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Sample records for brazil quinolinonas isoladas

  1. Identificação molecular e suscetibilidade antifúngica de Candida parapsilosis isoladas no Ceará, Brasil Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis isolates in Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Candida parapsilosis é a segunda ou terceira levedura mais isolada de hemoculturas em várias partes do mundo. É um patógeno comumente isolado no Brasil e no Ceará. Apresenta capacidade de formar biofilmes em cateteres e outros dispositivos médicos e esses fatores contribuem para a disseminação dessa levedura. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e avaliar a suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos de C. parapsilosis isoladas de amostras de sangue e urina de pacientes atendidos em hospitais no Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foram isoladas e identificadas 57 cepas de C. parapsilosis. As cepas foram identificadas por testes fenotípicos e moleculares. A suscetibilidade foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo (protocolo do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] M27-A3. Foram avaliados cinco antifúngicos (anfotericina B, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol e voriconazol. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: As cepas foram identificadas como C. parapsilosis por testes fenotípicos e confirmadas pelos testes moleculares. Quanto ao perfil de sensibilidade, elas se mostraram sensíveis aos antifúngicos testados, sendo a resistência ainda um fenômeno raro entre cepas de C. parapsilosis isoladas no Ceará.INTRODUCTION: C. parapsilosis is the second or third most isolated yeast from blood cultures in various parts of the world. It is a commonly isolated pathogen in Brazil and Ceará. C. parapsilosis is liable to form biofilms on catheters and other medical devices, which contributes to the spread of this yeast. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and assess the antifungal susceptibility of C. parapsilosis isolates from blood and urine samples collected from patients in hospitals in Ceará. METHODS: We isolated and identified 57 strains of C. parapsilosis. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular tests. The susceptibility to antifungals was assessed by broth microdilution (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute

  2. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

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    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  3. Some virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy Alagoas Curassows (Pauxi mitu in Brazil Alguns genes de virulência de Escherichia coli isoladas de mutuns-do-nordeste (Pauxi mitu sadios no Brasil

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    André A.B. Saidenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds of the Cracidae family (curassows, guans, and chachalacas are endemic of the Neotropics and 50 species are currently classified. Brazil has 22 species, seven of which are considered threatened. The Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu species is considered extinct in the wild; but about 120 birds are alive in captivity. Conservation of this species depends entirely on correct management. Health reports of both wildlife and captive curassows are rare. In this study the presence of Escherichia coli was evaluated in 23 healthy Alagoas Curassows from two private breeding centres. E. coli was isolated from cloacal swabs, and the presence of genes encoding cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (cnf1, alpha-haemolysin (hly, aerobactin (iuc, serum resistance (iss and the following adhesions: S fimbriae (sfa, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap and temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh were investigated. E. coli was isolated from 78.3% (18/23 of the birds, and the percentage of curassows colonized by E. coli was similar between the two facilities. From the 22 E. coli isolates, 15 (68.2% were positive for at least one virulence factor by PCR, and the most frequently found gene was iss (50%. No curassows had clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, the presence of some E. coli strains may be a concern to the wildlife in captivity. Additional health surveillance studies are essential to guarantee successful conservation programmes for threatened cracids in Brazil.Aves da família Cracidae (mutuns, jacutingas e aracuãs são endêmicas da região Neotropical com 50 espécies atualmente classificadas. O Brasil possui 22 espécies nesta família e sete delas são consideradas ameaçadas de extinção. O mutum-do-nordeste (Pauxi mitu é considerado extinto na natureza, no entanto, aproximadamente 120 indivíduos são mantidos em cativeiro. A conservação desta espécie depende inteiramente de um manejo correto. Informações sobre o status sanitário de mutuns

  4. The universalization of the electric power services and the isolated communities of Amazon region, Brazil; A universalizacao dos servicos de energia eletrica e as comunidades isoladas da amazonia

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    Andrade, Celia Salama de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of non interconnected systems which composes the Brazilian Electric Power System, the difficulties of rural electrification at the Country, specially in the Amazon region, and the obstacles of Amazon state, Brazil, for transportation energy power to hinterland. The results of Program Light for All are also synthesized in this document, present the profile of communities yet not attended by the Program and will be reached up to the end of the year 2010, at the finalization of the Program.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Listeria monocytogenes é o agente etiológico da listeriose, doença de origem alimentar que acomete principalmente grávidas, pacientes imunodeprimidos e idosos. O tratamento primário é a associação de

  6. Some adhesins of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolated from septicemic poultry in Brazil Algumas adesinas de Escherichia coli aviária (APEC isoladas de aves com colisepticemia no Brasil

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    Terezinha Knöbl

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred and fifty strains of E. coli isolated from septicemic poultry from seven states of Brazil were examined for presence of nine adhesion-encoding genes, hemagglutination and adherence to chicken tracheal cells (in vitro. Analysis of the strains by colony hybridization tests demonstrated that 93.7% of the isolates were fim +, 17% pap+ and 5.7% were sfa+. The mannose sensitive fimbriae occur with similar frequency in APEC isolated from all Brazilians states, while significant differences among pap and sfa genes distributions were observed. The results showed that 0.85% and 0.28% of APEC were positive for genes that encoded enteroaggregative adhesins and EPEC adherence factor, respectively. None of APEC was positive for DA, afa, Bfp and Eae probes. The adherence to chicken tracheal cells showed 96% positive strains, while hemagglutination assays showed 26.5% of the isolates were mannose sensitive and 21.7% were mannose resistant.Trezentas e cinqüenta amostras de E. coli isoladas de aves com septicemia em sete estados do Brasil foram examinadas para a presença de nove genes codificadores de adesinas, hemaglutinação e aderência em células da traquéia (in vitro. A análise das amostras pela hibridização de colônias demonstrou que 93,7% dos isolados eram fim +, 17% pap+ e 5,7% eram sfa+. As fímbrias manose sensíveis apresentaram uma distribuição uniforme em todos os estados do Brasil. No entanto, diferenças significativas na distribuição dos genes pap e sfa foram observadas. Os resultados mostraram que 0,85% e 0,28% das APEC foram positivas para os genes que codificam as adesinas enteroagregativas e o fator de aderência de EPEC, respectivamente. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para as sondas DA, afa, Bfp e Eae. A aderência em células de traquéia de aves revelou 96% de amostras positivas, enquanto os testes de hemaglutinação mostraram 26,5% dos isolados mannose sensíveis e 21,7% manose resistentes.

  7. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae isolated in a public hospital in Brazil Beta-lactamases de espectro estendido em Enterobacteriaceae isoladas de Hospital Público no Brasil

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    Milena Dropa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL in enterobacteria are recognized worldwide as a great hospital problem. In this study, 127 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in one year from inpatients and outpatients at a public teaching hospital at São Paulo, Brazil, were submitted to analysis by PCR with specific primers for blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes. From the 127 isolates, 96 (75.6% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 12 (9.3% Escherichia coli, 8 (6.2% Morganella morganii, 3 (2.3% Proteus mirabilis, 2 (1.6% Klebsiella oxytoca, 2 (1.6% Providencia rettgeri, 2 (1.6% Providencia stuartti, 1 (0.8% Enterobacter aerogenes and 1 (0.8% Enterobacter cloacae were identified as ESBL producers. BlaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were detected in 63%, 17.3% and 33.9% strains, respectively. Pulsed field gel eletrophoresis genotyping of K. pneumoniae revealed four main molecular patterns and 29 unrelated profiles. PCR results showed a high variety of ESBL groups among strains, in nine different species. The results suggest the spread of resistance genes among genetically different strains of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in some hospital wards, and also that some strongly related strains were identified in different hospital wards, suggesting clonal spread in the institutional environment.Beta-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL em enterobactérias são reconhecidas mundialmente como um grande problema hospitalar. Neste estudo, 127 Enterobacteriaceae produtoras de ESBL isoladas por um ano, de pacientes internados e ambulatoriais de um hospital público de ensino em São Paulo, Brasil, foram submetidas à análise pela PCR com iniciadores específicos para os genes blaSHV, blaTEM e blaCTX-M. Dos 127 isolados, 96 (75,6% K. pneumoniae, 12 (9,3% E. coli, 8 (6,2% M. morganii, 3 (2,3% Proteus mirabilis, 2 (1,6% Klebsiella oxytoca, 2 (1,6% Providencia rettgeri, 2 (1,6% Providencia stuartti, 1 (0,8% Enterobacter aerogenes e 1 (0,8% Enterobacter cloacae foram identificados

  8. Caracterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated from South Brazil in the last twenty years by restriction enzyme analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus de Aujeszky isoladas na região Sul do Brasil nos últimos vinte anos através de análise de restrição enzimática

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    Rejane Schaefer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV belongs to Herpesviridae family and is an important etiological agent which infects pigs causing economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide and international trade restrictions to products of swine origin. An eradication program for ADV was established in Santa Catarina State since 2001. The last outbreak was reported in July 2004 and since then none has been reported. The disease has been controlled with the use of a genetic modified vaccine and elimination of seropositives. Aiming the characterization of ADV isolated in the South of Brazil in the last twenty years (1983-2003, a retrospective study based on the genomic analysis of the isolates through a digestion of viral genomic DNA with restriction enzyme Bam HI was done. Thirty-seven ADV samples isolated from swine from the States of Santa Catarina, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. These isolates were compared to the reference strains NIA-4, Bartha and Begonia. The most predominant genomic arrangement was type II found in 33 samples isolated in Santa Catarina State and in one isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State. Genomic arrangement type I, characteristic of vaccine strains was identified in 2 isolates from Parana State and in 1 isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State.O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA pertencente à família Herpesviridae é um importante agente etiológico que infecta suínos causando perdas na produção de suínos no mundo inteiro e restrições para o comércio internacional de suínos ou de seus subprodutos. No estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foi instituído em 2001 um programa de erradicação da doença de Aujeszky (DA. O último surto da DA foi reportado em julho de 2004 e desde então não foram notificados mais casos. A doença tem sido controlada com o uso de uma vacina geneticamente modificada e eliminação de animais soropositivos para o VDA. Visando caracterizar amostras do VDA isoladas nos últimos vinte

  9. Characterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolates from South and Southeast Brazil by RFLP analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas nas regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil por RFLP

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    Rosa Maria Piatti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The genomic DNA of thirty strains of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV isolated in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil from 1982 to 1996 were characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis with BamHI. Twenty seven strains were isolated from pigs, 1 from cattle, 1 from cat and 1 from dog. Using a systematization previously described, the 30 ADV strains could be classified as genomic types I (n = 2 and II (n = 28. Genomic type III was not observed. In this first study of genomic type characterization of brazilian ADV strains, we could demonstrate the occurence in Brazil of the genomic types I and II, with a large predominance of genomic type II.O DNA genômico de 30 amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA, isoladas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil no período de 1982 a 1996, foram caracterizadas por análise do perfil de restrição utilizando a enzima BamHI. Vinte e sete amostras foram isoladas de suínos, uma de bovino, uma de felino e uma de canino. Através de uma sistemática previamente descrita, as 30 amostras de VDA foram classificadas como pertencentes ao tipo genômico I (n = 2 e tipo genômico II (n = 28. O tipo genômico III não foi observado. Neste primeiro estudo de caracterização genômica de isolados de VDA do Brasil, foi possível demonstrar a ocorrência dos tipos genômicos I e II, com marcante predomínio do tipo II.

  10. Molecular analysis of the iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Análise molecular do gene iap de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de queijos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Jozi Fagundes de Mello

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic region sequences in the iap gene were analyzed in 25 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and compared with reference strains. This investigation distinguished two clusters of L. monocytogenes: I (20 strains and II (5 strains.A seqüência da região polimórfica do gene iap foi analisada em 25 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de queijo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e comparadas com cepas referências. Esta investigação distinguiu L. monocytogenes em dois grupos: I (20 cepas e II (5 cepas.

  11. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to vancomycin at a university hospital in southern Brazil Suscetibilidade de amostras de Staphylococcus aureus à vancomicina isoladas em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil

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    Larissa Lutz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibilty of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin was evaluated from impatients at a Brazilian University Hospital by the Etest and a screening method. No vancomycin intermediate (VISA or vancomycin resistant (VRSA S. aureus isolate was identified. Three patients presented as heteroresistant VISA (h-VISA isolates but none of them received vancomycin previously.A suscetibilidade in vitro de Staphylococcus aureus à vancomicina foi avaliada em pacientes internados em um Hospital Universitário Brasileiro pelo Etest e por um método de triagem. Nenhuma amostra de S. aureus resistente (VRSA ou com resistência intermediária (VISA à vancomicina foi isolada. Três pacientes tiveram amostras heteroresistentes VISA (h-VISA, mas nenhum destes recebeu vancomicina previamente.

  12. Molecular subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from different animal species in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Subtipagem molecular de estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isoladas de diferentes espécies animais do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Eliana Scarcelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present trial was to characterize genetically strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from humans and several animal sources (bovines, swine, dogs, primates, wild boars and poultry. A total of 828 different animal samples (feces, carcass, aborted fetus and hysterectomized uterus were analysed by means of routine bacteriological methods, and 36 C. jejuni strains were isolated. Thirty strains of human fecal origin were obtained in clinical analysis laboratories in the city of São Paulo. The 66 C. jejuni strains isolated were submitted to genetic characterization. Primers based on fla A gene were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR and amplified a fragment of the 702 bp. PCR products were evaluated by means of sequencing and genealogic analysis. Genetic variability analysis of 66 strains showed 44 different subtypes of C. jejuni. One subtype was identical to a C. jejuni strain of human origin with the sequence in the GenBank (GENBANK accession number AF050186. Subtyping analysis of C. jejuni strains based on sequencing of the fla A gene variable region and analysis of sequence alignment by the Maximum Parsimony method showed to be highly discriminatory, providing the best conditions to differentiate strains involved in outbreaks from those sporadically isolated. This is the first study of molecular subtyping analysis of human and animal C. jejuni strains using sequencing technique and genealogic analysis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar geneticamente estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isoladas de humanos e de diferentes origens animais (bovinas, suínas, cães, primatas, javalis, suínos e aves de corte. Um total de 828 amostras (fezes, carcaças, fetos abortados e útero histerectomizado foram analisadas por métodos de rotina bacteriológica e 36 estirpes de C. jejuni foram isoladas. Trinta estirpes de origem fecal humana foram obtidas de

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cattle in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa isoladas de leite de bovinos com mastite no Brasil

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    T.R.O. Machado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 109 cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa foi isolado de leite de vacas com mastite clínica e subclínica, em 35 fazendas, situadas em nove estados brasileiros, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2005. Os isolados foram investigados em relação a susceptibilidade in vitro a diversos agentes antimicrobianos. A resistência à penicilina foi a observação mais freqüente (93,5%, seguida por sulfonamida (88,9%, novobiocina (88,6% e ampicilina (85,3%. Todas as cepas examinadas mostraram resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas antimicrobianas testadas. Cepas apresentando resistência múltipla foram extremamente comuns, com 10,0% dos microrganismos isolados apresentando resistência a todas as drogas antimicrobianas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas, isoladas no Brasil, apresentaram um alto grau de resistência a antimicrobianos. Estes resultados são, provavelmente, uma conseqüência da pressão devida ao uso intensivo de drogas antimicrobianas.

  14. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças de uma creche da prefeitura de Fortaleza Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the buccal mucosa of children of a day-care center of the city hall of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As candidíases bucais (também chamadas sapinhos que ocorrem em crianças são causadas por uma deficiência imunológica, bem como por outros fatores tais como má higiene bucal e esterilização inadequada dos utensílios utilizados pelas mesmas, que potencializam a ocorrência dessa infecção fúngica. Considerando esse fato, foram avaliadas a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida sp. isoladas em crianças de uma creche pública (Aprisco na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram coletadas amostras da mucosa bucal de 364 alunos de 1 a 5 anos de idade. Elas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol, incubadas por 72 horas a 37ºC e identificadas por testes micológicos. Verificou-se que 67 (18% apresentaram leveduras do gênero Candida. A Candida albicans foi a mais freqüente, com 30 isolados (45%, seguida pelas C. tropicalis (31%, C. guilliermondii (17%, C. glabrata (4,5% e C. stellatoidea (1,5%. Com relação às atividades enzimáticas das cepas de Candida albicans, 20% produziram a enzima proteinase e 33%, a fosfolipase. As Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças dessa creche da prefeitura apresentaram uma fraca atividade enzimática. Assim, conclui-se que essas cepas parecem ter uma baixa virulência.Immunedefficiency is one of the main causes of buccal candidiasis, also called thrush, in children. Other factors like inadequate mouth hygiene and inappropriate sterilization utensils potentialize this fungal infection. Considering these facts, Candida sp. frequency and enzymatic activity were evaluated in 364 stocks from mouth mucous of one to five year-old children from a public day care center in Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil. The samples were cultured in dextrose Sabouraud with chloranfenicol agar and incubated for 72 hours at 37°C. They were identified by mycological tests. It was verified that 67 samples (18% presented Candida sp. and the most frequent genus was Candida albicans (30

  15. Caracterização antigênica e molecular de oito amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul em 2003 Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003

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    Alessandra D'Ávila da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Aujeszky ou pseudoraiva (DA, causada pelo vírus da pseudoraiva (PRV é a maior preocupação na produção de suínos. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a DA foi somente detectada em 1954, em bovino. Em 2003, ocorreram dois surtos de encefalite em granjas na região norte do estado, fronteira com o estado de Santa Catarina. O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA foi isolado a partir de animais coletados em oito granjas distintas da região e submetido a análises antigênicas e moleculares. As amostras de VDA isoladas foram comparadas com as amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP. A caracterização antigênica dos mesmos foi realizada com testes de imunoperoxidase frente a um painel de anticorpos mono-clonais (Mabs preparado contra epitopos de glicoproteinas virais (gB, gC, gD e gE. A caracterização genômica foi realizada através da análise restrição enzimática (REA sobre o genoma total das amostras, com a enzima de restrição (REA Bam HI. O perfil antigênico das oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul, bem como os apresentados pelas amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP, foram similares. A REA revelou que todos as oito amostras do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram um arranjo genômico do tipo II, genótipo frequentemente encontrado em surtos prévios de DA em outros estados do Brasil. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que as oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul são similares.Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a

  16. Caracterização fenotípica e molecular de amostras de Burkholderia mallei isoladas na Região Nordeste do Brasil Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Burkholderia mallei isolated in northeastern Brazil

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    Karla P.C. Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o estudo bioquímico e molecular de amostras de Burkholderia mallei isoladas de eqüídeos com diagnóstico clínico e sorológico para o mormo e provenientes da Região Metropolitana do Recife-PE e Zona da Mata dos Estados de Alagoas e Pernambuco. Foram realizadas as técnicas microbiológicas para o isolamento e identificação fenotípica de B. mallei e as técnicas moleculares de ribotipagem-PCR e RAPD-PCR. Das oito amostras estudadas, quatro apresentaram pequenas variações fenotípicas. Nas técnicas moleculares, as amostras formaram quatro grupos de diferentes perfis ribotípicos, demonstrando também quatro perfis genotípicos. Houve associação nos resultados da Ribotipagem-PCR e RAPD-PCR. As variações nos perfis ribotípicos e genotípicos foram associadas às diferentes regiões estudadas. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que as pequenas variações bioquímicas não estão associadas aos diferentes perfis moleculares e que essas diferenças demonstram uma heterogeneidade que está associada à procedência das amostras, indicando que a infecção nos animais ocorre por clones diferentes das amostras analisadas.The objective of this paper was to study the molecular performance and phenotypic characterization of Burkholderia mallei isolated from horses with clinical and serological diagnosis of glanders, originating from the Metropolitan District of Recife and Zona da Mata of Pernambuco and Alagoas. The isolation and biochemical identification of B. mallei was carried out by microbiological and molecular techniques of PCR-fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR. From the eight samples studied, four showed little phenotype variations. In the molecular tests, the samples formed 4 groups of different ribotype profiles and 4 genotype profiles. There was some association of PCR-fingerprinting with RAPD-PCR results. It was concluded that the slight biochemical variations were not associated with

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea in Minas Gerais state, Brazil Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Karina Leite Miranda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 25 Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea - 7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni was studied by the disk diffusion method. Eleven antimicrobial agents were tested amikacin, ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin G, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. All Campylobacter sp strains were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin and nitrofurantoin. Three strains were moderately susceptible to kanamycin (2 C. coli and 1 C. fetus. All the strains were resistant to penicillin G. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and 1 C. coli, 9 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to tetracycline and 3 C. coli, 2 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Eleven strains showed multidrug resistance (2 C. coli, 8 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni. There was no correlation between resistance of Campylobacter sp strains to antimicrobials and the occurrence of diarrhea in calves. The frequency of resistance and, most importantly, multi drug resistance found among Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were high and the patterns of resistance observed are related to the antimicrobials agents most largely used in cattle in Brazil.Foi estudado o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de 25 amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia (7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus e 2 C. jejuni. Foram testados pelo método de difusão 11 agentes antimicrobianos: amicacina, ampicilina, canamicina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazole-trimetoprim. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter sp foram susceptíveis a amicacina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina

  18. Metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in hospitals in Recife, PE, Brazil Produção de metalo-beta-lactase de linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas em hospitais do Recife, PE, Brasil

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    Vera Magalhães

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of 24 nosocomial strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Recife, Brazil, 15 (62% were metallo-beta-lactamase producers. Such isolates were resistant to main antipseudomonas drugs, except polymixyn B and aztreonam. The enzyme responsible for the carbapenem-resistance belongs to SPM-1 class, and the gene involved, blaspm-1, is likely plasmid located.De 24 linhagens hospitalares de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes de Recife, Brasil, 15 (62% produziram metalo-beta-lactamase. Tais isolados foram resistentes às principais drogas antipseudomonas, exceto polimixina B e aztreonam. A enzima responsável pela resistência aos carbapanêmicos pertence à classe SPM-1 e o gene envolvido, blaspm-1, provavelmente é plasmidial.

  19. Sustainability as a proposal for deployment of electrical energy in maroon isolated communities in Jalapao - TO, Brazil; Sustentabilidade como proposta para implantacao de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas e quilombolas no Jalapao - TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Santos, Weder Ferreira dos; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo; Nobrega, Silvestre Lopes da [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano], e-mail: wedereira@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays Brazil has many isolated communities. This isolation occurs mainly due to territorial conditions. Besides this aspect, the lack of structure produces another isolation, much more harmful, the social one. To promote social inclusion and sustainable development, some requirements are essential. Amongst all of them, the provision of electricity is the most prominent. This study aimed to provide electricity to an isolated community in Jalapao region, Mateiros city, in the state of Tocantins. It was installed a hybrid aeolian-photovoltaic system, with capacity to produce 9676.80 kWh per year. This electricity system aims to improve the production process, so it was installed at the local community workshop. The results indicate that the system can be sustainable if the community makes use of the whole potential of the electricity generation, using it in the production process. (author)

  20. Variabilidade genética de amostras de Salmonella Typhi isoladas de surto e de casos esporádicos ocorridos em Belém, Brasil Genetic variability of Salmonella Typhi samples isolated from outbreaks and sporadic cases of typhoid fever in Belém, Brazil

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    Flávia Corrêa Bastos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Salmonella Typhi é o agente da febre tifóide (doença caracterizada por febre, cefaléia, mialgia, artralgia, diarréia ou constipação, cujo quadro pode se complicar e levar o paciente a óbito. No Brasil, a febre tifóide é endêmica nas regiões Norte e Nordeste, com surtos ocorridos nos meses de intenso calor. OBJETIVO: Analisar e comparar a variabilidade genética de S. Typhi isoladas de surto e casos esporádicos de febre tifóide ocorridos em determinado período na cidade de Belém (PA. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 20 amostras de S. Typhi: 10 isoladas de um surto ocorrido no bairro do Guamá, Belém, entre os meses de dezembro/2005 e março/2006, e 10 de casos esporádicos ocorridos em diferentes localidades da mesma cidade e no mesmo período do surto. A caracterização genética foi realizada pela análise do perfil de macrorrestrição obtido pela enzima XbaI e definido por eletroforese em gel de campo pulsado (PFGE. RESULTADOS: A análise de XbaI-PFGE das amostras estudadas demonstrou uma similaridade genética de 83% a 100%. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo pôde demonstrar a relação clonal das amostras S. Typhi causadoras de surto e de casos esporádicos de febre tifóide ocorridos na cidade de Belém no período de dezembro/2005 a março/2006.BACKGROUND: Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever, illness characterized by fever, migraine, myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea or constipation, which may have complications and cause death. In Brazil, the typhoid fever is endemic in the Northern and Northeastern regions, with outbreaks occurring in scorching months. OBJECTIVE: To analyse and compare the genetic variability of S. Typhi strains isolated from outbreaks and sporadic cases of typhoid fever occurred in the city of Belém (PA between December 2005 and March 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty samples of S. Typhi were analyzed: 10 of them were isolated from an outbreak occurred in Guam

  1. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Avaliação de amostras de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos de duas áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose visceral no Brasil através da eletroforese de isoenzimas

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    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.INTRODUÇÃO: Cães domésticos são considerados os reservatórios mais importantes no ciclo peridoméstico de transmissão de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. No entanto, a variabilidade genética de sub-populações que circulam neste hospedeiro é ainda pouco explorada no Brasil, sendo tal conhecimento de grande importância no contexto clínico-epidemiológico. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar a variabilidade fenotípica de 153 amostras de L. chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos dos municípios do Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 e Belo Horizonte (n = 96, onde a doença é endêmica. Foram selecionadas somente amostras isoladas de pele íntegra e analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE empregando nove

  2. Phenotypical and genotypical characterization of Bordetella pertussis strains isolated in São Paulo, Brazil, 1988-2002 Caracterização fenotípica e genética de cepas de Bordetella pertussis isoladas em São Paulo, Brasil, 1988-2002

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    Célia R. Gonçalves

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Whooping cough or pertussis was a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the world until the introduction of a whole-cell vaccine in the 1940's. However, since the early 1980's whooping cough cases have increased in many countries, becoming an important problem of public health. This increase may be due to accuracy of laboratory diagnosis and reporting of the disease, a decline in immunity over time, demographic changes, and adaptation of the bacterial population to vaccine-induced immunity. The purpose of this study was to analyze phenotypically and genotypically a collection of 67 Bordetella pertussis isolates recovered during the period 1988-2002 in São Paulo State, Brazil to determine their characteristics and relatedness. All isolates were submitted to susceptibility testing to erythromycin, serotyping, and 56 isolates were analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. All isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and the majority of them belonged to serotype 1,3. The 56 isolates were classified into 11 PFGE profiles according to the differences in banding patterns. Although more than 60% of the isolates were recovered from patients aged less than three months, almost 15% of them were isolated from adolescents/adults evidencing the increase in the incidence of pertussis among this group of age.A coqueluche ou pertussis foi a maior causa de morbidade e mortalidade infantil em todo o mundo até a introdução de uma vacina na década de 1940. Entretanto, desde a década de 1980, a coqueluche tornou-se, em muitos países , um importante problema de saúde pública. Este acontecimento pode ser atribuído à melhoria do diagnóstico laboratorial e da notificação da doença, declínio da imunidade no decorrer do tempo, mudanças demográficas ou adaptação da população bacteriana à imunidade induzida pela vacina. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as características fenotípicas e genotípicas de uma coleção de 67

  3. Phage typing and Multidrug resistance profile in S. Typhimurium isolated from different sources in Brazil from 1999 to 2004 Fagotipagem e Perfil de multirresistência antimicrobiana em S. Typhimurium isoladas de diferentes fontes no Brasil de 1999 a 2004

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    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium has become a widespread cause of salmonellosis among humans and animals worldwide. In Brazil, Salmonella Typhimurium (STM is one of the most prevalent serovars isolated from food for human consumption. The uncontrolled sale and use of antimicrobials in agriculture and for treating human patients contributes to increase multidrug resistance of this serovar. In the present study, a total of 278 STM isolates from different sources and regions of Brazil over the period 1999 to 2004 were phage typed and analyzed for their antimicrobial resistance profile at Laboratory of Enterobacteria, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ. The main STM phage types isolated were DT 193 (64.3%, DT 19 (17.4% and DT 18 (4%. Others phage types as DT 10 (2%, DT 27 (3.24%, DT 13 (0.36%, DT 22 (0.36%, DT 28 (0.36%, DT 29 (0.36% and DT 149 (0.36% were obtained in low percentages. A total of 54% STM strains were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes, while no resistance to third generation cephalosporin or ciprofloxacin was identified in these strains. Those results show the STM phage types circulating among animals, food for human consumption and humans in Brazil as well as the increasing of multidrug resistance. The surveillance of STM strains based on phage typing and antimicrobial resistance profile are useful for detecting outbreaks, identifying sources of infection and implementing prevention and control measures.Salmonella Typhimurium é considerada uma das principais bactérias causadoras de salmonelose nos animais e no homem em todo o mundo. No Brasil, Salmonella Typhimurium é um dos mais prevalentes sorovares isolados de alimentos para consumo humano. O uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em produtos agrícolas e no tratamento de pacientes humanos tem contribuído para aumentar a multirresistência desse sorovar a diversos antimicrobianos. No presente estudo, 278 cepas de STM foram selecionadas de diferentes fontes e regiões do Brasil

  4. Resistência a drogas em cepas de mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de amostras de escarro de pacientes ambulatoriais sintomáticos: Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Drug resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum samples from symptomatic outpatients: Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Joycenea Matsuda Mendes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para descrever a resistência a drogas em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de amostras de escarro de 263 pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose moradores do Complexo de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, as culturas positivas entre outubro de 2000 e dezembro de 2002 foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade para isoniazida, rifampicina, estreptomicina, etionamida e etambutol. Resistência a qualquer das drogas foi encontrada em 21,4% (16/75 dos pacientes diagnosticados com tuberculose. Destes, 50% (8/16 eram casos novos e 50% (8/16 eram casos com tratamento anterior. A tuberculose multirresistente foi encontrada em 10,6% (8/75 do total de pacientes, estando associada a tratamento anterior em 8% (6/75 deles. Nossos resultados podem ter sido subestimados, pois M. tuberculosis não pôde ser isolado em todas as amostras positivas para bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes. Contudo, eles pelo menos revelam parte do problema.This study aimed to assess drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum samples. To that end, sputum samples were collected from 263 patients suspected of having tuberculosis. All subjects lived in the Complexo de Manguinhos, which is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cultures testing positive between October of 2000 and December of 2002 were tested to determine strain susceptibility to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ETHionamide, and ETHambutol. Of the 75 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, resistance to at least one of the drugs was found in 16 (21.4%. Of those 16 patients, 8 (50% were new cases, and 8 (50% had previously been treated. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 8 (10.6% of the 75 patients, being associated with previous treatment in 6 (8%. The incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis might have been underestimated, since M. tuberculosis was not isolated from all of the samples testing positive for acid-fast bacilli. However, at least, our

  5. Sleep characteristics in children in the isolated rural African-Brazilian descendant community of Furnas do Dionísio, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Características do sono da criança na comunidade negra rural isolada de Furnas do Dionísio no Mato Grosso do Sul

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    RUBENS REIMÃO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental and cultural factors affect sleep habits in childhood. The objective of this research was to determine sleep habits of children in the isolated rural African-Brazilian community of Furnas do Dionísio, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The members of this community are closely related descendants of the ex-slave Dionísio, and remained in relative geographical isolation for about a century. Sleep characteristics of 55 children (35M; 20F, 2 to 10 year olds, were evaluated in interviews with their mothers. The results showed that cosleeping, in the same bed with family members, was present in 80.0% of the 2-3 year olds; decreasing to 25.0% of the 8-10 year olds. Only 5.4% of the children slept alone in their own bedroom. Mean number of persons per bedroom was 2.8. Only 7.0% of the bedrooms had TV; 98.1% slept in silence. The data obtained support the need to weigh cultural factors influence on sleep.Hábitos de dormir da criança sofrem influências fisiológicas e culturais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar os hábitos de dormir da criança da comunidade negra rural e isolada de Furnas do Dionísio, no Mato Grosso do Sul. A comunidade é composta dos membros de uma mesma família, descendentes do ex-escravo Dionísio, mantida por cerca de um século em isolamento geográfico relativo. As características de 55 crianças (35 M; 20 F, de 2 a 10 anos de idade, foram pesquisadas através de entrevistas com as mães. Resultou que o hábito de dormir junto (cosleeping estava presente em 80,0 % aos 2-3 anos; reduzindo a 25,0 % aos 8-10 anos. Apenas 5,4% dormiam sozinhas em seu quarto. A média de pessoas por quarto foi 2,8. Apenas 7,0 % dos quartos tinham televisão; 98,1% eram silenciosos. Os resultados apóiam a necessidade de determinar a influência de fatores étnicos no sono.

