay smoking pipes excavated in an 18km(2) area between the Macacu and Caceribu rivers, in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were analyzed by FT-IR technique. The samples, excavated in different archeological sites of the region, are dated between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries and are part of the material culture left by Africans and African descendants that lived in the complex. FT-IR analyses and complementary SEM-EDS studies showed that the clay paste used in the manufacture of smoking pipes, mostly handcrafted, is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates and iron oxides. Multivariate statistical tests (PCA) were applied to FT-IR data to assess the interactions between the archeological sites. The results indicated that one archeological site - Macacu IV - is greatly related to the other sites. The results obtained have helped archeologists and anthropologists in better understanding the manufacturing process employed in ancient ceramic artifacts produced during the period of colonial Brazil. PMID:27045787

  4. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and radiometric survey of radioactive pegmatites in the region of Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is the result of geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area, located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas in the region of the Serra da Borborema, is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called 'garimpos'. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of the ratio U/Th versus Nb2O5/Ta2O5 provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. A test of the new method with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states Amapa and Rondonia also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) was carried out in several mines and pegmatites to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, host rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and environmental gamma radiation therefore generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  5. Analysis of clay smoking pipes from archeological sites in the region of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) by FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Silva, Mariane L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Coelho, Felipe A.; Gaspar, Maria D.; Pimenta, André R.; Medeiros, Elanio A.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, twenty samples of clay smoking pipes excavated in an 18 km2 area between the Macacu and Caceribu rivers, in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were analyzed by FT-IR technique. The samples, excavated in different archeological sites of the region, are dated between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries and are part of the material culture left by Africans and African descendants that lived in the complex. FT-IR analyses and complementary SEM-EDS studies showed that the clay paste used in the manufacture of smoking pipes, mostly handcrafted, is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates and iron oxides. Multivariate statistical tests (PCA) were applied to FT-IR data to assess the interactions between the archeological sites. The results indicated that one archeological site - Macacu IV - is greatly related to the other sites. The results obtained have helped archeologists and anthropologists in better understanding the manufacturing process employed in ancient ceramic artifacts produced during the period of colonial Brazil.

  6. U/Pb geochronology and paleo and proterozoic orthogneisses geochemistry from the Taquaritinga region - Pernambuco State, Brazil; Geocronologia U/Pb e geoquimica de ortognaisses paleo e mesoproterozoicos da regiao de Taquaritinga, PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Jaziel Martins [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Bertrand, Jean Michel [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France). Lab. de Geodynamique; Leterrier, Jacques [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques

    1997-12-31

    The Taquaritinga region is located at the Borborema Province Transversal Zone, northeastern part of Brazil, and not existing geochronological data in this region, this study intended to furnish some information for a geotectonics evolution knowledge. It presents the geological characteristics of this region, describes the various kinds of chemical analysis realized in the gneisses, involving major, minor and rare earth elements, and shows the geochronological data that suggests the orthogneisse age and the epoch of this geotectonic event 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.O presente estudo visa determinar a importância de diferentes ambientes do rio Ligeiro (alto rio Uruguai/Brasil na reprodução dos

  8. Emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from soils of native and exotic ecosystems of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E A; Bustamante, M M; de Siqueira Pinto, A

    2001-11-21

    This paper reviews reports of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils of the Amazon and Cerrado regions of Brazil. N2O is a stable greenhouse gas in the troposphere and participates in ozone-destroying reactions in the stratosphere, whereas NO participates in tropospheric photochemical reactions that produce ozone. Tropical forests and savannas are important sources of atmospheric N2O and NO, but rapid land use change could be affecting these soil emissions of N oxide gases. The five published estimates for annual emissions of N2O from soils of mature Amazonian forests are remarkably consistent, ranging from 1.4 to 2.4 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 2.0 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Estimates of annual emissions of NO from Amazonian forests are also remarkably similar, ranging from 1.4 to 1.7 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), with a mean of 1.5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Although a doubling or tripling of N2O has been observed in some young (cattle pastures relative to mature forests, most Amazonian pastures have lower emissions than the forests that they replace, indicating that forest-to-pasture conversion has, on balance, probably reduced regional emissions slightly (Amazon region, far too few data exist for the Cerrado region to assess the impact of land use changes on N oxide emissions. PMID:12805795

  9. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  10. Stability and adaptability of carioca common bean genotypes in states of the central South Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify ‘Carioca’ common bean genotypes with high yield adaptability andstability in central South Brazil, based on different analysis methods. The value of cultivation and use (VCU of 16 genotypeswas evaluated in 26 trials in a randomized complete block design with three replications, in the states of Santa Catarina, SãoPaulo and Paraná, in 2003 and 2004. Grain yield data were subjected to analysis of variance, of stability and adaptability,using the methodologies of Lin and Binns, Annichiarico, Eberhart and Russell, Cruz et al. and AMMI. Several of themethodologies indicated the genotypes BRS Estilo and CNFC 9518 for high yield, high adaptability and high stability. Theyield, stability and adaptability of cultivar Pérola, widely grown in the country, were lower than of the new elite genotypesobtained by the breeding programs.

  11. Traffic and catalytic converter - related atmospheric contamination in the metropolitan region of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; de Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Zotin, Fátima Maria Zanon; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover; da Silva, Alzira dos Santos Amaral Gomes; Cardoso, Mauri José Baldini; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto

    2008-03-01

    In this work, 24-h PM10 samples were collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and analysed for trace elements (Cd, Ce, Cu, La, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Rh, Sb and Sn). The sampling was carried out at five locations (Bonsucesso; Centro, downtown city; Copacabana; Nova Iguaçu and Sumaré) with different traffic densities and anthropogenic activities. An analytical method based on the EPA method for the determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter (PM), using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied. Our results suggest that vehicular traffic is the most important source of environmental pollution at the studied sites. The presence of Mo, Pd and Rh in the analysed filters reflects an additional source of pollution caused by the erosion and deterioration of automotive catalytic converters. PMID:18082244

  12. Copper speciation in Iguaçu river basin, at Curitiba's metropolitan region, Brazil, by ligand competition using DPASV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeu Grassi, M.; Sodré, F. F.

    2003-05-01

    Copper concentrations and speciation in two different sites located in the Iguaçu River Basin, Brazil, were evaluated during a 10-months period, in this work. Results showed a seasonal influence on copper levels with a major contribution of non-point sources during the rainy season, when concentrations of copper were similar in both Irai and Iguaçu Rivers. During the dry season the discharge of raw sewage was the primary source of copper for the sampling point located downstream the city of Curitiba, in the Iguaçu River, which exhibited higher metal concentrations. Speciation results also showed different patterns. Higher copper contents were found in the particulate phase in Iguaçu River, whereas labile copper concentrations were relatively greater in Irai River waters.

  13. Archean and proterozoic multiple tectonothermal events recorded by gneisses in the Amparo Region, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basement of the Mesoproterozoic graywacke-volcanic arc of the Alto Rio Grande Belt, is a microplate between the Sao Francisco Craton and the Ribeira Fold Belt of southeastern Brazil. This basement is composed of migmatites/orthogneisses and intrusive metagranitoid rocks. These orthogneisses were derived from calc-alkaline plutonic rocks (Campos Neto, 1991), and have been considered to be Archean in age but affected by Proterozoic tectonothermal episodes (Tassinari and Campos Neto, 1988; Artur, 1988). In order to investigate further the age of the protoliths plus their subsequent high temperature crustal history, U-Pb zircon (SHRIMP) and Sm-Nd model ages were determined for different components of the migmatites and intrusive metagranitoids (au)

  14. Exploitation of child labour: in search of leisure culture within the region of sugar cane in northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Roberto da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research brings to the debate the issue and interdisciplinary muldimensional of "exploitation of child labour", whose first goal is: "investigate within the exploitation of child labour, the world's leisure culture of working children, impoverished and exploited the Zona da Mata sugar Pernambuco, located in northeastern Brazil". In that sense, it is proposed the following question: "the logic of capitalist exploitation, with all its destructive load of work sold, managed to remove all or part time 'free' children to the enjoyment of leisure culture". After some reflections, seeks to make some relationships between work, body, "free time" and leisure in childhood and finally, some reservations about the play of these children in the spaces and times that are possible.

  15. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  16. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

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    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  17. The magmatic and metamorphic evolution of zircons from the Barro Alto Complex (Goias State, Central region, Brazil), using backscattered electrons and chemical analysis by electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon is a mineral much used in U-Pb geochronology because it is considered a closed system and has fairly high quantities of U and Th. In this paper, we study Barro Alto Complex (Goias, Brazil) zircons by backscattered electrons (BSE) imaging and spatial scanning profiles by wavelength dispersive spectrometer of Hf, Y and U. The BSE images and the profiles show variations in the internal structures and composition of zircon crystals that reflect the magmatic and metamorphic processes in the host rocks. Magmatic features are still observed, but metamorphic processes are registered in different textures on the zircons crystals; some are less affected because they are more resistant. The medium to high grade regional metamorphism of the Brasiliano Cycle is registered in all studied crystals and it may indicate an open-system geochemistry, that consequently affected the U-Pb isotopic system. (author)

  18. The unique karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a critically endangered fish living in a fast-developing region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

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    Priscilla C Silva

    Full Text Available Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR banding, chromomycin A(3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species.

  19. The basic and ultrabasic dikes from the coast region between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities, Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastline between Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities and the shores of Sao Sebastiao, Anchieta and Mar Virado islands (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by several small swarms and isolated dykes trending N55E. The main rock types range from basic to intermediate, but also a conspicuous variety of alkaline lamprophyres occur side by side with the main group. The thickness of the basic to intermediate dykes vary widely, from a few centimeters to several metres, while the lamprophyres are a few tens of centimeters thick. The objective of this thesis is the petrographic, mineralogic, petrochemical and isotopic characterization of the basic and ultrabasic dykes that occur between the Sao Sebastiao and Ubatuba cities (State of Sao Paulo), also including some occurrences from the Sao Sebastiao, Mar Virado and Anchieta islands and from the Bairro Alto region (Folha de Natividade da Serra). The petrogenetic model presented is based in the national and international bibliography. (author)

  20. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Eva I.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects' attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  1. Clinical consequences of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus serrulatus scorpion stings in the region of Campinas, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Luciane C R; Fernandes, Carla B; Branco, Maíra M; Prado, Camila C; Vieira, Ronan J; De Capitani, Eduardo M; Hyslop, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Scorpion stings account for most envenomations by venomous animals in Brazil. A retrospective study (1994-2011) of the clinical consequences of Tityus scorpion stings in 1327 patients treated at a university hospital in Campinas, southeastern Brazil, is reported. The clinical classification, based on outcome, was: dry sting (no envenoming), class I (only local manifestations), class II (systemic manifestations), class III (life-threatening manifestations, such as shock and/or cardiac failure requiring inotropic/vasopressor agents, and/or respiratory failure), and fatal. The median patient age was 27 years (interquartile interval = 15-42 years). Scorpions were brought for identification in 47.2% of cases (Tityus bahiensis 27.7%; Tityus serrulatus 19.5%). Sting severity was classified and each accounted for the following percentage of cases: dry stings - 3.4%, class I - 79.6%, class II - 15.1%, class III - 1.8% and fatal - 0.1%. Pain was the primary local manifestation (95.5%). Systemic manifestations such as vomiting, agitation, sweating, dyspnea, bradycardia, tachycardia, tachypnea, somnolence/lethargy, cutaneous paleness, hypothermia and hypotension were detected in class II or class III + fatal groups, but were significantly more frequent in the latter group. Class III and fatal cases occurred only in children scorpions being identified in 13/25 cases (T. serrulatus, n = 12; T. bahiensis, n = 1). Laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, elevations in serum total CK, CK-MB and troponin T, bicarbonate consumption and an increase in base deficit and blood lactate), electrocardiographic changes (ST segment) and echocardiographic alterations (ventricular ejected fraction scorpion stings involved only local manifestations, mainly pain; the greatest severity was associated with stings by T. serrulatus and in children <15 years old. PMID:25011046

  2. Factors affecting nutrition behavior among middle-class adolescents in urban area of Northern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva I. Doyle

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has been called a nation in nutrition transitional because of recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. With overweight conditions already prevalent among middle-income populations, there exists a need to identify factors that influence nutrition behavior within this group. OBJECTIVE: To address this subject, a research study was implemented among middle-class adolescents attending a large private secondary school in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The study determined the availability and accessibility of snack foods as well as subjects’ attitudes and preferences towards, and the influence of family and friends on healthy (high-nutrient density snack choices. METHODS: The 4-stage process included: (a a nutrition expert focus group discussion that reported local nutrition problems in general and factors related to adolescent nutrition, (b an adolescent pilot survey (n=63 that solicited information about snacking preferences and habits as well as resources for nutrition information and snack money; (c a survey of various area food market sources to determine the availability and accessibility of high nutrient density snacks; and (d a follow-up adolescent survey (n=55 that measured snack food preferences and perceptions about their cost and availability. RESULTS: Results included the finding that, although affordable high nutrient density snacks were available, preferences for low nutrient density snacks prevailed. The adolescents were reportedly more likely to be influenced by and obtain nutrition information from family members than friends. CONCLUSION: From study results it is apparent that a focus on food availability will not automatically result in proper nutritional practices among adolescents. This fact and the parental influence detected are evidence of a need to involve adolescents and their parents in nutrition education campaigns to improve adolescent snack food choices.

  3. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

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    P.-D. Pautet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km.

    Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  4. Regional comparison of syn- and post-rift sequences in salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The large South Atlantic basins offshore South America and Africa record a highly variable syn- to post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development. The present-day diversity in the structural and sedimentary architecture of the conjugate margins offshore southern Brazil, Namibia and Angola reflects variations in the interplay of a number of controlling factors, of which the most important are i) the structural configuration of each margin segment at the time of break-up, ii) the post break-up geodynamic history including tectonics and magmatism, and iii) variations in the type, quantity and distribution of sediment input to the respective margin segment. Particularly the basins around the Rio Grande Rise - Walvis Ridge volcanic complex show a pronounced tectono-stratigraphic asymmetry both along the respective continental margin and across the Atlantic. Only a few attempts exist to establish a regional tectono-stratigraphic correlation framework across the South Atlantic Ocean, mainly because of the lack of data across entire margin segments and limited resolution of basin wide geophysics. Still unresolved issues particularly concern the explanation of the basin-specific geological evolution of respective margin segments along the same continental margin, as well as the correlation of conjugate basins and margin segments across the Atlantic Ocean. In our study we present interpretations and first-pass restorations of regional 2D seismic-reflectivity data from the large basins offshore Brazil (Pelotas Basin, Santos Basin, Campos Basin, Espirito Santo Basin), and offshore Namibia and Angola (Walvis Basin, Namibe Basin, Benguela Basin, Kwanza Basin), which represent four adjacent pairs of conjugate basins on both sides of the South Atlantic. Results are used to document and compare on a basin-scale the contrasting styles of rift and post-rift settings during and after the continental breakup.

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, central Brazil

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    Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9% was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6% and 11.6%, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3, tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1, illicit drug use (OR = 2.3, sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9 were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.

  6. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  7. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  8. Influence of socioeconomic conditions on air pollution adverse health effects in elderly people: an analysis of six regions in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M; Fatigati, F; Vespoli, T; Martins, L; Pereira, L; Martins, M; Saldiva, P; Braga, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To evaluate if the effects of particulate matter (PM10) on respiratory mortality of elderly people are affected by socioeconomic status. Design: Time series studies. The daily number of elderly respiratory deaths were modelled in generalised linear Poisson regression models controlling for long term trend, weather, and day of the week, from January 1997 to December 1999, in six different regions of São Paulo City, Brazil. The regions were defined according to the proximity of air pollution monitoring stations. Three socioeconomic indicators were used: college education, monthly income, and housing. Main results: For a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, the percentage increase in respiratory mortality varied from 1.4% (95% CI 5.9 to 8.7) to 14.2% (95% CI 0.4 to 28.0). The overall percentage increase in the six regions was 5.4% (95% CI 2.3 to 8.6). The effect of PM10 was negatively correlated with both percentage of people with college education and high family income, and it was positively associated with the percentage of people living in slums. Conclusions: These results suggest that socioeconomic deprivation represents an effect modifier of the association between air pollution and respiratory deaths. PMID:14684725

  9. Determination of {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th, and{sup 228}Ra in wild mushroom from a naturally high radioactive region in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Silva, Marco A.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: masilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.gov.b [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Mushrooms are fungi which efficiently accumulate radionuclides, as verified by radiochemistry analyses of specimens collected in contaminated areas, specifically after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Many studies have demonstrated that mushrooms can be used in monitoring of ecosystem contamination and quality. The present paper is part of a broader study conducted in the Pocos de Caldas plateau region in Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigating assimilation of natural Uranium and Thorium radionuclide series by mushrooms. This region has elevated natural radioactivity due to the presence of radiological anomalies of volcanic origin. These anomalies are ore bodies containing Uranium and Thorium, the later being highly predominant. Many researchers have been conducted concerning radionuclide incorporation by agricultural products on the plateau. The present paper aims to determine {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 228}Ra radionuclides in wild mushrooms collected at different locations in the plateau region. {sup 228}Ra was determined by radiochemical separation using sulphate coprecipitation followed by beta radiometry. {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Th were determined using anion exchange resin purification followed by alpha spectrometry. Higher values were obtained to {sup 228}Th than to {sup 232}Th. This is due to higher {sup 228}Ra mobility, which decays to {sup 228}Th. The accuracy of the analytical methods employed was evaluated using the reference sample IAEA Soil 327. These methods had high chemical recovery and high sensitivity. It was possible to confirm that mushrooms accumulate radionuclide and so can be used in environmental contamination and quality assessment. (author)

  10. A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    EAY Ishikawa; Ready PD; Souza AA de; Day JC; EF Rangel; CR Davies; JJ Shaw

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). Thes...

  11. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  13. Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium leprae among a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Pontes, Maria Araci de Andrade; Gonçalves, Heitor de Sá; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. Polymerase chain reaction for the RLEP sequence was conducted for all participants. Prevalence of RLEP positivity for cases and Co were 69.2% and 66.9%, respectively, significantly higher than for EG (28.1%), and reported elsewhere. Male sex, belonging to a lower socioeconomic status (D/E), history of a previous contact with a case and being older, were associated with being a leprosy case. Our geographical analysis demonstrated that the bacillus is widespread among the healthy population, with clusters of RLEP positive multibacillary cases concentrated in distinct areas of the city. Our results suggest that in endemic areas, as in Fortaleza, surveillance for both nonhousehold leprosy contacts and members of the general population living in cluster areas should be implemented. PMID:26560980

  14. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use. PMID:22751649

  15. Health-related quality of life in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the different geographical regions of Brazil: data from the Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Felício, João Soares; de Souza, Ana Carolina Contente Braga; Koury, Camila Cavalcante; Neto, João Felício Abrahão; Miléo, Karem Barbosa; Santos, Flávia Marques; Motta, Ana Regina Bastos; Silva, Denisson Dias; Arbage, Thaís Pontes; Carvalho, Carolina Tavares; de Rider Brito, Hana Andrade; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Cobas, Roberta Arnoldi; Matheus, Alessandra; Tannus, Lucianne

    2015-01-01

    Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, enhancing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is as important as good metabolic control and prevention of secondary complications. This study aims to evaluate possible regional differences in HRQoL, demographic features and clinical characteristics of patients with T1DM in Brazil, a country of continental proportions, as well as investigate which variables could influence the HRQoL of these individuals and contribute to these region...

  16. La medida del clima de seguridad y salud laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Melià, Josep Lluís

    1999-01-01

    El presente trabajo expone las propiedades psicométricas y estructura factorial del Cuestionario C3/15, orientado a la medida del Clima Organizacional hacia la Seguridad Laboral. El clima organizacional hacia la seguridad es determinado operativamente como la percepción del trabajador acerca del conjunto de acciones hacia la seguridad realizadas por la empresa, con efectos sobre la conducta de los trabajadores. El cuestionario fue administrado a 429 trabajadore...

  17. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

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    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  18. Milk yield of cross-bred buffalo under two production systems in the Amazonian region of Brazil

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    A.M.V. Batista

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Center of EMBRAPA (CPAFRO, Rondônia, Brazil, to determine the effects of various factors on milk yield (MY of crosss-bred buffalo (Murrah, Mediterranean and Jafarabadi under two production systems. Production system one (PS1 corresponded to the period from 1984 to 1998 where animals (4471 observation were milked once a day and received only pasture without supplementation. Production system two (PS2 corresponded to the period from 1999 to 2002 where animals (458 observations were milked once or twice daily with concentrate supplementation to pasture. Fixed variables were contemporary group (CG, genetic group (GG, Sire (S and Dam (D. Age (days at calving (AC, weight at calving (WC and tast day (TD were included as linear covariates. Data were analyzed using PROC GLM (SAS, 2005. Results showed that average milk yield for PS1 and PS2 were 3.24 and 4.31 kg/day, respectively. With the exception of WC, in PS2, all other factors significantly affected milk yield in buffalo on two production systems. In PS1, the highest milk yield was for the genetic group 7/8M and the lowest for genetic group 1/2M. For PS2, the highest milk yield was for genetic group 3/4M and the lowest for genetic group 7/8M. Using the significant covariates, the following regression equations were developed to estimate milk yield for buffalo under the two production systems: MY(PS1 = 1.99719578 + 0.00409672WC - 0.00012372AC - 0.00616303DC; MY(PS2 = 3.650977 + 0.000462760AC - 0.010300571DC.

  19. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Olívia Penatti Pinese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with environmental parameters were also discussed and presented through multivariate statistics. Methods Twelve samples were taken at water surface, at 15-day intervals in 2006. It was observed a total richness of 75 species, including 12 genera, 29 species and one sub-species as new records for Minas Gerais State. Results Rotifers were the predominant group and Lecanidae was the most diverse family. Among cladocerans, Chydoridae showed the greatest richness and Bosminidae the highest abundance. Few adult copepods were sampled in this study, but nauplii were very frequent. Cyclopidae was the most common family among copepods and there was no record of Calanoida. Conclusions The difference in composition among the studied lakes was remarkable. The lake with macrophytes showed the greatest richness but the lowest density, and the opposite situation occurred in the other lake. This can be explained by the fact that aquatic macrophytes, as primary producers, exert a bottom-up effect on zooplankton community, sustaining a high local diversity in contrast with a low numeric abundance of these microorganisms. Therefore, this pattern may have been created by the surround heterogeneity and, at the same time, by the reduction of available minerals of the system caused by macrophyte matter fixation. Many studies on zooplankton need to be developed in palm swamp communities in order to better comprehend the biological diversity and the energy balance in different habitats for

  20. Adaptability of females buffaloes in milking parlor of “agreste” region Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

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    Juliana Paula Felipe de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the environmental adaptability of female buffalo in primiparous and pluriparous parlor in rural Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Was done reading the climate elements relative humidity (RH and air temperature (TA weekly in morning and afternoon shifts for six weeks, and calculated the temperature and humidity index (THI in the milking parlor. The surface temperature was also measured. In addition, behavioral observations of the environment milking were recorded twice per week for five subsequent definition of scores temper. The Tukey test was applied to ITU, TA, URA to verify the effect of the shift and also the parameters for milk production (PROD, surface temperature (TS, surface temperature of udder (TSÚbere and temperament to check the effect of parity. Pearson correlations were performed between TS, TSÚbere, PROD and order delivery. The average TA inside the milking parlor was superior to evening and morning URA. There was no difference between shifts for UTI, presenting within the standards of comfort for buffaloes. For the variable TS no difference between primiparous animals and pluríparos but buffalo heifers presented TSÚbere larger and larger average temperament. There was no difference between groups for milk production. There was a negative correlation between birth order and TSÚbere positive relationship between the TS and TSÚbere. The shift has influenced the environmental parameters studied, except for the ITU. Murrah buffaloes in the parlor had adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of Rio Grande do Norte, not suffering negative effects on milk production.

  1. Economic globalisation. Regional integration and protection of foreign investments in Brazil Globalização econômica. Integração regional e proteção de inversões estrangeiras no Brasil

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    Luis Maria Chamorro Coronado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization poses a challenge to enterprises looking for new markets. These enterprises search for new markets in countries that belong to regional integration organizations whose regulations- as well as those of the internal system of each country - shape the legal framework for foreign investments. Foreign enterprises investing in Brazil, for instance, are affected by Brazilian law as well as by Mercosur regulations. This article focuses on the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and its insurance schemes - an institution that protects foreign investment in Brazil - as well as on a description of the Multilateral Conventions which rule the treatment and protection of foreign investments. This article concludes with a review of Mercosur´s main legal documents to protect investments and their interaction with Bilateral Investment Treaties, containing the new international law on foreign investments. To this day, Brazil has signed some bilateral investment treaties but has not yet ratified them.A globalização econômica tem posto um desafio às empresas que buscam novos mercados. Introduzem-se em países que pertencem a Organizações de integração regional, cujas normas, além das internas de cada país, configuram o marco jurídico de suas intervenções. As empresas estrangeiras que investem no Brasil ficam, portanto, afetadas pelo Direito brasileiro e à sua pertinência ao MERCOSUL. Como passo prévio ao estudo do sistema mais adequado à proteção dos investimentos no Brasil, e do Organismo Multilateral de garantia de Investimento, e seus esquemas de asseguramento, o presente trabalho contém a descrição dos Convênios multilaterais que regulam o tratamento e proteção dos investimentos exteriores. O artigo conclui com o estudo dos intrumentos legais para a proteção dos investimentos no MERCOSUL e sua interação com os Acordos de Promoção e Proteção Recíproca de Investimento (APPRIs, que contêm o novo

  2. Population parameters and the relationships between environmental factors and abundance of the Acetes americanus shrimp (Dendrobranchiata: Sergestidae near a coastal upwelling region of Brazil

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    Ana Paula Freitas dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe population dynamics of Acetes americanus was investigated, focusing on the sex ratio, individual growth, longevity, recruitment and relationship between abundance and environmental factors in the region of Macaé, strongly influenced by coastal upwelling. Otter trawl net samplings were performed from July 2010 to June 2011 at two points (5 m and 15 m. Nearly 19,500 specimens, predominantly females (77.15%, were captured. Their sizes, larger than that of males, indicated sexual dimorphism. Shrimps at lower latitudes present larger sizes and longer longevity than those from higher latitudes. This difference is probably due to low temperatures and high primary productivity. Though no statistical correlation was found between abundance and environmental factors, the species was more abundant in temperatures closer to 20.0º C and in months with high chlorophyll-a levels. Due to the peculiar characteristics of this region, A. americanusshowed greater differences in size and longevity than individuals sampled in other studies undertaken in the continental shelf of Southeast Brazil.

  3. Epidemiology of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus in Goiás, central Brazil: re-evaluation based on G-L intergenic region

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    Ito Fumio H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vampire bat related rabies harms both livestock industry and public health sector in central Brazil. The geographical distributions of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus variants are delimited by mountain chains. These findings were elucidated by analyzing a high conserved nucleoprotein gene. This study aims to elucidate the detailed epidemiological characters of vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus by phylogenetic methods based on 619-nt sequence including unconserved G-L intergenic region. Findings The vampire bat-transmitted rabies virus isolates divided into 8 phylogenetic lineages in the previous nucleoprotein gene analysis were divided into 10 phylogenetic lineages with significant bootstrap values. The distributions of most variants were reconfirmed to be delimited by mountain chains. Furthermore, variants in undulating areas have narrow distributions and are apparently separated by mountain ridges. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the 619-nt sequence including G-L intergenic region is more useful for a state-level phylogenetic analysis of rabies virus than the partial nucleoprotein gene, and simultaneously that the distribution of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants tends to be separated not only by mountain chains but also by mountain ridges, thus suggesting that the diversity of vampire bat-transmitted RABV variants was delimited by geographical undulations.