  6. Sorotipagem de amostras de Streptococcus suis isoladas de suínos em granjas dos Estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná Serotyping of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Paraná, Brazil

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    Keila J.R. Pagnani

    2002-01-01

    -aglutinação, para a sorotipagem das amostras de S. suis. A sorotipagem das 51 amostras isoladas mostraram os seguintes resultados: 30 (58,8% foram classificadas como sorotipo 2, 11 (21,6% das amostras como sorotipo 3, sete (13,72% como sorotipo 7, duas (3,92% como sorotipo 1 e uma amostra como pertencente ao sorotipo14 (1,96%. Este é o primeiro relato do isolamento de um grande número de amostras de S. suis no Brasil, de casos típicos de processos infecciosos causados por esta bactéria. Também foi realizada a sorotipagem dos isolados, mostrando uma alta prevalência do sorotipo 2, quando comparada com a dos demais sorotipos encontrados.Streptococcus suis infection in swine is common in all countries where hog production is well developed. This infection has been associated with bronchopneumonia, meningitis, arthritis, pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, fibrinous polyserositis, septicaemia, rhinitis, and abortion. Streptococcus suis has also been described as a pathogen for ruminants and humans. In Brazil there are several clinical evidences about the existence of S. suis disease in pigs affecting more than 50% of farms in States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná. In the present research 51 strains of S. suis isolated from piggeries of the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná were collected from different pathologies such as septicaemia, meningitis, arthritis and pneumonia and been recovered either in pure culture or as the predominant organism from porcine tissues. Culture of specimens was carried out on 5% bovine blood agar plates incubated at 37°C for 24 hr. For the biochemical identification the a-hemolytic colonies of all capsulated isolates were submitted to various conventional tests, such as hydrolysis of arginine, Voges-Proskauer Test, and production of acid from various carbohydrates (inulin, salicin, trehalose, lactose, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol and glycerol. The strains were also tested for their ability to grow in the presence of 6,5% Na

  7. Diversidade antigênica entre amostras de Arcobacter spp isoladas de suínos no Rio Grande do Sul e presença de anticorpos aglutinantes em amostras de soro de porcas com problemas reprodutivos Antigenic diversity among strains of Arcobacter spp isolated from pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and presence of agglutinin titers in serum samples of sows with reproductive problems

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    Sérgio José de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O teste de aglutinação microscópica, usando a técnica descrita para o diagnóstico de leptospirose, foi utilizado para verificar a antigenicidade de 47 amostras de Arcobacter cryaerophilus e duas amostras de Arcobacter butzleri isoladas de suínos no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em frente a soros hiperimunes produzidos em coelhos a partir de amostras padrões das bactérias. Verificou-se grande heterogeneidade antigênica e apenas quatro amostras provocaram títulos acima de 1.600 com os anti-soros padrões. A classificação genética dos microorganismos foi confirmada no teste em 48,97% dos antígenos. Igualmente, utilizando a técnica de aglutinação microscópica, foram testadas amostras de soro de porcas que apresentaram problemas reprodutivos, procedentes de granjas de onde foram isoladas amostras de Arcobacter spp. Não existe registro anterior na literatura sobre o uso do referido teste em infecções por Arcobacter spp. Os exames sorológicos em fêmeas suínas reprodutoras revelaram títulos de até 1.600, possibilitando indicar que houve a presença de aglutininas para Arcobacter spp.Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT described as a diagnostic test for Leptospirosis was used to check antigenicity on 47 samples of Arcobacter cryaerophilus and two samples of Arcobacter butzleri isolated from pigs in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Rabbit antisera used in the test were produced against reference strains of Arcobacter spp. Antigenic heterogenicity among the samples was shown. Only four samples provoked titres higher than 1.600 with standard antisera. 48.97% of the antigens confirmed the genetic classification of the microrganisms. MAT was used also to identify serum samples from sows with reproductive problems from farms where Arcobacter spp had been isolated. There is no reference in the literature on the use of the test as diagnostic tool in Arcobacter infections. Serologic tests in sows showed titres as high as 1,600, suggesting that

  8. Padrão de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos e perfil plasmidial em Salmonella Muenster isoladas de suínos e do ambiente de abatedouros Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid profile in Salmonella Muenster isolated from swine and abattoir environment, Brazil

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    Norma S. Lázaro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas para a presença de plasmídios 38 amostras de Salmonella Muenster isoladas de suínos e do ambiente de abatedouros localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de março de 1991 a fevereiro de 1992. A seleção das amostras teve como orientação o perfil apresentado frente aos antimicrobianos estreptomicina, tetraciclina, sulfonamida e sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, sendo analisadas 13 cepas resistentes a um ou mais antimicrobianos, 18 com grau intermediário e sete sensíveis. Plasmidios variando em tamanho de 1,2 Kb a 42 Kb foram detectados em 37 (97,36% das 38 amostras, correspondendo a 11 perfis distintos (P1 a P11, variando em número de 1 a 6 plasmidios por modelo. O número e diversidade de plasmidios foi maior que os marcos de resistência por cepa. O plasmidio de 2,85 Kb foi o mais freqüente, estando presente em 83,78% das 37 cepas; somente o de 7,95 Kb foi detectado nos dois abatedouros. Não houve paralelismo entre padrão de resistência e perfil plasmidial, onde um mesmo antibiotipo foi encontrado em vários perfis plasmidiais. Os resultados na presente investigação permitiram concluir que a caracterização de plasmidios constituiu-se uma ferramenta útil e simples no rastreamento epidemiológico deste sorovar.Thirty-eight strains of Salmonella Muenster, isolated from swine and the abattoir environment, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March 1991 to February 1992, were analyzed for the presence of plasmids. The strains were selected according to their profile regarding the antimicrobials: streptomycin, tetracycline, sulphonamide and sulfametoxazole-trimethoprim. Thirteen strains were resistant to one or several antimicrobials, 18 with intermediate degree and seven were sensitive. Plasmids varying in size from 1.2 Kb to 42 Kb were detected in 37 (97.36% of the 38 samples, corresponding to 11 different profiles (P1- P11, varying from 1 to 6 plasmids per model. The number and plasmids diversity

  9. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  10. Caracterização fenotípica pelo antibiograma de cepas de Escherichia coli isoladas de manipuladores, de leite cru e de queijo "Minas Frescal" em um laticínio de Goiás, Brasil Phenotypic characterization by antibiogram of Escherichia coli strains isolated from handlers, raw milk and "Minas Frescal" cheese samples in a dairy process plant in Goiás, Brazil

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    Campos Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar fenotipicamente isolados de Escherichia coli a partir de amostras obtidas de mãos e narizes de manipuladores, de leite cru e de queijo Minas Frescal produzidos em um laticínio em Goiás, Brasil, visando a estabelecer uma relação de contaminação entre o manipulador e/ou a matéria-prima e o produto final. Foram coletadas 24 amostras de leite cru e de queijo Minas Frescal, 46 swabs de mãos e 46 de narizes dos manipuladores envolvidos na fabricação do queijo, no período entre março/2004 e fevereiro/2005. As 69 cepas isoladas foram submetidas ao teste de suscetibilidade a seis antimicrobianos (ampicilina, cefalotina, ciprofloxacina, gentamicina, sulfametoxazol trimetoprin e tetraciclina e, a partir deste teste, foi possível agrupá-las em 17 diferentes perfis fenotípicos (A-Q. Somente um perfil fenotípico (E foi semelhante entre cepas de E. coli isoladas, tanto de amostra de queijo (14Qb como de um dos manipuladores (10M1. Tal resultado sugere uma possível contaminação do produto durante a sua manipulação; portanto, apenas neste caso pôde-se estabelecer a origem da E. coli para o queijo. Nas demais situações, não foi possível determinar a fonte da bactéria para o queijo. Conclui-se que o antibiograma não se mostrou um teste eficiente na determinação da fonte de microrganismos para o produto final.The present work aimed to type E. coli strains obtained from handlers hands and noses, raw milk and Minas Frescal cheese produced by a dairy milk processing plant in Goiás, Brazil in order to establish a contamination relationship between the sources of E. coli and cheese. Twenty-four samples were collected from raw milk and Minas Frescal cheese, 46 from hands and 46 from noses of handlers involved in the cheese manufacturing, between March/2004 and February/2005. All 69 E. coli strains isolated were submitted to the susceptibility test for six antimicrobials (ampicillin, cephalothin

  11. Distribution of virulence markers in clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000 Distribuição dos marcadores de virulência em cepas clínicas e ambientais de Vibrio cholerae não O1/não O139, isoladas no Brasil no período de 1991 a 2000

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    Grace Nazareth Diogo Theophilo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred seventy nine Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains from clinical and different environmental sources isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000 were serogrouped and screened for the presence of four different virulence factors. The Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genetic relatedness among strains. Fifty-four different serogroups were identified and V. cholerae O26 was the most common (7.8%. PCR analysis for three genes (ctxA, zot, ace located of the CTX genetic element and one gene (tcpA located on the VPI pathogenicity island showed that 27 strains harbored one or more of these genes. Eight (4.5% strains possessed the complete set of CTX element genes and all but one of these belonged to the O26 serogroup suggesting that V. cholerae O26 has the potential to be an epidemic strain. The RAPD profiles revealed a wide variability among strains and no genetic correlation was observed.Cento e setenta e nove amostras de V. cholerae não O1/não O139, isoladas de casos clínicos (139 e de meio ambiente (40, no período de 1991 a 2000 no Brasil, foram caracterizadas antigenicamente pelo National Institute of Health (Japão e investigadas quanto ao seu potencial genético de virulência, representado pelos genes ctxA, zot, ace e tcpA. As análises fenotípicas revelaram extraordinária diversidade antigênica, com a ocorrência de 54 diferentes sorogrupos, com prevalência para O26 (7,8%. A técnica de PCR, empregada na detecção dos genes localizados no elemento genético CTX (ctxA, zot, ace e na Ilha de Patogenicidade de Vibrio-VPI (tcpA, possibilitou a identificação de 27 cepas contendo qualquer um desses genes. O gene ctxA (codificador da sub-unidade A de CT, só foi evidenciado no sorogrupo O26, sendo também o único capaz de se apresentar com o cassete de virulência de forma intacta. Com base nos resultados obtidos deste estudo preliminar, admite-se a hipótese da potencialidade destas

  12. Characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi strain isolated from a non-endemic area in Northeast Brazil Caracterização de uma cepa de Trypanosoma cruzi isolada de uma zona não endêmica no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Yara de Miranda Gomes

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A cepa WSL (Wild São Lorenço de T. cruzi, isolada de um cobaio proveniente de São Lorenço da Mata (Nordeste do Brasil foi caracterizada através da análise do seu comportamento morfobiológico e perfil isoenzimático. Para o estudo do comportamento morfobiológico, tripomastigotas sanguíneos (1 x 10 5 da cepa WSL foram inoculados por via intraperitonal em camundongos albinos Swiss. Como controle a cepa Y (Tipo I foi usada. Durante o curso da infecção os seguintes parâmetros foram analisados: parasitemia, mortalidade, morfologia dos parasitas no sangue periférico e tropismo tissular. O perfil isoenzimático foi analisado em relação às enzimas ALAT, GPI e PGM usando como controle de referência as cepas Peruana (Tipo I, 21SF (Tipo II e Colombiana (Tipo III. A cepa WSL apresentou as seguintes características biológicas: 1 multiplicação lenta e pico parasitêmico entre 21 - 25 dias pós-infecção; 2 mortalidade de 3,3% 40 dias pós-infecção; 3 predominância de formas largas no sangue periférico e 4 miotropismo com predominante envolvimento cardíaco. A análise isoenzimática mostrou um padrão de zimodema 2 (Z2 que corresponde às cepas biológicas Tipo II. Os resultados mostram que a cepa WSL apresenta baixa virulência e patogenicidade.

  13. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil

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    Natália da Silva e Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a etiologia da mastite em ovelhas na região nordeste do Pará, além de estabelecer o perfil de sensibilidade das bactérias isoladas frente a antimicrobianos. Foram examinadas 176 ovelhas da raça Santa Inês, em lactação, mantidas em sistema semi-intensivo, pertencentes a sete propriedades especializadas na criação de ovinos. Foi realizado o exame clínico da glândula mamária, o exame macroscópico da secreção láctea por meio do Teste da Caneca Telada, o California Mastitis Test (CMT, o exame microbiológico do leite e o antibiograma. Das 352 metades mamárias estudadas (176 ovelhas, 21 (5,97% apresentaram mastite clínica, 26 (7,39% apresentaram mastite subclínica e 305 (86,64% metades mamárias foram negativas. A maioria dos animais acometidos pela mastite estava no terço médio da lactação, com menor número de crias e maior número de lactações. Na mastite clínica (MC as bactérias isoladas foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (42,9%; Staphylococcus aureus (9,52%; Streptococcus spp. (4,76% e Escherichia coli (4,76%. As associações observadas foram Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus spp. (4,76%; Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo não hemolítica, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo hemolítica e Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo pigmento não hemolítica (4,76%. Já na mastite subclínica (MSC, as bactérias isoladas foram Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo (26,9%; Staphylococcus aureus (15,4%; Streptococcus spp. (7,69%; Escherichia coli (7,69% e Citrobacter freundii (11,5%. A associação observada foi Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo não hemolítica e Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negativo hemolítica (3,85%. Os antimicrobianos com maior eficácia contra os agentes isolados Gram positivos foram penicilina/novobiocina (100%, cefalotina (100% e florfenicol (100% e contra o Citrobacter freundii foram a ampicilina (100% e florfenicol (100%. Já em

  14. Primeiro caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no Estado do Acre (Brasil e sua correlação com as cepas isoladas do caso humano e de triatomíneos silvestres da área The first autochthonous case of American trypanosomiasis in the State of Acre, Brazil, and its correlation with the strains identified in the human case and the sylvatic triatomines in the area

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    José Maria Soares Barata

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na investigação entorno-epidemiológica realizada no estudo do primeiro caso humano autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no Estado do Acre (Brasil. A investigação demonstrou ausência de domiciliação triatomínea, ficando descartada totalmente a possibilidade de transmissão congênita ou transfusional. Não foi possível verificar se a transmissão foi metaxênica através da invasão domiciliar de barbeiro silvestre, ou se por via digestiva através de alimentos contaminados. Foram isoladas duas cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi, uma do caso humano chamada Acre-Humana (AH e outra de Rhodnius robustus coletados em palmeiras uricuri (Attalea sp nas proximidades da casa, chamada Acre-Silvestre (AS. Ficou comprovada a existência de correlação entre os caracteres morfobiológicos e patogênicos das duas amostras estudadas: mostraram-se patogênicas para camundongos, infectando 100% dos animais, quer com formas metacíclicas de triatomíneos, quer com formas sanguícolas de doadores em fase aguda. A infecção dos camundongos nas duas amostras é grave com curto período pré-patente, parasitemia elevada e taxa de letalidade alta. Em ambas as cepas, em fase aguda, são abundantes ninhos de amastigotas, principalmente no coração e fígado. As amostras AH e AS conferem aos animais que sobrevivem boa resistência contra infecções pela amostra Y. Cultivaram-se facilmente em meios líquidos e semi-sólidos e infectaram experimentalmente seis espécies de triatomíneos. Os resultados comprovam mais uma vez a presença de focos naturais desta parasitose na região.Results of entomological and epidemiological investigations on the first autochthonous human case of American trypanosomiasis in the State of Acre, Brazil are presented. There are no synanthropic triatomine vectors in the area. Possibility of congenital or transfusional transmission is completely excluded. However, it is not possible to establish

  15. Sensibilidade e resistência de amostras de Salmonella Typhimurium isoladas de suínos abatidos no Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil frente aos desinfetantes químicos quaternário de amônio e iodofor Sensitivity and resistance of samples of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated in slaughter swines in the state Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil, front to disinfectants quaternary ammonium and iodophor

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    Luciane Martins Borowsky

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Na prevenção da ocorrência ou na interrupção da evolução de enfermidades infecto-transmissíveis comuns aos animais e aos seres humanos, como é o caso da salmonelose, o uso de um desinfetante capaz de agir sobre o agente causal quando em vida livre, no ambiente, exerce grande importância. No entanto, a resistência microbiana, intrínseca ou adquirida, pode apresentar-se como um limitante no uso deste instrumento sanitário. Objetivando monitorar a sensibilidade da Salmonella Typhimurium, 96 amostras isoladas de suínos abatidos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul,Brasil, foram confrontadas com dois compostos químicos desinfetantes (origem comercial de uso freqüente em ambientes de produção animal e de transformação de seus subprodutos: um quaternário de amônio e o iodofor. Foram usadas as concentrações indicadas pelo fabricante e uma menor para simular possível situação de sub-concentração. O método de verificação foi o de diluição através do teste de suspensão, observando a inativação bacteriana nos tempos de contato 5, 15, 30 e 60 minutos. Como resultados obtidos, todas as amostras foram inativadas quando utilizado o composto quaternário de amônio, em ambas as concentrações. Frente ao iodofor, 4 (quatro amostras mostraram-se resistentes a este composto na concentração indicada e 59 frente à sub-concentração. Conclui-se ser necessário, seja para a eleição ou para o monitoramento da eficácia, o confronto dos desinfetantes/anti-sépticos com bactérias presentes nos ambientes específicos de produção animal ou mesmo nos de transformação de seus subprodutos.For prevention of infectious diseases common to man and animals such as salmonellosis, the successful use of disinfectants is of great importance. However, intrinsic or acquired resistance presented by microorganism against these compounds may constitute a limiting aspect in disinfections protocols. This study was aimed at monitoring the sensitivity

  16. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil Construção e caracterização de uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada no Brasil com uma deleção no gene da glicoproteína E

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    Ana C. Franco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic DNA of wild type BoHV-1 into bovine cells. Isolation of gE deletion mutant was performed by immunoperoxidase staining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. Viral clones were plaque purified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase digestion and Southern blot hybridization. This gE deletion mutant will be evaluated as a vaccinal virus, in order to determine its potential use for a differential vaccine.Este artigo descreve a construção e caracterização de uma amostra de um herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a que apresenta uma deleção na região genômica que codifica a glicoproteína E (gE. A deleção gênica foi induzida através da co-transfecção de um fragmento de deleção, contendo as regiões 5´e 3´flanqueadoras da gE, com o DNA viral intacto de uma amostra viral isolada de um animal que apresentava doença respiratória. O isolamento do vírus gE negativo (gE- foi realizado com auxílio da técnica de imunoperoxidase em que foi utilizado como anticorpo primário um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. O vírus gE- foi purificado e o DNA isolado desta amostra foi examinado através das técnicas de análise por enzimas de restrição e "Southern blot". Esta amostra gE- será avaliada como candidata para compor uma vacina diferencial contra a rinotraqueíte infecciosa dos bovinos.

  17. Biodegradação de fenol por uma nova linhagem de A spergillus sp. isolada de um solo contaminado do sul do Brasil Biodegradation of phenol by a newly Aspergillus sp. strain isolated from a contaminated soil in southern Brazil

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    Cátia Tavares dos Passos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to study the biodegradation of phenol in batch mode by a filamentous fungus isolated from a contaminated site in Southern Brazil. A better performance was obtained by previous adaptation of the microorganism to the toxic chemical. A 2³ experimental design was proposed and it could be observed total phenol degradation in 72 h using 500 mg L-1 glucose, inoculum of 20% and agitation of 200 rpm, resulting a biodegradation rate of 3.76 mg L-1 h-1. In relation to phenol tolerance, Aspergillus sp. LEBM2 was able to consume up to 989 ± 15 mg L-1.

  18. The provision of electricity through a photovoltaic-wind hybrid system in an isolated community in the Jalapao, municipality of Mateiros, state of Tocantins, Brazil; A disponibilizacao de energia eletrica atraves de um sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico em uma comunidade isolada na regiao do Jalapao, municipio de Mateiros, estado do Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski Junior, J.C.; Santos, W.F.; Nobrega, S.L. de; Marcon, R.O. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas. Curso de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: zukowski@uft.edu.br, olavo@ulbra-to.br, silvestre@ulbra-to.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays Brazil has many isolated communities. This isolation occurs mainly due to territorial conditions. Besides this aspect, the lack of structure produces another isolation, much more harmful, the social one. To promote social inclusion and sustainable development, some requirements are essential. Amongst all of them, the provision of electricity is the most prominent. This study aimed to provide electricity to an isolated community in the Jalapao region, Mateiros city, in the state of Tocantins. It was installed a hybrid aeolian-photovoltaic system, with capacity to produce 9676.80 kWh per year. This electricity system aims to improve the production process, so it was installed at the local community workshop. The results indicate that the system can be sustainable if the community makes use of the electricity generation, using it in the production process. (author)

  19. Caracterização de amostras do vírus da raiva, isoladas nas regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com anticorpos monoclonais antilissavírus Antigenic characterization of Brazilian rabies virus isolate North and Central West regions of Brazil with anti-lyssavirus monoclonal antibodies

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    H.B.C.R. Batista

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rabies virus antigenic variants in North and Central West regions of Brazil was studied using 61 rabies viruses isolated from different species: 30 from domestic dogs, 20 from cattle, four from horses, two from cats, one from a human and four from unidentified species. The isolates were submitted to antigenic analyses by indirect immunofluorescence with a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs to lyssavirus antigens. Antigenic analyses revealed consistent differences between isolates whose natural hosts were dogs and those of haematophagous bats, often isolated from cattle. Three out of four isolates from horses and one from a domestic dog showed patterns of reactivity found only in viruses of insectivorous bats, indicating that non-haematophagous bats do play a unique role in the transmission of the virus to other species.

  20. Identificação de Mycobacterium bovis em cepas micobacterianas isoladas espécimes clínicos humanos em um complexo hospitalar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Identification of Mycobacterium bovis among mycobacterial isolates from human clinical specimens at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciana Fonseca Sobral

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre 2005 e 2006, 8.121 espécimes clínicos enviados ao Laboratório de Micobactérias do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho/Instituto de Doenças do Tórax, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, foram inoculados em meio Löwenstein-Jensen contendo glicerol e piruvato. Desses espécimes, 79 isolados de micobactérias tiveram crescimento somente em meio com piruvato, sendo selecionados para a identificação presuntiva de Mycobacterium bovis. Esses isolados foram submetidos à identificação por testes bioquímicos, amplificação por PCR com primers específicos (Rv0577 e Rv1510 e teste de suscetibilidade à pirazinamida. Todas as cepas apresentaram padrões fenotípicos e genotípicos de M. tuberculosis, não sendo detectado M. bovis.In 2005 and 2006, 8,121 clinical specimens submitted to the Mycobacteriology Laboratory of the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital/Thoracic Diseases Institute, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were inoculated on Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing glycerol and pyruvate. There were 79 mycobacteria isolates that presented growth only on pyruvate-containing medium, and those isolates were selected for the presumptive identification of Mycobacterium bovis. The selected isolates were screened with biochemical tests, PCR amplification (with the specific primers Rv0577 and Rv1510, and pyrazinamide susceptibility tests. All of the strains isolated showed specific phenotypical and genotypical patterns characteristic of M. tuberculosis, and no M. bovis strains were detected.

  1. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae Flavanonas isoladas das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth (Boraginaceae

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    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa, coletadas no município de Picuí, PB, Brasil, resultou no isolamento e identificação estrutural da 7,4'-dimetilnarigenina (0,025 g e eriodictiol (0,015 g. Estas duas flavanonas são as primeiras agliconas, desta classe, isoladas no gênero Cordia.

  2. Fatores de virulência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de mastite bovina

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    Ribeiro,M.G.; E.O. Costa; Leite, D.S.; H Langoni; Garino Júnior,F.; Victória,C.; F.J.P. Listoni

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fatores de virulência e do sorotipo O157:H7 em 120 linhagens de Escherichia coli, isoladas de 80 casos de mastite clínica bovina e 40 de mastite subclínica. Verificou-se alfa-hemolisina em oito (6,7%) linhagens, isoladas de cinco casos de mastite clínica e três de mastite subclínica e em nenhuma das estirpes detectou-se enteroemolisina. A presença de sideróforos foi encontrada em 11 (9,2%) linhagens, sete de mastite clínica e quatro de subclínica. Em duas (1,7%) est...

  3. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal

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    Candido Regina Celia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae: estudo das cepas isoladas de liquor Streptococcus pneumoniae: a study of strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid

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    Ataiza C. Vieira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência dos sorotipos capsulares e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, assim como dar suporte à indicação de vacinas disponíveis e ao uso de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram adotadas metodologias padronizadas para identificar, sorotipar e determinar a susceptibilidade à penicilina, cefotaxima e vancomicina. O estudo foi realizado com cepas de pneumococo isoladas de liquor em pacientes atendidos nos hospitais públicos e em três hospitais particulares do Distrito Federal no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2004. A identificação e a determinação de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos foi realizada no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública no Distrito Federal. A sorotipagem foi realizada no Instituto Adolfo Lutz. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas 232 cepas de pneumococo, compreendendo 126 cepas (54,31% de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade dos pacientes variou de 0 a 62 anos, sendo agrupados em faixas etárias de 0 a 5, 6 a 17, 18 a 50 e acima de 50 anos. Identificaram-se 36 sorotipos distintos. Desses destacaram-se oito: 14, 6B, 18C, 5, 19F, 23F, 9V e 6A. O teste de oxacilina caracterizou 67 cepas resistentes à penicilina; dessas, 47 foram confirmadas pelo E teste com resistência de nível intermediário. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência de alto nível. CONCLUSÃO: A resistência do pneumococo à penicilina apresentou um aumento gradativo nos últimos 10 anos no Distrito Federal. Os sorotipos mais isolados na faixa etária de 0 a 5 anos foram também os mais envolvidos na resistência à penicilina, e estão incluídos na vacina 7-valente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of capsular serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as to provide recommendations on the use of available vaccines and antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, standard procedures were followed

  5. Multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a fish market and from fish handlers Multiresistência a antimicrobianos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de uma feira de pescado e de seus manipuladores

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    W.F. Albuquerque

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in fish stalls and in hands and nasal and oral cavities of fish handlers of the Mucuripe Fish Market, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. All S. aureus isolates were resistant to Ampicillin and 44 % were multi-drug resistant.O objetivo da pesquisa foi investigar a presença de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a antibióticos nos boxes de venda de peixe e nas mãos e cavidades nasal e oral de manipuladores de pescado da Feira de Pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, Ceará. Todas as cepas isoladas foram resistentes à ampicilina e 44% apresentaram multiresistência.

  6. Biodegradação do diclosulam por bactérias isoladas de solos cultivados com soja Diclosulam biodegration by bacteria isolated from soybean cultivated soils

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    N.R. Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de degradação do herbicida diclosulam por bactérias. Essas bactérias foram isoladas de solos procedentes de três importantes regiões de cultivo de soja do Brasil, as quais receberam a aplicação do herbicida diclosulam. Os testes foram conduzidos em shaker, sendo utilizado um meio de cultivo sintético. As características avaliadas foram: massa de glicose e diclosulam consumidos, velocidade de degradação do diclosulam e massa celular produzida. Embora todas elas tenham sido capazes de utilizar o diclosulam, os resultados indicaram que Klebsiella sp. foi mais eficiente e promissora para ser utilizada na biorremediação de áreas contaminadas com esse composto.This work aimed to evaluate diclosulam degradation by ten bacteria strains isolated from soils collected from three important soybean cultivation regions in Brazil. The tests were conducted in a shaker using a synthetic medium. The evaluated parameters were: glucose mass and diclosulam consumed, diclosulam degradation rate, and cell mass produced. Although all the 10 bacteria strains could use diclosulam, the results showed that the bacterium strain Klebsiella sp. was the most efficient and promising for bioremediation of diclosulam-contaminated areas.

  7. Atividade antioxidante de xantonas isoladas de espécies de Leiothrix (Eriocaulaceae Antioxidant effects of xanthones isolated from Leiothrix species (Eriocaulaceae

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    L.C. Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Leiothrix (Eriocaulaceae é um gênero exclusivo da América do Sul, com 37 espécies restritas ao Brasil. Leiothrix flavescens (Bong. Ruhland e Leiothrix curvifolia (Bong. Ruhland, são espécies endêmicas em áreas dos Estados de Minas Gerais e Bahia. Existem na literatura poucos estudos químicos e biológicos realizados com espécies desse gênero. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a atividade antioxidante pelo ensaio TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity e de autoxidação, utilizando ácido linoléico, de xantonas isoladas dos extratos etanólicos de L. curvifolia e L. flavescens. As substâncias apresentaram moderada atividade antioxidante, quando comparadas com padrões de quercetina e de BHT (2, 6 - ditercbutil - 4 - metóxifenil.Leiothrix (Eriocaulaceae is an exclusively South American genus of which 37 species are restricted to Brazil. Leiothrix flavescens (Bong. Ruhland and Leiothrix curvifolia (Bong. Ruhland, are species endemic to areas of Minas Gerais and Bahia States. Chemical and biological investigations of this genus are scarse. The objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant effect using TEAC and linoleic acid assays of the xanthones isolated from the ethanolic extract of these species. These substances showed a moderate antioxidant activity when compared to quercetin and to BHT.

  8. Lisotipia Vi e classificação bioquímica de amostras de Salmonella typhi isoladas no Estado da Guanabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Hofer

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Na presente investigação, os autores estudaram a distribuição dos lisótipos Ví, tipos fermentativos e tetrationato-redutase, em 110 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas no período de 1966-1970, no Estado da Guanabara. Para estabelecer uma melhor configuração epidemiológica dos resultados, fez-se a divisão do Estado em seis regiões, respectivamente as zonas Sul, Centro, Norte, da E. F. Central, da E. F. Leopoldina e rural. Obteve-se no cômputo geral, a prevalência dos lisótipos A (59,09%, E 1a (19,09%, T (7,27% e amostras Vi negativas (4,55%. Verificou-se ainda, que cerca de 70,90% das culturas foram classificadas no tipo fermentativo II, segundo esquema de Kristensen e 95,42% das amostras revelaram-se positivas na prova de detecção da tetrationato-redutase.In the present investigation, the authors have studied the distribution of lysotypes, fermentative types and tetrathionate- reductase in 110 strains of Salmonella typhi, isolated from hemocultures during the period 1966-1970, in the State of Guanabara, Brazil. In order to establish a better epidemiological configuration of the results, this study has been divided and effected in the six following regions: south, middle, north at the Central Railway, the Leopoldina Railway and the rural district. As a general outcome a predomination of the lysotypes A, E 1a, T and negative Vi strains has been obtained. It has stil been verified that 70,90% of the cultures were classified fermentative type Ii and that 95,42% of the strains were tetrathionate-reductase positives.