  4. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

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    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  5. Myxomycetes associated with Cactaceae in sub-humid (agreste and semi-arid (sertão regions of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Inaldo do Nascimento Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that indicate the presence of Myxomycetes in arid and semi-arid regions of the planet have revealed new taxons and high species diversity. In those environments, the Myxomycetes occupy special microhabitats like those offered by succulent plants. Aiming to expand the knowledge of species that occur in semi-arid environments we investigated the occurrence of Myxomycetes on Cereus jamacaru (mandacaru, Melocactus bahiensis (coroa de frade, Opuntia ficus-indica (palma forrageira and Pilocereus gounellei (xique-xique – cacti that compose the natural landscape of the sub-humid (agreste and semi-arid (sertão regions of Pernambuco, Brazil. We obtained 158 specimens of Myxomycetes (106 field collections; 52 in moist chamber cultures, representing 16 species distributed in nine genera, with high taxonomic diversity (S/G= 0.63-1.5. All of the identified species are new records for the municipalities studied. Comatricha pulchella, Didymium nigripes and Physarum bogoriense are mentioned for the first time in Caatinga areas in the state of Pernambuco, and Didymium squamulosum and Physarum echinosporum are new records for this biome. Physarum compressum and Badhamia melanospora were the most abundant and frequent species, characterized as constant in the studied myxobiota.

  6. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  7. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallig, Henk D F H; da Silva, Eduardo S; van der Meide, Wendy F; Schoone, Gerard J; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, an important focus of human leishmaniasis in Brazil, is reported. All animals were serologically tested with indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination tests (DAT) based on L. (L.) donovani or L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. A sub-population (n = 20) was analyzed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. For species identification, PCR-positive samples were subjected to restriction enzyme fragment polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Depending on the sero-diagnostic test employed, the sero-prevalence varied between 8.1% (9/111 animals positive with DAT test based on L. braziliensis antigen) and 21.6% (24/111 animals positive with IFAT). Five out of 20 samples analyzed with PCR tested positive for the presence of Leishmania-specific DNA. RFLP analysis revealed that two samples contained L. braziliensis complex DNA, one contained L. donovani complex DNA, and two samples could not be typed with the methodology used. These data suggest a potential role for the opossum as a reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the region. PMID:17767408

  8. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil

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    Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients from Ceará (n = 23, Pernambuco (n = 41, Rio de Janeiro (n = 22 and Rondônia (RO (n = 78. All skin biopsies yielded SNP-based genotypes, while 48 of the samples (94.1% yielded complete VNTR genotypes. We evaluated two procedures for extracting M. leprae DNA from Z-N-stained slides: the first including Chelex and the other combining proteinase and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Of the 76 samples processed using the first procedure, 30.2% were positive for 16 or 15 VNTRs, whereas of the 39 samples processed using the second procedure, 28.2% yielded genotypes defined by at least 10 VNTRs. Combined VNTR and SNP analysis revealed large variability in genotypes, but a high prevalence of SNP genotype 4 in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Our observation of two samples from RO with an identical genotype and seven groups with similar genotypes, including four derived from residents of the same state or region, suggest a tendency to form groups according to the origin of the isolates. This study demonstrates the existence of geographically related M. leprae genotypes and that Z-N-stained slides are an alternative source for M. leprae genotyping.

  9. K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages from Rivera and Acegua crystalline lands (Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) and their fitting in regional geotectonic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the results of 18 K-Ar and 31 Rb-Sr age determinations on rocks from the Acegua and Rivera crystalline islands, representing the exposed basement on the Gondwanic sediments of the Parana basin, in Uruguay. The oldest rocks correspond to quartz-feldspathic gneisses of the basal complex, out-cropping in the western part of the Rivera island. A well-fitted Rb-Sr isochron of about 2200Ma (Ro=0,703) seems to indicate the main regional metamorphic event, of Lower Proterozoic age. This basement unit is intruded by different types of granitoid rocks, which predominate in both Rivera and Acegua areas. All them are related to syn--late-postectonic events of the Late precambrian to Eo-paleozoic brasiliano cycle. Porphyroid granites, considered syntectonic yielded Rb-Sr isochrones of about 680 Ma (ro=0,707). Equigranular varieties of late to postectonic character indicated a Rb-Sr isochron age value of about 580 Ma (Ro=0,707) and some sub-volcanic bodies exhibited K-Ar apparent age values around 530 Ma. The geologic evolution here outlined for this northern uruguayan region can be correlated with the one established to the north, in Rio Grande do Sul, state of Brazil. The main geotectonic significance is the overprint of the late precambrian Don Feliciano belt on the eastern border of the Rio de La Plata cratonic area. (author)

  10. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

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    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  11. Impacto de las medidas agroambientales en la viabilidad economica del cultivo ecologico e integrado de clementinas de la Comunidad Calenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Moll, Elena M.; Julia Igual, Juan Fco.

    2006-01-01

    El presente articulo indaga en las causas del escaso grado de expansion del cultivo ecologico e integrado de clementinas en la COmunidad Valenciana. Con este fin se realiza un analisis de costes centrado en la fase de produccion en campo, previa revision del estado actual de expansion de los citados cultivos en la region, asi como de la evolucion de las correspondientes primas agroambientales. Por ultimo, se analiza en que medida las subvenciones agroambientales pueden constituir un incentivo...

  12. Using numerical classification of profiles based on Vis-NIR spectra to distinguish soils from the Piracicaba Region, Brazil

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    Rodnei Rizzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering that information from soil reflectance spectra is underutilized in soil classification, this paper aimed to evaluate the relationship of soil physical, chemical properties and their spectra, to identify spectral patterns for soil classes, evaluate the use of numerical classification of profiles combined with spectral data for soil classification. We studied 20 soil profiles from the municipality of Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, which were morphologically described and classified up to the 3rd category level of the Brazilian Soil Classification System (SiBCS. Subsequently, soil samples were collected from pedogenetic horizons and subjected to soil particle size and chemical analyses. Their Vis-NIR spectra were measured, followed by principal component analysis. Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were determined among the four principal components and the following soil properties: pH, organic matter, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, CEC, base saturation, and Al saturation. We also carried out interpretation of the first three principal components and their relationships with soil classes defined by SiBCS. In addition, numerical classification of the profiles based on the OSACA algorithm was performed using spectral data as a basis. We determined the Normalized Mutual Information (NMI and Uncertainty Coefficient (U. These coefficients represent the similarity between the numerical classification and the soil classes from SiBCS. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant for the principal components when compared to sand, clay, Al content and soil color. Visual analysis of the principal component scores showed differences in the spectral behavior of the soil classes, mainly among Argissolos and the others soils. The NMI and U similarity coefficients showed values of 0.74 and 0.64, respectively, suggesting good similarity between the numerical and SiBCS classes. For example, numerical classification correctly distinguished

  13. A mitochondrial DNA phylogeny indicates close relationships between populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the rain-forest regions of Amazônia and northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, E A; Ready, P D; de Souza, A A; Day, J C; Rangel, E F; Davies, C R; Shaw, J J

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past) a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. PMID:10419383

  14. A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil

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    Ishikawa EAY

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia. These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil.

  15. Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus ("Fogo selvagem": a series from the Northeastern region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1973-1998

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    CHIOSSI Maria Paula do Valle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus (EPF is a bullous autoimmune skin disease whose incidence used to be high in the State of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, during the forties, but has declined thereafter. OBJECTIVES: to report a series of EPF patients from the northeastern region of SP. METHODS: a retrospective study concerning demographic and epidemiological data of patients seen from 1973 to 1998 was conducted at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, SP. RESULTS: bullous disease was diagnosed in 340 patients, 245 with EPF (72.1%, 9.4 cases per year, 60.4% females, and 70.2% white, 7 to 82 year-old (29.4% in their teens; 46.9% lived in the rural zone. Concerning profession, housewives predominated among women (67.6% and agricultural workers among men (40.2%. The time of disease was less than 1 year in 62.0% of cases, followed by 1 and 5 years (27%, and more than 5 years for the remaining patients (11%. 36.7% of patients were referred by the Direção Regional de Saúde (DIR XVIII of Ribeirão Preto, with the largest number of cases being from Ribeirão Preto and Batatais: 33.3% and 23.3%, respectively; 22% from DIR XIII (Franca; 13.5% from DIR VII (Araraquara; 2.9% from DIR IX (Barretos; 4.1% from other DIRs of SP, and 20.8% from other States (16.7% from Minas Gerais. Thirteen (5.3% patients reported occurrence of the disease in some relative, and 4 (1.6% in neighbors. CONCLUSIONS: the present data characterize the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo as a remaining endemic focus of EPF.

  16. Comparison of the ability of different plant species and corn hybrids to access poorly-available soil phosphorus in an oxisol of the Cerrado region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soils of the Cerrado region in Brazil have severe limitations for plant growth and crop production due to their high acidity and low natural fertility, in particular low phosphorus (P) availability. A series of experiments was carried out to make a comparative assessment of a large number of plant genotypes and identify the best adapted to these acid soils. In this paper the studies reported are related to the evaluation of a) twenty two (22) plant species and b) thirty (30) of the most recommended corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids for the Cerrado region with regard to their ability to absorb poorly-available soil phosphorus using the 32P isotopic dilution technique. Two soils (Typic Dystrarox) of this region with contrasting management were employed: one soil was cultivated (and fertilized) for 20 years and another (natural) was kept under native vegetation. In the first experiment, species such as crotalaria, cowpea, soybean, stylosanthes, sunflower, peanut, millet and sorghum showed to have inefficient P uptake ability, while cotton, eucalyptus, rice, white lupin and pigeon pea were found to be highly P-efficient species. Black oat, corn, brachiaria, common bean, wheat, mucuna, tomato, triticale and barley were intermediate. In the second experiment significant differences in P uptake ability were also observed among corn hybrids in the cultivated soil. Seven genotypes were ranked as efficient, sixteen as intermediate and another seven as inefficient. Plant growth and P concentration of all corn hybrids grown in the natural soil with low fertility status were lower than those in the cultivated soil. (author)

  17. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  18. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Buzzulini, Carolina; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Costa, Alvimar José da

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais. PMID:25517536

  19. Geologic studies on the Rio Una region (Iguape - Sao Paulo County), Brazil, for the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project was the geological and seismological characterization of 230 Km2 along the coastal region between the Barro Branco and Jureia massifs in order to pinpoint one or more local areas showing adequate geological, morphological and geotechnical conditions suitable for construction of nuclear power plants. Results of the investigations, as well as the methodology used for determination of main interesting areas are presented. The best areas for construction are believed to be situated along the coast where Precambrian basement rocks crop out close to the shoreline. The Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary cover reaches a thickness of 50 or more meters and the character of the sediments does not allow direct emplacement of foundations for heavy-weight constructions. Historical analysis of seismic activity of the region, as well as the study of faults and fracture zones identified in the area demonstrate the absence of active faults such as defined by internationally accepted safety criteria. (Author)

  20. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.

  1. Improving Regional Dynamic Downscaling with Multiple Linear Regression Model Using Components Principal Analysis: Precipitation over Amazon and Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Gomes da Silva; Claudio Moises Santos e Silva

    2014-01-01

    In the current context of climate change discussions, predictions of future scenarios of weather and climate are crucial for the generation of information of interest to the global community. Due to the atmosphere being a chaotic system, errors in predictions of future scenarios are systematically observed. Therefore, numerous techniques have been tested in order to generate more reliable predictions, and two techniques have excelled in science: dynamic downscaling, through regional models, a...

  2. The Non-linearity of the Relationship between Human Capital and Exports in Brazil - evidences of regional differences

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Gilberto; Bacha, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The study of Brazilian export determinants is a very important issue to policy-markers, principally when the export determinants are different among the Brazilian states or regions. Human capital (measured by the average level of employee formal schooling) has been one of these determinants and this paper, basing on Dixit and Woodland (1982) model, aims to evaluate the role played by human capital in the evolution of Brazilian states exports from 1995 to 2006, highlighting the differences amo...

  3. Molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc in the Kararao Village (Kayapo in the Amazon Region of Brazil

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    Ishak Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from native Indians in the Kararao village (Kayapo, were analysed using serological and molecular methods to characterize infection and analyse transmission of HTLV-II. Specific reactivity was observed in 3/26 individuals, of which two samples were from a mother and child. RFLP analysis of the pX and env regions confirmed HTLV-II infection. Nucleotide sequence of the 5' LTR segment and phylogenetic analysis showed a high similarity (98% between the three samples and prototype HTLV-IIa (Mot, and confirmed the occurrence of the HTLV-IIc subtype. There was a high genetic similarity (99.9% between the mother and child samples and the only difference was a deletion of two nucleotides (TC in the mother sequence. Previous epidemiological studies among native Indians from Brazil have provided evidence of intrafamilial and vertical transmission of HTLV-IIc. The present study now provides molecular evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-IIc, a mechanism that is in large part responsible for the endemicity of HTLV in these relatively closed populations. Although the actual route of transmission is unknown, breast feeding would appear to be most likely.

  4. A possible correlation between the host genetic background in the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. C. R. Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region of Brazil is an area of great interest because of the large distribution of hepatitis B virus in specific Western areas. Seven urban communities and 24 Indian groups were visited in a total of 4,244 persons. Each individual was interviewed in order to obtain demographic and familial information. Whole blood was collected for serology and genetic determinations. Eleven genetic markers and three HBV markers were tested. Among the most relevant results it was possible to show that (i there was a large variation of previous exposure to HBV in both urban and non-urban groups ranging from 0 to 59.2%; (ii there was a different pattern of epidemiological distribution of HBV that was present even among a same linguistic Indian group, with mixed patterns of correlation between HBsAg and anti-HBs and (iii the prevalence of HBV markers (HBsAg and anti-HBs were significantly higher (P=0.0001 among the Indian population (18.8% than the urban groups (12.5%. Its possible that the host genetic background could influence and modulate the replication of the virus in order to generate HB carrier state.

  5. Aspectos psicossociais da imigração familiar na grande Porto Alegre Psychosocial aspects of familiar immigration at the Porto Alegre region (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentam-se alguns aspectos psicossociais presentes no processo migratório de seis famílias hispano-americanas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre. Estes aspectos, relatados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com os integrantes das famílias, indicam os principais tópicos que nortearam as entrevistas: suas trajetórias migracionais, decisão de imigrar, sua inserção na cultura local, suas relações comunitárias, identidade e expectativas de vida. São analisadas as formas como ocorrem as transições aculturativas no contexto local.On this article some psychosocial aspects included on the migratory process of six Hispanic families at the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre (Brazil are presented. These aspects, obtained through semi-structured interviews with the members of the families that had indicated the principal topics that guided the interviews: their emigrational paths, their decision to immigrate, their insertion on the local culture, their community relations, identity and life expectations. The ways by which the acculturative transitions on the local context happen are analyzed.

  6. Soil differentiation in two toposequences developed from basaltic rocks in North-Central region of the Paraná State, Brazil

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    Marcos Aparecido Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In regions where there were basaltic rocks formation due to magmatic flows, variation in particle sizes and rock composition determine characteristic reliefs influencing chemical and physical attributes. The aim of the article was to characterize two different toposequences over basaltic rock basis, in order to identify the influence of their variation in soil formation, morphological properties and their distribution along the slope. The study was carried out in the Third Plateau of Parana State, Brazil, at Serra Geral geological formation, There were chosen two toposequences in equidistant 2000m parallel transects in southwest-northeast direction with different relief and rock composition and features. It was named undulated relief slope (VRO and gently undulated relief slope (VSO in which there were carried out profile morphological description with soil classes identifying, chemical analysis and clay mineralogical analysis. The results permitted to conclude that the internal dynamic and the magmatic segregation process were responsible for relief shapes and rock types formed with significant variation in soil types according variation in composition in the same rock, Both relief shapes and basalt differentiation had strong influence in soil evolution level and soil type distribution along the slopes with distinct B horizons, Nitic B and Latosolic B

  7. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Robério C S; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B; Santos, Roberta L; Bastos, Cristina S

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  8. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério C. S. Neves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  9. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  10. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

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    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  11. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida Souza Machado

    Full Text Available The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2 and ethanolic extraction (EtOH, in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown, collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS, Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH. However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection.

  13. Genetic distances and taxonomic trees between goats of Ceará State (Brazil and goats of the Mediterranean region (Europe and Africa

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    Machado Théa M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats of an undefined breed (called UDB from the State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil (N = 447, European Mediterranean goats (N = 3,847 and African Mediterranean goats (N = 325 were compared to establish genetic distances and taxonomic trees. Allelic frequencies in each population for presence or absence of the following traits were used: horns, reduced ears, long hair, wattles, beard, roan color, brown eumelanin and eumelanic standard pigmentation. The genetic distance, applying the method developed by Nei (1972, was: least between goats from different meso-regions of the State of Ceará (0.0008 to 0.0120; small between all UDB of Ceará and French goats of Rove and Haute Roya (0.0236 and 0.0459; greater between all UDB of Ceará and northern Spanish goats (0.1166, and greatest between all UDB of Ceará and northern African goats (Moroccan of Drâa, Rhâali and Zagora, Balkan goats (Sakhar from Bulgaria and Macedonia from Greece and some insular Mediterranean populations (Corsica, Sicily and Sardinia, which ranged from 0.1237 to 0.2714. Brazilian UDB goats are more closely related to Continental and Western European populations than to North African, Balkan or Insular Mediterranean populations.

  14. Performance in preweaning pure and crossbred calves in the Mato Grosso do Sul Pantanal region, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rafael Leão Fialho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purebred and crossbred calves (n = 3,871 were selected that were born in the sub-region of the Pantanal of Aquidauana (Brazil, derived from Nellore, Brangus, Wagyu, and ½ Brangus + ½ Nellore cows, which were artificially inseminated by bulls of the Aberdeen Angus, Red Angus, Brangus, Nellore, and Wagyubreeds. Parameters such as weaning weight, daily gain from birth to weaning, and the number of days to gain 160 kg, were assessed inthese calves and phenotypic correlations between the traits were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two statistical models. The first model included sire breed effects, the genetic group of the cow, sex, year of birth (AN, birth season (EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The second model included the genetic group of the calf, sex, AN, EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The genetic group of the cow and calf and the interaction AN * EN did not significantly affect body weight (p < 0.05. The average weaning weights of progeny were as follows: Aberdeen Angus bulls, 177.70 ± 3.28 kg; Red Angus, 180.31 ± 3.46 kg; Brangus, 181.48 ± 3.15 kg; Nellore, 175.43 ± 3.60 kg; and Wagyu, 173.16 ± 2.96 kg.

  15. Molecular confirmation of Trichomonas gallinae and other parabasalids from Brazil using the 5.8S and ITS-1 rRNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecco, Roselene; Preis, Ingred S; Vilela, Daniel A R; Luppi, Marcela M; Malta, Marcelo C C; Beckstead, Robert B; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Stimmelmayer, Raphaela; Gerhold, Richard W

    2012-11-23

    Clinical, gross, and histopathology lesions and molecular characterization of Trichomonas spp. infection were described in two striped owls (Asio (Rhinoptynx) clamator), one American kestrel (Falco sparverius), two green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), and in a toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) from Brazil. These birds presented clinical signs including emaciation, ruffled feathers, abundant salivation and open mouth breathing presumably due to abundant caseous material. Gross lesions were characterized by multifocal yellow friable plaques on the surface of the tongue, pharynx and/or caseous masses partially occluding the laryngeal entrance. In the owls, the caseous material extended into the mandibular muscles and invaded the sinuses of the skull. Histopathologically, marked necrotic and inflammatory lesions were associated with numerous round to oval, pale eosinophilic structures (6-10μm) with basophilic nuclei, consistent with trichomonads. Organisms similar to those described above also were found in the liver of the two green-winged saltators. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of trichomonosis in a striped owl and a toco toucan. Sequence analysis of the Trichomonas spp. internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region and partial 5.8S of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) disclosed significant genetic diversity. Two sequences had 100% identity to Trichomonas gallinae, whereas two sequences had a 99% and 92% identity to a Trichomonas vaginalis-like sequence, respectively. One sequence (green-winged saltator 502-08) had a 100% identity to a newly recognized genus Simplicomonas. PMID:22749289

  16. Building a "Smiling Brazil"? Implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy in a health region in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Guerra Aquilante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study on the implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy (PNSB, known as "Smiling Brazil", in the cities of the Regional Health Department of Araraquara (DRS III in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was given to the municipal oral health coordinators, an interview with oral health care professionals and managers was conducted, and the official data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health were coded to assess the policy's scope: (i expansion and qualification of actions; (ii work conditions; (iii care; (iv access; and (v planning and management. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were linked by methods triangulation. In terms of PNSB implementation, the majority of the cities (52.6% were classified as "good", with 42.1% classified as "bad". Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, despite strides in oral health care and access to different levels of care, the cities still experience difficulties in implementing the policy's principles.

  17. Preliminary analysis of the regolithic clay covers from the region of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate its use in the traditional ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Alfenas, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is predominantly constituted of Pre-Cambrian rocks with well developed alteration profiles in association with colluvial and alluvial sediments. No study to date has examined in detail its potential use in the ceramic industry. The scarce knowledge of its mineralogical and technological properties limits its value and consequently its industrial use. Until now, these clay materials have been used in a rudimental manner, in small scale in the fabrication of red tiles. The present study aimed at analyzing these clays mineralogically (X-ray diffraction), chemically (major and minor elements by X-ray fluorescence and organic carbon analysis) and technologically (pressing granulometric distribution; mechanical resistance; water absorption, apparent porosity; linear firing shrinkage; color of firing and others) in order to better understand the raw material and develop adequate technological applications. The best results of ceramic properties were the samples with higher organic content (more plastic clays) and higher values of Al2O3 (kaolinite and gibbsite) and Fe2O3 as well lower SiO2 content and finer grain size which contribute to a better sintering. (author)

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  19. Genetic diversity of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 in the State of Paraná, Brazil, based on a fragment of the capsid/premembrane junction region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Dalla Bona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The precise identification of the genetic variants of the dengue virus is important to understand its dispersion and virulence patterns and to identify the strains responsible for epidemic outbreaks. This study investigated the genetic variants of the capsid-premembrane junction region fragment in the dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 (DENV1-2. METHODS: Samples from 11 municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, were provided by the Central Laboratory of Paraná. They were isolated from the cell culture line C6/36 (Aedes albopictus and were positive for indirect immunofluorescence. Ribonucleic acid (RNA extracted from these samples was submitted to the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR. RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed that 4 of the samples were co-infected with both serotypes. The isolated DENV-1 sequences were 95-100% similar to the sequences of other serotype 1 strains deposited in GenBank. Similarly, the isolated DENV-2 sequences were 98-100% similar to other serotype 2 sequences in GenBank. According to our neighbor-joining tree, all strains obtained in this study belonged to genotype V of DENV-1. The DENV-2 strains, by contrast, belonged to the American/Asian genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The monitoring of circulating strains is an important tool to detect the migration of virus subtypes involved in dengue epidemics.

  20. Feeding of the Neotropical River Otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Coastal Region of the Rio Grande Do Sul State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colares E.P.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil, three areas were monitored to study the feeding habits of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis using spraint analysis. The National Park of the Peixe Lagoon was monitored seasonally between August 1995 and July 1996, in the Senandes Creek five samplings were done between June and December 1995 and in the Estiva Creek monthly samplings were done between May 1995 and July 1996. In each of these areas spraints were collected and stored. In the laboratory they were washed, separated and identified. The only area where it was possible to do a seasonal analysis of the feeding habits was the Estiva Creek. In all areas fish was the item found in the great number of spraints and crustaceans also had a considerable importance in areas with salt-water influence. The other items found were present in few samples, being them mollusks, insect, reptiles, birds and mammals. The differences observed in the feeding habits of the species between seasons and areas probably reflects the availability of different preys, agreeing the species opportunism.

  1. Medidas do comportamento organizacional Measures of organizational behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirlene Maria Matias Siqueira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O campo do comportamento organizacional foi concebido na década de sessenta por pesquisadores britânicos como disciplina emergente e quase independente, que se apoiaria em outras disciplinas já estabelecidas como Psicologia, Sociologia e Economia, devendo constituir uma área de teorização e pesquisa em que as atividades organizacionais seriam o objeto de estudo e não um contexto para onde conhecimentos seriam simplesmente transferidos e aplicados. O presente texto apresenta uma síntese da evolução do comportamento organizacional, tendo como ênfase o impacto que a estruturação do campo em níveis de análises, a sua riqueza teórica e a ausência de normalização podem ter sobre as medidas das variáveis. Questões referentes às medidas são também analisadas quanto à representação teórica dos conceitos através de itens, precisão das escalas, validade discriminante entre medidas de conceitos correlatos, bem como quanto à sintonia entre as medidas e a evolução da dinâmica organizacional face às constantes e aceleradas mudanças presentes nas organizações.The field of organizational behavior was conceived in the sixties by British researchers as an emergent and almost independent discipline that would rely on others already established such as Psychology, Sociology and Economy. It should constitute an area of theorization and research in which organizational activities would be the object of study, not a context to where knowledge would be simply transferred and applied. The text emphasizes the impact that the structuring of the field in levels of analysis, its theoretical abundance and the lack of patterns might have upon the measures of variables. Questions concerning the measures are also analyzed as to their theoretical representation of the concepts by items, precision of scales, discriminant validity among measures of correlate concepts, as well as to the harmony between the measures and the evolution of the

  2. Sensor perfeccionado para la medida de la toxicidad del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Campo García, Francisco Javier del; Mas Gordi, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    La invención se basa en un sensor de medida para la toxidad del agua y consiste en una red de micro-electrodos recubiertos de una membrana y de un biofilm. La red de micro-electrodos puede ser estándar, y es posible su funcionamiento con un único electrodo, aunque ello acarrearía una perdida de sensibilidad. La membrana se usa para evitar la pasivación del electrodo por las bacterias presentes en el agua, y se utilizará en una de las realizaciones posibles "Nafion", aunque también es posible ...

  3. Las medidas tributarias anti-abuso en la jurisprudencia comunitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2009-01-01

    La ausencia de una definición positiva general de medida anti-abuso en el Derecho Comunitario e incluso, lo que es todavía más grave, de un concepto general de abuso del derecho válido en el ámbito de la Unión Europea, demuestra la necesidad de acometer un análisis de la jurisprudencia del TJCE en esta materia, a fin de determinar la naturaleza de los mecanismos antielusivos internos que se reputan compatibles con el ordenamiento comunitario. La exigencia de seguridad jurídica, los conceptos ...

  4. Evaluación del paciente y medida de resultados

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Nieto Pol

    2014-01-01

    Tanto la valoración inicial como el seguimiento del paciente con artrosis precisan de una evaluación sistematizada de indicadores que informen sobre el grado de afectación de esta y permitan cuantificarla. Objetivar la evolución de la enfermedad facilita la toma de decisiones del clínico y proporciona información válida sobre la respuesta y eficacia de las distintas intervenciones terapéuticas. Los instrumentos recomendados en investigación, como medidas de resultado de la artrosis, son la...

  5. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  6. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; Silva, Flavio Rc da; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-04-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  7. Feeding of a pelagic chaetognath, Sagitta friderici Ritter-Záhony off Ubatuba region (São Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez; Tsui Hua Liang

    1992-01-01

    The diet of Sagitta friderici off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, was studied in March, 1989. Specimens were collected with a closing-net during three days at six hours' intervals (00:00; 06:00; 12:00; 18:00 h), at a fixed station of 38 m depth. The population was composed basically by young stages (O-II). A total of 3175 specimens were examined but only 760 contained preys in their guts. Copepods were the main constituent of food eaten (79.86%). There was a preference for the genera Paracal...