  9. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  10. Energy demand in an isolated community: Arixi/AM, Brazil; Demandas energeticas de uma comunidade isolada - Arixi/AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Elen Jane de Abreu; Barbosa, Sonia Regina da Cal Seixas [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos], e-mail: srcal@unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Isolated energy communities in the Amazon are known by not being integrated to the rest of the net country of generation and distribution of electric energy. Therefore, federal government proposes an equal electric energy distribution for everyone in the country in order to bring social and economic development, mainly to the isolated energy communities. In this context, the isolated Arixi community, a small village in the Amazon, is focus of the project 'Alternative Production Energy from Cell Fuel and Natural Gas in the Amazon State - CELCOMB', a partnership between Federal Amazon University and State University of Campinas, which has the objective of producing alternative energy from cell fuel and natural gas. The objective of this article is to analyze the energy aspects of the isolated community of Arixi in the Amazon, and also get to know its energy demand. To do so, this article is based on a master dissertation and also in community field research. So, despite of the fact that this article is part of a larger project, by analyzing energy data and nowadays demands of the community, we will be able to examine what are the real electric energy requirements of an isolated community in the Amazon. (author)

  11. Tuberculose ileocecal isolada simulando neoplasia maligna e doença de Crohn

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    BROMBERG S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No Brasil, a tuberculose ileocecal isolada, na ausência de tuberculose pulmonar ativa ou cicatrizada, é rara, sendo freqüentemente confundida com neoplasia e a doença de Crohn. MÉTODOS: Os autores apresentam oito doentes com essas características, tratados por cirurgia, em período de 20 anos. A dor abdominal na fossa ilíaca direita foi o principal sintoma (100%, seguido da presença de perda de peso (62,5%, febre, náuseas e vômitos e fadiga em 50% dos doentes. Sete enfermos (87,5% apresentaram massa palpável na fossa ilíaca direita. A duração média dos sintomas foi de 14,7 meses, variando de 5 a 36 meses. Todas as lesões foram detectadas pelo enema opaco e mimetizavam aspecto neoplásico. A colonoscopia foi realizada em três doentes, evidenciando lesões sub-oclusivas da região íleo-cecal em dois; as biópsias foram sugestivas de tuberculose, não sendo possível diferenciá-las da doença de Crohn. RESULTADOS: Seis enfermos com diagnóstico presuntivo de neoplasia foram submetidos a cirurgia eletiva, realizando-se neles a colectomia direita clássica. Os outros dois, com suspeita de tuberculose, foram operados na vigência de obstrução intestinal, sendo submetidos a ressecção limitada (ileocecectomia. O estudo anatomopatológico estabeleceu o diagnóstico final pelo encontro de necrose caseosa e de bacilos álcool ácido-resistentes no intestino ou nos linfonodos. A evolução pós-operatória foi satisfatória, com pequena morbidade resolvida clinicamente. Posteriormente, todos os doentes receberam o esquema tríplice por 12 meses, variando a droga de acordo com a época do tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de rara, a tuberculose hipertrófica ileocecal isolada freqüentemente é confundida com neoplasias e com a doença de Crohn, devendo ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões localizadas no quadrante inferior direito do abdome.

  12. Monoartrite de joelho como manifestação isolada de paracoccidiodomicose

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    Silvestre Marco Túlio Alvarenga

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Artrite como manifestação isolada de paracoccidioidomicose, tem sido raramente descrita na literatura médica. O presente relato, descreve mulher de 46 anos de idade, com monoartrite crônica do joelho em tratamento com anti-inflamatórios não hormonais durante 4 anos, cujo diagnóstico definitivo foi obtido apenas por biópsia da membrana sinovial, que revelou uma inflamação crônica granulomatosa de tipo tuberculóide, com abundantes elementos leveduriformes do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A terapêutica específica (iniciada com ketoconazol e seguida por cotrimoxazol levou à completa recuperação funcional da articulação acometida. Não se detectou a presença de outros sítios acometidos pela doença, apesar da utilização de vários métodos propedêuticos, incluindo tomografia axial computadorizada do tórax e abdome. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade do caso e discutem os possíveis fenômenos fisiopatológicos responsáveis por esta monoartrite fúngica.

  13. Lignina isolada da palha de milho utilizada com indicador em ensaios de digestibilidade: estudo comparativo

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    Saliba E.O.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a lignina isolada da palha de milho (LPM-RM com indicadores utilizados em ensaios de consumo e digestibilidade. Utilizaram-se além da LPM-RM, óxido crômico (Cr2O3, cloreto de itérbio (YbCl3.6H2O, fibra detergente ácido indigestível (FDA - ind, teor de metoxila da lignina (OCH3, lignina Klason (LK e lignina determinada por espectroscopia no infravermelho (LIG-IV. O coeficiente de digestibilidade diferiu apenas entre a metoxila e os demais indicadores. Todos os indicadores foram semelhantes quanto à recuperação fecal, exceto a metoxila que teve baixa recuperação (44,6%. Os dados de digestibilidade obtidos com LIG-IV, Cr2O3 e YbCl3.6H2O foram semelhantes entre si mas diferentes dos demais indicadores (21% superior no caso do Cr2O3 e 24% inferiores no caso da LIG-IV e do itérbio, quando comparados com a coleta total.

  14. Diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial da deficiência isolada do hormônio do crescimento em crianças e adolescentes portadores da mutação no gene do receptor do hormônio liberador do hormônio de crescimento em Itabaianinha, Sergipe Clinical and laboratorial diagnosis isolated deficiency of growth hormone in children and adolescents with mutation in receptor gene of growth hormone-releasing hormone in Itabaianinha, SE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Menezes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em Itabaianinha - Sergipe é encontrado o maior grupo descrito na literatura de habitantes com o fenótipo associado à deficiência isolada do hormônio do crescimento (DIGH em função da mutação IVS1+ 1, G->A no gene do receptor do hormônio liberador do hormônio de crescimento (GHRH. O objetivo do presente trabalho é descrever o fenótipo clínico e laboratorial dos pacientes da cidade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 12 indivíduos com fenótipo clínico de DIGH e 10 voluntários controles sem deficiência de GH, ambos com idade inferior a 20 anos, para estudo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Os portadores de DIGH apresentaram hiporresponsividade ao teste de clonidina e à hipoglicemia insulínica e níveis séricos abaixo dos valores de referência para o fator de crescimento insulina símile I (IGF-I e proteína ligadora do fator de crescimento símile a insulina 3 (IGFBP-3 (6 ±4ng/ml e 510 ± 151ng/ml, respectivamente p INTRODUCTION: In Itabianinha, Sergipe, it was found the largest known population group with an IDGH associated phenotype, related to IVS1+1 mutation, G->A in the gene of GHRH receptor. The aim of the present work is to describe the clinical and laboratorial phenotype of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve young patients, under 20 years old, and 10 volunteer controls without the GH deficiency were selected for a transversal study. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: IDGH individuals presented hyporesponsivity to the clonidine test and to the hypoglycemic insulinic test. Furthermore, they presented low levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 as compared with reference values (6 ± 4ng/ml and 510 ± 151ng/ml, respectively p < 0.01. There were no alterations in the thyroid, adrenal and gonad functions. The sella turcica study was also normal. The patients from Itabaianinha, when compared with other data of patients with GHRH-R mutations, were shorter, and presented characteristic typical facies and

  15. Sorovares e perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos em Salmonella spp. isoladas de produtos de origem suína

    OpenAIRE

    A.L. Lima; RODRIGUES, D. P.; Araújo,M.S.; Reis, E. M. F.; M.L. Festivo; Rodrigues,E.C.P.; N.S. Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Foi analisado um total de 1824 cepas de Salmonella, isoladas de alimentos de origem suína, no período de janeiro/2005 a junho/2010. As cepas, provenientes de diferentes regiões do país, foram recebidas pelo Labent/IOC/FIocruz para caracterização antigênica conclusiva. Foram identificados 41 sorovares, destacando-se: Typhimurium, Derby, Enteritidis, Panama, Infantis e Anatum. Aspectos bacteriológicos e epidemiológicos relacionados a esses sorovares foram discutidos. O teste de suscetibilidade ...

  16. Efeito in vitro da josamicina em cepas de rhodocaccus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Filho, Aldo Santana de Carvalho; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Megid, Jane; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Listoni, Fernando José Paganini; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Dias Júnior, Jaime Galvão

    2000-01-01

    Procedeu-se o teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro pelo teste de difusão com discos em 31 cepas de Rhodococcus equi. isoladas de afecções pulmonares cm potros. frente a 20 antimicrobianos. Os maioires índices de sensibilidade de R. equi foram constatados para entromicina (100,0 %), níampicina (96.8 %}t ncomicina (93. 6 %). josamicina (90.4%) e gentamicina (90A %). Os maiores índices de resistência do agente foram verificados para cefalexina (100,0%), lincomicina (100.0%), cefalotina (96...

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes Neto,L.G.; M.R. Souza; Nunes,A.C.; Nicoli,J.R.; W.L.M. Santos

    2005-01-01

    Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (P

  18. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze (Fabaceae) e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae) sobre Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago,G.M.P.; Viana,F.A; Pessoa,O.D.L.; Santos,R.P.; Y.B.M. Pouliquen; Arriaga,A.M.C.; M. Andrade-Neto; Braz-Filho,R.

    2005-01-01

    A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4) isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5) isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL) das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressalt...

  19. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  20. Candiduria in a public hospital of São Paulo (1999-2004: characteristics of the yeast isolates Candiduria em hospital público de São Paulo (1999-2004: características das leveduras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Helena da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 100 yeast isolates, obtained from urine samples provided by a Public Pediatric Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1999 to 2004. The most frequent species was Candida albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. In regard to virulence, 97% of the isolates showed index 3 for proteinase and 63% index 2 for phospholipase. The most frequent killer biotypes were 511 and 888.Estudou-se 100 amostras de leveduras, isoladas de urina, provenientes de Hospital Público Infantil de São Paulo Brasil, no período de 1999-2004. A espécie mais freqüente foi Candida albicans, seguida de C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e C. parapsilosis. Em relação à virulência, 97% dos isolados apresentaram índice 3 para proteinase e, 63% índice 2 para fosfolipase. Os biótipos "killer" mais freqüentes foram o 511 e 888.

  1. Hemólise produzida por Candida tropicalis isoladas de amostras clínicas Hemolysis produced by Candida tropicalis isolates from clinical samples

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    Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são responsáveis pela maioria das infecções fúngicas em humanos. Candida tropicalis tem sido uma das mais comumente isoladas dentre as espécies não-albicans. O objetivo foi analisar a hemólise in vitro promovida por isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis provenientes de sangue e outras amostras clínicas de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário da UEL, PR-Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a hemólise promovida por 28 isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis, sendo os isolados agrupados em classes de acordo com os níveis de hemólise. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados de sangue apresentou hemólise fraca (+, enquanto as classes de hemólise forte (+++ e muito forte (++++ foram as predominantes nos isolados de outras amostras clínicas como urina, lesão de unha e secreção traqueal, embora não tenham sido detectadas diferenças estatísticas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Isolados de C. tropicalis, obtidos de diferentes amostras clínicas, apresentam capacidade de promover hemólise in vitro.INTRODUCTION: Yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are responsible for the majority of fungal infections in humans. Candida tropicalis has been one of most commonly isolated non-albicans species. To analyze in vitro hemolysis promoted by clinical isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from blood and other clinical samples from hospitalized patients at the University Hospital of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The hemolysis promoted by 28 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis was evaluated, and the isolates were grouped into classes according to the hemolysis levels. RESULTS: The majority of the blood isolates showed weak hemolysis (+, while the classes of strong hemolysis (+++ and very strong hemolysis (++++ predominated among isolates from other clinical samples such as urine, nail lesions and tracheal secretions. However, no statistical differences were detected (p> 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Isolates of C

  2. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a mycologic and immunochemical study of a sample isolated from an armadillo (Dasipus novencinctus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: estudo micológico e imunoquímico de amostra isolada de tatu (Dasipus novencinctus

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    Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of P. brasiliensis isolated from the spleen and the liver of an armadillo (Dasipus novencinctus has been analysed under a mycological and immunochemical viewpoint. The armadillo was captured in an area of Tucuruí (State of Pará, Brazil, the animal being already established as an enzootic reservoir of P. brasiliensis at that region of the country. This sample maintained in the fungal collection of the Tropical Medicine Institute of São Paulo (Brazil numbered 135, has got all the characteristics of P. brasiliensis, with a strong antigenic power and low virulence for guinea-pigs and Wistar rats. The specific exoantigen of P. brasiliensis - the glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa - was easily demonstrated with double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and immunobloting techniques.Amostra de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolada de vísceras (baço e fígado de um tatu (Dasipus novencinctus foi estudada do ponto de vista micológico e imunoquímico. O tatu havia sido capturado em área da usina hidroelétrica de Tucuruí (Estado do Pará. Este já havia sido considerado como reservatório enzoótico do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis naquela região. Esta amostra, conservada na Micoteca do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo sob o número 135, apresenta todas as características de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, com elevado poder antigênico e baixa virulência para cobaios e ratos Wistar. A demonstração do exo-antígeno específico do P. brasiliensis, representado pela glicoproteína de peso molecular 43 kDa, foi evidente através das técnicas de Imunodifusão Dupla, Imunoeletroforese, SDS-PAGE e Imunoblotting.

  3. Genes de virulência e diversidade genética em Salmonella spp. isoladas de amostras de origem suína

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moura, M.S; Oliveira, R.P; Melo, R.T; Mendonça, E.P; Fonseca, B.B; Rossi, D.A

    2014-01-01

    .... na cadeia alimentar. Objetivou-se avaliar em 86 cepas de Salmonella spp., isoladas em granja de terminação e no abate de suínos, a ocorrência de três genes de virulência (invA, agfA e lpfA...

  4. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  5. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rogério Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37degreesC por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.

  6. Isolated Richter's syndrome in central nervous system: case report Sindrome de Richter isolada em sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene S.R. Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL, or Richter's syndrome, is a rare and serious complication. Isolated Richter's syndrome in the central nervous system is very rare; only 12 cases have been reported. We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma.Linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em paciente portador de leucemia linfóide crônica (LLC, ou síndrome de Richter, é complicação rara e grave nesta leucemia. Síndrome de Richter isolada no sistema nervoso central é muito rara, tendo sido encontrados apenas 12 casos descritos. Descrevemos paciente de 74 anos, que apresentou linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em região frontal direita, simulando glioblastoma multiforme.

  7. Caracterização funcional das respostas ao hidrocloreto de dopexamina sobre a arteria mesenterica superior isolada de coelhos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Eliezer

    1994-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciencias da Saude Trata-se de um estudo experimental in vitro, no qual a caracterização funcional das respostas ao hidrocloreto de dopexamina sobre anéis de artéria mesentérica superior isolada de coelhos foi analisada. Foram utilizados 22 coelhos adultos Nova Zelândia. Os anéis de artéria mesentéricas inicialmente foram mantidos em equilíbrio numa solução de Krebs-heinseleit por uma hora. Em seguida, solução de pot...

  8. Detecção de metalo-beta-lactamase em Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados em Goiânia, Estado de Goiás Detection of metallo-beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospitalized patients in Goiânia, State of Goiás

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    Diana Christina Pereira Santos Gonçalves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria frequentemente isolada no ambiente hospitalar. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade de Pseudomonas aeruginosa previamente isoladas de pacientes internados em um hospital de Goiânia (Goiás-Brasil; realizar a triagem fenotípica para a produção de metalo-beta-lactamase e detectar os genes das mesmas pela técnica de "Polimerase Chain Reaction". Foram avaliadas 75 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas no período de janeiro de 2005 a janeiro de 2007. A identificação bioquímica foi realizada pelo sistema API 20E® e o antibiograma pelo método de Kirby-Bauer. Entre os 62 isolados que foram resistentes ao imipenem e à ceftazidima, 35 (56,4% apresentaram produção de metalo-beta-lactamase e em 26 (74,3% destes, foi detectado o gene blaSPM-1. A frequência de Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtoras de metalo-beta-lactamase sugere um maior controle da disseminação de resistência no ambiente hospitalar.Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium frequently isolated from hospital environments. This study had the aims of evaluating the susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa previously isolated from patients in a hospital in Goiânia (Goiás, Brazil, performing phenotypic screening for metallo-beta-lactamase production and detecting its genes using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Seventy-five 75 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were evaluated between January 2005 and January 2007. Biochemical identification was performed using the API 20E® system and an antibiogram was produced using the Kirby-Bauer method. Among the 62 isolates that were resistant to imipenem and ceftazidime, 35 (56.4% produced metallo-beta-lactamase, while 26 (74.3% showed the blaSPM-1 gene. The frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produces metallo-beta-lactamase suggests that greater control over the dissemination of resistance in hospital environments is needed.

  9. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates by a multiplex PCR Identificação de colônias isoladas de Mycobacterium bovis por PCR múltipla

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    Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza Figueiredo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolates from suggestive bovine tuberculosis lesions were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR targeting for RvD1Rv2031c and IS6110 sequences, specific for M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex respectively. The m-PCR successfully identified as M. bovis 88.24% of the isolates.Colônias isoladas a partir de lesões sugestivas de tuberculose bovina foram testadas pela reação múltipla em cadeia da polimerase, usando oligonucleotídeos direcionados para as seqüências genômicas RvD1Rv2031c e IS6110, específicas para M. bovis e para o complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectivamente. A m-PCR identificou, com sucesso, 88,24% das colônias isoladas como M. bovis.

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias lácticas isoladas de produtos cárneos frente a Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus

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    Dabés A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available De seis amostras de pernil desossado curado e três amostras de salame tipo italiano artesanal foram isoladas 288 cepas de bactérias lácticas. Pelo teste de inibição direta 59 delas foram capazes de inibir in vitro o desenvolvimento de cepas de Listeria monocytogenes e de Staphylococcus aureus, o que demonstra que produzem compostos inibitórios.

  11. Colonoscopia ou sigmoidoscopia: risco de lesões isoladas no cólon direito Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy: risk of isolated right colon lesions

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    Frank Shigueo NAKAO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Racional — Atualmente existem dúvidas quanto ao método ideal de rastreio e vigilância para o câncer colorretal. A retossigmoidoscopia é preconizada, já que é barata, eficaz e causa pouco desconforto, mas não pode diagnosticar tumores do cólon proximal. Objetivo - Avaliar quantas lesões encontradas no cólon proximal seriam perdidas caso a colonoscopia só fosse empregada em pacientes com lesões detectadas durante sigmoidoscopia. Casuística e Método - Foram revistas as colonoscopias consecutivas com achado de pólipos ou neoplasia, realizadas no Setor de Endoscopia da Disciplina de Gastroenterologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, excluindo pacientes repetidos, operados ou com doença inflamatória intestinal. Resultados - Cento e um exames foram elegíveis, sendo 45 pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade média foi 62 anos (DP ± 13,7 anos. Cento e oito fragmentos foram enviados separadamente para exame anatomopatológico, sendo 38 com suspeita de neoplasia e 70 pólipos. Ao se considerarem apenas os achados no cólon proximal, observou-se o total de 45 lesões, sendo 23 adenomas, 10 adenocarcinomas, 1 linfoma e 11 lesões benignas. Destas lesões, 28 eram isoladas, sendo 16 adenomas, 7 adenocarcinomas. Conclusão — Observaram-se que 23 pacientes (22,77% tinham adenoma ou adenocarcinoma apenas no cólon direito, que não seriam diagnosticados se sigmoidoscopia flexível fosse usada isoladamente.Background — Colorectal cancer is an important cause of death in western countries. Screening methods are based on flexible sigmoidoscopy, a cheap, effective, and less painful procedure, but some important lesions on the right colon can be missed. Aim - Evaluate how many important lesions would be missed if colonoscopy indicated only for patients with distal lesions identified during flexible sigmoidoscopy. Material and Methods - All consecutive colonoscopy performed in the Endoscopy Unit of the Gastroenterology Division of Federal

  12. Fatores de risco na gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada Risk factors in the familial and sporadic developmental stuttering

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    Cristiane Moço Canhetti de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar e comparar os achados dos fatores de risco para a cronicidade da gagueira em crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada. MÉTODOS: participaram 60 crianças de ambos os gêneros, divididas em dois grupos: GI - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial; GII - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental isolada. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio do Protocolo de Risco para a Gagueira do Desenvolvimento - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, que considera os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, gênero, tipo de surgimento e tempo de duração das disfluências, tipologia das disfluências, fatores comunicativos e qualitativos associados, histórico mórbido pré, peri e pós natal, fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio, histórico familial, reação pessoal, familiar e social e atitudes familiares. RESULTADOS: quando o grupo I (GI foi comparado com o grupo II (GII, a única diferença estatisticamente significante foi com relação aos fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados confirmam a natureza complexa da gagueira, bem como a necessidade de se investigar os vários fatores considerados como de risco para o distúrbio, com intuito de melhorar a compreensão de suas possíveis etiologias.PURPOSE: to investigate and compare the risk factors for stuttering between children with familial developmental stuttering and children with sporadic developmental stuttering. METHODS: 60 children of both genders with stuttering took part, divided in two groups: GI - 30 children with familial developmental stuttering; GII - 30 children with sporadic developmental stuttering. Data were gathered through the Protocol of Risk for the Developmental Stuttering - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, which considers the following factors: age; gender; manner of onset and time of duration for the disfluencies; typology of the disfluencies; associated communicative

  13. Pesquisa de fatores de virulência em Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de águas minerais naturais

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    Aline Pereira Pedrosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a formação de biofilme e o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas na avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de 80 amostras de águas minerais naturais comercializadas em garrafões de 20 L. Foi realizada a quantificação de P. aeruginosa e enterococos; a pesquisa de coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerantes e de clostrídios sulfito redutores (CSR. A produção de biofilme de P. aeruginosa foi avaliada em caldo infusão cérebro-coração (BHI e em água mineral natural estéril nas temperaturas de 25 e 35ºC por 24 e 48 h. A avaliação da susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos foi realizada pelo teste de difusão em ágar (Kirby-Bauer. De 80 amostras analisadas, 40 (50% apresentaram qualidade microbiológica insatisfatória segundo a RDC nº275/05. Trinta e oito (47,5% amostras apresentaram P. aeruginosa, nove (11,2% coliformes totais, quatro (5,0% CSR e uma (1,2% coliformes termotolerantes. Nenhuma amostra apresentou contaminação por enterococos. Dezesseis cepas (51,6% de P. aeruginosa foram classificadas como não aderentes ou fracamente aderentes, tanto no BHI quanto na água mineral. Contudo, cinco cepas (16,1% apresentaram-se fortemente aderentes nas duas matrizes, principalmente no caldo BHI e na temperatura de 25ºC. Cepas resistentes ou com resistência intermediária a antibióticos da classe dos aminoglicosídeos e/ou β-lactâmicos foram isoladas neste estudo. Concluiu-se que os isolados de P. aeruginosa foram capazes de produzir biofilme nas matrizes estudadas e apresentaram resistência a antimicrobianos. Metade das amostras apresentou qualidade microbiológica insatisfatória, principalmente devido à contaminação por P. aeruginosa (47,5%.

  14. Viscosimetric measurements of isolated protein of irradiated soy; Medidas viscosimetricas de proteina isolada de soja irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabato, Susy Frey; Mastro, Nelida L. del [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: sfsabato@net.ipen.br; nlmastro@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    The soy is one of the most important cultivating leguminous plant. Its plantation constitutes a millenarian eastern tradition and gradually it becomes prominent in occident. Brazil is the second producer of soy in the world and produces fractions enriched in proteins, called concentrated and isolated. The isolated protein of soy is the most refined in the protein derivatives of soy, more than contends 90% of protein in its composition. The soy has been intensively studied because of its diverse benefits to the human health and its functionality, with several applications as ingredients in gravies, soups, meat products and drinks. In this work the behavior of the viscosity of watery solutions of the isolated protein mixture was verified of soy with glycerol (in ratios 1:1 and 2:1) when irradiated with different doses (0, 5, 15 and 25 kGy) of maser gamma (60 Co). The study was lead without thermal handling to verify only the effect of the irradiation process. (author)

  15. Estudo do comportamento biológico de três amostras de trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de pacientes do instituto "dante pazzanese" de cardiologia

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    Vera Lúcia Pereira

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas três amostras de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de pacientes. As amostras foram observadas sob os seguintes parâmetros: níveis parasitêmicos, morfologia das formas sanguíneas, alterações histopatológicas, virulência e mortalidade em camundongos. A amostra IDPC-1 foi isolada de um paciente naturalmente infectado e tratado com benzonidazol. Provocou baixos índices parasitêmicos e mostrou baixa virulência, sendo que 83,4% dos animais evoluiram para a fase crônica. Os tripomastigotas eram de forma delgada, tornando-se largas ao final da fase aguda. Mostrou-se como miotrópica, pois as reações inflamatórias foram mais evidenciadas em células musculares persistindo ainda na fase crônica. A amostra IDPC-3 foi isolada anteriormente ao tratamento quimioterápico, de um paciente com infecção aguda por via transfusional. Causou altos níveis parasitêmicos e mostrou alta virulência com mortalidade total até o 12.° dia. As formas delgadas foram predominantes e foi caracterizada como retieulotrópica, por apresentar severa inflamação e parasitismo em linfonodos, baço e fígado A amostra IDPC-2 foi isolada de um paciente infectado por via transfusional, após o tratamento com três diferentes esquemas terapêuticos. Apresentou moderada virulência, com mortalidade total até o 17° dia e predominância de formas delgadas em todo decurso da infecção; contudo os índices parasitêmicos foram baixos. Houve uma severa reação inflamatória e parasitismo sistêmicos, porém mais evidenciados em células musculares, mostrando-se como miotrópica. Esta amostra apresentou comportamento biológico similar a IDPC-3, com pequenas divergências como baixos índices parasitêmicos e tendência ao miotropismo. Estes dados sugerem que amostras de T. cruzi isoladas de pacientes considerados fracasso terapêutico apresentam padrões de comportamento biológico similares a outras cepas já estudadas, porém provocam infecção menos

  16. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DE AMOSTRAS DE Salmonella Enteritidis ISOLADAS DE DIFERENTES FONTES ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Salmonella Enteritidis STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

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    Iolanda A. Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Salmonella Enteritidis é descrita em amostras isoladas de galinhas saudáveis e doentes, casos esporádicos de gastrenterite humana relacionadas ao consumo de produtos contendo ovos, carne de frango, ovos bicados, farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura, fezes de suínos e alimentos. No período de 1995 a 1997 foi observado que 72,2% foram sensíveis, enquanto que 9,2% e 17,8% foram resistentes e intermediárias, respectivamente. Constatou-se resistência em 6,2% das isoladas do homem, 5,0% de carnes de frangos, 36,4% de alimentos, 4,2% de galinhas, 23,7% de ovos bicados, 5,7% de farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura e 13,3% de suínos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram elevada proporção de amostras com sensibilidade intermediária (18,1% do total e 100% de sensibilidade a seis princípios. Considerando as amostras resistentes, quinze (57,7% apresentaram resistência única a nove antimicrobianos. Quatro (15,4% (galinhas e ovos bicados apresentaram resistência dupla; resistência tripla foi detectada em uma amostra (3,8%, enquanto que seis (23,1% apresentaram seis perfis de multirresistência, frente a 4-9 drogas, identificados em amostras do homem, alimentos, galinhas e ovos bicados. Embora o índice de resistência aqui descrito possa ser considerado baixo, deve ser destacada a alta frequência de sensibilidade intermediária à tetraciclina, particularmente em amostras associadas a aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos, galinhas, gastrenterite humana, multirresistência a antibióticos.
    Enteritidisin the period from 1995 to 1997 is described in strains isolated from healthy and ill chickens, human sporadic gastrenteritis outbreaks related to egg products consumption, poultry meats, broiler chicken pipped embryos, meat meal/aviculture environment, swine feces and foods (cheese, mayonnaise, cake mass, cake cover and bacon. It was observed that 72.2% were sensitive, whereas 9.2% and 17.8% were

  17. Perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras Campylobacter spp isoladas de diferentes espécies animais em Minas Gerais

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    Cristiane Pinheiro Toscano de Brito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available padrão de sensibilidade de 45 amostras de Campylobacter spp, incluindo 16 amostras de C. jejuni, 8 de C. coli e 21 C. fetus, isoladas de diferentes espécies de animais do Brasil, foi determinado para doze antimicrobianos. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter spp foram sensíveis à gentamicina, sulfadiazina e sulfametoxazol. C. jejuni e C. coli foram também sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, enquanto todas as amostras de C. fetus foram sensíveis à canamicina. Cefoperazona mostrou o maior percentual de resistência entre C. jejuni (68,75%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (31,25%, ampicilina (37,50%, tetraciclina (37,50%, eritromicina (12,50% e canamicina (6,25%. Similarmente, cefoperazona também exibiu o maior percentual de resistência entre as amostras de C. coli (75,00%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (50,00%, tetraciclina (50,00%, eritromicina (37,50%, ampicilina (12,50% e canamicina (12,50%. Entre os isolados de C. fetus, ácido nalidíxico apresentou maior taxa de resistência (85,71%, seguido de cefoperazona (71,43%, tetraciclina (42,86%, ampicilina (19,05%, cloranfenicol (9,52% e eritromicina (4,76%. Assim, os nossos resultados mostraram que a maioria das amostras de Campylobacter spp isolados de animais foram sensíveis à gentamicina, cloranfenicol, canamicina e sulfonamidas. No entanto, uma proporção elevada das amostras apresentou susceptibilidade reduzida ao ácido nalidíxico, ampicilina, cefoperazona e tetraciclina. Além disso, C. coli e C. fetus mostraram uma alta porcentagem de amostras resistentes a múltiplas drogas.

  18. Sorovares de Listeria monocytogenes e espécies relacionadas, isoladas de material clínico humano

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    Hofer Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise fenotípica de 255 amostras do gênero Listeria isoladas de material clínico humano, tanto de indivíduos doentes (220-86,3%, como de aparentemente normais (35-13,7% de várias regiões do país e colecionadas no período de 1969 a 2000, permitiu caracterizar a distribuição de sorovares de Listeria monocytogenes. Nas faixas etárias de 0 a 10 e de 41 a 60 anos, predominaram os isolamentos de líquido cefalorraquidiano sobre os de sangue, incluindo dos transplantados renais. Somente dos hemocultivos foi possível detectar os sete sorovares de Listeria monocytogenes. No cômputo geral, o sorovar 4b foi o mais incidente (154-60,3% secundado por ¹/2 a (74-29% nos três decênios considerados, além de ocorrerem em quase todas as regiões do país. Os dados deste estudo evidenciaram a circulação de L. monocytogenes na espécie humana, provocando quadros graves de meningite e septicemia, bem como, revelando a figura do portador assintomático, razão pela qual são recomendadas novas investigações bacteriológicas, subsidiadas por análises clínico-patológicas e epidemiológicas.

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO BIOQUÍMICA DE AMOSTRAS DE Haemophilus parasuis ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS NA REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar amostras não hemolíticas de bactérias do gênero Haemophilus isoladas de suínos. As bactérias foram isoladas de material clínico de animais com suspeita da doença de Glässer, de leitões aparentemente sadios provenientes de quatro rebanhos com suspeita clínica desta doença e de casos de poliartrites. Além das características culturais e morfotintoriais, foram utilizados os seguintes testes para a identificação: dependência de NAD(fator V, CAMP, produção de hemolisina, indol, urease e catalase, redução do nitrato e produção de ácido dos carboidratos: glicose, sacarose, arabinose e manose. Dezessete dentre 24 amostras foram classificadas como Haemophilus parasuis (dez isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes e sete de leitões normais. Cinco destas amostras foram classificadas nos sorogrupos 2, 4, 7, ND4 e uma foi não tipável. Quatro das 24 amostras apresentaram características do grupo taxonômico C (teste de arabinose positivo e três produziram urease. Os testes realizados não permitiram distinguir as amostras urease positivas do gênero Haemophilus das amostras não hemolíticas de Actinobacilius pleuropneumoniae. Mais de 60% das amostras apresentaram sensibilidade in vitro a: ampicilina, cefalotina, cloranfenicol, danofioxacina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, polimixina B e tetraciclina.

  20. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in the area of Belgrade, Serbia Caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia

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    Elizabeta S. Ristanovic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of the molecular characterization and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated in Serbia. Isolates A1, A2 and M1, from Ixodes ricinus, belong to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, while isolate K1 from Apodemus flavicollis is a mixture of Borrelia afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s.Trata-se do primeiro relato de identificação e caracterização molecular de cepas de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isoladas na região de Belgrado, Sérvia. As cepas A1, A2 e M1, isoladas de Ixodes ricinus, pertencem à Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, enquanto a cepa K1, isolada de Apodemus flavocollis é uma mistura de Borrelia afzelii e B. burgdorferi s.s.