  8. Assimilation of Downscaled SMOS Soil Moisture for Quantifying Drought Impacts on Crop Yield in Agricultural Regions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Judge, J.; Principe, J. C.; Fraisse, C.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable soil moisture (SM) information in the root zone (RZSM) is critical for quantification of agricultural drought impacts on crop yields and for recommending management and adaptation strategies for crop management, commodity trading and food security.The recently launched European Space Agency-Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (ESA-SMOS) and the near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Soil Moisture Active Passive (NASA-SMAP) missions provide SM at unprecedented spatial resolutions of 10-25 km, but these resolutions are still too coarse for agricultural applications in heterogeneous landscapes, making downscaling a necessity. This downscaled near-surface SM can be merged with crop growth models in a data assimilation framework to provide optimal estimates of RZSM and crop yield. The objectives of the study include: 1) to implement a novel downscalingalgorithm based on the Information theoretical learning principlesto downscale SMOS soil moisture at 25 km to 1km in the Brazilian La Plata Basin region and2) to assimilate the 1km-soil moisture in the crop model for a normal and a drought year to understand the impact on crop yield. In this study, a novel downscaling algorithm based on the Principle of Relevant Information (PRI) was applied to in-situ and remotely sensed precipitation, SM, land surface temperature and leaf area index in the Brazilian Lower La Plata region in South America. An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) based assimilation algorithm was used to assimilate the downscaled soil moisture to update both states and parameters. The downscaled soil moisture for two growing seasons in2010-2011 and 2011-2012 was assimilated into the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model over 161 km2 rain-fed region in the Brazilian LPB regionto improve the estimates of soybean yield. The first season experienced normal precipitation, while the second season was impacted by drought. Assimilation improved yield

  9. An efficiency comparison of numerical methods for determining Weibull parameters for wind energy applications: A new approach applied to the northeast region of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a new approach for the methods used to calculate the Weibull parameters. • In this evaluation, power is as key issue, in spite of the wind velocity. • Wind speed and wind power data were collected in two coastal cities in Brazil. • The use of power as the main parameter indicates that methods can change the ranking. - Abstract: This work introduces a new approach for the evaluation of numerical methods used in calculating the Weibull parameters for the prediction of wind resource. In this evaluation, power is a key issue since it proves to be quite relevant in predicting the feasibility of a given site for efficient use of wind energy. Previous knowledge of such information is important for the decision process on the technical feasibility of installing industrial wind farms. The paper performed a statistical analysis of seven mathematical methods to estimate the shape parameter k and the scaling parameter c of the Weibull distribution. Wind speed and wind power data collected in two coastal cities (Icapuí and Camocim), State of Ceará, in the northeast region of Brazil were used. The methods used in the development of this research are the graphical method, maximum likelihood method, modified maximum likelihood method, empirical method, moment method, energy pattern factor method and the equivalent energy method. Comparative analysis of efficiency and accuracy involves the application of the following statistical tests: analysis of variance (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), and chi-square (X2). The use of power as a parameter to be evaluated in this study by analyzing the Weibull distribution, is something different from what has been discussed in the literature, and indicates that methods which are well evaluated when the wind speed is used as a comparison factor can change position when ranked by power. It is important to emphasize that the values of k and c were calculated directly from the values of wind power (not the wind

  10. Evidences of a transamazonic cycle in Cabo Frio region, RJ, Brazil and its correlation with the craton of Angola, Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U-Pb dating in zircon based on air-abrasion method, whole rock Rb-Sr one, and K-Ar ones in biotite and amphibole of the samples collected from the Cabo Frio Region, Ribeira Orogenic Belt, have been carried out. The concordia diagram of the U-Pb dating indicates 2 different ages: 1981 ± 18 Ma for the upper intersect corresponding to the Transamazonic Cycle, and 488 ± 55 Ma for the lower one, Brazilian Cycle. The former is interpreted as age of zircon formation and the latter, as the time elapsed since epsodic lead loss. The whole rock Rb-Sr dating also shows Transamazonic age: 1799 ± 62 Ma, IR=0.706, and MSWD+0.570. The K-Ar age in amphibole is 571 ± 44 Ma and that in biotite is 474 ± 6 Ma. These data lead to the conclusion that the rocks of this region was formed in the Trasamazonic Cycle and remetamorphosed in the Brazilian Cycle. (author)

  11. Evaluation of paleovegetation changes in the northwest part of the Amazon region, Brazil: a carbon isotope approach in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Numerous studies have focused on the understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the amazon region and its realtion to climate. The research approaches in these studies have involved the use of biological, geomorphologic and botanical tools, (1,2). Our approach involves the use of 13 and 14 C analyses in soil organic mater t infer past vegeation changes in the Amazon region (3). This is based on the distinct composition that characterize the C3 and C4 plants, that formed the different vegetation communities that exist in the Amazon region. 14 C used as a dating tool. This paper present data in soils collected in the Rondonia State, located in the northwestern part of the Amazon region. The soils were collected along a transect that include four distinct vegetation communities, ranging from a Cerrado type vegetation (southern part), dominated by C4 grasses, to a tropical forest (northern part). The soils types are Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo at the Cerrado, Cerrado-transition and forest-transition sites, and Podzolico Vermelho amarelo at the forest site. 14 C data obtained in total soil organic matter, humin fraction and charcoal indicate that the organic matterin these soils is at least Holocene in age. The forest and the forest-transition sites area characterized by typical δ 13 C profiles (-29 to -24 0/00), indicating the predominance of C3 plants during the past in this region. The Cerrado-transition sites show a significant change in δ 13 C from -27.5 0/00 at the surface to -19 0/00 at 30 cm. This value changed toward more depleted δ 13 C values at the 90-100 cm depth interval, reaching a value of -30 0/00 at 190-200 cm depth interval. This trend has to be associated to a change from a forest type vegetation (190-200 cm to 130-140 cm), to a vegetation community with a mayor influence of C4 palnts recorded i the interval between 110-120 to 20-23 cm depth. The δ 13 C values at the Cerrado sites are the more enriched ones observed in this study

  12. Coccidiosis in broiler chickens raised in the Araguaína region, State of Tocantins, Brazil Coccidiose em frangos de corte criados na região de Araguaína, estado do Tocantis, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Andrade Toledo; Jefferson Douglas de Moura Almeida; Katyane de Sousa Almeida; Fagner Luiz da Costa Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Eimeriosis is responsible for causing serious problems in poultry, mainly characterized by reduced weight gain and abnormalities of food conversion efficiency, thereby causing great economic losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of eimeriosis in broiler chickens in the Araguaina region, State of Tocantins, Brazil. Samples from five farm properties were collected and sent to the Hygiene and Public Health Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Federa...

  13. New apiaceous hosts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Cerrado region of Brazil Novas hospedeiras de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum na família Apiaceae na região do Cerrado do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reis; WM Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time in the Cerrado region of Brazil the occurrence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in coriander (Coriandum sativum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza). The disease was observed on coriander, in Cristalina, Goiás State, on parsley in Gama, the Federal District and on Peruvian carrot in Ibiá, Minas Gerais State. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus S. sclerotiorum is the causal agent of the ...

  14. Isolation of filamentous fungi from public telephones of the Metropolitan region of the city of Recife, PE, Brazil Isolamento de fungos filamentosos em telefones públicos da região Metropolitana da cidade do Recife, PE, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho; Marilene da Silva Cavalcanti; Francisco Cordeiro Neto

    2007-01-01

    Fungi can inhabit our organism without causing any harm, but they show themselves when the immunological system is compromised. In this study, a survey of the occurrence of filamentous fungi was carried out in public telephones of the Metropolitan Region of the City of Recife, PE, Brazil. This showed the public phones as a possible mean of transmission of fungal diseases among humans. Samples from the environment, audios, speakers and keyboards were taken at the airport, mall, subway and bus ...

  15. An alternative rule for determining demand and energy supply based in marginal cost optimization from interconnected hydrothermal systems, focalizing the individualized plants, applied to the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for determining optimal strategies of energy supply in the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil is presented. The problem was modelled, having as principle the minimization of operation pluri annual cost. The dynamic restrictions of energy and peak flow, the dynamic configuration of hydrothermal park and the hydraulic operation restrictions are also considered. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  17. Reference evapotranspiration models using different time scales in the Jaboticabal region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Buzinaro Caporusso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare 18 reference evapotranspiration models to the standard Penman-Monteith model in the Jaboticabal, São Paulo, region for the following time scales: daily, 5-day, 15-day and seasonal. A total of 5 years of daily meteorological data was used for the following analyses: accuracy (mean absolute percentage error, Mape, precision (R2 and tendency (bias (systematic error, SE. The results were also compared at the 95% probability level with Tukey’s test. The Priestley-Taylor (1972 method was the most accurate for all time scales, the Tanner-Pelton (1960 method was the most accurate in the winter, and the Thornthwaite (1948 method was the most accurate of the methods that only used temperature data in the equations.

  18. Estimate of the energy resources of the Aracatuba region, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa dos recursos energeticos da regiao de Aracatuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso; Souza, Carlos Antonio Farias de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The complete assessment on energy producing resources, as referred, indicates a consideration about technical, economical, political and environmental aspects of these resources. The developed project presents a methodology for the implementation of this complete assessment, which consists of identification and inventory of the technologies and resources available at the time to a specific geographical site and their classification as an indicative and computative character of the mentioned aspects, taking in consideration the sustainable development. This methodology was used in the Administrative Region of Aracatuba, obtaining as results a ranking of alternatives. The solar collectors acquired the best evaluation. From this result it's possible to indicate the better option, in this case the solar collector, of investment in a preliminary approach. (author)

  19. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  20. Age and moviment of ground waters in the region of Picos-Piaui (Brazil) and their hydrochemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of carbon-14 measurements and chemical analyses of waters tapped from wells dug in the Picos-Piaui region are presented. The water is younger in the east than in the west of the investigated area. Apparently there is an age gradient related to the distance of the well from recharge area of the aquifer. The measurements ages range from about 7.800 to 36.500 years. The wells can be classed into three different groups according to its predominant anions; carbonates in the east, sulfates in the west and chlorides in the south. By international standards the water from nearly all wells can be classified as 'potable', only two show slinghtly higher contents of sodium and sulfates some others an increased load of nitrates. (Author)

  1. Characterization of residual soils of the region of Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil, slip for use in artistic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, in which four residual soils collected in the region were technologically characterized. We sought to determine their properties, such as analysis of the colors after firing, aiming at its use in ceramic art. To this end the tests were conducted in the laboratories of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF) and that are granulometry (by sieving and sedimentation), specific mass of grains, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, diffraction mineralogical identification X-ray, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. The soils were analyzed before drying at 110 deg C and after burning the different temperatures (500 deg C 750 deg C and 950 deg C). The analyzed results showed the physical composition, chemical and mineralogical of raw material. After burning was possible to observe several color variations. (author)

  2. Anthropogenic impact on the sedimentation in coastal regions: an example in Saco do Bracui - Ribeira Bay, Angra dos Reis, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saco do Bracui, located in the littoral zone of the Brazilian southeast, receives run off from the region of Angra dos Reis. Anthropological intervention in this area has modified local morphology during the last 40 years. These modifications include an intense deforestation of mangrove regions, construction of the Bracui Boat Yard, the dredging of part of the draining basin and development of the coastal plain. Results from seismic surveys identify three different stratigraphic units separated by two reflectors as well as Holocenic paleodeltas and paleochannels of the Bracui and Gratau rivers. Results from this study and previous work indicate an age of 6800 years for the top of the superior unit. Areal photographs from the years 1964, 1965, 1978 and 1991 reveal the principal modifications occurring during the last 40 years in the area. Field observations from this study as well as bathymetric profiles based on the nautical maps of 1980 and 1944 reveal shoaling and erosion areas in the Saco do Bracui. Sedimentation rates, using lead-210 profiles, are between 0,17 - 1,90 cm/year and lead-210 inventory values are between 16-6-dpm/cm2/year. The results for sedimentation rate and inventory show a high accumulation around Bracui, Gratau and Frade mouth rivers and agree with results from the bathymetric profiles with respect to the site of erosion and shoaling in the Saco do Bracui. The results for grain size and lead-210 analyses support the idea that the Saco do Bracui is suffering shoaling processes in specific sites and erosion in others. Comparison between long term sedimentation rates obtained by seismic results and short term rates obtained by lead-210 shows an increase of the sedimentary discharge in the 1960's, when the intense anthropological intervention in the area began. (author)

  3. Serological survey for rabies in serum samples from vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in Botucatu region, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Langoni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The chiropterans constitute 25% of the world's mammal fauna. Due to the destruction of their natural ecosystem, the vampire bats have moved from nature to artificial roosts closer to man and domestic animals. This phenomenon has happened particularly in rural areas. Rabies is a viral anthropozoonosis, 100% lethal, and vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus represent an important role in its epidemiology. D. rotundus were captured at night with mesh nets in partnership with the Botucatu Defense Office and sent to the Zoonosis Diagnostic Service, at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, UNESP. Serum samples from 204 bats were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fluorescent antibody viral neutralization test (FAVN for rabies antibody detection. The results showed 7.4% of sera with titers higher or equal to 0.5 U for rabies antibodies, which demonstrated viral flow circulation among the studied region. Data suggest a need for constant monitoring accomplished by epidemiological and sanitary measures.