  1. Wind energy as alternative to isolated communities in Northern Brazil; A energia eolica como alternativa para comunidades isoladas na regiao Norte do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.F.; Zukowski Junior, J.C.; Nobrega, S.L. de; Marcon, R.O. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas. Curso de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: zukowski@uft.edu.br, olavo@ulbra-to.br, silvestre@ulbra-to.br

    2009-07-01

    Bring energy to isolated communities is not easy. Among the possibilities there are the sizes of small wind systems. Within the government policy to serve the isolated communities and maroon many alternatives are being tested. The use of wind power in places where there is availability of wind is a very attractive alternative. This paper presents a small central generation of hydropower and solar wind, installed in the Boa Esperanca community, with maximum capacity to generate 3kW. The system consists of three turbines of domestic manufacturing, which generate at 48 V. The energy is used in the 'Community Workshop'. The energy in the workshop is available in 220V. The partial results show that the system can be technically and economically viable, or sustainable, provided there is the involvement of the community as a whole in the proper use of energy, maintenance and operation of micro-central generation. (author)

  2. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  3. Power generation in an isolated community in the state of Tocantins, Brazil; Geracao de energia em uma comunidade isolada no estado de Tocantins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Weder Ferreira dos; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil); Sodre, Layanni Ferreira [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil)], E-mails: weder@gmail.com., zukajr@gmail.com.br, Layanni_sd@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims to show a case study of the provision of electricity to an isolated community in the region of Jalapao Good Hope community, municipality of Mateiros, State of Tocantins. It was installed a hybrid wind-photovoltaic system with capacity to generate 9676.80 kWh annually. This energy is intended to improve the production process, for that was installed in the community workshop. Moreover, providing space outside of working hours for social community in the community workshop shed coma availability of firm energy during 24h/day. The results showed that the system can be sustainable provided that the community enjoys the potential to generate energy for the production process. (author)

  4. Diversidade de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolada de plantas de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas no Brasil Diversity of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolated from sugarcane plants cultivated in Brazil

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    Liamara Perin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade da população de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus oriunda de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. de diferentes regiões e bancos de germoplasma. O estudo foi realizado com 123 isolados, obtidos de folhas, colmos e raízes de 80 espécies e híbridos de cana-de-açúcar, procedentes de diferentes países e mantidos em coleções de germoplasma nos Estados da Bahia e Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados cinco isolados obtidos de plantas de café (Coffea arabica, dois de abacaxi (Ananas comosus e um de Pennisetum purpureum e mais 10 estirpes com padrões eletroforéticos distintos, após o uso de enzimas comuns do metabolismo microbiano (MLEE. O agrupamento obtido por meio da técnica de imunoadsorção com enzima acoplada (ELISA sugere que as variações expressas pelos isolados não estão relacionadas com a espécie de planta, a variedade de cana-de-açúcar, a origem geográfica, a parte da planta de onde os isolados foram obtidos e o tempo de amostragem. Altas doses de nitrogênio levaram à diminuição da diversidade de G. diazotrophicus.The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates from different sugarcane (Saccharum spp. varieties. This study was developed using 123 strains from the internal tissues of stems and roots, isolated from 80 species and hybrids of sugarcane, originated from different countries and maintained in two germoplasm collections localized in Bahia and Rio de Janeiro States. Five isolates obtained from coffee plants (Coffea arabica, two from pineapple (Ananas comosus, one from Pennisetum purpureum and 10 strains, which present different electrophoretic patterns, were used in the comparison. Cluster analysis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA results suggested that variations were not correlated with the plant species, sugarcane variety, geographic origin, parts of plants nor with sampling time. High nitrogen doses lowered the diversity of G. diazotrophicus.

  5. Escherichia coli de adesão difusa (DAEC) isoladas de crianças e de adultos constituem duas populações diferentes

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Rosane Mansan

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli de adesão difusa (DAEC) é considerada uma categoria diarreiogênica de E. coli. Essas cepas são identificadas pelo padrão de adesão em cultura de células. A maioria das cepas DAEC possui adesinas da família Afa/Dr. Sua patogenia tem sido muito discutida, embora alguns fatores de virulência já tenham sido propostos. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi comparar cepas DAEC Afa/Dr isoladas de crianças e de adultos, a part...

  6. Resistência de bactérias isoladas de cães e gatos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (2008-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii,Juliana B.; Freitas,Julio C.; Mônica V.B. Arias

    2011-01-01

    Foi determinado o perfil de resistência de bactérias isoladas de diversas afecções em cães e gatos atendidos no Setor de Clinica Cirúrgica de Animais de Companhia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Houve maior frequência de Staphylococcus spp. (27,6%), seguido por Pseudomonas spp. (22,7%) e Escherichia coli (16,6%). Na prova de sensibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão em ágar houve alta porcentagem de resistência das bactérias isoladas aos principais anti...

  7. Pesquisa de antigenos aglutinantes "major" 1, 2 e 3 em cepas de Bordetella pertussis, isoladas de crianças com coqueluche atendidas no Hospital de Isolamento Emílio Ribas de São Paulo, Brasil Determination of 1, 2 and 3 major antigens in Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from Brazilian children with whooping-cough

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    Sebastião Timo Iaria

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 30 cepas de Bordetella pertussis isoladas de crianças com coqueluche, atendidas no Hospital de Isolamento Emílio Ribas de São Paulo, foram pesquisados os antígenos aglutinantes ''major" 1, 2 e 3. Levando-se em conta a presença combinada dos três antígenos, as provas de soro-aglutinação rápida em lamina revelaram que 25 (83,3% cepas possuiam os fatores 1, 2 e 3, enquanto que 3 (10,0% e 2 (6,7% foram positivas, somente, para 1, 2 e 1, 3, respectivamente. Os resultados foram discutidos, considerando-se a importância deste antígeno no preparo de vacinas.The presence of major antigens, 1, 2 and 3 were determined in 30 strains of B. pertussis isolated from children with whooping-cough hospitalized at the Hospital Emílio Ribas, São Paulo Brazil. The method used was the slide-agglutination test. Tests showed that 25(83.3% of strains were positives for factors 1, 2 and 3. Factores 1 and 3 alone were present in 3 (10% of strains and 1 and 2 alone in 2 (6.7%.

  8. Screening of medicinal plants for antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis Screening de plantas medicinais com atividade antimicrobiana contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina

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    Marisa A. N. Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of bovine mastitis. The activity of several extracts from ten medicinal plants traditionally used in Brazil as antiseptic was investigated against fifteen strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals with mastitis manifestation by the disc diffusion method and broth microdilution assay. The interference of the extracts on cell in the form of adherent colonies was also evaluated. MIC values ranged from 0.5 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL and biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC were between 0.25 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL. Results revealed the potential of extracts of Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus and Baccharis dracunculifolia as antibacterial agents against S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis and support the possible use of these phytotherapic agents in the clinical management of the disease.Staphylococcus aureus é o principal agente causador de mastite bovina. A atividade de diversos extratos de dez plantas medicinais tradicionalmente usadas no Brasil como anti-sépticas foi investigada contra quinze cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de animais com manifestação de mastite pelo método de difusão em ágar e ensaio de microdiluição. A interferência dos extratos na célula bacteriana em forma de colônias aderidas também foi avaliada. Os valores de MIC variaram de 0.5 mg/mL a 1.0 mg/mL e a concentração inibitória de biofilme (BIC variou de 0.25 mg/mL a 0.8 mg/mL. Os resultados revelaram o potencial dos extratos de Senna macranthera, Artemisia absinthium, Cymbopogon nardus e Baccharis dracunculifolia como agentes antibacterianos contra cepas de S. aureus isolados de mastite bovina e suportam o possível uso destas plantas no manejo clínico da doença.

  9. Aumento da freqüência de resistência à norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina em bactérias isoladas em uroculturas Increase in the frequency of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance of bacteria isolated from urine culture

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    A.A. Lopes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar mudanças, ao longo dos anos, na freqüência de resistência à norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina em bactérias isoladas de uroculturas. MÉTODOS: Resultados de todas as uroculturas com crescimento bacteriano de pelo menos 10(5 unidades formadoras de colônias por mL de urina (UFC/mL, realizadas no Serviço de Nefrologia da Universidade Federal da Bahia durante o período 1983-1994, foram analisadas. As bactérias incluídas na análise foram aquelas mais freqüentemente isolados: Escherichia coli (n=668, Klebsiella spp. (n=286, Staphylococcus spp. (n=186, Proteus spp. (n=135 e Enterobacter spp. (n=129. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de bactérias resistentes à norfloxacina foi de 3,2%, no período 1983-1986; 5,9%, no período 1987-1990; e 9,1%, no período 1991-1994 (pOBJECTIVE: To assess time trends in the frequency of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance of bacteria isolated from urine culture. METHODS: Results of all urine cultures with a bacterial growth of at least 10(5 colony-forming units per milliter, performed at the Renal Service of the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, from 1983 to 1994 were analyzed. The bacteria considered for this analysis were those most often isolated: Escherichia coli (n=668, Klebsiella spp. (n=286, Staphylococcus spp. (n=186, Proteus spp. (n=135 and Enterobacter spp. (n=129. RESULTS: The frequencies of norfloxacin resistance for the periods 1983-1986, 1987-1990 and 1991-1994 were 3.2%, 5.9% and 9.1%, respectively (p-value<0.05. The most pronounced increases in the frequencies of norfloxacin-resistance were observed for Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. The frequency of ciprofloxacin resistance was 7.4% in the period 1985-1989 and 16.5% in the period 1990-1994 (p-value<0.05. This time trend in ciprofloxacin resistance was more striking for Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. CONCLUSION: The results show a gradual increase in the frequency of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin resistance

  10. O impacto da obesidade isolada na função do ventrículo direito em adultos jovens

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    Abdullah Sokmen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade é um fator de risco independente para as doenças cardiovasculares. Os efeitos da obesidade sobre a estrutura e função do ventriculo esquerdo têm sido relatados, mas, relativamente, pouco se sabe sobre o funcionamento do ventrículo direito (VD na obesidade. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as alterações subclínicas do VD em adultos jovens obesos, porém saudáveis, por ecocardiografia convencional e Doppler tecidual (TDI. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, foram incluídos 35 indivíduos saudáveis de peso normal, com um índice de massa corporal (IMC 35 kg/m2 (grupo III. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a ecocardiografia transtorácica. Além de medidas ecocardiográficas padrão, as velocidades sistólicas de pico do anel tricúspide (Sm, e as velocidado pico diastólico precoce (Em e final (Am, tempo de contração isovolumétrica (TCIm, tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico (TRIm, e o tempo de ejecção (TEm foram obtidos por TDI e o índice de desempenho do miocárdico do VD (IDMm foi calculado. RESULTADOS: No grupo II, a razão Em/Am do VD foi significativamente menor e o TRIm e o IDMm foram significativamente maiores em relação ao grupo I (p < 0,01. A Sm, Em, e a razão Em/Am do VD foram significativamente menores e TRIm e IDMm do VD foram significativamente maiores no grupo III em relação ao grupo II (p < 0,05 para Sm e TRIm do VD e p < 0,01 para os outros parâmetros. A Am do VD diferiu significativamente entre os grupos I e III (p < 0,05. O IMC teve uma correlação negativa significante com a Sm, Em, e a razão Em/Am do VD, mas uma correlação positiva com o IDM do VD (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso estudo mostrou que a obesidade isolada em adultos jovens normotensos foi associada com disfunções subclínicas na estrutura e função do VD.

  11. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  12. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks Resistência antimicrobiana em Campylobacter spp isoladas de frangos de corte

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    Suzete Lora Kuana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH agar (27 samples and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed a 62.5% resistance to at least one drug, especially to enrofloxacin (71%, neomycin (50%, lincomycin (50%, tetracycline (43%, penicillin (42%, ceftiofur (33% amoxicillin (27%, spiramycin (20%, ampicillin (18% and norfloxacin (14%, whereas a lower percentage of strains was resistant to erythromycin (10% and doxycycline (10%. All strains were sensitive to gentamicin and lincomycin-spectinomycin and 80% of them to colistin. These results indicate that it is necessary to reduce the use of antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de 62 amostras de Campylobacter spp. em amostras isoladas de 22 lotes de frango de corte, pelo método de difusão em Agar. As amostras de Campylobacter spp foram isoladas de frangos com idade entre 3 e 5 semanas, isoladas a partir de swabs cloacais, fezes e descarga cecal obtidos nas granjas e de rinsagem de carcaças no abatedouro. Das 62 amostras avaliadas, 27 foram testadas em ágar MH e 35 no ágar MH com TTC. O perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana apresentou 62,5% de resistência para, no mínimo, uma droga, sobretudo para enrofloxacina (71%, neomicina (50%, lincomicina (50%, tetraciclina (43%, penicilina (42%, ceftiofur (33% amoxicilina (27%, espiramicina (20%, ampicilina (18% e norfloxacina (14%, enquanto uma percentagem menor foi observada frente eritromicina (10% e doxiciclina (10%. Todas as amostras foram

  14. Microbiota anaeróbia isolada de bovinos com pododermatite Anaerobic bacterial species isolated from bovines with pododermatitis

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    C.A. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar e identificar espécies bacterianas anaeróbias presentes nos pés de bovinos portadores de vários graus de pododermatite. Foram utilizados 60 bovinos, distribuídos em quatro grupos de 15. O grupo I foi constituído por animais saudáveis e serviu de controle; o grupo II, por bovinos na fase inicial do processo; o grupo III, por animais portadores de pododermatite interdigital vegetativa e o grupo IV, por bovinos portadores de pododermatite necrosante. Foram colhidos fragmentos de tecido interdigital para cultura e as principais espécies bacterianas isoladas foram: Dichelobacter nodosus nos grupos II, III e IV e Fusobacterium necrophorum nos grupos III e IV, com freqüências de 26,7%, 6,7%, 20,0%, 6,7% e de 13,3%, respectivamente. Encontraram-se também Fusobacterium symbiosum em 40,0% no gb>rupo I, 6,7% no grupo II, 13,3% no grupo III e 13,3% no grupo IV, Bacteroides sp. em 6,7% nos grupos I e IV, Bacteroides ruminatus em 33,3% no grupo I, 6,7% no grupo II, 33,3% no grupo III e 13,3% no grupo IV, Bacteroides oralis em 6,7% no grupo III e Fusobacterium mortiferum em 6,7% no grupo IV.The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the anaerobic bacteria species in bovine with different degrees of pododermatitis. Sixty bovines were divided into four groups of 15 as follows: group I included healthy animals, used as control; group II with animals in the initial phase of the process; group III, with animals displaying interdigital skin hyperplasia and group IV with animals with footrot. Interdigital tissue fragments were collected and processed for isolation and identification of anaerobic agents. The bacteria species isolated were: Dichelobacter nodosus in groups II, III and IV and Fusobacterium necrophorum only in groups III and IV, with frequencies of 26.7%, 6.7%, and 20.0% for the former and 6.7% and 13.3% for the latter, respectively. In addition, Fusobacterium symbiosum was present in

  15. Fatores de virulência em linhagens de Escherichia coli isoladas de mastite bovina Virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de fatores de virulência e do sorotipo O157:H7 em 120 linhagens de Escherichia coli, isoladas de 80 casos de mastite clínica bovina e 40 de mastite subclínica. Verificou-se alfa-hemolisina em oito (6,7% linhagens, isoladas de cinco casos de mastite clínica e três de mastite subclínica e em nenhuma das estirpes detectou-se enteroemolisina. A presença de sideróforos foi encontrada em 11 (9,2% linhagens, sete de mastite clínica e quatro de subclínica. Em duas (1,7% estirpes isoladas de mastite subclínica, identificou-se enterotoxina STa. Observou-se efeito citopático em células vero compatível com a produção de verotoxina-VT em cinco (4,2% linhagens, duas de mastite clínica e três subclínicas. Em uma (0,8% linhagem isolada de mastite clínica, detectou-se efeito citopático compatível com o fator necrosante citotóxico. Nenhuma estirpe apresentou-se sorbitol-negativa no MacConkey-sorbitol, tampouco aglutinou com o sorotipo O157:H7. Os antimicrobianos mais efetivos foram polimixina B (97,5% e norfloxacina (95,8%. Observou-se multi-resistência a dois ou mais antimicrobianos em 24 (20% estirpes, principalmente com o uso de ampicilina e ceftiofur.The occurrence of different virulence factors and O157:H7 serotype investigation in 120 Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical (80 cases and subclinical (40 cases bovine mastitis was evaluated. Alpha-haemolysin was detected in 8 (6.7% strains (5 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. None strain showed enterohaemolysin production. E. coli growth under iron restriction conditions (siderophores production was observed in 11 (9.2% strains (7 clinical and 4 subclinical cases. STa enterotoxin was detected in 2 (1.7% strains from subclinical cases. Cytotoxic effect in vero cells compatible with verotoxin-VT production was observed in 5 (4.2% strains (2 clinical and 3 subclinical cases. One strain (0.8% isolated from clinical mastitis showed cytophatic effect in vero

  16. Relação entre leitura de palavras isoladas e compreensão de leitura textual em crianças

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    Corso, Helena Vellinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os inúmeros processos que se inter-relacionam durante a atividade da leitura, o reconhecimento das palavras e a compreensão do que é reconhecido são identificados como fundamentais. Uma das perspectivas expostas na literatura é a de que a fluência na leitura de palavras é condição fundamental para a compreensão da leitura, embora não suficiente, posto que a leitura eficiente de palavras não garante a compreensão de leitura textual. O presente trabalho examinou também a possibilidade inversa, a saber: é possível haver uma boa compreensão textual apesar de fracas habilidades de leitura de palavras? A pesquisa comparou o desempenho de crianças de 2ª série do EF em leitura de palavras isoladas e em compreensão de leitura textual, investigando, assim, as correlações e a possibilidade de dissociações entre estes dois processos. A análise dos dados mostrou uma forte correlação entre as habilidades em questão. Enquanto foi possível verificar a presença de algumas crianças com competência no reconhecimento de palavras e com baixa capacidade de compreensão de texto, os dados não sugerem uma dissociação visível no sentido inverso, ou seja, categorias altas de compreensão de texto apesar de baixos escores em leitura de palavras isoladas. Implicações para intervenção clínica e educacional são discutidas

  17. Luxação aguda isolada da articulação tibiofibular proximal Acute isolated anterolateral dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint

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    Paulo Roberto de Almeida Silvares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A luxação traumática isolada da articulação tibiofibular proximal é rara. Esta lesão pode não ser reconhecida ou diagnosticada no atendimento inicial. A ausência de suspeita clínica pode causar problemas para o diagnóstico. O diagnóstico necessita de história precisa do mecanismo e sintomas da lesão, avaliação clínica e radiográfica adequada de ambos joelhos. Casos não reconhecidos são fonte de alterações crônicas. O tratamento é feito por redução fechada e imobilização ou, em casos irredutíveis ou instáveis, redução aberta com fixação interna temporária. Um caso raro de luxação tibiofibular proximal isolada em um jogador de basquetebol é relatado para ilustrar essa lesão.The isolated traumatic dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is rare. The injury could go unrecognized or be misdiagnosed at the initial presentation. Lack of clinical suspicion can cause diagnostic problems. The diagnosis requires accurate history of the mechanism and symptoms of the injury, and adequate clinical and radiographic evaluation of the both knees. Overlooked injuries are a source of potentially chronic changes. The treatment is closed reduction and immobilization or, in case of a failed or unstable reduction, open reduction with temporary internal fixation. A rare case of acute isolated anterolateral dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint in a basketball player was described to illustrate this injury.

  18. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  19. Infecção experimental de cães com amostras de Babesia canis isoladas em Minas Gerais

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    Bicalho K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate parasitemia and packed cell volume patterns of dogs experimentally inoculated with two isolates of Babesia canis: one from Belo Horizonte (BH and the other from Lavras (Lv, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Both isolates showed similar patterns, with the peak of parasitemia occurring three days post-infection. From the fourth day, parasitemia was detected in low levels (0.01% with small periodical increases. The packed cell volume decreased after the parasitemia beginning, with oscillations during the experimental period. All dogs remained apparently normal, except one, which had been inoculated with the BH isolate and presented classical clinical signs of babesiosis (weakness, anemia, hemoglobinuria and depression. The results suggest that the studied isolates have low pathogenicity, and point to the need for further studies aiming to characterize the subspecies of Brazilian isolates.

  20. Detecção da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico em amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina Detection of toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    H.F.T. Cardoso

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a produção da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (SE A, B, C e D em 127 amostras de S. aureus, isoladas de amostras de leite proveniente de vacas com mastite no Estado de Minas Gerais, entre 1994 e 1997. A verificação da produção de toxinas foi feita pela técnica de sensibilidade ótima em placa. Das 127 amostras testadas, 60 (47% eram produtoras de TSST-1 e 54 (43% produtoras de SE, 38 amostras produziram SED (30%, 24 SEB (19%, 8 SEC (6% e 4 SEA (3%. Estes resultados trazem preocupações quanto à saúde pública pela alta prevalência de amostras de S. aureus produtoras de TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas em isolamentos a partir de leite de vacas com mastite.A total of 127 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C and D. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. The toxins were detected using the optimum-sensitivity plate method. Of 127 isolates, 60 (47% produced TSST-1 and 54 (43% produced SE, 38 (30% produced SED, 24 (19% SEB, 8 (6% SEC and 4 (3% enterotoxin A..

  1. Minimal inhibitory concentration of azithromycin in Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from foals Concentração inibitória mínima da azitromicina em linhagens de Rhodococcus equi isoladas de potros

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC da azitromicina para 42 cepas de Rhodococcus equi isoladas de potros, no Brasil, e em uma cepa-controle, foi avaliado, respectivamente, pelos métodos de difusão com discos e E-test. A azitromicina apresentou 100% de efetividade in vitro para todas as cepas em ambos os testes. As cepas de R. equi apresentaram MIC90 para azitromicina em valores <1.5µg/ml. Este estudo mostra a alta efetividade da azitromicina em linhagens de R. equi isoladas no Brasil, sugerindo o uso dessa droga como alternativa na terapia da rodococose em potros.

  2. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections Teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais

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    Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte Mascaro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 µg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.OBJETIVO: Relatar resultados e avaliar a aplicabilidade do teste de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais oculares. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se teste de suscetibilidade pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, padronizado pelo NCCLS-EUA, em 15 amostras de leveduras de infecções corneanas a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol e ketoconazol. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos episódios de infecção corneal foi causada por Candida albicans. As drogas antifúngicas testadas exibiram valores de concentra

  3. Efeito do uso de efluente doméstico tratado, como meio de cultura, sobre o crescimento e produtividade no cultivo de chlamydomonas sp. Isolada de lixiviado de aterro sanitário

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    Fábio de Farias Neves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available É crescente a aplicação do cultivo de microalgas no campo da Biotecnologia Ambiental, buscando fixação de dióxido de carbono (CO2 e obtenção de energia da biomassa. Entretanto, para essas aplicações se tornarem economicamente viáveis, é necessáriaa adoção de estratégias para baixar o custo de produção de microalgas. A presente pesquisa avaliou o efeito do uso de efluentedoméstico tratado como meio de cultura alternativo de baixo custo sobre o crescimento e a produtividade do cultivo de Chlamydomonas sp. isolada de uma lagoa de tratamento de lixiviados de aterro sanitário, situada na região sul do Brasil. Três tratamentos foram testados: um controle utilizando o meio de cultura sintético TAP, outro com 50% do meio TAP e 50% do efluente e o terceiro com 100% do efluente. Não houve diferença significativa dos parâmetros de crescimento entre os tratamentos, assim como entre a produtividade alcançada nos cultivos com meio TAP e 100% efluente, atingindo valores de massa seca após 10 dias de cultivo de 1,4 ± 0,14g L-1 e 1,3 ± 0,19 g L-1 respectivamente. Já o cultivo em meio TAP com adição de 50% do efluente apresentou a maior produtividade, atingindo um valor de massa seca médio após 10 dias de cultivo de 1,7 ± 0,07 g L-1. Os resultados demonstram que o efluente doméstico tratado tem potencial para ser utilizado como meio de cultura para o cultivo das cepas de Chlamydomonas sp. sem prejudicar o crescimento e a produtividade Abstract Microalgae have been cultured increasingly in order to fix carbon dioxide and produce biofuels from the biomass. However, it is important to develop low cost strategies for microalgae production in order to turn this into a viable alternative of renewable energy. The present investigation studied the effect of treated wastewater used as an alternative culture medium for growth and productivity of a Chlamydomonas sp. strain isolated from landfills leachate of a treatment pond located in

  4. Variabilidades fenotípica e genotípica de estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em casos de mastite subclínica bovina Phenotypic and genotypic variabilities of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Menezes Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas a PCR-Ribotipagem e aos testes de sensibilidade in vitro frente a 12 antimicrobianos 77 estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em amostras de leite procedentes de 40 vacas da raça holandesa que apresentaram mastite subclínica, em uma propriedade rural localizada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos revelaram quatro diferentes padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos, sendo observada a predominância de resistência à lincomicina entre 19 (24,7% estirpes de S.aureus. As 58 (75,3% estirpes restantes foram sensíveis aos 12 antimicrobianos testados. A PCR-ribotipagem revelou a ocorrência de nove padrões genotípicos distintos, além de apresentar uma capacidade discriminatória maior (D = 0,82 que a obtida nos antibiogramas (D = 0,42. Entre as 19 estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos, 14 (73,7% foram agrupadas em três padrões de ribotipagem e, destas, 13 (92,9% apresentaram resistência à eritromicina e à lincomicina, isoladamente ou em associação. O grande número de ribotipos e de padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos observados nesta propriedade demonstrou que há grande heterogeneidade genética em populações naturais de S. aureus, fato este que deve ser levado em consideração em programas de controle da mastite bovina.Seventy-seven S. aureus strains, isolated in milk samples obtained from 40 Holstein cows suffering from subclinical mastitis in a dairy herd in the state of São Paulo - Brazil, were undergone to PCR-ribotyping and in vitro susceptibility testing to 12 antimicrobial drugs. PCR-ribotyping revealed nine different patterns and presented a higher discriminatory power (D = 0.82 in comparison with the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility test (D = 0.42. Moreover,, the results showed four antibiotic resistance patterns, with the resistance to lincomycin being the most predominant and comprising 19 (24.7% S. aureus strains. The other 58 (75.3% isolates were sensitive to all

  5. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio G. Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%, Salmonella enterica (22,6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%, Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%, Salmonella Newport (5,7%, Salmonella Dublin (3,8%, Salmonella Agona (3,8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3,8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1,8% foram os sorotipos encontrados. Ciprofloxacina (100,0%, norfloxacina (100,0% e gentamicina (100,0% foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos, enquanto a maior resistência das linhagens foi observada para ceftiofur (28,5% e florfenicol (7,0%. As linhagens foram isoladas de animais com enterite, infecção do trato urinário, septicemia, piometra, pneumonia e conjuntivite. Ressalta-se para o predomínio do sorovar Typhimurium nas diferentes manifestações da salmonelose nos animais. Destaca-se, também, a identificação de sorotipos nos animais que também são observados em casos de salmonelose em humanosThe serotype characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological findings were evaluated in 53 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from 41 dogs, nine horses and three cattle presenting different clinical manifestations between 1997 at 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45.3%, Salmonella enterica (22.6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7.5%, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12i (5.7%, Salmonella Newport (5.7%, Salmonella Dublin (3.8%, Salmonella Agona (3.8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3.8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1.8% were the more common serotypes. Ciprofloxacin (100.0%, norfloxacin (100.0% and gentamicin (100.0% were more effective drugs while resistance of isolates was observed to ceftiofur (28.5% and florfenicol (7.0%. The strains were isolated from animals with enteritis, urinary tract infections

  6. Efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos da administração epidural de ropivacaína isolada ou associada à morfina, em felinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughlas Regalin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar os efeitos cardiovasculares e analgésicos de dois protocolos epidurais em felinos submetidos à OSH, 16 gatas mestiças, adultas, que, após indução à anestesia geral, receberam anestesia epidural (L7 - S1 com 0,26mL kg-1 de ropivacaína 0,75%, isolada (GR ou associada a 0,1mg kg-1 morfina (GRM. A ETCO2, f, FC, PAS, T°R e relaxamento muscular foram avaliados no momento basal, 30 minutos após epidural, após incisão de pele, ligadura dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, final da celiorrafia e cirurgia, sendo administrado fentanil, caso ocorresse aumento de 20% na PAS, FC ou f em relação ao momento basal. Ao final do procedimento, foram avaliados, com auxílio de uma escala multidimensional de dor aguda em felinos, durante 12 horas, e, quando a pontuação fosse ≥8, era realizado resgate analgésico com morfina 0,2mg kg-1. Não ocorreram diferenças entre ETCO2, f, T°C e relaxamento muscular. A PAS aumentou em ambos os grupos durante o pinçamento dos pedículos ovarianos e cérvix, quando 100% dos animais do GR e 87,5% do GRM necessitaram fentanil transoperatório. Em 100% dos animais do GR, houve necessidade de morfina pós-operatória às 2 e 4 horas de avaliação, comparados com 50% e 37,5% no GRM. Nos momentos seguintes aos resgates, o somatório de pontos foi semelhante entre grupos. Conclui-se que a administração epidural de ropivacaína associada à morfina em gatas submetidas à ovariosalpingohisterectomia reduz o requerimento analgésico pós-operatório em até 56,2%, durante as primeiras 4 horas, e promove analgesia adequada durante 12 horas, quando comparado à ropivacaína isolada

  7. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  8. Caracterização de cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de doentes nos quais foi realizado transplante de coração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Natalia Bustos Lanura

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Três cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi foram, isoladas de pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica, receptores de coração por meio de tra?isplante. Houve caracterização delas através de modelo experimental baseado no emprego de camundongos, com avaliação de parasitismo, mortalidade e intensidade da inflamação no coração, além de análise do grau de parasitismo nesse órgão. Como controle, teve lugar comparação com o comportamento da já bem conhecida cepa Y. Ficaram caracterizadas atuações diferentes das cepas, ao serem valorizados os parâmetros citados, sem correlação rigorosa com as evoluções pós-transplantes, que sofrem a influência de vários fatores, entre os quais podem estar particularidades vinculadas ao parasitismo.

  9. Sorotipos e perfis genéticos de cepas de Bordetella pertussis isoladas na cidade de São Paulo, 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leite

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O conhecimento de Bordetella pertussis circulante na América Latina é limitado. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi usar a técnica da eletroforese em campo pulsado e a sorotipagem para caracterizar cepas de B. pertussis isoladas na cidade de São Paulo (SP. MÉTODOS: Este estudo, conduzido entre 2006 e 2008, analisou 652 swabs de nasofaringe coletados de casos suspeitos e comunicantes de coqueluche, provenientes de 37 hospitais sentinela de São Paulo. Foram realizadas as técnicas da eletroforese em campo pulsado e sorotipagem em 91 (70% cepas de B. pertussis, escolhidas aleatoriamente. RESULTADOS: Noventa e sete por cento das cepas de São Paulo foram sorotipadas como Fim3. Foram identificados 14 perfis genéticos pela eletroforese em campo pulsado; o mais prevalente (57% também é o mais prevalente nos EUA. CONCLUSÕES: Esses dados, em conjunto com ações da vigilância, podem ter um impacto nas estratégias de prevenção e controle de coqueluche na região, oferecendo informações úteis para a introdução de estratégias novas de vacinação e redução do risco de transmissão para bebês menores de 6 meses de idade.

  10. Audiology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Novaes, Beatriz Caiuby; Morata, Thais C

    2008-02-01

    The profession of audiology took root in Brazil nearly a half a century ago and has since blossomed into a flourishing, well-developed field. Currently, audiologists in Brazil work at private institutions, including private medical practices and dedicated speech and hearing clinics. They are also employed in a wide array of public institutions, including community clinics, elementary schools, colleges, and universities. In both the private sector and health clinics, audiologists perform diagnostic evaluations of auditory and vestibular disorders, select and fit hearing aids, and provide aural rehabilitation. At the public level, they assist with workers' health programs, dispense hearing aids, and aural rehabilitation. There is always room to grow, however, and the future of audiology in Brazil holds both challenges and opportunity. The following article will sketch the development of audiology training and practice in Brazil, provide a picture of how the field stands today, and summarize the unique challenges which the profession faces in this large and diverse nation.

  11. Identification of Lactobacillus spp. from broiler litter in Brazil Identificação de Lactobacillus spp. de cama de frango no Brasil

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    Ronaldo S. Paço

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus spp. were identified in 100 broiler litter samples collected from different poultry-rearing regions in Brazil. Ten different Lactobacillus species were identified: L. plantarum, L.casei subsp. pesudoplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. reuteri, L. murinus, L. agilis, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. salivarus subsp. salicinus, L. viridenscens and L. amylophilus.Foram identificadas cepas de Lactobacillus spp. de 100 amostras de camas de frango coletadas de diferentes regiões de produção avícola do Brasil. Foram isoladas dez espécies diferentes de Lactobacillus: L. plantarum, L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. reuteri, L. murinus, L. agilis, L.delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. salivarus subsp. salicinus, L. viridenscens, L. amylophilus.

  12. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  13. Resistência antimicrobiana e perfil plasmidial de Escherichia coli isolada de frangos de corte e poedeiras comerciais no Estado de Pernambuco

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    Mércia R. Barros

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embora existam linhagens de Escherichia coli não patogênicas para aves, muitas outras possuem a capacidade de causar sérios danos à saúde das mesmas, sendo capazes de ocasionar diferentes tipos de processos infecciosos. As linhagens patogênicas são denominadas Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC, possuindo genes relacionados ao processo de patogênese em epissomos (plasmídios ou no cromossomo. A presença de plasmídios, contendo genes de resistência a antibióticos em linhagens aviárias, patogênicas ou não, indicam a possibilidade de transferência gênica lateral entre diferentes tipos de linhagens facilitando também a transferência de genes de patogenicidade ou virulência. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos (13 de diferentes amostras (35 de E. coli isoladas de aves comerciais do Estado de Pernambuco apresentando, ou não, sinais clínicos de processos infecciosos e correlacionar esta resistência com a presença de plasmídios. Os testes utilizados demonstraram que 94,28% dos isolados foram resistentes a três ou mais antibióticos, com a lincomicina apresentando o maior percentual de resistência (100%. Na Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM observou-se multirresistência a vários antimicrobianos. A presença de plasmídios foi detecada em 80,0% (28/35 dos isolados, com 16 isolados apresentando plasmídios com peso molecular aproximado de 88 MDa. Também foi verificada a presença de linhagens apresentando plasmídios de vários tamanhos. Concluiu-se que isolados de E. coli resistentes a antimicrobianos utilizados na avicultura estão presentes no Estado de Pernambuco, tanto em frangos de corte quanto em poedeiras comerciais. A presença de plasmídios detectados na maioria dos isolados pode estar associada à resistência aos antimicrobianos e sugere a presença de possíveis genes relacionados à patogenicidade. Monitorar a resistência a antibióticos em bact

  14. Reparo artroscópico das lesões completas isoladas do subescapular Arthroscopic repair of complete, isolated lesions of the subscapularis tendon

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    Niso Eduardo Balsini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado retrospectivo de 12 pacientes submetidos ao reparo artroscópico de lesões completas isoladas do tendão do subescapular com seguimento mínimo de um ano. MÉTODOS: De 11 de abril de 2002 a 24 de setembro de 2004, realizou-se o reparo artroscópico de lesões completas do manguito rotador em 95 pacientes no Instituto Balsini. Pacientes com subescapular lesado somavam 31; 12 lesões isoladas compunham o grupo de estudo. Foram reavaliados com seguimento mínimo de um ano da cirurgia, considerando grau de elevação anterior ativa, escala da UCLA e satisfação do paciente. RESULTADOS: A elevação anterior ativa pré-operatória atingiu a média de 102º, o grau de elevação anterior ativa pós-operatória obteve a média de 175º. O ganho médio na elevação anterior ativa foi de 73º (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the retrospective result of 12 patients submitted to arthroscopic repair of complete, isolated lesions of the subscapularis tendon with minimum follow-up of one year. METHODS: From April 11, 2002 to September 24, 2004, the authors performed the arthroscopic repair of complete rotator cuff lesions in 95 patients at the Balsini Institute. Patients with lesioned subscapularis amounted to 31, and 12 isolated lesions were included in the study group. They were re-analyzed with a minimum follow-up of one year after surgery to evaluate the degree of active anterior elevation, according to the UCLA scale and to patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Pre-operative active anterior elevation had a mean of 102º, and the degree of active anterior elevation after surgery presented a mean of 175º. The mean gain in active anterior elevation was 73º (p < 0.0001. Preoperative UCLA had a mean of 15.25 score points, and after surgery, a mean of 31.66 score points. The mean UCLA index was 16 score points (p < 0.0001; 10 excellent results, one good, and one poor. Satisfactory results: 10, unsatisfactory: 1. CONCLUSION: 1 The

  15. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  16. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens Sensibilidade antimicrobiana de estirpes de Clostridium perfringens isoladas de aves de corte

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    R. O. S. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1% were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant.Clostridium perfringens é um habitante normal da microbiota intestinal de frangos, sendo um agente potencialmente patogênico, causador de enterite necrótica e colangio-hepatite. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de sete drogas utilizadas na terapêutica, como agentes promotores de crescimento ou na prevenção de coccidiose foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar para 55 estirpes de C. perfringens isoladas do intestino de frangos de corte. Todas as estirpes revelaram alta sensibilidade à penicilina, avilamicina, narasin e monensina, apenas 7,3% demonstraram CIM intermediário para lincomicina e 89.1% foram consideradas sensíveis. Para tetraciclina e bacitracina, 41,8% e 47.3% das amostras, respectivamente, foram consideradas resistentes.

  18. Esclerose sistêmica difusa com hipertensão pulmonar isolada: relato de caso Diffuse systemic sclerosis with isolated pulmonary hypertension: a case report

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    SILMÉIA GARCIA ZANATI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A esclerose sistêmica (ES é uma doença incomum, caracterizada por alterações vasculares e fibrose em pele e vários órgãos. O envolvimento pulmonar é freqüente na ES; entretanto, hipertensão pulmonar (HP na ausência de fibrose intersticial é raramente observada. Os autores descrevem um caso de ES difusa com HP isolada em paciente do sexo feminino, de 49 anos. O diagnóstico de HP pôde ser sugerido pelo exame físico e confirmado por ecodopplercardiograma, que permitiu estimar a pressão sistólica em artéria pulmonar em 80mmHg. Tratamento foi iniciado com nifedipina; entretanto, devido a efeitos colaterais da droga, não foi possível o aumento da dose além de 30mg ao dia; nesta dosagem, a nifedipina não acarretou redução da pressão arterial pulmonar.Systemic sclerosis (SS is an uncommon disease characterized by small blood vessel vasculopathy and increased connective tissue in the skin and in other organs. The pulmonary involvement is common in SS; however, pulmonary hypertension without interstitial fibrosis is rare. The authors present a case of the diffuse form of SS with isolated pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was suggested by physical examination and confirmed by doppler-echocardiography which allowed for the estimation of the pulmonary artery systolic pressure in 80 mmHg. The authors started treatment with nifedipine; however, as the patient presented side effects, it was not possible to increase the dose beyond 30 mg/day. In this dosage, nifedipine did not decrease the pulmonary arterial pressure.

  19. Caracterização de cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de doentes nos quais foi realizado transplante de coração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Natalia Bustos Lanura

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Três cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi foram, isoladas de pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica, receptores de coração por meio de tra?isplante. Houve caracterização delas através de modelo experimental baseado no emprego de camundongos, com avaliação de parasitismo, mortalidade e intensidade da inflamação no coração, além de análise do grau de parasitismo nesse órgão. Como controle, teve lugar comparação com o comportamento da já bem conhecida cepa Y. Ficaram caracterizadas atuações diferentes das cepas, ao serem valorizados os parâmetros citados, sem correlação rigorosa com as evoluções pós-transplantes, que sofrem a influência de vários fatores, entre os quais podem estar particularidades vinculadas ao parasitismo.Three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated from Chagas' disease patients transplanted for heart failure, after cardiac transplantation, and were studied in an experimental model of Chagas' disease, in mice, with evaluation of parasitic load, mortality and extension of inflammatory infiltrates in the heart. These parameters were compared with the standard strain Y. The strains had differences in the studied parameters, but there was no clear relationship between those and post-transplant evolution of the patients. Probably the clinical response is multifactorial and derives only in part from biological characteristics of the infecting T. cruzi strain, as measured in our model.

  20. Prevalência e perfil de sensibilidade de amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de casos clínicos de infecções hospitalares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inez Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou a prevalência e o perfil de sensibilidade de amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de casos clínicos de infecções hospitalares, em um hospital de ensino, Londrina – Paraná, no período de 2004. Foi também comparado os resultados dos testes de susceptibilidade a oxacilina e vancomicina de 74 cepas, obtidos pelo sistema automatizado MicroScan® (Dade Bering, Sacramento, Califórnia, USA, utilizando Painéis MicroScan® PC 12 (Gram Positivo, com os resultados da técnica de diluição em ágar com diferentes concentrações destes antimicrobianos. As informações foram procedentes do banco de dados das infecções hospitalares da Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH. As amostras de S. aureus apresentaram amplo espectro de resistência frente as drogas testadas. A taxa média de prevalência de infecções hospitalares por S. aureus foi de 16,3% e a taxa média de prevalência de amostras oxacilina resistentes foi de 70,75%. Não se detectou amostras resistentes a vancomicina pelos 2 métodos. O método de diluição em ágar confirmou a resistência a oxacilina em 65 das 74 (83,75% e as amostras avaliadas pelo sistema MicroScan® não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes. Para o antimicrobiano vancomicina, houve concordância em 100% entre os dois métodos.

  1. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  2. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  3. Vasculite granulomatosa necrosante isolada de colo uterino associada à infecção por papilomavírus humano Isolated necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the uterine cervix associated with human papillomavirus infection

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    Nilton Salles Rosa Neto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasculites de órgão único, ou isoladas, já foram descritas em diversos órgãos e seu achado pode ser acidental. Relatamos um caso de vasculite granulomatosa necrosante isolada de colo uterino em uma paciente de meia-idade, previamente hígida, sexualmente ativa, e cuja pesquisa de DNA de papilomavírus humano (Human Papiloma Virus - HPV por captura híbrida foi positiva. Não foi identificado comprometimento sistêmico e, como houve excisão completa da lesão, optou-se pelo acompanhamento clínico. Há poucos relatos, na literatura, de acometimento do trato genital feminino de forma isolada, alguns com presença simultânea de lesões que podem ser causadas pelo HPV, postulando-se uma associação patogênica.Single organ vasculitis (SOV, or isolated vasculitis, has been described in several organs and it can be an accidental finding. We report a case of isolated necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the uterine cervix in a middle-aged woman, previously healthy, and sexually active, and whose human papillomavirus (HPV DNA hybrid capture assay was positive. Systemic involvement was not detected and, since the lesion was completely removed, we opted for a clinical follow-up. The literature has very few reports on the isolated involvement of the female genital tract, and some had concomitant lesions that could be caused by the HPV, indicati.

  4. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  5. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L.) e gengibre (Zingiber officinale roscoe) frente a salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado.

    OpenAIRE

    Majolo, Cláudia; Nascimento,Vladimir Pinheiro do; CHAGAS, E. C.; F. C. M. CHAVES

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L.) e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (...

  6. Caracterização genotípica de linhagens de Prototheca zopfii isoladas do leite de vacas e sensibilidade in vitroa antimicrobianos e anti-sépticos

    OpenAIRE

    Salerno,Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, Prototheca zopfii tem sido considerada uma das causas mais importantes de mastite de origem ambiental, refratária a terapia convencional. As infecções mamárias por P. zopfii acarretam alterações na composição do leite e redução na produção leiteira. O presente estudo avaliou a sensibilidade “in vitro” de 27 linhagens de P. zopfii isoladas do leite de vacas no Brasil frente a diferentes antimicrobianos e anti-sépticos, aliado a caracterização genotípica dos isolados. Nistatin...

  7. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  8. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  9. Scientific ballooning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Villela, T.

    We present an overview of the scientific ballooning activities that took place in Brazil over the past 30 years as well as the current ongoing efforts in the area. We also briefly describe the balloon launching facility that exists at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research) — INPE. Up to now, over 100 scientific balloon experiments, related to Astrophysics, Aeronomy, and Geophysics were launched from Brazil taking advantage of the country's continental dimensions, a well-defined rain season, and a low population density, which offer excellent conditions for scientific ballooning activities. Balloons with volumes up to 500,000 cubic meters can be launched from INPE's balloon launching base (latitude S 22° 4' 2″; longitude W 044° 58' 41″). The availability of good roads and several inland airports in Brazil provides the necessary structure for safe payload retrieval and its rapid return to the balloon base. There are several airports throughout Brazil that can also be used as balloon launching bases, mainly in the country's Eastern region. Overflights of more than 1,000 kilometers are possible and easily attained. Balloon flights ranging from a few hours to long duration flights can be safely verified. The constant climate monitoring through the use of weather satellites information received at INPE provides the necessary data to determine the necessary conditions for a long duration flight. INPE's Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies (CPTEC) provides the necessary weather forecast support for launch and payload retrieval.

  10. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

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    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  11. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  12. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  13. Avaliação do teste de nitrato redutase para a detecção rápida de resistência aos medicamentos de primeira linha em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes em um hospital geral Evaluation of the nitrate reductase assay for the rapid detection of resistance to first-line medications in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients in a general hospital

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    Maria de Fátima Filardi Oliveira Mansur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparamos o teste de nitrato redutase com o método de proporções, considerado como padrão ouro, em 57 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte (MG. A sensibilidade, a especificidade e a acurácia para rifampicina e isoniazida foram de 100% para todas, enquanto essas foram, respectivamente, de 88,9%, 66,7% e 96,5% para estreptomicina e de 98,0%, 100% e 98,2% para etambutol. A média de tempo para a obtenção dos resultados foi de dez dias. Na amostra estudada, o teste de nitrato redutase mostrou grande acurácia e excelente concordância com o padrão ouro.We compared the nitrate reductase assay with the proportion method, which is considered the gold standard, in 57 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients treated at the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, located in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. For rifampin and isoniazid, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the nitrate reductase assay were all 100%, whereas they were 100%, 88.9%, and 66.7%, respectively, for streptomycin and 98.0%, 100%, and 98.2%, respectively, for ethambutol. The mean time to results was ten days. In the study sample, the nitrate reductase assay proved highly accurate and showed excellent concordance with the gold standard.

  14. Serological and genetic diversity amongst Salmonella strains isolated in a salami processing line Diversidade sorológica e genética de cepas de Salmonella sp. isoladas em uma linha de produção industrial de salame

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    Vinicius B. Ribeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is one of the most important agents of foodborne disease in Brazil and in other countries, with meat and meat products being identified as important vehicles of salmonelosis. A total of 54 Salmonella strains isolated from a commercial salami processing line were first serotyped and then their antibiotic resistance and macro restriction profiles were determined. 11.1% of the strains showed resistance to 3 or more antibiotics with profile AmpCStxTe being the most frequent. PFGE generated 9 and 12 profiles with enzymes XbaI and SpeI, respectively. It was observed that different serotypes of Salmonella could be found in the different steps of the processing line. The genetic profile of the strains had low relationship indicating the genetic diversity of the tested strains.Salmonella é um dos principais agentes de enfermidades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA no Brasil e em outros países, sendo os derivados cárneos frequentemente associados como veículos de surtos de salmonelose. Um total de 54 cepas de Salmonella sp., isoladas a partir de amostras de salame coletadas nas diferentes etapas de uma linha de produção industrial, foram sorotipadas e posteriormente caracterizadas quanto a sua sensibilidade a antimicrobianos e perfil PFGE. Entre as cepas avaliadas, 11,1% apresentaram resistência a três ou mais dos antimicrobianos, sendo o perfil AmpCStxTe mais freqüente. Foram obtidos 9 e 12 perfis PFGE, empregando-se as enzimas XbaI e SpeI, respectivamente. Os perfis de ambas as enzimas foram agrupados, obtendo-se 12 perfis PFGE combinados que puderam ser separados em dois grupos empregando-se a análise de UPGMA. A linha de produção industrial de salame avaliada apresentou etapas em que há contaminação por diferentes sorotipos de Salmonella sp. Os perfis genéticos encontrados indicam origens distintas para muitas cepas estudadas, uma vez que estes foram pouco relacionados entre si.

  15. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias lácticas isoladas de queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro (MG frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from artisanal minas cheese against indicator microorganisms

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    D.P. Alexandre

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolaram-se 192 cepas de bactérias lácticas de cinco amostras de queijo-de-minas artesanal, oriundos da região do Serro, MG. Os resultados da prova de inibição direta indicaram que 48 cepas isoladas (25% foram capazes de inibir o crescimento in vitro de microrganismos indicadores, dentre os quais Staphylococcus aureus e Listeria monocytogenes. As 48 cepas foram submetidas à prova de inibição indireta. Verificou-se que 20,8% (10/48 das cepas demonstraram amplo espectro antimicrobiano frente a microrganismos como: Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes e Listeria innocua. Nenhuma das cepas isoladas foi capaz de inibir Escherichia coli.A total of 192 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from five samples of artisanal minas cheese, from Serro region - Minas Gerais State. The results of direct inhibition test indicated that 48 strains (25% inhibited the in vitro growth of the indicator microorganisms: Staphylococcusaureus and Listeriamonocytogenes. Those 48 strains were tested by the indirect inhibition test, and 10 strains (20.8% showed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against Salmonellaenteritidisvar. typhimurium, Staphylococcusaureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. None of the isolated strains was able to inhibit Escherichia coli.

  16. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from corneal ulcers of dogs Identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de úlceras de córnea em cães

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    M.R. Prado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 clinical specimens were obtained from 19 dogs with corneal ulcer (16 unilateral and three bilateral for isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation of the isolated bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed in 100% of the samples (n=22. Staphylococcus intermedius was the predominant species (35.5%, followed by Corynebacterium xerosis (19.3%. Gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin had a high efficacy against all of the isolated bacteria. The results evidenced that 80.7% of the isolates were Gram positive cocci and Gram positive bacilli, and that those microorganisms were sensitive to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin.Utilizaram-se 22 amostras de material, obtidas de 19 cães com úlcera de córnea, sendo 16 unilaterais e três bilaterais, para isolamento e avaliação da susceptibilidade antimicrobiana das bactérias isoladas. Observou-se crescimento bacteriano em 100% das amostras (n=22. A espécie predominante foi Staphylococcus intermedius (35,5% seguido de Corynebacterium xerosis (19,3%. Gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e tobramicina apresentaram alta eficácia contra todas as bactérias isoladas. Os resultados evidenciam que 80,7% dos isolados foram cocos e bacilos Gram positivos e que estes microrganismos foram sensíveis à gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e tobramicina.

  17. Vasculite isolada do sistema nervoso central e acometimento do VIII nervo craniano manifestações raras da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: an uncommon manifestation of AIDS

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    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo de nosso estudo é enfatizar a exuberante anarquia dos mecanismos imunológicos na síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida. Tal anarquia propicia a eclosão de manifestações clínicas atípicas e, por vezes, bizarras, de difícil diagnóstico. No estudo em questão, chamamos a atenção para duas raras manifestações da doença: vasculite isolada do sistema nervoso central (SNC e acometimento do> VIII nervo craniano, que exigem amplo diagnóstico diferencial, o que significa dizer intervenção de especialistas de diversas áreas. Após revisão da literatura, identificamos apenas dois casos de vasculite isolada do SNC induzida pelo vírus da imunodeficiência, humana e um caso de surdez neurossensorial comprovadamente ocasionada pelo retrovírus mencionado. Em passado longínquo, os médicos de boa formação clínica diziam ser necessário raciocinar «sifiliticamente» e hoje, diante de doença tão complexa e multissistêmica, nos parece necessário raciocinar «aideticamente».

  18. Fenotipagem de bactérias isoladas em hemoculturas de pacientes críticos Phenotyping of bacteria isolated in blood cultures from critical patients

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    Lara Stefânia Netto de Oliveira Leão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As infecções da corrente sangüínea representam uma grave complicação dos pacientes críticos, sendo a detecção de patógenos microbianos em hemoculturas um importante recurso diagnóstico. Esse estudo objetivou isolar e caracterizar bactérias do sangue de pacientes admitidos na unidade clínica de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário, no período de abril/2003 a abril/2004. As bactérias isoladas foram identificadas por provas bioquímicas/enzimáticas e a detecção do perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos pelo método de difusão em disco. Foram avaliadas 304 hemoculturas de 195 pacientes, sendo que 49 (16,1% apresentaram desenvolvimento microbiano. A espécie predominante foi Pseudomonas stutzeri (18,2%. Os cocos Gram-positivos e as enterobactérias apresentaram maior resistência à ampicilina; vancomicina e linezolida foram os agentes mais ativos para cocos Gram-positivos e as carbapenemas para bastonetes Gram-negativos. Devido ao impacto das infecções da corrente sangüínea no contexto hospitalar, estudos adicionais são necessários para subsidiar medidas de prevenção e controle.Bloodstream infections are a serious complication among critical patients. The detection of microbial pathogens in blood cultures is an important diagnostic tool. This study aimed to isolate and characterize bacteria from the blood of patients admitted to the clinical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital, between April 2003 and April 2004. The bacteria isolated were identified by biochemical/enzymatic tests and detection of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile using the disk diffusion method. A total of 304 blood cultures from 195 patients were evaluated. Forty-nine (16.1% of the blood cultures presented microbe development. The predominant species was Pseudomonas stutzeri (18.2%. Gram-positive cocci and enterobacteria showed greater resistance to ampicillin; vancomycin and linezolid were the most active agents for Gram

  19. Genes de virulência e diversidade genética em Salmonella spp. isoladas de amostras de origem suína

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    M.S. Moura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da produção industrial de alimentos de origem suína e o intercâmbio comercial de animais e seus derivados destinados ao consumo humano podem ser importantes disseminadores de sorovares de Salmonella spp. na cadeia alimentar. Objetivou-se avaliar em 86 cepas de Salmonella spp., isoladas em granja de terminação e no abate de suínos, a ocorrência de três genes de virulência (invA, agfA e lpfA, bem como a similaridade genética entre elas. A ocorrência do gene invA foi verificada em 100% das amostras. O gene lpfA foi detectado em 80,23% (69/86 das cepas, não foi detectado em S. Panama e estava presente em todas as cepas de S. Infantis. O gene agfA foi detectado em 63,95% (55/86 das amostras. S. Agona apresentou positividade para todos os genes de virulência estudados. A análise de homologia entre as cepas agrupou os diferentes sorovares em clusters. A similaridade foi independente do local de isolamento, o que demonstra a presença de clones ao longo da cadeia de produção e a existência de multiplicidade de fontes para a infecção dos animais, como a ração, e a contaminação cruzada das carcaças. A pesquisa de genes de virulência e a avaliação da proximidade gênica permitem a caracterização e um maior entendimento sobre cepas de Salmonella circulantes na cadeia produtiva de suínos e, assim, podem subsidiar medidas de controle durante o processo produtivo com o objetivo de garantir a saúde do consumidor.

  20. Eficácia in vitro de desinfetantes utilizados na anti-sepsia dos tetos frente a leveduras isoladas do leite de vaca com mastite

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    Luciana C.A. Coutinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de leveduras isoladas do leite de vaca com mastite frente a alguns desinfetantes comerciais utilizados no pré e pós-dipping em propriedades leiteiras do Estado de Pernambuco. Após a identificação, 12 isolados de leveduras foram submetidos aos testes com os seguintes princípios ativos: iodo (0,57%, cloro (2,5%, clorexidine (2,0%, ácido láctico (2,0% e amônia quaternária (2,0% em cinco tempos distintos (15", 30", 60", 300" e 600". Observou-se que 100% dos isolados mostraram-se sensíveis ao clorexidine, em todos os tempos de exposição. O iodo obteve o segundo melhor resultado com os seguintes percentuais: 83,33% foram sensíveis em 15" de exposição, 91,67% em 30" e 100% foram sensíveis nos tempos 60", 300" e 600". Para o ácido láctico, os resultados foram: 41,67% sensíveis em 15" de exposição, 58,33% em 30", 66,67% em 60" e 300" e 75% em 600". Na Análise dos resultados para amônia quaternária, observou-se que 66,67% foram sensíveis nos tempos 15" e 30", e 91,67% em 60", 300" e 600". Em relação ao princípio ativo cloro apenas 16,67% foram sensíveis no tempo de 15" e 30", e 25% em 60", 300" e 600". Conclui-se que o clorexidine e o iodo apresentam atividade desinfetante significativamente superior ao cloro, frente a leveduras envolvidas nos processos infecciosos da glândula mamária em bovinos. É necessário realizar uma avaliação periódica da atividade desinfetante dos produtos utilizados na rotina do pré e pós-dipping nas propriedades leiteiras frente aos microrganismos mais comumente envolvidos nos casos de mastite (micótica ou bacteriana, pois esta é uma medida eficaz para reduzir a frequência de casos de mastite nos rebanhos.

  1. Pathogenicity characteristics of stocked and fresh yeasts strains Características de patogenicidade de amostras de leveduras preservadas e recém-isoladas

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    Guilherme Maranhão Chaves

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of yeasts of medical importance, 15 strains stocked in mineral oil at the URM Culture Collection of the Department of Mycology, Biological Sciences Centre, Federal University of Pernambuco and 15 fresh strains isolated from AIDS patients interned at the Clinical Hospital, Centre of Health Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, were selected. As pathogenicity characteristics, the ability to grow at 37ºC and production of phospolipase and proteinase were tested. All samples grew at 37ºC and exhibited proteinase activity. However when tested on solid medium, the proteinase activity was negative. Among 15 stocked samples, 13 (86.66% were phospholipase positive and two (13.34% were phospholipase negative. From the 15 samples isolated from AIDS patients, four (26.66% were phospholipase positive and 11 (73.34% were phospholipase negative.Com o objetivo de avaliar a patogenicidade de leveduras de interesse médico, foram selecionadas 15 amostras preservadas em óleo mineral na Micoteca URM, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco e 15 isolados recentes, provenientes de amostras clínicas de pacientes com AIDS, internados no Hospital das Clínicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Com relação as características de patogenicidade, foram avaliados a capacidade desses microorganismos crescerem a 37ºC, bem como apresentarem atividade de fosfolipase e protease. As 30 amostras cresceram a 37ºC e apresentaram atividade quantitativa de protease, entretanto não apresentaram essa atividade quando testadas em meio sólido. Das 15 amostras preservadas, 13 (86,66% apresentaram atividade fosfolipase positiva e duas (13,34% atividade fosfolipásica negativa e das 15 amostras isoladas de pacientes com AIDS, quatro (26,66% apresentaram atividade de fosfolipase positiva e 11 (73,34% apresentaram atividade fosfolipásica negativa.

  2. Keratinolytic bacteria isolated from feather waste Bactérias queratinolíticas isoladas de resíduos de penas

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    Alessandro Riffel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize keratinolytic bacteria isolated from feather waste. Four isolates were selected after growth on solid medium with feather meal as sole carbon and nitrogen source and screened for proteolytic activity on milk agar plates. Three isolates were Gram-negative (belonged to the genera Burkholderia, Chryseobacterium and Pseudomonas and one was Gram-positive (Microbacterium sp.. These bacteria grew on diverse keratin wastes such as feather meal, raw feathers, chicken nails, hair and wool. Keratinase activity was detected during growth, but the complete degradation of these substrates was not always achieved. The proteolytic character of crude enzymes was assessed using azokeratin and azocasein as substrates. The keratinases were active on both substrates and were similar in keratin hydrolysis when compared with commercially available microbial peptidases. These novel keratinolytic isolates have potential biotechnological use in processes involving keratin hydrolysis.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar bactérias queratinolíticas isoladas resíduos de penas. Quatro isolados foram selecionados após crescimento em meio sólido contendo farinha de pena como única fonte de carbono e nitrogênio e avaliados quanto a atividade proteolítica em placas de ágar leite. Foram identificadas três linhagens Gram-negativas (pertencentes aos gêneros Burkholderia, Chryseobacterium e Pseudomonas e uma Gram-positiva (Microbacterium sp.. Estas bactérias cresceram em vários resíduos queratinosos como farinha de pena, penas de frango, unhas de frango, pelos e lã. A atividade queratinolítica foi observada durante crescimento, mas a degradação completa dos substratos não foi observada em todos os casos. O caráter proteolítico das enzimas foi determinado usando azoqueratina e azocaseína como substratos. As queratinases foram ativas em ambos substratos e apresentaram hidrólise de queratina comparável a peptidases

  3. Metástase esplênica isolada de adenocarcinoma do sigmoide: relato de caso Isolated splenic metastasis from sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom Henrique Bromberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Metástases esplênicas solitárias oriundas de carcinomas colorretais são raras, com 41 casos descritos na literatura inglesa até 2007. Muitos pacientes são assintomáticos, e o diagnóstico é quase sempre feito por imagens radiológicas ou por elevações sanguíneas do antígeno carcinoembrionário (CEA, solicitados no seguimento pós-operatório desses pacientes. Relato do caso: Homem de 54 anos foi submetido à colectomia esquerda por carcinoma de sigmoide. O tumor foi estadiado como T3N0M0 e permaneceu assintomático por dez meses, com níveis normais de CEA. Notou-se, então, significativa elevação do antígeno e a tomografia computadorizada do abdômen revelou massa no polo inferior do baço, suspeita de metástase. A laparotomia confirmou o achado propedêutico, sendo realizada esplenectomia. O diagnóstico anatomopatológico foi de adenocarcinoma metastático, sem invasão dos linfonodos. A sobrevida acompanhada do paciente foi de 14 meses, livre de recidiva. CONCLUSÃO: Metástases esplênicas isoladas de carcinoma dos cólons são raras, e a esplenectomia oferece possibilidade de sobrevida expressiva.Solitary metastatic metastasis from colorectal neoplasms is rare. Only 41 cases have been reported in the English literature until 2007. Most patients are asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is usually done by imaging studies or CEA (carcinoembrionic antigen blood increases, which are required in the postoperative follow-up period. Case report: A 54-year-old man underwent an extended left colectomy for sigmoid colon cancer. The tumor was staged as T3N0M0. During ten months of the follow-up period, the patient remained asymptomatic with normal levels of laboratory tests, including CEA measurement. Then, there was a significant elevation of CEA, and the abdomen computed tomography revealed a mass in the spleen considered as an isolated metastasis. The patient underwent splenectomy. Histological diagnosis confirmed a

  4. Isolamento de myxovirus parainfluenza 3 de gado bovino no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Isolation of Myxovirus parainfluenza type 3 from cattle in S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    José Alberto N. Candeias

    1971-12-01

    Full Text Available Faz-se referência ao isolamento, em São Paulo, de 4 cêpas de Myxovirus parainfluenza do tipo 3, do tecido pulmonar de gado bovino com lesões de pneumonia, que se mostraram antigenicamente semelhantes à cêpa bovina SF-4. Uma das cêpas isoladas mostrou certa relação antigênica com a cêpa humana HA-1.The isolation of Myxovirus parainfluenza type 3 from cattle with pneumonia, in S. Paulo, Brazil, is reported. All the strains isolated appeared to be antigenically related to the bovine strain SF-4. It was possible to establish a certain degree of antigenic relationship between the human strain HA-1 and one of the bovine strains isolated.

  5. Estudo da difteria na cidade do Recife. I. Nota sôbre levantamento de portadores de Corynebacterium diphtheriae no bairro dos Coelhos Survey on diphtheriae carriers in "Bairro dos Coelhos" Recife, Brazil

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available De uma amostra probabilística do bairro dos Coelhos da cidade do Recife, 410 indivíduos foram examinados para verificação de portadores de difteria. Sòmente duas amostras de C. diphtheriae foram isoladas de duas crianças de 8 a 9 anos, as quais não apresentaram sintomatologia compatível com o quadro diftérico.From a limited population living around the University Hospital in Recife, Brazil a randomic sample was examined in order to identify diphtheria carriers. Swabs were made from 410 persons in a house-to-house survey. Two strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were isolated from healthy 8 and 9-year old children.