  4. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms. PMID:22437397

  5. Food web connections and the transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in the Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, H M; Rocha, F L; Lisboa, C V; Rademaker, V; Mourão, G M; Jansen, A M

    2011-07-01

    We examined by parasitological tests (hemocultures and buffy coat) infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi in blood samples from Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous and domestic dogs. Besides, 25 T. cruzi isolates previously derived from feral pigs and small wild mammals were here characterized by miniexon gene and demonstrated to be in the TcI genotype. Herein, we make an overall analysis of the transmission cycle of both trypanosome species in the light of the assemblage of data collected over the last seven years. The carnivore Nasua nasua was confirmed to play a major role in the transmission cycles of both T. cruzi and T. evansi since it was the species that had the higher prevalence and higher parasitemias by both flagellate species. In addition, our results show that both trypanosomatid species may be found throughout the Pantanal landscape, in all forest strata, as shown by the infection of carnivore, arboreal and terrestrial scansorial marsupial species in complex and seasonal transmission cycles. We propose that transmission of T. cruzi and T. evansi in the southern Pantanal region takes place via an intricate ecological trophic network involving generalist and specialist mammal species that are linked through a robust food-web connection. PMID:21600622

  6. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  7. Geochronology of granitic magmatism from Caraculo-Bibala region (SW Angola) and its correlation with Ribeira fold belt (SE Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr whole-rock analyses of representative granitic rocks from the Bibala-Caraculo region, southwestern Angola, are used to determine the age and evolution of the acid plutonic events in this segment of the Angolan continental crust. The granitoids present a wide range of lithological types and compositions. Three time-intervals have been defined for the magmatism: 1,950 - 1,900 Ma; 1,750 - 1,700 Ma; 1,550 - 1,500 Ma. The oldest, though not very well defined, was obtained for the Chicalengue granitoid, the second one represents the Serra dos Gandarengos and Chonga granitoids and Luchipa-Pungue Granitic Complex and the youngest one comprises the Chicate and Caraculo granitic bodies and Numhino Granitic Complex. The initial 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios show characteristic values for each time-interval, as follows; 1,950 -1,900 Ma = 0,7015; 1,750 - 1,700 Ma = 0,7060 to 0,7075; 1,550 - 1,500 Ma 0,7048 - 0,7057, suggesting different sources for the granitoids within each geological period. In addition are presented two K-Ar ages for the basic rocks in SW Angola, with values of 1700 and 600 Ma, which represent a minimum ages for these rocks and are probably related to the Damara Orogeny. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

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    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  9. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine N.; Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Schwarzbach, Vinicius; Schlottag, Thalyta C., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  10. Characterization of corn landraces planted grown in the campos gerais region (Paraná, Brazil for industrial utilization

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    Alessandra Teixeira Barbosa Pinto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of characterizing twenty corn landraces grown in the Campos Gerais region (Paraná State in relation to its chemical composition (moisture, ash, protein, ether extract, dietary fiber and starch and physical properties (weight of 1000 grains, real density, flotation index, granulometry and color. In addition, also the lab scale processing of the kernels from the varieties was carried out for producing starch; starch purity was evaluated by measuring its protein contamination. Amylose contents and viscoamylograph profile were also evaluated. The results showed that the evaluated landraces have differences in chemical composition as well as in pericarp/endosperm/germ proportions and consequently it should have different industrial applications and interest for plant breeding.Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar vinte variedades de milho crioulo cultivadas na região dos Campos Gerais (Estado do Paraná em relação a sua composição química (umidade, cinzas, proteína, extrato etéreo, fibra alimentar e amido e propriedades físicas (peso de 1000 grãos, densidade real, índice de flotação, granulometria e cor Além disso, foi feito o processamento dos grãos em escala de laboratório para a extração do amido, sendo mensurado o teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os conteúdos de amilose e o perfil viscoamilográfico. Os resultados mostraram que os milhos apresentaram diferentes composições químicas e proporções pericarpo/endosperma/ gérmen e consequentemente podem ter diferentes aplicações industriais e interesse ao melhoramento de plantas.

  11. Root caries in areas with and without fluoridated water at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate root caries prevalence in areas with and without water fluoridation at the Southeast region of São Paulo State, in the adult population, employees of public and private schools, and elderly population. Epidemiological surveys were conducted according to the World Health Organization guidelines (1997, including 1,475 dentate individuals aged 35 to 44 years and 65 to 74 years, living in cities representing the southeast of São Paulo State, with (n=872 or without (n=603 fluoridated water supply. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of root caries was 15.6% for the 35-44-year-old age group and 31.8% for the 65-74-year-old age group . There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in the occurrence of root caries according to water fluoridation, although individuals living at non-fluoridated areas presented higher percentage of missing teeth; also, there was higher mean number of intact roots at fluoridated areas (p<0.05. Most individuals with gingival recession, both adults and elderly, did not have root caries experience. In this study, root caries prevalence was lower in areas with fluoridated water. Due to the reduced prevalence of edentulism and increased number of people keeping their natural teeth for a longer period, a future increase in root caries is expected, highlighting the importance of studies related to water fluoridation and its relationship with the oral health of adults and elderly, especially referring to tooth root.

  12. Evaluation of radon activity in soil gas at Curitiba - metropolitan area and coastal region of Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of Rn-222 and Rn-220 measurements in soil gas at the city of Curitiba, Metropolitan Area and Parana Coastal Region developed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of Federal University of Technology, Parana (UTFPR). The survey was performed using the AlphaGUARD instant radon detector (SAPHYMO) associated with gas probe, filter vessels and air pump (AlphaPUMP) following the recommendation of User Manual for soil gas measurements and practice protocols developed by CDTN. Each test consisted of three main steps: background evaluation, total activity measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 isotopes in soil gas and static activity measurements (with disconnected AlphaPUMP) of soil gas accumulated within the cavity of AlphaGUARD ionization chamber. Specific activity levels of Rn-222 and Rn-220 were obtained by theoretical decay curves fitting to the set of experimental data using scientific graphing and data analysis software Origin 6.1. Obtained Rn-222 concentrations in soil gas varied from 26.0 ± 8.2 kBq/m³ to 38.7 ± 7.7 kBq/m³ and the average values of Rn-220 were found in a range of 18.8 ± 7.4 kBq/m³ and 142±67 kBq/m³. It has to be noted that found activity of Rn-222 isotope in soil gas of studied locations of Parana is below 50 kBq/m³, which is the maximum radon activity level established by some European countries for classification of high-risk soil. Despite the high levels of Rn-220 activity in soil gas, this does not represent the health risk for the population since the half-life of Rn-220 is short (54.5 seconds). (author)

  13. DOUBLE-RING AND TENSION INFILTROMETER MEASUREMENTS OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND MOBILE SOIL REGIONS MEDIDAS DE CONDUTIVIDADE HIDRÁULICA E MOVIMENTO DE ÁGUA NO SOLO POR ANÉIS CONCÊNTRICOS E INFILTRÔMETRO DE TENSÃO

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    Bernd Lennartz

    2011-07-01

    ="text-decoration: none;">, which were 7 to 13 times higher, when compared to TI values, and 12 to 33 times higher than for TIsand. For the 25 mm and 50 mm BB applications, the mobile (dye-stained soil regions constituted up to 60% in the top 25 cm and varied little, when considered the infiltration methods. Only the 100 mm application, using the DI, yielded significant BB displacement into the subsoil. Hence, both Ks values and their corresponding dye pattern depended on the boundary conditions. For DI, more than 90% of the dye was constrained below the infiltration area, revealing that flow was essentially vertical.

    Existem muitas técnicas e métodos de campo para medir e estimar a condutividade hidráulica saturada do

  14. Magnetic susceptibility to identify landscape segments on a detailed scale in the region of Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mariana dos Reis Barrios

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural potential is generally assessed and managed based on a one-dimensional vision of the soil profile, however, the increased appreciation of sustainable production has stimulated studies on faster and more accurate evaluation techniques and methods of the agricultural potential on detailed scales. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using soil magnetic susceptibility for the identification of landscape segments on a detailed scale in the region of Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The studied area has two slope curvatures: linear and concave, subdivided into three landscape segments: upper slope (US, concave, middle slope (MS, linear and lower slope (LS, linear. In each of these segments, 20 points were randomly sampled from a database with 207 samples forming a regular grid installed in each landscape segment. The soil physical and chemical properties, CO2 emissions (FCO2 and magnetic susceptibility (MS of the samples were evaluated represented by: magnetic susceptibility of air-dried fine earth (MS ADFE, magnetic susceptibility of the total sand fraction (MS TS and magnetic susceptibility of the clay fraction (MS Cl in the 0.00 - 0.15 m layer. The principal component analysis showed that MS is an important property that can be used to identify landscape segments, because the correlation of this property within the first principal component was high. The hierarchical cluster analysis method identified two groups based on the variables selected by principal component analysis; of the six selected variables, three were related to magnetic susceptibility. The landscape segments were differentiated similarly by the principal component analysis and by the cluster analysis using only the properties with higher discriminatory power. The cluster analysis of MS ADFE, MS TS and MS Cl allowed the formation of three groups that agree with the segment division established in the field. The grouping by cluster

  15. Karyotype characterization and nucleolar organizer regions of marsupial species (Didelphidae from areas of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in Brazil

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    Núbia P. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively

  16. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade nas regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil Overweight and obesity prevalence in Northeast and Southeast Regions of Brazil

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    Marcelo Militão Abrantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças, adolescentes, adultos e idosos brasileiros das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste; MÉTODOS: Avaliação antropométrica de 17.184 pessoas, estudadas na Pesquisa sobre Padrões de Vida (PPV realizada pelo IBGE em 1996/97, através do índice de massa corporal sendo usados como limite para sobrepeso e obesidade os valores propostos por Cole et al. por permitirem uma continuidade de critério de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância, adolescência e idade adulta. RESULTADOS: Predomínio do sexo feminino, 53,1%, na população estudada. A média de idade foi de 29 anos e 5 meses (desvio padrão de ± 20 anos, a mediana foi de 25 anos e 6 meses. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 10,8% entre crianças, 9,9% nos adolescentes e 28,3% entre adultos e a de obesidade foi 7,3%, 1,8% e 9,7%, respectivamente. Observado um aumento gradativo da prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade desde a infância até a idade adulta, com declínio entre os idosos. CONCLUSÕES: Prevalência conjunta de sobrepeso e obesidade na população brasileira é maior no sexo feminino sendo que mais da metade das mulheres das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil, com idade entre 50 e 69 anos, têm sobrepeso e/ou obesidade. A comparação de estudos de prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância e adolescência é dificultada pela escassez de estudos populacionais nacionais e diversidade de critérios utilizados na avaliação nutricional.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, adolescents, adults and elderlies from Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS: anthropometric evaluation of 17.184 people, studied in Life Pattern Research conducted by Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics in 1996/97, by body mass index. Overweight and obesity definitions according to body mass index values proposed by Cole et al. which are related to adult definition. RESULTS: It

  17. High-Ti basalt from the Abrolhos platform, offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S: implications for mantle metasomatism and heterogeneity, South Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, R.V.; Ragland, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and core samples of the Abrolhos islands and platform (30,000 km/sup 2/), offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S, yields 35-65 Ma mafic flows and hypabyssal and cumulate rocks. (a) Basalt has very high TiO/sub 2/ attended by high FeO* but not proportionate amounts of incompatible elements; extreme Ti is shown by TiO/sub 2/ 5% at FeO*/MgOapprox. 2.5; LREE enrichment, La/sub (n)/ 80-110, La/Yb/sub (n)/approx. 8.5, Zr/Nbapprox. 6, Zr/Y approx. 7 are those of P-type MORB. (b) Cpx is transitional, Fs/sub 14-23/Wo/sub 42-36/, TiO/sub 2/ 1-2%, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2-5%. (c) Cumulates are clinopyroxenite and wehrlite, with cpx compositions like those of the basalts. The unusually high Ti, several trace elements, and mineral compositions correspond to certain high-TiO/sub 2/ flows and dikes in neighboring Serra Geral CFB province. Age differences and approx. 2 x higher P, Ba, and Sr in Serra Geral point to Abrolhos representing (re-)melting of an enriched CFB source-area similar to that for Serra Geral CFB but differing in metasomatic phases such as ap, amph, and mica. Extensive fractionation of enriched tholeiites with major-element compositions of certain S. Atlantic basin basalts accounts for Abrolhos compositions except for extreme Ti. Cumulates attest to the chamber environment necessary for fractionation, but high Ti must reflect the mantle source. Because Abrolhos rocks have compositional links to both continental and oceanic magmatism that occurred since Gondwanaland rifting, source-regions for each may have been similar throughout South Atlantic history, but with notable anomalies, due in part to localized Fe-Ti metasomatism.

  18. Another record of significant regional variation in toxicity of Tityus serrulatus venom in Brazil: a step towards understanding the possible role of sodium channel modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Guerrero-Vargas, Jimmy Alexander; Santos, Daniel M; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2013-10-01

    The scorpion Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most severe accidents that have been registered in Brazil, mainly in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), being the lung edema (LE), the main cause of death in these accidents. Although an increased in the number of accidents caused to this species in Federal District (Distrito Federal - DF), it seems that this particular species is not responsible for severe scorpionism cases in this region. Given this observation, we tested the toxicity in mice and compared the ability of T. serrulatus venom from DF (Ts-DF) and Minas Gerais State (Ts-MG) to induce LE in rats. The LD50 of Ts-DF venom was 51.6 μg/mouse, almost twice (1.98) higher than that obtained for Ts-MG venom. The ability of venom (0.5 mg/kg) to induce LE in rats was determined by the wet weight differences between treated and untreated lungs, by pulmonary morphological analyses and by pulmonary vascular permeability (PVP) using the Evans blue protocol. Significant differences in the wet weight of lungs and changes in PVP were found in Ts-MG venom treated rats when compared to rats treated with Ts-DF venom or untreated rats (p < 0.001), but no differences occurred when comparing rats treated with Ts-DF venom and untreated rats (p < 0.05). These results were confirmed by evaluation of pulmonary morphology. Comparison of chromatographic profiles obtained from these venoms (Ts-DF and Ts-MG) using the fractal dimension (D) analysis and the molecular mass fingerprint of the chromatographic fractions showed a higher number of components between 35 and 40% acetonitrile in Ts-MG venom than in Ts-DF venom, indicating a higher diversity of sodium channel modulators in that venom. PMID:23851224

  19. Syn-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rio Doce region: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotopic data of the Neoproterozoic Urucum Suite (eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: nalini@degeo.ufop.br; Bilal, Essaid [Ecole de Mines de Saint Etienne (France); Neves, Jose Marques Correia [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2000-03-01