  6. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  7. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  8. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel,Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  9. Innovation Policies of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    by the other BRIC countries, particularly China. 18 Discussions with experts. See the appendix. 19 Brazil can have a low actual tariff rate of...Cassiolato, J. E., M. G Podcameni, M. C. Couto Soares, M. Szapiro, P. Koeller, F. Stalivieri, and F. Geremia. 2010. “ BRICS Description and Dynamics of...the Future of Internation Order. Center for a New American Security. Koeller, P, and J. L. Gordon. 2010. “ BRICS the Role of the State in National

  10. Model of electric power generation for isolated places of the Amazon: intervention with sustainability; Modelo de geracao de energia eletrica para localidades isoladas da Amazonia: intervencao com sustentabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, Artur de Souza [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Rondonia (GPERS/UNIR), Porto Velho (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Grupo de Pesquisa Energia Renovavel Sustentavel], E-mail: amoret@unir.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a proposal which has as reference the implementation of electric power generation using vegetable in natura palm oil in a Diesel cycle engine not modified to attend the N. S. dos Seringueiros at the extractivist reservation Rio Ouro Preto, Brazil. It must be detached that the interventions at the RESEX has assumed that it is possible and necessary to aggregate value to the forest products having the biodiversity preserved.

  11. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Oliveira Cardoso; Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro; Luciana Ruschel dos Santos; Fernando Pilotto; Moraes,Hamilton L.S.; Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle; Silvio Luís da Silveira Rocha; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

    2006-01-01

    Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%), enrofloxacin (3.75%), neomycin (3.75%), fosfomycin (20%), sulphonamides (86.25%) and nit...

  12. EFEITO DE ÁCIDO SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DE Salmonella enterica ENTERITIDIS ISOLADA DE CARCAÇA DE SUÍNO

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    Simone Quintão Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the acid tolerance is an important virulence factor related to survival at low pH of gastric barrier of foodborne pathogens and the expressive increasing of prevalence of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis in recent years as etiologic agent of human salmonelosis, this work aimed evaluate the effect of acid on the growth and survival of on Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. The growth of S. Enteritidis CCS3 isolated of swine carcass and S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 at Trypticasein and Soya Broth (TSB with pH values between 3.5 and 7.2 and the survival in the same media with pH values between1.5 and 3.5 were investigated. The tolerance to simulated gastric fluid (SGF of these cells was also evaluated. S. Enteritidis CCS3 presented higher values of specific growth rate in acidified TSB and this culture had longer time survival in pH < 3.5 than S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076. The cells of S.Enteritidis CCS3 were tolerant until one hours SFG exposure. Instead, cells of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 lost culturability after 10 minutes of SFG challenge. Considerando que a tolerância ao ácido é um importante fator de virulência relacionado à sobrevivência ao baixo pH da secreção gástrica em patógenos veiculados por alimentos e o expressivo aumento da prevalência de Salmonella sorovar Enteritidis nos últimos anos, como agente etiológico de salmonelose humana, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de ácido sobre o crescimento e sobrevivência de Salmonella sorovar Enteritidis. O crescimento de S. Enteritidis CCS3, isolada de carcaça suína, e S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 foi determinado em Caldo Tripticaseína e Soja (TSB com valores de pH que variaram de 3,5 a 7,2. A sobrevivência foi avaliada no mesmo meio com pH entre 1,5 e 3,5. Avaliou-se também a tolerância ao Fluido Gástrico Simulado (FGS dessas bactérias. S. Enteritidis CCS3 apresentou valores maiores de velocidade específica de crescimento em TSB acidificado e

  13. Crianças com fissura isolada de palato: desempenho nos testes de processamento auditivo Cleft palate children: performance in auditory processing tests

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    Mirela Boscariol

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Muitas crianças com transtorno de processamento auditivo têm uma prevalência alta de otite média, alteração na orelha média de grande ocorrência na população com fissura labiopalatina. OBJETIVO: Verificar o desempenho de crianças com fissura isolada de palato (FP em testes do processamento auditivo. Estudo prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Vinte crianças (7 a 11 anos com FP foram submetidas aos testes de localização sonora (LS, memória para sons verbais (MSSV e não-verbais em seqüência (MSSNV, Fusão Auditiva-Revisado (AFT-R, Teste Pediátrico de Inteligibilidade de Fala/Sentenças Sintéticas (PSI/SSI, Dissílabos alternados (SSW e Dicótico de dígitos (DD. O desempenho das crianças nos testes foi classificado em ruim e bom. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os gêneros e orelhas. Os valores médios obtidos foram 2,16, 2,42, 4,37, 60,50ms, de 40,71 a 67,33%, 96,25 a 99,38%, 73,55 a 73,88% e 58,38 a 65,47%, respectivamente, para os testes MSSNV, MSSV, LS, AFT-R, PSI/SSI com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral (PSI/SSIMCI e contralateral (PSI/SSI/MCC, DD e SSW. CONCLUSÃO: Uma alta porcentagem de crianças demonstrou seus piores desempenhos nos testes AFT-R, DD, SSW e no teste PSI/SSIMCI. Os melhores desempenhos ocorreram nos testes de localização sonora, memória seqüencial para sons não verbais e verbais e para PSI/SSIMCC.Many children with auditory processing disorders have a high prevalence of otitis media, a middle ear alterations greatly prevalent in children with palatine and lip clefts. AIM: to check the performance of children with palate cleft alone (PC in auditory processing tests. Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty children (7 to 11 years with CP were submitted to sound location tests (SL, memory for verbal sounds (MSSV and non verbal sounds in sequence (MSSNV, Revised auditory fusion (AFT-R, Pediatric test of speech intelligibility/synthetic sentences (PSI/SSI, alternate

  14. Potencial alelopático de duas neolignanas isoladas de folhas de Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae Allelopathy potential of two neolignans isolated from Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae leaves

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    F.C. Borges

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas presentes nas folhas de Virola surinamensis. O processo de isolamento e identificação das substâncias químicas envolveu o uso de solventes orgânicos e de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (RMN ¹H, RMN 13C e RMN 13C-DEPT, espectro de COSY e de HETCOR. A avaliação da atividade alelopática foi realizada em bioensaios de germinação de sementes, em condições de 25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, e de desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo, com 25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 24 horas, empregando-se concentrações variando de 1,0 a 8,0 mg L-1. Como plantas receptoras, foram utilizadas as espécies daninhas Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia e Senna occidentalis. Foram isoladas e identificadas duas neolignanas: a surinamensina e a virolina. A tendência geral observada nos resultados foi de aumento da intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos inibitórios em função do aumento da concentração, com inibições máximas obtidas, sempre, na concentração de 8,0 mg L-1. A surinamensina apresentou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo do que a virolina, independentemente da espécie receptora e do fator da planta analisado. Considerando-se as intensidades dos efeitos promovidos sobre os três fatores das plantas, o desenvolvimento da radícula e o do hipocótilo foram mais intensamente inibidos pelas duas substâncias do que a germinação das sementes. À exceção dos efeitos verificados sobre o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo, malícia foi a espécie de maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos das duas neolignanas, enquanto mata-pasto foi aquela que evidenciou inibições de menor magnitude.The objective of this research was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of chemical compounds in Virola

  15. Hypnotic effect of ecdysterone isolated from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Efeito hipinótico de ecdisterona isolada de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

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    Raquel Fenner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the depressant effect of fractions from P. glomerata was initially evaluated using the mice barbiturate sleeping time test as reference. The fractions tested were the CHCl3, the EtOAc, the n-BuOH and the aqueous fraction obtained from P. glomerata subterraneous parts. Only the pretreatment with the lipophilic fraction (CHCl3: EtOAc, 1:1, w/w increased the barbiturate sleeping time (i.p 500 mg/kg; v.o. 1000 mg/kg. Ecdysterone, the main substance isolated from this lipophilic fraction, was identified by spectroscopic methods and its content in the ethanol extract was determined as 1.4% (w/w by HPLC. In order to investigate the hypothesis of ecdysterone displaying a depressant effect on nervous central system, an evaluation toward the hypnotic-sedative and anxiolytic effects of this drug was carried out. Ecdysterone 100 mg/kg, i.p, increased the barbiturate sleeping time without provoking hypothermia; when administered by oral route its minimal effective dose was 400 mg/kg. On the other hand, ecdysterone (100 mg/kg, i.p; 400 mg/kg, p.o did not impair motor coordination and was ineffective on pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion, elevated plus-maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance tests, indicating that at these doses the drug does not present an anxiolytic profile and does not cause manifest neurotoxic effects as well. In conclusion, the lipophilic fraction from P. glomerata presents a hypnotic effect being ecdysterone one of the compounds responsible for this CNS activity.Neste trabalho foi avaliado, em roedores, o efeito depressor das frações clorofórmio (CHCl3, acetato de etila (EtOAc e n-butanol, obtidas das partes subterrâneas de Pfaffia glomerata, empregando-se o teste de tempo de sono barbitúrico como referência. Somente a fração lipofílica (CHCl3:EtOAc, 1:1, m/m (i.p. 500 mg/kg; v.o. 1000 mg/kg potenciou o tempo de sono induzido por pentobarbital. A ecdisterona foi isolada e identificada como constituinte majorit

  16. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  17. O Ácido (817,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302, diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia The (817,12E,14-labdatrien-18-oic acid (labdane302, labdane-type diterpene isolated from Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae relaxes the guinea-pig trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. A. Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 M. O diterpeno labdano302 relaxou de maneira dependente de concentração os anéis pré-contraídos com carbacol (10-6 M, tanto na presença (CE50 = 1,4 ± 0,7 x 10-5 M como na ausência de epitélio funcional (CE50 = 1,5 ± 0,3 x 10-5 M, bem como anéis pré-contraídos com 18 ou 60 mM de KCl, apresentando valores de CE50 de 2,3 ± 0,4 x 10(7 M e 1,8 ± 0,8 x 10-5 M, respectivamente. Este efeito relaxante, sobre as contrações induzidas por 18 mM de KCl, tanto foi significantemente mais potente quanto mais eficaz quando comparado ao efeito sobre as contrações induzidas por 60 mM de KCl. Assim, labdano302 mostra um efeito relaxante em traquéia isolada de cobaia, tanto em seu tônus basal como sob estímulo contrátil, aparentemente sem a participação dos fatores relaxantes derivados do epitélio, contudo com possível participação dos canais de K+.Xylopia langsdorfiana St. Hil. & Tul. is popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra" in Southeast of Brazil. The fractionation of the ethanol extract obtained from the stem-bark of this species yielded a labdane-type diterpene identified as 8(17,12E,14-labdatrien-18-oic acid, referred here as labdane302. In this study, we investigated the effect of labdane302 in guinea-pig trachea. labdane302 relaxed the basal tonus of trachea rings with EC50 value of 6.7 ± 0.5 x 10-8 M. The diterpene labdane302 relaxed the pre-contracted rings by carbachol 10-6 M both in the presence (EC50 = 1.4 ± 0.7 x 10-5 M and absence

  18. Electric power generation in isolated communities at Amazon, Brazil, from the sustainable biomass: project ENERMAD; A geracao de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas na Amazonia a partir de biomassa sustentavel: projeto ENERMAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvia@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The ENERMAD project viewed the electric power generation in isolated communities, from the forestalls residues, to attend the productive activities and residences, besides the steam generation for value aggregation to the community product, reaching to transform the social reality of that community and, to stimulate the investment viability in innovator project for those isolated communities.

  19. Sensibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de carcaças de frango comercializadas em Recife Antibiograms of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from chicken carcass in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.L. Freitas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic susceptibility of the Staphylococcus spp. isolated from chicken carcass from the city of Recife, Pernambuco, was determined. Out of 90 strains of Staphylococcus spp., 51 were classified as Staphylococcus aureus and 39 as Staphylococcus negative coagulase. Samples were submitted to the disc diffusion technique for the antibiotic susceptibility test. Among the 17 antibiotics tested, the most efficient was vancomycin. Twenty (22.2%, 11 (12.2% and 10 (11.1% of the Staphylococcus spp. samples were resistant to five, six and 14 antibiotics, respectively.

  20. Estudo de algumas caracteristicas bioquimicas de levedura isoladas de bebidas alcoolicas andinas e brasileiras e de amostras de flores, frutas, melaço e mosto de usinas de açucar e alcool

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Josefina Contreras Castillo

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar leveduras componentes da microbiota de bebidas alcoólicas, melaço e mosto de usinas de açúcar e álcool, frutas e flores e sua provável utilização em processos de fermentação. Foi estudado com especial ênfase as bebidas alcoólicas andinas provenientes da região montanhosa dos Andes situada em países como Peru, Chile, Bolívia e Colômbia que são até hoje elaboradas artesanalmentee. Foram isoladas 511 cepas de leveduras, sendo 132 provenientes de 45 a...

  1. Efeitos da MT-I, uma fosfolipase A2, isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper em mastócitos: ativação e sinalização intracelular envolvida na desgranulação.

    OpenAIRE

    Marlos Cortez Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Os efeitos da MT-I, uma fosfolipase A2 isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper (VBa), foram avaliados em mastócitos (MC) em cultura, quanto à: i) desgranulação e liberação de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); ii) papel da atividade catalítica na desgranulação; iii) papel da PLD, PLC, cPLA2, iPLA2, PI3K, MAPK, PKC, PTK, ERK1/2, Junk, Gαi, Gαq e do cálcio na desgranulação; iv) expressão gênica de citocinas Th1 e Th2, e v) alterações ultraestruturais em MC. Os resultados mostraram que a MT-I, e...

  2. A (desorganização da educação primária no Vale do Paraíba paulista: entre escolas isoladas e grupos escolares (1893-1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Donizette da Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisou a organização da escola primária na região do Vale do Paraíba paulista entre os anos de 1893 a 1908, período marcado pelas primeiras ações republicanas para esse segmento de ensino. O principal objetivo foi averiguar se, de fato, havia uma diferenciação entre os grupos escolares e as escolas isoladas da região, no que tange à estrutura material, à organização do ensino e à atuação didático-pedagógica dos professores, levando em consideração que essas distinções foram legitimadas pela literatura especializada. As fontes foram compostas por relatórios e ofícios de diretores dos grupos escolares, de inspetores de ensino e de professores de escolas isoladas, além de jornais regionais e do Anuário do Ensino do Estado de São Paulo de 1907/1908. Conclui-se que, diferentemente das interpretações consagradas sobre o tema, a região apresentou imbricações e ingerências mútuas entre esses modelos escolares, especialmente pelas similaridades manifestas no cotidiano escolar. Essa realidade suscitou possibilidades de novos olhares sobre as composições da escola primária em seus diferentes contextos, partindo do pressuposto de que formas escolares anteriores ao paradigma do ensino considerado moderno – graduado, simultâneo e intuitivo – não só resistiram como encontraram espaços de convivência e confluência.

  3. Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Viana, Thércia Guedes; Peixoto, Eliane R de M; Barros, Fabiana C R de; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009) were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug in Brazil was conducted. Five companies were granted a permission to market unfractioned heparin in Brazil. Three of them are porcine in origin and two of them are bovine in origin, with only one explicitly showing this information in the package insert. The effectiveness and safety of heparin studied in non-Brazilian populations may not represent the Brazilian reality, since most countries no longer produce bovine heparin. The currently marketed heparin has approximately 10% less anticoagulant activity than that previously produced and this change may have clinical implications. Evidence about the lack of dose interchangeability between bovine and porcine heparins and the unique safety profile of these drugs indicates the need to follow the treatment and the patients' response. Events threatening the patient's safety must be reported to the pharmacovigilance system in each particular country.

  4. Biomass gasification systems in electric energy generation for isolated communities; Sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa na geracao de energia eletrica para comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortine Gonzales; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Ushima, Ademar Hakuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adidas@ipt.br

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', agreement FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main objective of this project is to study a biomass gasifier system and its implantation, using a sustainable way, at isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The system is composed by a gasifier from Indian Institute of Science - IISc, that can generate 20 kW of output energy, a generator (internal combustion engine), an ashes extractor, a water cooler and treatment system, a dryer and a control panel. The project, developed at IPT, intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric power generation and the technology transfer to Brazil, allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region and collaborating with the national institutions from this area. (author)

  5. Isoenzyme profile as parameter to differentiate pathogenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica in Brazil Perfil isoenzimático como parâmetro para diferenciar cepas patogênicas de Entamoeba histolytica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Barral de Martinez

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The isoenzyme profiles (IP of 33 strains of Entamoeba histolytica isolated from patients and carriers of two regions in Brazil (Amazonia and Southeast were determined. The enzymes phosphoglucomutase, glucose-phosphate isomerase, hexokinase and malic enzyme were considered. IP of the strains was correlated with culture conditions, time of maintenance in laboratory and clinical history of patients. The strains were maintained under polyxenic, monoxenic and axenic culture conditions: 27 polyxenic, 1 polyxenic and monoxenic, 1 polyxenic, monoxenic and axenic and 4 axenic only. The patients were symptomatic and asymptomatic. The symptomatic patients presented either non dysenteric (NDC or dysenteric colitis (DC, associated or not with hepatic abscess (HA. One patient presented anal amoeboma (AM. The analysis of IP for isolates maintained in polyxenic culture showed non pathogenic IP (I for strains from carriers and patients with NDC, while the strains isolated from patients presenting DC, HA and AM resulted in isolates II or XIX pathogenic IP. This parameter was not able to differentiate strains from carriers from symptomatic patients when these strains were found in axenic or monoxenic culture. All these strains displayed pathogenic IP (II, demonstrating the inability of this parameter to classifying for virulence since it showed identical IP for strains isolated from carriers or symptomatic patients.O perfil isoenzimático (PI de 33 cepas de E. histolytica, isoladas das regiões Amazônica e Sudeste do Brasil foi determinado. Foram consideradas as enzimas fosfoglicomutase, glicose fosfato isomerase, hexoquinase e enzima málica. O perfil obtido para cada cepa foi correlacionado com o meio e o tempo de manutenção em cultivo e com a história clínica do paciente. As cepas foram mantidas sob condições de cultivo axênico, monoxênico e polixênico: 27 polixênico, 1 polixênico e monoxênico, 1 polixênico, monoxênico e axênico e 4 somente em

  6. First isolation of leptospires from dairy goats in Brazil Primeiro isolamento de leptospiras em caprinos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lilenbaum

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptospires have never been recovered from goats in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from 248 goats from Rio de Janeiro and from the seroreactive animals, urine samples were collected and processed for Leptospira isolation. A total of 52 positive reactions were observed, corresponding to 20.9% of the samples. The most prevalent reactions were to serovars Hardjo (36.5%, Shermani (30.8%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.6%, Grippotyphosa (9.6%, Autumnalis (5.8%, Castellonis (3.8% and Bratislava (3.8%. Two strains of Leptospira sp. were isolated, both in the same region, but from different flocks. Presumptive identification based on serologic methods suggests those strains to be from Grippotyphosa serogroup.Leptospiras nunca foram isolados de caprinos no Brasil. Amostras de soros foram obtidas de 248 caprinos no Rio de Janeiro, e, dos animais sororeativos, amostras de urina foram coletadas e processadas para isolamento de leptospiras. Um total de 52 (20,9% reações positivas foi observado. Os serovares mais prevalentes foram Hardjo (36,5%, Shermani (30,8%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (9,6%, Grippotyphosa (9,6%, Autumnalis (5,8%, Castellonis (3,8% e Bratislava (3,8%. Duas estirpes de Leptospira sp. foram isoladas, ambas na mesma região, mas de diferentes rebanhos. A identificação sorológica presuntiva sugere trataram-se de amostras do sorogrupo Grippotyphosa.

  7. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    and expanding ties with nontraditional partners, including India and China. Brazil-U.S. cooperation has increased during President Lula’s second...August 21, 2009. 40 Fernanda Odilla, Simone Iglesias & Johanna Nublat, “Brasil vai dobrar efetivo militar no Haiti,” Folha de São Paulo, January 21...defenderá mais regulação no G-20,” O Globo (Brazil), August 6, 2009. 53 Gaurav Singh, “China, India , Brazil Commit to Meet Copenhagen Accord Deadline

  8. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  9. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

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    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  10. Blunt abdominal trauma with small bowel injury: are isolated lesions riskier than associated lesions? Trauma abdominal fechado com lesão de intestino delgado: lesão isolada tem mais risco de complicações do que a associada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Pereira Fraga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare patients with "isolated" blunt small bowel injury (SBI to patients with multiple intra-abdominal injuries and analyze whether delayed laparotomy affected outcome. METHODS: Medical records of patients that suffered a blunt SBI between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: those with isolated SBI and those with other associated intra-abdominal injuries ("non-isolated". The method of diagnosis, time to operation, small bowel Organ Injury Scale (OIS assessment (grade > 2, injury severity score (ISS, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients met the inclusion criteria, including 62 (68.9% isolated cases and 28 (31.1% non-isolated cases. Isolated cases required more supplementary diagnostic methods than the non-isolated cases. Non-isolated cases had a shorter diagnosis to treatment period (p OBJETIVO: Comparar pacientes com lesão "isolada" de intestino delgado com pacientes com lesões abdominais "associadas" e analisar o quanto o retardo para indicação de laparotomia influenciou na evolução dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes com trauma abdominal fechado e lesão de intestino delgado no período de 1994 a 2005, sendo os pacientes divididos em dois grupos: lesão "isolada" e lesões abdominais "associadas". Foram analisados os métodos diagnósticos, intervalo de tempo para a cirurgia, gravidade da lesão de delgado (grau > 2, ISS e morbimortalidade dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Noventa pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão, 62 (68,9% no grupo "isolada" e 28 (31,1% no "associada". Pacientes do grupo "isolada" necessitaram mais de métodos diagnósticos complementares. O tempo de diagnóstico até o tratamento foi significantemente menor no grupo "associada", e estes pacientes apresentavam ISS mais elevado (média de 22,5 versus 17,2 no grupo "isolada". A morbidade e mortalidade nos grupos

  11. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  12. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in a slum area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Diversidade molecular de cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em uma região de favela da cidade do Rio de Janeiro

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    Joycenea Matsuda Mendes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective molecular study involving restriction fragment length polymorphism, using insertion sequence 6110 as a marker, was conducted in order to provide an initial insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in the slums of the Complexo de Manguinhos, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the 67 strains evaluated, 23 (34.3% were found to belong to clusters (total clusters, 10. Household and social chains of transmission were associated with clustering, in 20% and 60%, respectively. Living in the Conjunto Habitacional Programado 2 slum was associated with clustering. Although not significant, it is relevant that 26% of the clustered strains presented primary resistance. These findings, although possibly underestimating the prevalence due to the failure to analyze all strains, could help improve the local tuberculosis control program.Este estudo retrospectivo envolvendo polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição e utilizando como marcador a seqüência de inserção 6110, foi realizado para fornecer informações iniciais quanto à diversidade genética das cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas em favelas do Complexo de Manguinhos, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Das 67 cepas isoladas, 23 (34,3% foram agrupadas em clusters (total de clusters, 10. A transmissão entre comunicantes domiciliares e extra-domicialiares estave associada a 20% e 60% dos clusters, respectivamente. Ser morador do Conjunto Habitacional Programado 2 foi associado à presença de clusters. Embora não significativo, é relevante o fato de que 26% das cepas em cluster apresentaram resistência primária. Estes achados, embora possivelmente subestimados devido à impossibilidade de analisar todas as cepas, fornecem subsídios para a melhoria do programa local de controle da tuberculose.

  13. Estudos bacteriológicos e sorológicos de um surto de peste no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Bacteriological and serological studies of a plague outbreak in the Paraíba state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria Paiva Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados estudos bacteriológicos e/ou sorológicos para diagnóstico da infecção pestosa, em material obtido de 452 pacientes (48 positivos, 1.938 roedores e outros pequenos mamíferos (75 positivos, 4.756 cães (141 positivos e 3.047 gatos (57 positivos, oriundos de 41 municípios localizados em toda a extensão da área paraibana do Planalto da Borborema. A infecção foi encontrada em 21 municípios. Foram isoladas 20 cepas de Yersinia pestis de amostras coletadas de três pacientes e 17 roedores. Estas cepas apresentam características bioquímicas, fatores de virulência, sensibilidade aos antibióticos e poder patogênico experimental semelhantes ao de cepas isoladas anteriormente. Pelos estudos realizados não foram observados, no surto de peste que eclodiu em setembro de 1986 na Paraíba, fatores diferentes dos observados nos outros focos do nordeste do Brasil.During a plague outbreak in the Borborema Plateu focus (Paraíba, bacteriological and serological studies were carryed out in material from 452 patients (48 positives, 1,938 rodents and other small mammals (75 positives, 4,756 dogs (141 positives and 2,047 cats (57 positives obtained from 41 counties (out of which, 21 produced positive samples. Twenty Yersinia pestis strains isolated from material from 3 patients ans 17 rodents, displayed biochemical reactions, virulence factors, antibiotic susceptibility and animal experimental pathogenicity similar to those observed in strains previously isolated. According to our findings this recent plague outbreak did not exhibite different factors from those observed during prior outbreaks in other plague foci in the northeast of Brazil.

  14. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  15. Lipidic profile among rats submitted to total splenectomy isolated or combined with splenic autotransplant Perfil lipídico em ratos submetidos a esplenectomia total isolada ou combinada com auto-implante esplênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Correia Simões

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations on plasmatic lipids levels among rats submitted to total splenectomy isolated or combined with splenic autotransplant receiving standard chow during the postoperative period. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C - sham-operated, total splenectomy - isolated (TS or combined with splenic autotransplantation (SA. Since the postoperative period, all animals received standard rat chow manipulated in accordance to the American Institute of Nutrition Rodents Diets (1993. The plasmatic levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, and glucose (GLUC were analyzed before the surgical procedure and after 6 and 12 weeks. RESULTS: All the animals presented significant increase of TG and VLDL levels. In relation to the other parameters there was no difference among the weeks 0 and 12 in the animals of group C. In TS group significant increase was observed in TC and GLUC levels during the experiment. In SA group TC, HDL, and GLUC levels remained unaffected while HDL levels increased. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that isolated total splenectomy alters lipids metabolism in rats fed with standard chow and splenic autotransplantation is effective in restoring its control.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações nos níveis de lipídios plasmáticos em ratos submetidos a esplenectomia total isolada ou combinada com auto-implante esplênico, recebendo dieta padrão no período pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em três grupos: controle (C - operação simulada, esplenectomia total isolada (ET ou combinada com auto-implante esplênico (AE. A partir do período pós-operatório, todos os animais receberam ração padrão, manipulada segundo o American Institute of Nutrition (1993. Os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total (CT, triglicerídeos (TG, lipoproteína de

  16. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA DE BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ENDOFÍTICAS ISOLADAS DE CANA DE AÇÚCAR PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIAS ISOLATED OF SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Cavalcante de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inoculantes contendo microrganismos diazotróficos na cana-de-açúcar pode contribuir para a promoção do crescimento destas plantas e promover ganhos significativos na produtividade. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho caracterizar bactérias diazotróficas isoladas de colmos cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados os meios de cultivo semi-sólidos NFb e JNFb sem adição de nitrogênio. Foram isoladas cinco estirpes nativas de bactérias diazotróficas as quais foram avaliadas microscopicamente pela coloração de Gram e em relação à resistência intrínseca aos antibióticos; fungicida furadan (i.a. carbofuran e inseticida regente (i.a. fipronil, e à capacidade de fixar o nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação e campo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que todos os isolados apresentaram características de bacilos Gram-negativos, e ampla resistência aos antibióticos. A estirpe nativa UCCBc5 apresentou resistência ao fungicida furadan e ao inseticida regente. As bactérias isoladas UCCBc1 e UCCBc5 apresentam capacidade e eficiência de fixar o nitrogênio atmosférico em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Verificou-se que a estirpe UCCBc5, resistente ao furadan e ao regente apresentou capacidade fixadora do nitrogênio atmosférico, em condições de campo. Na avaliação de doses de inoculante observou-se que existe relação dose de inoculante/ eficiência de fixação de nitrogênio. Estes resultados permitiram afirmar que as bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas podem ser utilizadas, em alguns casos, como substituto da adubação nitrogenada, na cultura de cana-de- açúcar.The use of inoculants containing diazotrophic microorganism in sugarcane can contribute to promoting the growth of these plants and tp promote significant gains in productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize diazotrophic bacteria isolated from stalks of sugarcane. We used the means of a semi-solid NFB and JNFb

  17. Doença de Crohn isolada do apêndice cecal como causa de enterorragia Crohn’s disease isolated of the appendix as a source of enterorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizenando Ernesto de Lima Jr.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A doença de Crohn isolada do apêndice é doença de paciente jovem, relativamente rara, com quadro histopatológico semelhante ao da doença de Crohn típica. Seu quadro clínico, em geral, simula o da apendicite aguda, com manifestações protraídas e na palpação do abdome, além dos sinais de irritação peritonial, nota-se com freqüência, um tumor palpável. OBJETIVO: Apresentar um caso de doença de Crohn isolada do apêndice que se manifestou por enterorragia e cuja origem foi identificada pela colonoscopia. PACIENTE: Masculino, com 16 anos de idade, sem outras manifestações digestivas apresentou dois episódios de enterorragia com intervalo de cerca de 1 ano. No segundo episódio, a colonoscopia identificou o sangramento como proveniente do óstio apendicular. RESULTADO: Indicada a exploração cirúrgica, constatou-se que o ceco e o íleo eram normais e que o apêndice cecal estava com sinais inflamatórios e bloqueado pelo omento, realizando-se a apendicectomia. O exame anatomopatológico revelou tratar-se de processo inflamatório crônico com infiltrado linfoplasmocitário e granulomas esparsos, sugestivo de doença de Crohn. Em acompanhamento clínico, não apresentou manifestações de doença digestiva e a colonoscopia, realizada após 2 anos, não mostrou evidências de recidiva ou propagação da doença para o íleo. CONCLUSÃO: Neste caso, como nos demais relatados na literatura, a apendicectomia é possivelmente curativa, devendo o paciente ser acompanhado, pelo menos, por 5 anos. No diagnóstico diferencial das enterorragias em pacientes jovens, a doença de Crohn isolada do apêndice também pode ser considerada.BACKGROUND: Crohn’s disease confined to the appendix is relatively rare as a sole primary manifestation of the disease. Young people are more affected. The medical history and the physical examination are similar to the findings in acute appendicitis, but the manifestations are protracted. On

  18. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C; Lopes, V

    1993-01-01

    A fictional story using publicity-type language was depicted in an AIDS prevention video produced by the Health in Prostitution Project in Rio de Janeiro to support its work with prostitutes. The video was produced through the volunteer efforts of a professional cast and crew who used cultural entertainment codes to raise awareness. Although both established and new actors participated, the cast was comprised of largely famous soap opera and movie artists. This approach was chosen was the understanding that Brazilians watch soap operas 4-5 hours/day and would therefore readily recognize and pay attention to messages conveyed by the protagonists. The video was shot 2 weeks before Carnival when most actors usually rest and received wide media coverage and attention from the public sector. Prostitutes participated in all stages of production, from script-writing to casting to final editing. The video, Venus Fire, describes a pleasure lottery of which the prize is a lucky condom. The video was officially released on World AIDS Day 1992, and broadcast nationwide in January 1993. It was then subsequently aired in public squares and other street worker sites with question-and-answer sessions and public debates among average audience of 200-300 people. Similar health projects elsewhere in Brazil have also show the film with very good audience response. The prostitutes are happy that their profession is being treated with respect, while clients are attracted by the sexy images.

  19. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  20. Lycopodiaceae in Brazil. Conspectus of the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øllgaard, Benjamin; Windisch, Paulo G.

    2014-01-01

    A conspectus of the Lycopodiaceae in Brazil is presented, following a generic classification based on anatomy, chromosome numbers, spores and gametophytes, as well as recent molecular studies. The species of Lycopodiaceae occurring in Brazil, traditionally treated conservatively, were grouped in ...

  1. Atividade proteolítica e lipolítica de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salames artesanais / Proteolytic and lipolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Carpiné

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cepas de bactérias lácticas de produtos cárneos fermentados sintetizam proteases e lipases. Estas enzimas contribuem para a formação do aroma e promovem alterações desejáveis na textura e flavour do produto. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a atividade proteolítica e lipolítica de 46 cepas de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea. A atividade proteolítica foi testada em dois meios contendo caseína e extrato de carne. Para os ensaios de verificação de lipólise também foram utilizados dois meios diferenciais usando o Ágar Base Tributirina, um com adição de Tributirina e o segundo meio com adição de banha de porco. A atividade enzimática foi mensurada pela formação de halos ao redor de colônias isoladas. Das cepas avaliadas mais de 80% apresentaram atividade proteolítica, enquanto que nenhuma das cepas apresentou atividade lipolítica. AbstractSome strains of lactic acid bacteria in meat products have the ability to synthesize proteases and lipases, enzymes which contribute for the development of the flavor and promote desirable texture alterations of the product. The objective of this research was to verify the lipolytic and proteolytic activity of 46 lactic acid bacteria strains, isolated from fermented sausages obtained from spontaneous fermentation. The proteolytic activity was tested in different medium supplemented with casein and meat extract. For the lipolytic assays Tributyrin Agar Base supplemented with tributyrin and pork fats were both used. The enzymatic activity was measured by zone formation around the isolated colonies. Among the evaluated strains more than 80% demonstrated proteolytic activity; however none of the strains presented lipolytic activity.