    The Urucum Suite granitoids (Rio Doce region southeastern Brazil) contains four main facies: megafeldspar granites, deformed medium-to-coarse-grained granites, tourmaline, and pegmatitic facies. they intrude both the staurolite-garnet-muscovite-biotite schist of the Sao Tome formation (Rio Doce Group) and the Galileia metaluminous suite (596{+-}4 Ma). Detailed structural studies suggest that the Urucum Suite emplaced during an important dextral strike-slip movement (D{sub 1} phase) of the Brasiliano orogeny (650-450 Ma). Modal and chemical mineralogical variations suggest an evolution from the megafeldspar facies to the pegmatitic facies. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates the peraluminous character of the Urucum suite granitoids, the evolution from the megafeldspar facies granites to pegmatite facies granites to pegmatitic facies granites and suggests the syn-collisional character of this suite. U-Pb zircon (582{+-} 2 Ma) and monazite (576-573 {+-}4 Ma) data indicate that the Urucum Suite emplaced during the Brasiliano orogeny. The peraluminous nature of the Suite and isotopic rich character in the Rb-Sr ({sup 87} Sr/{sup 86} Sr = 0.7114 to 0.7165) and Sm Nd (eNd{sub (T)} = -7.4 and -8.2) systems indicate that it formed by partial melting of older intermediate to felsic crustal sources. Based on early Proterozoic model-ages (2.3 to 1.8 Ga) and on 2.0 ga U-Pb inherited signature, granitoids of the Suite are probably derived from a rocks with a long crustal residence (Transamazonian basement), without extensive mantle contribution. (author)

  20. Syn-collisional peraluminous magmatism in the Rio Doce region: mineralogy, geochemistry and isotopic data of the Neoproterozoic Urucum Suite (eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Urucum Suite granitoids (Rio Doce region southeastern Brazil) contains four main facies: megafeldspar granites, deformed medium-to-coarse-grained granites, tourmaline, and pegmatitic facies. they intrude both the staurolite-garnet-muscovite-biotite schist of the Sao Tome formation (Rio Doce Group) and the Galileia metaluminous suite (596±4 Ma). Detailed structural studies suggest that the Urucum Suite emplaced during an important dextral strike-slip movement (D1 phase) of the Brasiliano orogeny (650-450 Ma). Modal and chemical mineralogical variations suggest an evolution from the megafeldspar facies to the pegmatitic facies. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates the peraluminous character of the Urucum suite granitoids, the evolution from the megafeldspar facies granites to pegmatite facies granites to pegmatitic facies granites and suggests the syn-collisional character of this suite. U-Pb zircon (582± 2 Ma) and monazite (576-573 ±4 Ma) data indicate that the Urucum Suite emplaced during the Brasiliano orogeny. The peraluminous nature of the Suite and isotopic rich character in the Rb-Sr (87 Sr/86 Sr = 0.7114 to 0.7165) and Sm Nd (eNd(T) = -7.4 and -8.2) systems indicate that it formed by partial melting of older intermediate to felsic crustal sources. Based on early Proterozoic model-ages (2.3 to 1.8 Ga) and on 2.0 ga U-Pb inherited signature, granitoids of the Suite are probably derived from a rocks with a long crustal residence (Transamazonian basement), without extensive mantle contribution. (author)

  1. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  2. Pb/Pb single-zircon dating of Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline/alkaline magmatism in the southeastern Sao Francisco Craton region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two chemically and petrographically distinct intrusive bodies (a calc-alkaline trondhjemite and an alkaline quartz-syenite cut by granitic aplites) occur in the vicinity of Piranga (Minas Gerais State), near the southeastern border of the Sao Francisco craton, Brazil. They intrude the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt and the Mantiqueira complex, both of Archean age. Both intrusive bodies are variably deformed and mylonitized. Age determinations using the Pb/Pb single-zircon evaporation method yielded paleoproterozoic ages for the emplacement/crystallization of the trondhjemite (2058 ± 10 Ma, quartz-syenite (2036 ±4 Ma), as well as the younger aplites (2012 ± 8 Ma). These ages allow us to interpret the calc-alkaline as well as alkaline magmatism as manifestations of the Transamazonian event in the southeastern Sao Francisco craton region. Furthermore, the calc-alkaline trondhjemite is interpreted to have intrude during compressional deformation, while the alkaline quartz-syenite and its aplitic differentiates are post-orogenic, possibly extension-related In terms of the Rb vs. (Y+Nb) contents, the trondhjemite plots in the field of volcanic are granites, whereas the syenite and the aplites plot in the of post-collision granites. The mylonitic overprinting of the syenite and the trondhjemite is also Paleoproterozoic, as deduced from 2012± 8 Ma age of the undeformed younger aplitic dykes which cut the syenite. It is likely that this alkaline magmatism with a Paleoproterozoic post-collisional magmatic event well documented in the Transamazonian mobile belts of the northern Sao Francisco craton. (author)

  3. Water Quality Index (WQI) of Jaguari and Atibaia Rivers in the region of Paulínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marcio Antonio Gomes; Bueno de Oliveira, Eduardo Schneider; Pião, Antonio Carlos Simões; Nalin de Oliveira Leite, Dilza Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira

    2016-05-01

    Due to the concern with the quality of hydric resources, the monitoring is essential to evaluate and identify the anthropogenic and environmental interferences in a quantitative and qualitative level. In order to assist the interpretation of the water status of hydric bodies, the gathering of analytical data often considers the Water Quality Index (WQI). This index transforms technical information in description of the water quality status, highlighting the effectiveness of its use and guiding the decision-making process when necessary. The aim of this research is to assess the water quality of a region in São Paulo State, Brazil, by means of the WQI of Jaguari and Atibaia Rivers. The period of intense drought, which affected the Brazilian southeast in 2014, was evaluated and compared to the mean values recorded from October 2009 to March 2015, correlating the values of Escherichia coli and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). One hundred nine samples were collected, being 53 from dry seasons, between October and March, and 56 from rainy seasons, between April and September. The WQIs in Jaguari and Atibaia Rivers, during dry season, were of 42.2 (medium) and 36.7 (bad), respectively. The same pattern was registered for the dry season, for both rivers, with indices values of 40.1 for Jaguari River (medium) and 34.9 for Atibaia River (bad). This research presented the need of an effective evaluation of the environmental quality and preservation by competent organs for both rivers. Due to the detected conditions, special attention should be given to the Atibaia River. PMID:27037698

  4. Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility of agricultural soils in the Northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken from agricultural areas near the City of Maringa, in the Northwest region of the Parana state, south Brazil, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of radionuclides (K, eU, and eTh), the apparent resistivity, and the magnetic susceptibility determined for soils. Three different types of soils are present in this agricultural area: Alfisoil, clayey texture Oxisoil, both deriving from Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation; and medium texture Oxisoil from reworked Serra Geral and Goio-Ere formations, the latter deriving from sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Caiua Group. It could be observed that in more clayey soils both concentration of radionuclides and susceptibility values are higher than in more sandy soils, especially due to the higher adsorption in the former and to the higher availability of magnetic minerals in the latter. The average ppm and Bq Kg-1 grades for K, eU, and eTh in the areas under anthropic activity are of 1766-54.75, 0.83-10.22, and 1.78-7.27, respectively. These grades are significantly higher than those of non-occupied or non-fertilized areas (1101-34.15 K, 0.14-1.69 eU, and 1.31-5.36 eTh in ppm and Bq Kg-1, respectively.) Correlations were observed between uranium and clay, uranium and magnetic susceptibility, uranium and organic matter, and between electric resistivity and clay grades. Varied concentrations of radionuclides were also observed in different fertilizer formulations applied to soy and wheat cultures. Apparent electric resistivity values between 25 and 647 Ohm.m and magnetic susceptibility values between 0.28 e 1.10 x 10-3 SI due to clay and magnetic minerals represented important soil discrimination factors in the study area that can be incorporated as easy, low-cost soil mapping tools. (author)

  5. Pb/Pb single-zircon dating of Paleoproterozoic calc-alkaline/alkaline magmatism in the southeastern Sao Francisco Craton region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Peres, Guilherme Gravina [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail: hanna@degeo.ufop.br; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2000-03-01

    Two chemically and petrographically distinct intrusive bodies (a calc-alkaline trondhjemite and an alkaline quartz-syenite cut by granitic aplites) occur in the vicinity of Piranga (Minas Gerais State), near the southeastern border of the Sao Francisco craton, Brazil. They intrude the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt and the Mantiqueira complex, both of Archean age. Both intrusive bodies are variably deformed and mylonitized. Age determinations using the Pb/Pb single-zircon evaporation method yielded paleoproterozoic ages for the emplacement/crystallization of the trondhjemite (2058 {+-} 10 Ma), quartz-syenite (2036 {+-}4 Ma), as well as the younger aplites (2012 {+-} 8 Ma). These ages allow us to interpret the calc-alkaline as well as alkaline magmatism as manifestations of the Transamazonian event in the southeastern Sao Francisco craton region. Furthermore, the calc-alkaline trondhjemite is interpreted to have intrude during compressional deformation, while the alkaline quartz-syenite and its aplitic differentiates are post-orogenic, possibly extension-related In terms of the Rb vs. (Y+Nb) contents, the trondhjemite plots in the field of volcanic are granites, whereas the syenite and the aplites plot in the of post-collision granites. The mylonitic overprinting of the syenite and the trondhjemite is also Paleoproterozoic, as deduced from 2012{+-} 8 Ma age of the undeformed younger aplitic dykes which cut the syenite. It is likely that this alkaline magmatism with a Paleoproterozoic post-collisional magmatic event well documented in the Transamazonian mobile belts of the northern Sao Francisco craton. (author)

  6. Antiretroviral resistance in individuals presenting therapeutic failure and subtypes of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Salustiano Cavalcanti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze human immunodeficiency virus (HIV mutation profiles related to antiretroviral resistance following therapeutic failure, and the distribution of hiv subtypes in the Northeast Region of Brazil. A total of 576 blood samples from AIDS patients presenting therapeutic failure between 2002 and 2004 were analyzed. The genotyping kit viroSeq® was used to perform viral amplification in order to identify mutations related to hiv pol gene resistance. An index of 91.1% of the patients presented mutations for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nrti, 58.7% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nnrti, and 94.8% for protease inhibitors (pi. The most prevalent mutations were 184V and 215E for nrti, 103N and 190A for nnrti. Most mutations associated with PIs were secondary, but significant frequencies were observed in codons 90 (25.2%, 82 (21.1%, and 30 (16.2%. The resistance index to one class of antiretrovirals was 14%, to two classes of antiretrovirals 61%, and to three classes 18.9%. Subtype B was the most prevalent (82.4% followed by subtype F (11.8%. The prevalence of mutations related to nrti and nnrti was the same in the two subtypes, but codon analysis related to PI showed a higher frequency of mutations in codon 63 in subtype B and in codon 36 in subtype F. The present study showed that there was a high frequency of primary mutations, which offered resistance to nrti and nnrti. Monitoring patients with treatment failure is an important tool for aiding physicians in rescue therapy.

  7. Notes on the Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the lagoon region of Cananéia, Brazil

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    V Sadowsky

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Ninety one young specimens and 3 adult females of BulI shark ("cação cabeça chata" caught in the lagoon region of Cananéia were examined, their tooth formula being 27/25 and the number of pre-caudal vertebrae ranging from 109 to 115. The proportion between the 1st and 2nd dorsal fins were found to be 2.3 and 2.8 for the young,and 2.9 to 3.1 for the adults. These data confirm that the studied form belongs to C. leuoas. Young occur regularly but in limited numbers.As regards the adults, however, females only appear during the short parturition period, i.e., from November to February. The number of embryos in the litters were from 7 to 9, their sizes ranging between 768-812 mm. The length of the smallest free young found was 697 mm, but young presumably 9 to 12 months old had 98 to 112 cm; between 21 and 24 months they were reaching 124 to 128 cm, that is, the same size they have when they start migrating to the open sea. The feeding inhibition phenomenon during the period of parturition was not observed in the female specimens caught in the lagoon. The more abundant species found in the stomach contents were: Arius spixii; Chloroscombrus chrysurus; A. grandicassus; A. barbus; Felichtys marinus; Genidens genidens; Chanophorus tajacica and Carcharhinus porosus.Noventa e um espécimes jovens e 3 fêmeas adultas de "cação cabeça chata" capturados na região lagunar de Cananeia foram examinados, constatando-se a fórmula dental 27/25 e número de vértebras pré-caudais entre 109 e 115.Verificouse que as proporções entre a la. nadadeira dorsal e a 2a. foram de 2.3 e 2.8 para os jovens e de 2.9 até 3.1 para os adultos.Ficou assim confirmado que a forma es tudada pertence a C. leuaas. É comum a ocorrência de jovens dentro da região estudada~ no entanto,quanto aos adultos,as fêmeas só são encontradas durante o período de parição, i.é, de novembro a fevereiro. Constatou-se que o número de embriões nas ninhadas foi de 7 a 9 e seus

  8. Feeding of a pelagic chaetognath, Sagitta friderici Ritter-Záhony off Ubatuba region (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Sagitta friderici off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, was studied in March, 1989. Specimens were collected with a closing-net during three days at six hours' intervals (00:00; 06:00; 12:00; 18:00 h, at a fixed station of 38 m depth. The population was composed basically by young stages (O-II. A total of 3175 specimens were examined but only 760 contained preys in their guts. Copepods were the main constituent of food eaten (79.86%. There was a preference for the genera Paracalanus, Oncaea, Corycaeus and for crustacean nauplii. Other zooplanktonic groups such as Annelida, Urochordatha, and Mollusca were also found in the gut. Cannibalistic behavior occurred in 2.66% of the samples. In S. friderici the food was selected by size and was a direct function of the predator size. Younger stages (O-I selected small prey, whereas older stages (II preferred larger preys. Specimens collected above the thermocline exhibited higher feeding intensity (FCR during the night periods.Espécimens de Sagitta friderici foram coletados numa estação fixa de 38 m de profundidade, ao largo de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, em março de 1989. Arrastos verticais, acima e abaixo da termoclina, foram feitos com rede de fechamento (50 cm de diâmetro de boca e malha de 0.200 mm durante três dias consecutivos e em intervalos de seis horas. O estudo de 3175 indivíduos, nos estágios de O-IV, revelou que 2415 apresentaram o trato digestivo vazio e 760 com algum tipo de alimento. Destes últimos, 283 continham material amorfo e os 473 restantes de 1 a 3 presas. Das 488 presas identificadas, 99,74% estavam localizadas na região posterior do trato digestivo e 0,26% na região anterior. A dieta de S. friderici esteve constituída de Crustácea, Annelida, Urochordata, Chaetognatha e Mollusca. Dentre os Crustácea, os Copepoda foram os mais abundantes, predominando os Calanoida e Cyclopoida. O estágio 0 de S. friderici teve preferência pelos náuplios de crust

  9. Medida de la transmitancia del ultravioleta en lentes de contacto

    OpenAIRE

    Sacristán de la Fuente, Iván

    2014-01-01

    El peligro nocivo de la radiación ultravioleta implica también alojo. A pesar de sus medidas de protección, la radiación ultravioleta incide en el ojo. Se ha estudiado la capacidad de algunas lentes de contacto blandas de proteger alojo contra esa radiación y sus efectos nocivos, también la absorbancia de la propia película lagrimal del ojo. El propósito de esta revisión bibliográfica es la de diseñar un banco óptico donde se pueda medir la transmitancia de las lentes de contacto en un ...

  10. Methods and logistics of a multidisciplinary survey of schoolchildren from Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil Métodos y logística de un estudio multidisciplinar con escolares de Pelotas, sur de Brasil Métodos e logística de um estudo multidisciplinar com escolares de Pelotas, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Rodrigues Domingues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods of a multidisciplinary epidemiological survey conducted in schools in Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil. This cross-sectional study evaluated a representative sample (n = 1,211 of eight to 12-year-old children attending public (15 and private (5 schools. Questionnaires were applied to parents to obtain information about socioeconomic and sociocultural characteristics. Children were interviewed to provide information on demographic characteristics, oral health behavior and physical activity habits. Oral health examinations were performed on the children and anthropometric data was collected to assess nutritional status. School principals responded a questionnaire about the social and physical environment of the school. A total of 1,744 children were eligible for the study; a response rate of 69.4% was achieved, with no significant differences between schools. The method used allowed investigators to obtain data on several health outcomes as well as on possible risk factors. This strategy optimizes the use of financial resources for research and promotes interprofessional collaboration.El artículo detalla los métodos de un estudio epidemiológico multidisciplinar llevado a cabo en escuelas en Pelotas, sur de Brasil. El estudio transversal incluyó una muestra representativa (n = 1.211 de niños de 8 a 12 años, en escuelas públicas (15 y privadas (5. Los cuestionarios fueron administrados a los padres para obtener información socioeconómica y cultural. Los niños fueron entrevistados, proporcionando información demográfica, comportamientos de salud bucal y práctica de actividad física. Se realizaron un examen de salud bucal y medidas antropométricas para la evaluación de la condición nutricional. Directores de escuelas proporcionaron información sobre el ambiente físico y social de las escuelas. De los 1.744 niños elegibles, la tasa de respuesta fue de un 69,4% sin diferencias entre escuelas

  11. Geochemistry and isotope evolution of groundwater flow and recharge from the uranium production center in Brazilian semi-arid region (Caetite-BA, Brazil) - Towards sustainability or shortage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The semi-arid region of the Northeast of Brazil is characterized by a lack of superficial waters due to the low pluviometric precipitation and high evaporation rates. Owing to these adverse climatic conditions, intense pressure is being put on the use of groundwater resources. However, there is still insufficient knowledge of the basic aquifers characteristics leading to an over exploitation of the water resources. The prevailance of crystalline rocks is connected to a fracture aquifer type of low productivity, where wells show, generally, yield rates lower than 3 m3·h-1. This work was developed in a semi-arid area located in the center-south region of Bahia State at 900 metres a.s.l., where were discovered several radioactive anomalies by aerogeophysical surveys performed during 70's decade, that allowed to set the uranium province named Lagoa Real. There were performed isotopic and geochemical analysis of groundwater sampled from twenty-five wells placed in crystalline rocks areas (granite or gneiss) covered by short layers of residual soil or alluvial sediments. The samples were analysed in a mass spectrometer for stable isotopic ratios, like δ2H, δ18O, δ13C (per mille VSMOW) and also measured for radiocarbon activity concentration (14C) to calculate the percentage of modern carbon (PMC) by AMS. The values of δ2H and δ18O defined a local evaporation line (LEL) with slope equal to 4.6 against the value of 7.4 for the Local Meteoric Water Line (Salvador station from 1972 to 1976). The radiocarbon ages, corrected by carbonate dissolution (through δ13C and DIC), showed very young waters that were recently recharged, perhaps during the last few years to several months. The supposed old ages for the fractured aquifer are not accomplished by radiocarbon dating, showing it is unconfined with no discharge of old groundwater through deep faults and short residence time. Thus, the groundwater offer for multiple uses (in terms of quantity) seems to be assured if the

  12. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  13. ALGUNOS RESULTADOS INTERESANTES DE LA TEORÍA DE LA MEDIDA

    OpenAIRE

    EDGAR ALIRIO VALENCIA ANGULO; CARLOS ARTURO ESCUDERO; YURI ALEXANDER POVEDA

    2011-01-01

    En este artículo se hace una presentación un poco distinta de algunos resultados de la teoría de la medida. De la misma manera se demuestran un resultado conocido e interesante de la teoría de la medida sobre sucesiones monótonas de conjuntos definidos en una o- álgebra.

  14. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  15. Comparativa y Analisis de Variabilidad Espacial entre las Medidas de Radiacion Solar Terrestres (SIAR) y Satelitales (CMSAF)

    OpenAIRE

    Antoñanzas Torres, Fernando; Cañizares Jover, Federico; Ojeda Fern, Manuel; Morales Cabrera, Rafael; Perpiñan Lamigueiro, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el análisis comparativo de dos fuentes de irradiación solar para el territorio peninsular español, siguiendo la iniciativa de estudios previos para otras regiones. La primera de estas fuentes corresponde a medidas de irradiación global diaria en el plano horizontal realizadas por los piranómetros de la red de estaciones meteorológicas del Sistema de Información Agroclimática del Regadío (SIAR), perteneciente al Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Rural y Marino. Esta ...

  16. Epidemiologia e diferenças regionais da retinopatia diabética em Pernambuco, Brasil Epidemiology and regional differences of diabetic retinopathy in Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Escarião

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os dados de freqüência e estadiamento da retinopatia diabética em Pernambuco, Brasil, comparando a região metropolitana com cidades do interior do estado. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de 2.223 pacientes diabéticos (1.568 mulheres e 655 homens; idade média de 58,4 ± 12,0 anos; duração média do diabetes de 8,1 ± 6,3 anos, que fizeram parte de um programa de triagem para retinopatia diabética na Fundação Altino Ventura entre os meses de junho de 2004 e junho de 2005, foram revistos quanto à presença de retinopatia. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos quanto à origem: grupo I, pacientes residentes em Recife e região metropolitana; grupo II, pacientes residentes no interior do estado de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: No grupo I, 477 (24,2% pacientes apresentavam retinopatia diabética ao passo que no grupo II, 89 (39,4% pacientes (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of diabetic retinopathy among patients cared for in a screening program in Pernambuco, Brazil, comparing regional differences between urban and rural zones. METHODS: The charts of 2,223 diabetic patients (1,568 females and 655 males; mean age 59.3 ± 12.0 years; mean duration of diabetes 8.1 ± 6.3 years that took part in a screening program for diabetic retinopathy at Altino Ventura Foundation from June 2004 to June 2005 were reviewed for the presence of the disease. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, patients living in Recife and the metropolitan area; group II, patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state. RESULTS: In group I, 477 (24.2% patients had diabetic retinophathy, while in group II, 89 (39.4% patients (p<0.0001. The frequency of proliferative diabetic retinophathy, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage and retinal detachment was higher in group II patients (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Patients living in the interior of Pernambuco state have a higher incidence of diabetic retinophathy and the advanced forms than

  17. Maize (Zea Mays L landraces from the southern region of Brazil: contamination by Fusarium sp, zearalenone, physical and mechanical characteristics of the kernels

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    Tatiana Roselena de Oliveira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives the study of the physical and mechanical characteristics of maize kernels in relation to the contamination by Fusarium sp and by zearalenone in twenty landraces of maize from the southern region of Brazil. From the analyzed samples, 60 % has been considered to have a hard endosperm type and 40 % an intermediary one. A correlation between the physical and mechanical variables was observed as an indication that the higher is the proportion of hard endosperm, more dense will be the kernel and more force for its rupture will be necessary. The level of contamination by Fusarium sp was between 5.5 and 24.75% among the analyzed grains, correlating positively with the flotation index, indicating that the landraces of maize with a softer endosperm can present a higher contamination by this genus. The presence of zearalenone was verified in 75 % of the samples, in concentrations varying from 50 to 640 µg kg-1.Este trabalho teve por objetivos verificar as características físicas, mecânicas, contaminação por Fusarium sp e por zearalenona e suas relações, em vinte variedades crioulas de milho da região sul do Brasil. Verificou-se que das amostras analisadas, 60% foram consideradas como possuidoras de endosperma do tipo duro e 40% com endosperma do tipo intermediário. As variáveis físicas e mecânicas se correlacionaram, indicando que quanto maior a proporção de endosperma vítreo, mais denso e maior a força necessária até a ruptura do grão. A contaminação por Fusarium sp esteve entre 5,5% e 24,75% nos grãos analisados, correlacionando-se positivamente com o índice de flotação, indicando que as variedades crioulas de milho com uma maior proporção de endosperma macio podem apresentar uma maior contaminação por Fusarium sp, sugerindo-se a utilização de variedades crioulas com a textura do endosperma predominantemente vítrea. A presença de zearalenona foi verificada em 75% das amostras, em concentra

  18. Tendência temporal e distribuição espacial da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil entre 1979 e 2004: magnitude, padrões regionais e diferenças entre sexos Temporal trend in and spatial distribution of lung cancer mortality in Brazil between 1979 and 2004: magnitude, regional patterns, and gender-related differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Boing

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever a tendência temporal e a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por câncer de traquéia, brônquios e pulmão no Brasil entre 1979 e 2004. MÉTODOS: Os dados de mortalidade segundo o sexo e as regiões geográficas do Brasil foram obtidos junto ao Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade, o qual foi criado pelo Ministério da Saúde em 1975. Os dados populacionais provêm dos censos, da contagem populacional e das estimativas intercensitárias. As taxas de mortalidade foram padronizadas pelo método direto, e as tendências foram analisadas para cada sexo e região utilizando-se o método de Prais-Winsten para regressão linear generalizada. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade por câncer de pulmão correspondeu a aproximadamente 12% da mortalidade geral por neoplasias no Brasil durante o período. A tendência foi de aumento em ambos os sexos e em todas as regiões, exceto na população masculina do sudeste, cujas taxas se mantiveram estáveis entre 1979 e 2004. As maiores taxas foram observadas no sul e no sudeste. Entretanto, a região nordeste foi a que apresentou o maior aumento, seguida pelo centro-oeste e o norte. Em todas as regiões, o incremento nas taxas de mortalidade foi maior entre as mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: O aumento na mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil entre 1979 e 2004 exige medidas públicas que minimizem a exposição aos fatores de risco, sobretudo ao tabaco, e permitam maior acesso aos serviços de saúde para diagnóstico e tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To describe the temporal trend in and spatial distribution of mortality from tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer in Brazil from 1979 to 2004. METHODS: Mortality data by gender and geographic region were obtained from the Mortality Database created by the Ministry of Health in 1975. Demographic data were collected from the national censuses, from population counts, and from population estimates made in non-census years. Mortality rates were standardized

  19. The stratigraphy and regional structure of Miocene deposits in western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), with implications for late Neogene landscape evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, M.C.; Guerrero, J.; Räsänen, M.E.; Romero Pittmann, L.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A biozonation based on molluscs is proposed for Miocene deposits of western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), commonly referred to as the Pebas Formation. The new zonation refines existing pollen zonations and provides a key for the quick assessment of the stratigraphic position of Neogene depos

  20. Epidemiologia das encefalites por arbovírus na amazônia brasileira Epidemiology of encephalitis by arboviruses in the Amazon region of Brazil

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    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revêem os aspectos ecoepidemiológicos apresentados pelos virus da encefalite de St. Louis (SLE, encefalites equinas Leste (EEE, Oeste (WEE e Venezuelana [subtipos III, Mucambo (MUC e IV, Pixuna (PIX], decorrentes dos estudos realizados em diversas áreas da Região Amazônica brasileira, especialmente ao longo das rodovias e projetos de desenvolvimento. Esses vírus são amplamente distribuídos na Amazônia e pelo menos quatro deles, EEE, WEE, MUC e SLE já demonstraram ser patógenos do homem. O diagnóstico da doença humana foi feito por sorologia, sendo que de MUC e SLE obteve-se também isolamento viral. O vírus PIX, parece ser o menos prevalente e foi isolado em poucas oportunidades. Virtualmente se desconhecem os vetores do PIX e WEE. As aves silvestres constituem os hospedeiros principais de todos esses vírus, exceto do MUC, para o qual constituem os roedores. O quadro clínico apresentado pelos pacientes infectados na Amazônia é discutido, comparando-o ao apresentado em outras áreas, especialmente nos EUA, onde periodicamente SLE, EEE e WEE causam surtos de doença humana. Nenhuma epidemia foi até o presente detectada, embora em 1960 uma epizootia em eqüinos causada pelo EEE tenha sido registrada em Bragança, Pará, onde em um rebanho de 500 animais ocorreu uma letalidade de 5%. Quatro outras pequenas epizootias determinadas pelo SLE ocorreram nas florestas adjacentes a Belém, envolvendo aves silvestres e animais sentinelas.An overview of ecological, epidemiological and clinical findings of potential arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses circulating in the Amazon Region of Brazil are discussed. These viruses are the Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE, Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE, St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE, Mucambo (MUC and Pixuna (PIX. These last two are subtypes (HI and IV of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus. The areas of study were the highways and projects of development, as well as places where