  2. Candidíase laríngea isolada em paciente imunocompetente: relato de caso e revisão literária pertinente Isolated laryngeal candidiasis in a immunocompetent patient: a case report and a literature review

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    Paulo S. L. Perazzo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Através de revisão de literatura, confirma-se que infecção laríngea por cândida é uma entidade rara e usualmente associada a infecção pulmonar ou candidíase disseminada¹. Candidíase em laringe de forma isolada (C.L.I. é uma patologia ainda mais rara, e comumente relacionada a pacientes imunodeficientes². Sabe-se que à laringoscopia direta, a candidíase pode apresentar achados físicos pobres como simples hiperemia local ou mesmo leucoplasia, mimetizando patologias como DRGE até neoplasias, fazendo, pois, parte do diagnóstico diferencial. Encontramos e documentamos em nosso serviço um caso de infecção por cândida de forma isolada em laringe (C.L.I. em paciente imunocompetente. Havia comprometimento laríngeo importante, inclusive com lesão deformante em epiglote, simulando processo neoplásico. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido por videolaringoscopia e 2 biópsias da lesão encontrada, sendo os materiais obtidos submetidos a 2 estudos histopatológicos. Tomamos o cuidado de afastar síndromes imunodeficitárias, inclusive de etiologia viral, através de pesquisa sorológica e investigação sobre abuso de corticoesteróides ou antibióticos sistêmicos. Fizemos o follow-up do paciente "per" e pós tratamento com antifúngico sistêmico, acompanhando evolução e melhora através da endoscopia e sinais clínicos.After a literature revision it is confirmed that the larynx candidiasis is rare and usually associated with lungs infection or systemic candidiasis. The larynx isolated form is more rare and seldom associated to immunological disease. It is known that through endoscopic examination, the candidiasis of larynx can show a single local erythema or leucoplasy, simulating G.E.R.D. or even neoplasia, which are the main differential diagnosis. We reported in our hospital an immunocompetent patient with isolated laryngeal candidiasis. There was an important involvement of larynx with degenerative lesions on epyglote, simulating

  3. ATIVIDADE RESPIRATÓRIA EM MITOCÔNDRIAS ISOLADAS DA POLPA DO MAMÃO UENF/CALIMAN 01 E TAINUNG 01 NA CONSERVAÇÃO DO FRUTO EM PÓS-COLHEITA

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    LÍGIA RENATA ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a atividade respiratória em mitocôndrias isoladas e os atributos físicos e químicos da polpade dois híbridos de mamão, UENF/Caliman01 (UC01 e Tainung01,durante o amadurecimento dos frutos. Oamadurecimento dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os genótipos na luminosidade (L, no croma (C e no ângulo hue da casca. A perda de massa (PMe as firmezas do fruto (FF e domesocarpo (FM diferiram entre os genótipos, sendo que a FF e a FM diminuíram com o tempo após a colheita,ao contrário da PM, que aumentou no mesmo período. A atividade respiratória nas mitocôndrias isoladas mostrou diferenças entre os genótipos quanto à respiração total (RT, sendo maior e decrescente no Tainung01 e constante no UC01 durante o amadurecimento dos frutos. Durante esse período, verificou-se que a participação da via oxidase alternativa (AOX foi crescente, contra uma participação decrescente da via citocromo oxidase (COX em ambos os híbridos, indicando um crescente desacoplamento das mitocôndrias, o que pode estar associado às rápidas transformações bioquímicas que acarretam a senescência do órgão. A partir desses resultados, sugere-se investigar materiais genéticos com menor atividade AOX, ou formas de minimizar a atividade respiratória nos frutos em pós-colheita. A AOX apresentou alta correlação positiva com a PM e negativa com a FF e a FM. O inverso foi observado para COX. A RT apresentou correlação positiva apenas com a FM. As correlações apontam a viabilidade de estimar a atividade respiratória por meiode análises mais simples, como a PM, a FF e a FM, facilitando a pesquisa na área.

  4. All about neosporosis in Brazil

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    Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990’s N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N. caninum and there are more than 200 papers on this subject from Brazil. However, most of the reports on neosporosis from Brazil are serological surveys. Overall, little is known of clinical neosporosis in Brazil, particularly cattle. The few reports pertain to sporadic cases of abortion with no information on epidemics or storms of abortion. The objective of the present review is to summarize all reports from Brazil and suggest topic for further research, including prevalence of N. caninum oocysts in soil or in canine feces, and determining if there are additional definitive hosts, other than the domestic dog. There is need for a national survey in cattle using defined parameters. Future researches should focus on molecular characterization of N. caninum strains, possibility of vaccine production and relationship between wildlife and livestock epidemiology.

  5. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

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    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  6. Brazil: Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Ludeña; Maria Netto

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the implications of GHG emissions reduction targets in the Brazilian economy it is important to understand the sector composition of these emissions in Brazil. According to the 2010 Second National Communications of Brazil to the UNFCCC, in 2005, the majority of Brazil's emissions (87.2%) corresponded to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  7. Flood model for Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palán, Ladislav; Punčochář, Petr

    2017-04-01

    Looking on the impact of flooding from the World-wide perspective, in last 50 years flooding has caused over 460,000 fatalities and caused serious material damage. Combining economic loss from ten costliest flood events (from the same period) returns a loss (in the present value) exceeding 300bn USD. Locally, in Brazil, flood is the most damaging natural peril with alarming increase of events frequencies as 5 out of the 10 biggest flood losses ever recorded have occurred after 2009. The amount of economic and insured losses particularly caused by various flood types was the key driver of the local probabilistic flood model development. Considering the area of Brazil (being 5th biggest country in the World) and the scattered distribution of insured exposure, a domain covered by the model was limited to the entire state of Sao Paolo and 53 additional regions. The model quantifies losses on approx. 90 % of exposure (for regular property lines) of key insurers. Based on detailed exposure analysis, Impact Forecasting has developed this tool using long term local hydrological data series (Agencia Nacional de Aguas) from riverine gauge stations and digital elevation model (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). To provide most accurate representation of local hydrological behaviour needed for the nature of probabilistic simulation, a hydrological data processing focused on frequency analyses of seasonal peak flows - done by fitting appropriate extreme value statistical distribution and stochastic event set generation consisting of synthetically derived flood events respecting realistic spatial and frequency patterns visible in entire period of hydrological observation. Data were tested for homogeneity, consistency and for any significant breakpoint occurrence in time series so the entire observation or only its subparts were used for further analysis. The realistic spatial patterns of stochastic events are reproduced through the innovative use of d-vine copula

  8. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  9. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  10. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular bacteria isolates from the cornea and conjunctiva to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas da córnea e da conjuntiva à moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina e outras fluoroquinolonas

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    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess and compare the in vitro susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. METHODS: A total of 154 bacterial ocular isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis were tested for sensitivity to the studied antibiotics, using the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Of the 51 corneal isolates, 46 (90.2% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 45 (88.2% to ofloxacin and 41 (80.4% to lomefloxacin. All corneal isolates were sensitive to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. Of the 103 bacterial conjunctival isolates, 101 (98.1% and 103 (100% were sensitive to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Two strains of Streptococcus sp viridans group were resistant to gatifloxacin. A total of 82 (79.6% specimens were sensitive to lomefloxacin, 89 (86.4% and 96 (93.2% to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fourth generation fluoroquinolones, herein exemplified by moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, seem to be more effective than previous generation fluoroquinolones against frequently encountered organisms isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis.OBJETIVOS: Conhecer e comparar a susceptibilidade in vitro de bactérias isoladas do olho à fluoroquinolonas, incluindo moxifloxacina e gatifloxacina. MÉTODOS: Um total de 154 bactérias isoladas de ceratites e conjuntivites foram submetidas a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana aos antibióticos usando o método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: Das 51 bactérias isoladas da córnea, 46 (90,2% foram sensíveis a ciprofloxacina, 45 (88,2% a ofloxacina e 41 (80,4% a lomefloxacina. Todas as bactérias isoladas da córnea foram sensíveis a moxifloxacina e a gatifloxacina. Das 103 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva 101 (98,1% e 103 (100% foram sensíveis a gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, respectivamente. Duas cepas de Streptococcus sp do grupo viridans mostraram-se resistentes à gatifloxacina. Um total de 82 (79,6% esp

  11. Oral health policies in Brazil

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    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  12. Caracterização preliminar de amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil Preliminary characterization of brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV

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    Sônia A. Botton

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata a caracterização inicial de 19 amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil, com relação a aspectos biológicos, antigênicos e moleculares. Onze amostras foram isoladas de fetos bovinos, seis foram obtidas do sangue de animais clinicamente saudáveis de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos e duas amostras foram isoladas de casos clínicos de enfermidade gastrentérica. Os casos de doença entérica afetaram animais jovens e cursaram com diarréia, às vezes sanguinolenta, erosões e ulcerações na mucosa oronasal e do trato digestivo, e eventualmente hemorragias digestivas e petéquias na vulva. Dezesseis amostras (84,2%, incluindo aquelas isoladas de fetos e dos casos clínicos, pertencem ao biotipo não-citopático (ncp. A replicação de outras três amostras (15,8%, foi caracterizada pelo aparecimento de vacuolização e destruição progressiva do tapete celular. A análise das amostras que produziram citopatologia, após clonagem, revelou tratar-se de populações mistas composta de vírus citopáticos (cp e não-citopáticos. A análise de polipeptídeos virais através de SDS-PAGE seguida de "Western-immunoblot" revelou a produção da proteína não-estrutural NS3/p80 em células infectadas com as amostras cp. Em contraste, não se evidenciou a geração da NS3/p80 em células infectadas com as amostras ncp que produziram apenas o polipeptídeo precursor NS23/p125. A subsequente análise de reatividade frente a um painel de 15 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma diversidade antigênica marcante entre os isolados, sobretudo na glicoproteína E2/gp53. Embora um AcM contra essa glicoproteína reagiu com 18 isolados (94,7%, outros nove AcMs anti-E2/gp53 reconheceram entre zero e 57,9% das amostras brasileiras. A grande variabilidade antigênica detectada entre as amostras brasileiras do BVDV pode ter importantes implicações para o diagnóstico e estratégias de controle e imuniza

  13. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

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    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-02-01

    íses desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a distribuição de S. enterica em crianças com diarreia aguda em Belo Horizonte e caracterizar as amostras isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O grupo de estudo consistiu de 157 crianças de nível socioeconômico baixo. Espécimes fecais foram empregados para pesquisa de leucóc itos e cultivo de Salmonella. As amostras isoladas foram sorotipadas e submetidas à avaliação do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos, da produção de betalactamases de amplo espectro (ESBL e da presença de marcadores de virulência (invA, iroB e spvC. RESULTADOS: Cinco/3,2% crianças apresentaram-se infectadas por S. enterica; três/60%, por S. enterica Typhimurium; uma/20%, por S. enterica Enteritidis; e uma/20%, por S. enterica subsp. enterica sorotipo 8,20:z4,z23:-. Leucócitos fecais foram detectados em dois dos cinco espécimes positivos para S. enterica. As amostras isoladas de três crianças apresentaram resistência a ácido nalidíxico, ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol e ácido nalidíxico + cloranfenicol + ampicilina. Nenhuma amostra produziu ESBL. Todas as amostras albergavam os genes invA e iroB. O marcador spvC foi observado em amostras isoladas de duas crianças infectadas por S. Typhimurium e S. Enteritidis. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que diarreia associada a S. enterica é raramente observada entre crianças da nossa região e indicam a necessidade de avaliação periódica do perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos da bactéria para orientar o estabelecimento de antibioticoterapia, quando indicada.

  14. Detection of virulence genes in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different sources Detecção de genes de virulência in Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de diferentes fontes

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    Sílvia Dias de Oliveira

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of three virulence genes, invA, spvR, and spvC, was determined in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from poultry, pigs, humans and food. All isolates were positive for the invA gene, with 91.2% being positive for spvR and 90.2% for spvC. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the virulence genes between isolates from different sources. The results indicate that there is a putative high virulence potential for the S. Enteritidis isolates characterized.A presença de três genes de virulência (invA, spvR e spvC foi determinada em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de aves, suínos, humanos e alimentos. Todos os isolados foram positivos para o gene invA, 91,2% também foram positivos para o spvR e 90,2% para o spvC. Não existiu diferença significativa na prevalência dos genes de virulência entre isolados de diferentes origens. Os resultados indicaram que, provavelmente, exista um alto potencial de virulência nos isolados de S. Enteritidis caracterizados.

  15. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection

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    Rogério Santos Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37°C por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L. was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  16. Resistência in vitro de cepas do Plasmodium falciparum isoladas no sul do estado do Pará, em diferentes períodos: emergência de casos de multirresistência

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    A. A. Couto

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avalia a resposta de cepas de Plasmodium falciparum às drogas antimaláricas, através de testes in vitro, isoladas em 7 municípios do sul do Estado do Pará. Foram efetuados 69 testes para cloroquina e mefloquina, 62 para amodiaquina e 61 para quinino. Os resultados mostram elevada resistência para cloroquina (71%, relativamente baixa resistência para amodiaquina com (25,8% e para o quinino apenas 8,2%. Mefloquina revela ampla sensibilidade (100%, mas, demonstrando perda da mesma quando comparada em dois períodos distintos. Evidenciou-se também cepas multirresistentes em dois dos municípios estudados.The responses of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs were evaluated through the in vitro test using blood sample collected from patients of 7 municipalities of the south of Pará State. Sixty nine microtests for chloroquine and mefloquine, 62 for amodiaquine and 61 for quinine were pet formed. The results showed a high resistance for chloroquine (71%, a relatively low resistance level for amodiaquine (25.8% and little resistance to quinine (8.2%. For mefloquine 100% of sensitivity was found.

  17. Promoção do crescimento vegetal e diversidade genética de bactérias isoladas de nódulos de feijão-caupi

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    Elaine Martins da Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de promoção do crescimento vegetal e a diversidade genética de bactérias isoladas de nódulos de feijão-caupi cultivado em solos do Cerrado piauiense. Avaliaram-se 26 estirpes quanto à capacidade de fixar nitrogênio em vida livre, solubilizar fosfatos inorgânicos, produzir ácido-3-indolacético (AIA na ausência e na presença do aminoácido triptofano (100 mg L-1, produzir nódulos e promover o crescimento de feijão-caupi em vasos Leonard. Nenhuma estirpe fixou nitrogênio em vida livre, e 69% foram capazes de solubilizar fosfato de cálcio in vitro. Na presença de triptofano, todas as estirpes foram capazes de sintetizar o AIA em meio 79, e 80% sintetizaram o AIA em meio DYGS. Apenas quatro estirpes nodularam o feijão-caupi. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA identificou as estirpes nodulíferas como pertencentes aos gêneros Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Bacillus e Paenibacillus. Entre as estirpes não nodulíferas promotoras do crescimento do feijão-caupi, estão os gêneros Bacillus e Paenibacillus.

  18. Potencial probiótico in vitro de bactérias ácido-láticas isoladas de queijo-de-minas artesanal da Serra da Canastra, MG

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    H.H.S. Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O potencial probiótico in vitro de 12 amostras de bactérias ácido-láticas (11 Lactobacillus spp. e uma Weissella paramesenteroides, isoladas de queijo-de-minas artesanal da Serra da Canastra, foi investigado. Essas amostras foram caracterizadas in vitro quanto à susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos, antagonismo contra microrganismos de referência patogênicos e não patogênicos e sensibilidade a pH gástrico e sais biliares. Apenas L. rhamnosus B4, W. paramesenteroides C10 e L. rhamnosus D1 apresentaram resistência a menor número de antimicrobianos (ceftazidima, oxacilina, estreptomicina e vancomicina. Todas as amostras apresentaram atividade antagonista frente a todas as bactérias patogênicas testadas e não inibiram as bactérias não patogênicas. Todas as amostras foram resistentes ao pH gástrico (2.0. Alguns microrganismos mostraram pouca inibição do crescimento em presença de sais biliares, enquanto outros foram moderadamente ou altamente inibidos. L. rhamnosus B4, W. paramesenteroides C10 e L.rhamnosus D1 apresentaram o melhor potencial probiótico de acordo com os testes in vitro realizados.

  19. Occurrence of adhesin-encoding operons in Escherichia coli isolated from breeders with salpingitis and chicks with omphalitis Ocorrência de operons codificadores de adesinas em Escherichia coli isolada de aves reprodutoras com salpingite e de pintinhos com onfalite

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    Terezinha Knöbl

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fim, pap and sfa operons in Escherichia coli isolated from breeders with salpingitis and chicks with omphalitis was evaluated. Analysis of 100 E. coli isolates, by colony hybridization tests, showed that 78 (78% were fim+, one (1% was sfa+, seven (7% were fim+ associated with pap+, eigth (8% were fim+ and sfa+, one (1% was fim+pap+sfa+ and five (5% isolates did not hybridize with any probe. These results suggest that fim adhesion-encoding operon plays an important role in pathogenesis of E. coli infection in chickens with salpingitis and omphalitis.Ocorrência dos operons fim, pap e sfa em amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de reprodutoras com salpingite e pintinhos com onfalite foi avaliada. A análise de 100 amostras através dos testes de hibridização de colônia mostrou que 78 (78% amostras eram fim+, uma (1% era sfa+, sete (7% eram fim+ associada a pap+, oito (8% eram fim+ e uma (1% era fim+pap+sfa+ e cinco (5% amostras não hibridizaram com nenhuma sonda. Estes resultados sugerem que o operon fim pode ter um importante papel na patogenia da infecção de Escherichia coli em reprodutoras com salpingite e pintinhos com onfalite.

  20. Genes de enterotoxinas, multirresistência a antimicrobianos e caracterização molecular de espécies de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de leite bovino orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Keller Siqueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A emergência de estafilococos multirresistentes e resistentes à meticilina, isolados de animais, alimentos e humanos é uma preocupação em saúde pública. Esses micro-organismos produzem diferentes toxinas relacionadas à intoxicação alimentar em humanos. Este estudo caracterizou Staphylococcus spp. isolados em duas fazendas orgânicas no Brasil. Foram coletadas 259 amostras de leite em duas propriedades leiteiras orgânicas, nas quais 58 (22,4% estirpes de Staphylococcus spp. foram isoladas. A maior sensibilidade dos isolados foi observada para ceftiofur e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim em 96,6%. Em contraste, acima de 89% de resistência dos estafilicocos foi encontrada para penicilina G. O gene mecA foi identificado em 13,8% dos isolados. SEA e SEC foram as enterotoxinas mais comumente detectadas. PFGE revelou heterogeneidade genética entre S. intermedius e S. warneri, enquanto S. aureus demonstraram perfis semelhantes entre isolados dos dois rebanhos estudados. Relata-se pela primeira vez no Brasil a detecção de enterotoxinas, o gene mecA e diversidade genética em estafilococos isolados de vacas em produção orgânica.

  1. Caracterização de estirpes de Campylobacter coli isoladas de carcaças de ovinos e de efluentes de abatedouro do estado de São Paulo

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    R.C. Fredrigo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Doença bacteriana zoonótica, a campilobacteriose é responsável mundialmente por frequentes casos de gastroenterite humana. Campylobacter spp. apresenta fator de virulência associado à diarreia, denominado toxina citoletal distensiva (CDT, sendo codificado pelos genes do complexo cdt. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: 1 isolar e identificar estirpes de Campylobacter spp. de 102 suabes de carcaças e 102 suabes retais de ovinos (Ovis aries e de sete amostras de água dos efluentes, antes e depois do tratamento de desinfecção de abatedouro localizado no estado de São Paulo; e 2 detectar, pela técnica de multiplex-PCR, a presença do complexo de genes cdt. Foram isoladas e identificadas, por métodos fenotípicos e genotípicos, sete estirpes de Campylobacter coli provenientes de 4/102 (3,92% das amostras de suabes retais, 1/102 (0,98% de suabes de carcaças e 2/7 (28,5% das águas dos efluentes. Dos isolados de suabes retais, em 2/7 (28,6% estirpes foi detectada a presença dos genes cdt. Trata-se do primeiro relato de isolamento de estirpes de Campylobacter coli provenientes de abatedouro de ovinos e das estirpes portadoras do complexo de genes cdt nessa espécie animal no Brasil.

  2. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  3. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  4. [Nuptiality among Brazil's black population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-08-01

    Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.

  5. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  6. Brazils Rise to Global Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Família, Real Plan, BRIC , Export Oriented Growth, Import Substitution Industrialization, South-South cooperation. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 113 16...61 F. CAPABILITIES COMPARED TO BRIC ..................................................62 1. India...Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China EU European Union FTA Free Trade Agreement G8 Group of Eight G20 Group of Twenty GNP

  7. Brazil well worth the wait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duey, R.

    1999-11-01

    Oil companies weren't the only ones waiting for Brazil to make up its mind about privatizing its oil and gas industry. Seismic firms are flocking to the area in droves to work their spec magic. Exploratory activities in these large offshore blocks are described.

  8. Surto de Trichophyton equinum var. equinum em eqüinos no sul do Brasil Outbreak of Trichophyton equinum var. equinum in horses in the south of Brazil

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    Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se, neste trabalho, um surto de dermatofitose eqüina no Sul do Brasil. Cinqüenta e oito animais jovens (55,2% apresentavam lesões clínicas características da enfermidade. O diagnóstico micológico realizado pela presença do fungo nos pêlos, associado às características macro e micromorfológicas das colônias isoladas em meio de cultivo, permitiram a classificação do dermatófito como Trichophyton equinum var. equinum.One outbreak of dermatophytosis in horses is described in south Brazil. Fifty eight young animals (55.2% presented clinical signs of the disease. The mycological diagnosis was realized through the presence of fungus in the hair, associated with the macro and micromorphologic characteristics of the isolated colonies in agar also allowed the dermatophyte´s classification as Trichophyton equinum var. equinum.

  9. Atividade farmacológica da monocrotalina isolada de plantas do gênero Crotalaria Pharmacological activity of monocrotalina isolated from plants of the genus Crotalaria

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    José E. R. Honório Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Crotalaria retusa é uma planta encontrada no Nordeste brasileiro, pertence ao gênero Crotalaria e à família Leguminosae, e possuem mais de seissentas espécies no mundo e mais de quarenta no Brasil. As variedades tóxicas mais conhecidas são C. spectabilis, C. crispata, C. retusa, C. dura e C. globifera. Plantas do gênero Crotalaria são de interesse porque são usadas na medicina popular. Esses gêneros são ricos em alcaloides pirrolizidínicos (AP, que são as principais toxinas e apresentam efeitos pneumotóxicos, nefrotóxicos, cardiotóxicos, fetotóxicos, carcinogênicos, inflamação, hemorragia e fibrose. A monocrotalina é o principal alcaloide pirrolizidínico encontrado nessas plantas e é ativamente oxidada in vivo pelo citocromo P450 no fígado, formando intermediários altamente reativos tipo pirrólicos que são responsáveis pela ligação cruzada do DNA-DNA e DNA-proteína. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento bibliográfico via internet, utilizando bancos de dados, programas de pesquisa científica e pesquisa em livros relacionados, acerca da atividade farmacológica e do mecanismo de ação da monocrotalina extraída de plantas do gênero Crotalaria, ressaltando desde os aspectos botânicos da planta, estrutura química dos alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, exemplos experimentais de toxicidade e provável mecanismo de ação.Crotalia retusa is a plant found in Brazilian Northeast and belongs to the genus Crotalaria and the family Leguminosae, which comprises more than 600 species throughout the world and more than forty in Brazil. The most known toxic species are C. spectabilis, C. crispata, C. retusa, C. dura and C. globifera. Plants of the Crotalaria genus are of great interest because they are used by humans for folk medicine. These plants are rich in pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA, which are the main toxins that cause effects such as pneumotoxic, nefrotoxic, cardiotoxic, fetotoxic, carcinogenic

  10. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from the milk of dairy cows in Brazil Isolamento de Arcobacter spp do leite de vacas leiteiras no Brasil

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    Celso Pianta

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriologic examinations were performed on 188 milk samples collected from cows from 11 farms for diagnosis of mastitis in three cities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Among the common causes of mastitis, the most frequent isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Corynebacterium sp, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus agalactiae. Bacteriologic examination of 32 milk samples from one farm didn't show bacteria known as common etiologic agent of mastitis. Six samples of Arcobacter spp typed by genotypic tests as Arcobacter cryaerophilus (five strains and Arcobacter butzleri (one strain were isolated from cows' milk of that farm. It is reported the isolation of Arcobacter species from the milk of cows in absence of clinical signs of mastitis. This is the first report of the detection of the microorganisms in the milk of dairy cows in Brazil. No previous reports are known from other countries.Foram realizados exames bacteriológicos em 188 amostras de leite colhidas de vacas de 11 propriedades leiteiras para diagnóstico de mastite, em três municípios no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Entre as causas comuns de mastite, os isolados mais freqüentes foram Staphylococcus aureus, seguido de Corynebacterium sp, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae e Streptococcus agalactiae. O exame bacteriológico realizado em 32 amostras de leite de vacas de uma propriedade não demonstrou a presença de bactérias conhecidas como causadoras de mastite. Foram isoladas do leite de vacas desta propriedade seis amostras de Arcobacter spp, classificadas por testes moleculares como Arcobacter cryaerophilus (cinco amostras e Arcobacter butzleri (uma amostra. É relatado o isolamento de espécies de Arcobacter do leite de vacas na ausência de sinais clínicos de mastite. Este é o primeiro relato da detecção dos microorganismos no leite de vacas leiteiras no Brasil.

  11. Current data on the characterization of oral clefts in Brazil Informações atuais sobre a caracterização das fissuras orofaciais no Brasil

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    José Alberto de Souza Freitas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the current distribution of the several types of clefts among the patients receiving treatment at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies (HRAC-USP, Bauru, Brazil, for the first time during the year 2000. A total of 803 unoperated patients with cleft lip and/or palate, with or without additional malformations, with no recognizable syndromes, who came to the HRAC-USP for enrollment for treatment during the year 2000. A predominance of complete cleft lip and palate, either unilateral or bilateral, was observed (37.1%, followed by isolated cleft palate (31.7% and isolated cleft lip (28.4%. A discrete relationship between cleft palate and the female gender was noticed (53%, and males were more affected by the other types of clefts (around 60%. The findings revealed a predominance of complete clefts of the primary and secondary palate, the treatment of which is more complex, and whose frequency is greater in males.Foi objetivo do presente estudo investigar a distribuição atual dos vários tipos de fissuras entre pacientes que compareceram ao Hospital de Reabilitação de Anomalias Craniofaciais (HRAC-USP, Bauru, Brasil, pela primeira vez, no ano de 2000. No total, 803 pacientes não operados com fissura de lábio e/ou palato, com ou sem malformações adicionais, sem síndromes reconhecíveis, compareceram ao HRAC-USP para inscrição para tratamento durante o ano de 2000. Foi observada predominância de fissura completa de lábio e palato, unilateral ou bilateral (37,1%, seguida pela fissura de palato isolada (31,7% e fissura de lábio isolada (28,4%. Foi notada uma relação discreta entre a fissura de palato e o gênero feminino (53%, sendo o gênero masculino mais afetado pelos outros tipos de fissuras (cerca de 60%. Os achados revelaram uma predominância de fissuras completas do palato primário e secundário, cujo tratamento é mais complexo, e uma maior ocorrência no gênero masculino.

  12. Perfil genotípico e antigênico de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul (2000-2010

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    Eloisa Bianchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV apresentam grande diversidade genética e antigênica, o que pode dificultar o diagnóstico e a formulação de vacinas. O presente trabalho apresenta um perfil genotípico e antigênico de 20 amostras do BVDV isoladas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre 2000 e 2010. As amostras foram oriundas de uma variedade de condições clínicas, que incluíam doença respiratória ou gastroentérica aguda ou crônica, lesões cutâneas, abortos, animais com crescimento retardado, além de animais persistentemente infectados (PI. A maioria das amostras (19 ou 95% pertence ao biótipo não-citopático (NCP; enquanto um isolado apresentou uma mistura de vírus NCP e citopático (CP. O sequenciamento e análise filogenética de uma região de 270 nucleotídeos da região 5' não-traduzida do genoma viral permitiu identificar 9 isolados de BVDV-2 (45% e 8 isolados de BVDV-2 (40%. Três amostras não agruparam filogeneticamente com nenhum dos genótipos, sendo classificados como pestivírus atípicos. Não foi possível associar os genótipos ou subgenótipos com as condições clínicas e, tanto os BVDV-1 quanto os BVDV-2 estavam envolvidos em diferentes síndromes clínico-patológicas. Análise de reatividade com um painel de 19 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma variabilidade marcante na glicoproteína principal do envelope (E2 entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e sobretudo, entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Testes de neutralização viral (SN com anti-soro de cepas de referência de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 frente às amostras isoladas revelaram níveis variáveis de reatividade cruzada entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e reatividade muito baixa ou ausente entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Esses resultados indicam uma frequência semelhante de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 na população estudada, confirmam a marcante variabilidade antigênica e reforçam a necessidade de se incluir vírus dos dois genótipos nas

  13. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

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    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. Con

  14. Avaliação da resistência a antibióticos de bactérias isoladas de efluente hospitalar = Evaluation of resistance to antibiotics of bacteria isolated from hospital effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Tavares Abreu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de antibióticos está entre as principais causas de resistência bacteriana. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se o esgoto do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá (HUM apresentava bactérias patogênicas resistentes a antibióticos. Asamostras foram coletadas em dois pontos, um de todo o hospital e outro do Hemocentro. Foram semeados 100 μL nas diluições 10-2, 10-3 e 10-4 nos meios de culturas Ágar Mac Conkey, Ágar Salmonella-Shigella, Ágar Manitol Salgado e Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose. As amostras foram submetidas à identificação bacteriana e ao antibiograma. A identificação bacteriana se baseou na bacterioscopia por coloração de Gram e provas bioquímicas. Os antibiogramas foram feitos de acordo com a metodologia de difusão de disco em Ágar Müeller-Hinton, e foram utilizados 12 antibióticos nesses testes. Foram isoladas eidentificadas 39 amostras, e dentre estas, 18 espécies apresentaram resistência e moderada resistência pelo menos para um dos antibióticos. Bactérias isoladas e identificadas como K. pneumoniae, E.coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae e C. freundii apresentaram resistência para quase todos os antibióticos testados. Verificou-se que o HUM lança, na rede pública coletora de esgoto, bactérias com multirresistência a determinados antibióticos. Portanto, torna-se necessária a implantação de sistema eficiente de tratamento de efluentes no HUM. The massive use of antibiotics is among the leading causes of bacterial resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the sewage of the Maringá Regional University Hospital (HUM has pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The samples were collected at two sites, one from the entire hospital and the other from the blood bank. 100 mL were inserted in dilutions of 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4 in cultures Mac Conkey Agar, Salmonella-Shigella Agar, Mannitol Salt Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The samples were subjected to

  15. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy inspontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: case report Paralisia isolada do nervo oculomotor na dissecção de artéria carótida interna: relato de caso

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    Cynthia Resende Campos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial oculosympathetic palsy followed by ischemic manifestations in brain or retina are the main symptoms of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA dissection. Unusually, cranial nerves may be affected. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is found only rarely. CASE: We present a 50-year-old nondiabetic man who experienced acute onset of right occipital headache which spread to the right retro-orbital region. Five days later he noticed diplopia and right blurred vision sensation. Neurologic examination disclosed only impaired adduction and upward gaze of right eye, slight ipsilateral pupillary dilatation, without ptosis. Brain MRI was normal. Angiography showed right internal carotid artery dissection with forward occlusion to the base of the skull. Intravenous heparin followed by warfarin was prescribed. The headache and the oculomotor nerve deficit gradually resolved in the next three weeks. DISCUSSION: Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is underrecognized as a clinical presentation of extracranial ICA dissection. If the angiographic evaluation is incomplete without careful study of extracranial arteries, misdiagnosis may lead to failure to initiate early treatment to prevent thromboembolic complications. For this reason we draw attention to the need for careful evaluation of cervical arteries in patients with oculomotor nerve palsy. Mechanical compression or stretching of the third nerve are possible mechanisms, but the direct impairment of the blood supply to the third nerve seems to be the most plausible explanation.A paralisia oculosimpática parcial (síndrome de Horner seguida por manifestações isquêmicas cerebrais ou retinianas são os principais sintomas da dissecção da artéria carótida interna (ACI extracraniana. O acometimento de nervos cranianos é incomum. Apenas raramente a paralisia isolada do nervo oculomotor pode ser encontrada. CASO: homem de 50 anos, sem diabetes, apresentou cefaléia occipital de início s

  16. Sobrevida em longo prazo de octogenários submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica isolada Long-term survival of octogenarian patients submitted to isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pivatto Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um crescente número de pacientes octogenários tem sido submetido à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM. Os resultados em curto prazo desse procedimento têm sido amplamente estudados, mas há poucos relatos nacionais até o presente momento sobre os seus desfechos em longo prazo. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a mortalidade hospitalar e a sobrevida em longo prazo de pacientes com idade 80 anos submetidos à CRM isolada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 142 pacientes consecutivos de idade 80 anos submetidos à CRM isolada no período de janeiro/1996 a dezembro/2007. A idade média (±dp foi de 82,3±2,1 anos e 56,3% eram masculinos. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi de 73,2%, infarto agudo do miocárdio prévio 30,3%, diabetes melito 26,8% e disfunção renal (creatinina ³ 2,0mg/ml 4,9%. A mediana do seguimento foi de 4,0 anos, havendo perda de 11,6% dos pacientes. A análise da sobrevida foi feita pela curva de Kaplan-Meier. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade hospitalar geral foi de 14,8% (IC95%: 8,8-20,8, observando-se uma redução desse percentual ao longo do período estudado (1996-1999: 25,9%, 2000-2003: 15,8% e 2004-2007: 8,6%. A média de sobrevida foi de 6,5 anos (IC95%: 5,5-7,5, sendo a taxa de sobrevida em 1, 3 e 5 anos de 83,3, 79,5 e 77,3%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A média de sobrevida foi de 6,5 anos, sendo a taxa em 5 anos de 77,3%, dados condizentes com a literatura internacional.INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of octogenarian patients is undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG. The short-term results of this procedure have been broadly studied, but there are few national reports on long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To describe hospital mortality and long-term survival of patients aged > 80 years undergoing isolated CABG. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with 142 consecutive patients aged > 80 years undergoing isolated CABG in the period between January/1996

  17. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil Solubilização de fosfato inorgânico insolúvel por Burkholderia cepacea DA23 isolada de solo cultivado

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    Ok-Ryul Song

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation.Uma bactéria capaz de solubilizar fosfato mineral, Burkholderia cepacea DA23, foi isolada de solo cultivado. A capacidade dessa bactéria solubilizar o fosfato de três tipos de fosfato insolúvel foi quantificada. Quando foi utilizada glicose a 3% como fonte de carbono, a bactéria apresentou uma intensa atividade solubilizante de fosfato, sendo a solubilização diretamente relacionada com a queda de pH causada pela bactéria. A análise do meio de cultura por cromatografia líquida de alta pressão indicou o ácido glicônico como principal ácido produzido por Burkholderia cepacea DA23. Aparentemente, a produção de ácido glicônico foi causada pela atividade da glicose desidrogenase. A enzima foi afetada pela regulação do fosfato.

  18. In vitro effect of josamycin in strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from pulmonar infections in foals / Efeito in vitro da josamicina em cepas de rhodocaccus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Galvão Dias Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Antmicrobial susceptibility test was performed in thirty-one samples of Rhodococcus equi isolated from iung infections in foals. Among the antimicrobial tosted, erythromycin (100,0 %, rifampin (96.3%. neomycin (93,6 %Josamycin (90,4% and gentamicin (90,4 %presented the highest sensitivity against R- equi- The most-common occurrence of resistance was observed from cephalexim (100,0 %}, lincomycin (100,0 %, cephalothin (96,3 %. oxacillin (96,8 %, penicillin G (96,8 %, amoxicillin (90,3 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83,8 %. The highest susceptibility of the R. equi to josamycin, suggest the drug as alternative for therapy of R. equi infections in foals.Procedeu-se o teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro pelo teste de difusão com discos em 31 cepas de Rhodococcus equi. isoladas de afecções pulmonares cm potros. frente a 20 antimicrobianos. Os maioires índices de sensibilidade de R. equi foram constatados para entromicina (100,0 %, níampicina (96.8 %}t ncomicina (93. 6 %. josamicina (90.4% e gentamicina (90A %. Os maiores índices de resistência do agente foram verificados para cefalexina (100,0%, lincomicina (100.0%, cefalotina (96.8 %, oxacilino (96,8 %}, penicilina G (96,3 %, amoxicilina (90.3 % e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (83,8 %. A alta sensibilidade das cepas de R. equi para a josamicina, sugere a possibilidade de utilização da droga como alternativa no tratamento da rodococose em potros.

  19. Hidroxiapatita e quitosana isoladas e associadas à medula óssea no reparo do tecido ósseo em coelhos. Estudo histológico e morfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adílio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o processo de regeneração óssea em coelhos através da utilização da hidroxiapatita e da quitosana isoladas e associadas à medula óssea. Foram utilizados 20 coelhos adultos, de ambos os sexos, da raça Nova Zelândia e pesando em média 3,0±0,4kg. Os animais foram divididos ao acaso de acordo com dois momentos experimentais, sendo que 10 animais foram submetidos à eutanásia 30 dias após a cirurgia, e 10, 60 dias após a cirurgia. Foram utilizados quatro implantes que constituíram os grupos. Os materiais foram introduzidos em defeitos criados cirurgicamente na metáfise proximal (MP e distal (MD de cada fêmur, de modo que a quitosana foi introduzida na MP e a hidroxiapatita na MD do membro esquerdo e, no membro direito, além dos implantes, foi adicionada medula óssea. Na avaliação histológica descritiva comparativa, constatou-se que os grupos QUI e QUIMO, em ambos os momentos estudados, estimularam reações mais acentuadas e aceleraram o reparo ósseo. Na análise morfométrica, os grupos QUI e QUIMO diferiram estatisticamente dos outros grupos, tendo sido observada maior formação óssea (P<0,05.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L. e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe frente a salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Majolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L. e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-MS. A atividade antibacteriana foi realizada com o emprego de técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de gengibre se mostrou expressivamente mais eficiente do que o óleo de açafrão, tanto em termos de ação bacteriostática (concentração inibitória mínima de 2500 a 5000 µg.mL-1 quanto bactericida (concentração bactericida mínima de 5000 a 10000 µg.mL-1 observando-se variação apenas em duas as amostras em termos de resistência a ação bactericida deste óleo. Assim, o óleo essencial de gengibre, representa uma alternativa para o controle de Salmonella enterica, entretanto, demais estudos abordando o sinergismo com alimentos são indicados.

  1. Study of bacteria isolated from the foot pad of Spheniscus magellanicus with and without bumblefoot Estudo de bactérias isoladas de coxins plantares de Spheniscus magellanicus com e sem bumblefoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Osório

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bumblefoot or pododermatitis is among the diseases with the highest morbidity in Magellanic penguins, sometimes evolving to septicemia and death. Therefore, this study aimed to relate the main species involved in the disorder, as well as the in vitro susceptibility profile of the microorganisms against routine antimicrobial usage in Veterinary Medicine. During two years in vivo material was harvested from 200 footpads (n=100 animals for microbiological analysis and in vitro susceptibility tests against the Antibiotic enrofloxacin, streptomycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. Bacteria have been identified both as part of permanent and transient microbiota, also being associated to 100% of the pododermatitis cases. The most prevalent genus were Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. The antibiograms of all the isolated bacteria resulted in greater susceptibility of the strains facing cephalosporin, followed by enrofloxacin, streptomycin and penicillin.O bumblefoot ou pododermatite está entre as afecções de maior morbidade em pinguins-de-magalhães, podendo evoluir para septicemia e óbito. Portanto, o presente estudo objetivou relacionar as principais espécies bacterianas envolvidas na afecção, bem como o perfil de susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente a antimicrobianos de uso rotineiro em medicina veterinária. Durante o período de dois anos, foi realizada colheita de material in vivo de 200 coxins plantares (n=100 animais para análise microbiológica e testes de susceptibilidade in vitro frente aos antibióticos enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, penicilina e cefalosporina. Bactérias foram identificadas tanto como parte da microbiota permanente quanto da transitória, bem como estiveram associadas a 100% dos casos de pododermatite. Os gêneros mais prevalentes foram Staphylococcus e Corynebacterium. Os antibiogramas de todas as bactérias isoladas resultaram em maior sensibilidade das cepas frente à cefalosporina, seguida

  2. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia; Souzas, Raquel; Universidade Federal da Bahia; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  3. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  4. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. National epilepsy movement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P T Fernandes; Noronha, A. L. A.; Sander, J. W.; L. M. Li

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a social network of epilepsy lay organization in Brazil to provide advocacy for people with epilepsy and eventually forma powerful National Epilepsy movement. Method.-We actively searched for any associations, support groups or organizations related to epilepsy in the country by personal contacts, internet search and by telephone search. Contact was then established with any entity found. Results: The first meeting was held in Campinas in March 2003, and was attended by ...

  7. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-03

    Currently at least ten bilateral mechanisms are in place through which U.S. and Brazilian government and business leaders interface on issues of...base, 430 kilograms of crack cocaine, 182 metric tons of marijuana, 12 kilograms of heroin, 125,706 dosage units of ecstasy , and 95,653 dosage units of...States continue to work together to address intellectual property issues, primarily through the U.S.-Brazil Bilateral Consultative Mechanism and the

  8. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  9. Brazil, A Potential World Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-22

    inadequate transportation system. Much of the difficulty in exploiting the great natural wealth of the country has been the direct result of a poor ...exploding birth rate and high infant mortality; great wealth and degrading poverty . Much of the poverty and high mortality can be attributed to a vicious...circle of poverty creating ignorance and ignorance creating poverty . Brazil’s population is about 80 million and has been increas- ing at the rate of

  10. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  11. Laserterapia e microcorrente na cicatrização de queimadura em ratos: terapias associadas ou isoladas? Laserterapia y microcorriente en la cicatrización de quemaduras en ratas: ¿terapias asociadas o aisladas? Low-level laser therapy and micro current in burn wound healing in rats: associated or isolated therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu Freitas; Ana Paula Medeiros de Barcelos; Brenda Medeiros da Nóbrega; Aline Barbosa Macedo; Anderson Rodrigues de Oliveira; Ana Maria de Oliveira Ramos; Wouber Hérickson de Brito Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo teve o objetivo de investigar se há diferenças entre as terapias associadas e isoladas do laser e microcorrentes no reparo de lesão por queimadura em ratos. Um total de 40 animais foi dividido aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: grupo controle (GC); grupo microcorrente (GM), grupo laser (GL) e grupo laser/microcorrente (GLM), tratados com laser associado a microcorrentes. Após lesões térmicas induzidas no dorso do animal, foi realizado um total de dez dias de tratamento. Amostras do ...

  12. Estudo de vigilância bacteriológica: isolamento, fatores de virulência e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas de Escherichia coli isoladas de gatos domésticos na região de Ribeirão Preto

    OpenAIRE

    Caliman, Marly Cristina Wanderley [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias de origem animal tem se caracterizado como importante problema de saúde pública. No Brasil, muitos trabalhos têm verificado a presença de fatores de virulência e resistência em cepas de Escherichia coli isoladas de animais de produção, porém há poucos estudos avaliando estes aspectos em animais de companhia. O presente trabalho verificou o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e a presença dos genes codificadores de adesinas (pap, sfa, afa), de intimina ...

  13. Malassezia pachydermatis: enzymes production in isolates from external ear canal of dogs with and without otitis Malassezia pachydermatis: produção de enzimas por amostras isoladas do conduto auditivo externo de cães com e sem otite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.A. Coutinho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between production of enzymes and pathogenicity of Malassezia pachydermatis strains was studied. Thirty strains of M. pachydermatis isolated from dogs were used: 15 originating from animals with external otitis and 15 obtained from ears of asymptomatic dogs. The samples, obtained by introduction of a sterile swab into the auditory canal after cleaning the auricle with alcohol-ether solution, were seeded onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (100mg/l and were incubated at 37°C for up to two weeks. The colonies were identified according to their macro-and-micromorphology. All strains were investigated for the production of chondroitin-sulphatase, hyaluronidase, phospholipase and proteinase. Most of the strains showed a high production of the four enzymes. Statistical analysis did not show any differences in the enzymatic activity among the strains. M. pachydermatis originating in normal microbiota as well as in otic secretion from dogs with otitis could produce the four researched enzymes. Probably M. pachydermatis has other virulence factors that are involved in the parasitism.Pesquisou-se a possível relação entre a produção de enzimas e a patogenicidade de Malassezia pachydermatis. Foram estudadas 30 cepas de M. pachydermatis provenientes de cães: 15 isoladas de animais com otite externa e 15 isoladas de condutos auditivos de animais assintomáticos. As amostras, obtidas pela introdução de uma zaragatoa no conduto auditivo, após limpeza do pavilhão auricular com solução de álcool-éter, foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol (100mg/l e incubadas a 37°C por até duas semanas. As colônias foram identificadas por meio de estudo macro e micromorfológico. As amostras isoladas foram investigadas quanto à produção das enzimas condroitina-sulfatase, hialuronidase, fosfolipase e proteinase. A maioria delas mostrou alta produção das quatro enzimas pesquisadas. A an

  14. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  15. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  16. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  17. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  18. US and Brazil: Prospective National Security Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Chapter 5, “National Security,” data as of April 1997. Maxwell, Kenneth. “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” Article published by Council on Foreign...22. [22] Kenneth Maxwell, “George W., King Canute , and Brazil,” article published by Council on Foreign Relations, 15 Dec 2000. (Hereafter referred

  19. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  20. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  1. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  2. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  3. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  4. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  5. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  6. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  7. Acute bacterial meningitis in HIV, pacients in southern Brazil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Meningite bacteriana aguda em portadores de HIV, no sul do Brasil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute communitarian bacterial meningitis and AIDS are prevalent infectious disease in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of acute communitarian bacterial meningitis in AIDS patients, the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF characteristics. It was reviewed the Health Department data from city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2002. During this period, 32 patients with AIDS fulfilled criteria for acute bacterial meningitis, representing 0.84% of the AIDS cases and 1.85% of the cases of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae was the most frequent bacteria isolated. The number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils were higher and CSF glucose was lower in the group with no HIV co-infection (p 0.12; 0.008; 0.04 respectively. Bacteria not so common causing meningitis can occur among HIV infected patients. The high mortality rate among pneumococcus meningitis patients makes pneumococcus vaccination important.A meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária e a AIDS são doenças prevalentes no Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária entre os pacientes com AIDS e as características clínicas e do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR. Foram revistos os dados da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, nos anos de 1996 a 2002. Nesse período, 32 pacientes com AIDS preencheram os critérios para meningite bacteriana aguda, representando 0,84% dos casos com AIDS e 1,85% dos casos com meningite bacteriana aguda. A bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada foi S. pneumoniae. A celularidade total e a porcentagem de neutrófilos no LCR foi mais elevada e a glicose foi mais baixa no grupo sem co-infecção (p 0,12; 0,008; 0,04 respectivamente. Bactérias menos freqüentes como agentes etiológicos de meningite podem ocorrer. A taxa de mortalidade elevada entre pacientes com meningite por pneumococo torna a vacinação importante.

  8. H3 internationalization to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics h3 is a Portuguese firm competing in the fast food market with a hamburger gourmet concept. The firm is now a strong player in Portugal (39 stores); Poland, Warsaw (1 store); Spain, Madrid (1 store) and Brazil, São Paulo (2 stores). As a result of their successes in the domestic market, internationalization was a natural step. One o...

  9. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  10. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  11. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina MEZZARI

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.A prevalência de dermatófitos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RS, foi analisada de modo retrospectivo durante o período de junho de 1981 a junho de 1995. As espécies de dermatófitos foram isoladas de amostras de pele, pêlos e unhas, em duas instituições de Porto Alegre: Serviço de Micologia de Insituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul, que atende predominantemente as classes sociais B e C e Laboratório Weinmann, que atende predominantemente as classes sociais A e B. Observou-se o predomínio do dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum (55.33% seguido pelo Trichophyton mentagrophytes (21.46%. Os dados coletados foram

  12. Modified E-test by the addition of EDTA-Tris and dimethyl sulfoxide on the potentiation of the effects of some antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis E-test modificado pela adição de Tris-EDTA e dimetilsulfóxido na potencialização do efeito de antimicrobianos em linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina

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    M.G. Ribeiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A concentração inibitória mínima-MIC em 30 estirpes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina foi avaliada utilizando o E-test padrão e o método modificado, pela adição de Tris-EDTA e DMSO. Os métodos modificados apresentaram redução significativa da MIC das estirpes utilizando a gentamicina, a ciprofloxacina e a norfloxacina.

  13. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae against oral pathogens Determinação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos brutos e substâncias isoladas de Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae frente à patógenos bucais

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    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.Extratos brutos de Hortia oreadica, forneceram quatro derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico, que foram isolados do extrato n-hexânico, bem como as substâncias guianina e dictamina, isoladas do extrato em diclorometano. Os extratos brutos e as substâncias isoladas foram avaliados frente a alguns patógenos bucais com o objetivo de investigar a atividade antibacteriana. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato bruto n-hexânico e a substância dictamina foram os mais ativos frente ao conjunto de microrganismos avaliados.

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese against indicator microorganisms

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    L.G. Guedes Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (PFour strains of Lactobacillus spp. and two strains of Lactococcus spp. were isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese and tested for inhibitory activity. It was observed antagonistic activity of the lactic acid bacteria against themselves and other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens isolated from the same cheese samples, as well as against pathogenic strains from other sources. Significant difference (P<0.05 was observed among the antagonistic activities, except when lactic acid bacteria were used as indicator. From the tested bacteria, Lactobacillus spp. showed the strongest antagonistic activity.

  15. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae sobre Aedes aegypti Evaluation of larvicidal activity of triterpenoid saponins isolated of Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae and Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae against Aedes aegypti

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    G.M.P. Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4 isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5 isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressaltam as potencialidades destas saponinas como possíveis agentes larvicidas naturais.The larvicidal activity of the four monodesmoside saponins (1-4 isolated from Pentaclethra macroloba and one bidesmoside saponin (5 from Cordia piauhiensis was evaluated on 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The larvae were exposed to serial concentrations (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/mL saponins for a period of 24 h. The results indicate that, only the saponins 1-3 showed high larvicidal activity, with LC50 ranging of 18,6-27,9 mg/mL. These results suggest that these can be used as natural larvicidal agents.

  16. MARCADORES DE PATOGENICIDADE EM Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS DO RIO DE JANEIRO Genetic markers of pathogenicity in Yersinia enterocolitica O: 3 isolated from healthy pigs from Rio de Janeiro

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    Tereza C. A. Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a caracterização genotípica e fenotípica de fatores de patogenicidade em 16 amostras de Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 isoladas de suínos sadios do Rio de Janeiro. Foi observado que apenas 6 cepas possuíam o plasmídio de virulência, pYV (+ 70 kb e apresentavam dependência ao cálcio no meio MOX a 37C. Um plasmídio críptico de cerca de 8,6 kb foi encontrado em uma cepa. Doze cepas revelaram sensibilidade à pesticina enquanto que apenas três se revelaram capazes de hidrolisar a esculina. Através de PCR com "primers" específicos, foi constatada a presença dos genes ail em 14 cepas, irp2, em 1 cepa e a ausência de psaA em todas as cepas analisadas. Quanto aos quimioterápicos, a quase totalidade das cepas mostrou-se ao mesmo tempo resistente à ampicilina e carbenicilina e sensível ao sulfazotrin e à cefoxitina. As respostas foram variadas frente ao cloranfenicol, tetraciclina, kanamicina, gentamicina e ácido nalidíxo.Sixteen Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 strains, isolated from pigs from Rio de Janeiro, have been analyzed for genetic and phenotypic markers of pathogenicity. It was observed that only 6 strains harbored the pYV (+70 kb plasmid and one strain harbored a small cryptic plasmid of about 8.6 kb. Accordingly only strains harboring pYV were calcium dependent in the MOX medium at 370C. Twelve strains showed pesticin sensitivity and the esculin reaction was negative in 13 strains. PCR analysis of pathogenicity genes using specific primers showed the presence of the ail gene in 14 strains, the irp2 gene in one and the psaA in none. Most of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, although they were susceptible to sulfazotrin and cefoxitin. For chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, gentamicin and nalidixic acid the results varied among the strains.

  17. Production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus and of fumonisins by Fusarium species isolated from Brazilian sorghum Avaliação da toxigenidade das cepas de Aspergillus flavus e Fusarium spp. isoladas de amostras de sorgo

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    Josefa B. da Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-nine Aspergillus flavus and 35 Fusarium verticillioides strains, isolated from freshly harvested (10 and stored (130 Brazilian sorghum samples, were tested regarding their ability to produce aflatoxins (coconut milk agar and fumonisins (rice culture, respectively. Aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected by TLC, and fumonisins B1 and B2 were analyzed by HPLC. Thirty-eight (64.4% A. flavus strains produced detectable levels of aflatoxins at concentrations ranging from 12.00 to 3282.50 µg/kg (AFB1 + AFB2, while thirty two (91% F. verticillioides strains produced FB1 at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 5.38 µg/g. Two F. proliferatum strains produced low fumonisin levels. The toxigenic potential of A. flavus (64.4% and F. verticillioides (91.5% strains observed in sorghum samples indicates that rigorous control should be directed at the storage conditions of these products to minimize contamination with toxigenic deteriorating fungi, preventing further hazard to human and animal health.A produção de aflatoxinas por 59 cepas de Aspergillus flavus e fumonisinas por 35 cepas de Fusarium verticillioides isoladas de amostras de grãos de sorgo recém colhido (10 amostras e armazenado (130 amostras, foram avaliadas. A detecção de aflatoxinas (AFB1 e AFB2 foi efetuada por Cromatografia em Camada Delgada (CCD e fumonisinas (FB1 e FB2 foram analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Os resultados demonstram a produção de AFB1 e AFB2 em 38 cepas (64,4% de A. flavus cujos níveis variaram de 12,00 a 3282,50 µg/kg. Referente às cepas de F. verticillioides, 32 (91% produziram FB1, nas concentrações de 0,12 a 5,38 µg/g. Baixos níveis de fumonisinas foram detectados em 2 cepas de F. proliferatum. A constatação da potencialidade toxígena das cepas de A. flavus (64,4% e de F. verticillioides (91,5% nesta investigação, revelam a importância da pesquisa de aflatoxinas e fumonisinas nas amostras de sorgo. Diante disto

  18. Detecção dos genes da toxina citoletal distensiva em estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni isoladas de carcaças de frangos Detection of cytolethal distending toxin genes in strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler carcasses

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    A.F. Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 80 amostras de sobrecoxas de frangos de corte resfriados provenientes de feiras livres e hipermercados do município de São Paulo, SP. Treze estirpes de Campylobacter spp. foram isoladas em 10 (12,5% sobrecoxas, sendo cinco amostras originárias de feiras livres e cinco de hipermercados. Onze estirpes foram identificadas como Campylobacter jejuni e duas como Campylobacter coli. As 11 estirpes foram confirmadas como C. jejuni pela PCR do gene da hipuricase (hip, e destas, quatro (36,4% apresentaram os três genes (cdtA, cdtB e cdtC codificantes da toxina citoletal distensiva pela multiplex-PCR, sendo três estirpes provenientes de hipermercados e uma de feira livre. Observou-se a presença de estirpes virulentas de C. jejuni, portadoras do complexo de genes cdt, nas amostras de frango resfriado, não só na linha de abate, mas até o ponto final da cadeia de distribuição, nos dois principais centros de venda a varejo.Eighty samples of refrigerated broiler thighs purchased in street markets and supermarkets in the city of São Paulo, SP, were analyzed. Thirteen Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated in 10 (12.5% thighs, five of them from street market samples and other five from supermarkets. Eleven strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and two of them as Campylobacter coli. The 11 strains were confirmed to be C. jejuni using PCR for hippuricase (hip gene. From these, multiplex-PCR showed that four (36.4% strains presented the three genes (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC encoding cytolethal distending toxin: three strains from supermarket and one from street market samples. These results are important, because they demonstrate the presence of virulent C. jejuni strains in refrigerated broiler thigh samples, not only in the slaughterhouse but in the final point of the distribution chain, at the two most important food retail commercer.

  19. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de epífitos vasculares sobre figueiras isoladas no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Gonçalves Cezar Neubert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com epífitos vasculares no Brasil normalmente não consideram árvores isoladas em áreas antropizadas, as quais permitem o estabelecimento e preservação de uma porção representativa da flora epifítica original. Neste trabalho, enfoca-se a composição florística dos epífitos vasculares em espécimes isolados de Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq. no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. A área de estudo fica situada no entorno da cidade de Terra de Areia (29°35' S e 50°04' W, com clima subtropical úmido (Cfa. Sessenta árvores foram inventariadas. Foram encontradas 77 espécies, 33 gêneros e 10 famílias. A família Orchidaceae e o gênero Tillandsia L. apresentaram os maiores números de espécies. A categoria ecológica mais diversificada foi a dos holoepífitos, com 69 espécies, a maioria delas apresentando a suculência como adaptação para o estresse hídrico. A proporção de espécies anemocóricas (51 foi praticamente o dobro das zoocóricas (26. A percentagem das espécies epifíticas, em relação à flora epifítica regional, foi de 30,8%. A proporção de Orchidaceae foi relativamente menor, provavelmente devido a maiores exigências em relação aos hábitats florestais originais. A família com maior importância fisionômica foi Bromeliaceae. O predomínio das espécies anemocóricas sobre as zoocóricas, nas árvores amostradas, é menor do que em áreas com florestas preservadas.

  20. Uso de diferentes fontes de carbono por estirpes de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isoladas de cana-de-açúcar Use of different carbon sources by strains of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolated from sugarcane

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    Edilene Alves Barbosa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a população de Gluconactobacter diazotrophicus presente em plântulas de 34 variedades de cana-de-açúcar, e caracterizar os isolados quanto à capacidade de utilizar diversas fontes de carbono e formar pigmento róseo em presença de luz. A população de G. diazotrophicus foi quantificada pela técnica do número mais provável e isolada em meios de cultura semi-seletivos. A população de G. diazotrophicus foi maior no sistema radicular do que na parte aérea, e maior nas variedades brasileiras de cana-de-açúcar. Os isolados utilizaram poucas fontes de carbono, e aqueles obtidos do sistema radicular utilizaram maior número de fontes, em comparação aos da parte aérea. Apenas a estirpe padrão Ppe-4 e quatro outros isolados formam pigmento róseo em presença de luz. A baixa variação observada pode estar relacionada com o habitat ou com a adaptação dessa população às condições específicas do interior das plantas e, por isso, a estrutura genética da população dessas bactérias é limitada e conservada.The objective of this work was to quantify the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus present in plantlets of 34 sugarcane varieties and to characterize the isolates according to their capacity to use carbon sources and produce pink pigments under light. G. diazotrophicus population was estimated using the most probable number technique, and then, isolated in semi-selective culture media. The highest population number of G. diazotrophicus was found in the roots; Brazilian varieties presented the highest population. The isolates used little carbon sources, and those strains obtained from the root used the highest number of carbon sources. Only the strain Ppe-4 and four other ones produce pink pigments under light. The low variation observed may be related to the habitat or to the adaptation of this population to specific internal plant conditions, and for this reason, the

  1. Cognitive impairment is correlated with reduced quality of life in patients with clinically isolated syndrome Comprometimento cognitivo correlaciona-se com redução da qualidade de vida em pacientes com síndrome clinicamente isolada

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    Carolina Fiorin Anhoque

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of life (QoL and potential QoL determinants in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. METHODS: Eighteen CIS patients and eighteen controls were submitted to QoL evaluation with Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis QoL instrument (FAMS. Cognition was evaluated with specific battery tests; Anxiety and depression with Beck Anxiety (BAI and Depression (BDI Inventories and Neurological disability with Guy's Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in QoL between CIS patients and controls. CIS patients had worse performance in Paced Auditory Serial Addition 2 seconds (p=0.009 and fluency tests (p=0.0038. There was a significant difference in BAI (p=0.003, but no significant difference in BDI between patients and controls. There were significant correlations between QoL measure and verbal fluency and Stroop's test. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition, but not anxiety, depression and disability, was associated with reduced quality of life.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida (QoL e seus potenciais determinantes em pacientes com síndrome clinicamente isolada (SCI. MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes com SCI e 18 controles realizaram avaliação da QoL com Escala de Determinação da QoL na Esclerose Múltipla; cognição foi avaliada com bateria de testes específica; ansiedade e depressão com os Inventários de Beck de ansiedade (BAI e de depressão (BDI e a incapacidade neurológica com a Guy's Neurological Disability Scale. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa na QoL avaliada entre pacientes com SCI e controles. Pacientes com SCI apresentaram pior desempenho no Pased Auditory Serial Addition 2 segundos (p=0,009 e na fluência verbal (p=0,0038. Houve diferença no BAI (p=0,003, entretanto sem diferença do BDI entre pacientes e controles. Houve correlações significativas entre QoL, fluência verbal e Stroop. CONCLUSÕES: Alterações cognitivas tiveram correlação com

  2. Perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório baixo de pacientes com pneumonia internados em hospitais brasileiros: resultados do Programa SENTRY, 1997 e 1998

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    SADER HÉLIO S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Pneumonia hospitalar é a mais fatal das infecções hospitalares, com taxas de mortalidade de 30 a 60%. Estima-se que 15% de todas as mortes associadas à hospitalização estejam diretamente relacionadas a pneumonias hospitalares. O SENTRY é um estudo de vigilância de resistência a antimicrobianos envolvendo centros médicos em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Avaliar a sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas no trato respiratório baixo de pacientes com pneumonia internados em hospitais brasileiros. Material e métodos: Foram avaliadas 525 amostras bacterianas de 11 hospitais brasileiros, como parte do programa SENTRY. Os isolados foram testados por microdiluição em caldo contra um grande número de antimicrobianos. Resultados: As cinco espécies mais freqüentes foram (n/%: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (158/30,1%, Staphylococcus aureus (103/19,6%, Acinetobacter spp. (68/13,0%, Klebsiella spp. (50/9,5%, e Enterobacter spp. (44/8,4%. Essas cinco espécies representam mais de 80% de toda a amostragem. A P. aeruginosa apresentou altas taxas de resistência à maioria dos antimicrobianos testados. As maiores taxas de sensibilidade foram apresentadas por piperacilina/tazobactam (71,5% e meropenem (69,0%. Os compostos com maior atividade in vitro contra Acinetobacter spp. foram imipenem e meropenem (80,9% de sensibilidade seguido pela tetraciclina (63,2%. A sensibilidade das amostras de Klebsiella spp. foi muito baixa. MICs > ou = 2mig/mL para ceftriaxona ou ceftazidima, indicando produção de ESBL, foram encontrados em 36,0% das amostras. Os antimicrobianos mais ativos contra Klebsiella spp. foram os carbapenens (100% de sensibilidade e as quinolonas (92,0% de sensibilidade. Ceftriaxona foi ativa contra somente 56,8% das amostras de Enterobacter spp. (MIC50, 1mig/mL, enquanto a cefepima foi ativa contra 88,6% destes isolados (MIC50, <= 0,12mig/mL. A resistência à oxacilina foi detectada em 43,7% dos isolados de S. aureus. As

  3. Preditores de disfunção neurológica maior após cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica isolada Predictors of major neurologic dysfunction after coronary bypass surgery

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    João Carlos Vieira da Costa Guaragna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência e os fatores preditores de disfunção neurológica maior pós-operatória e a evolução clínica precoce em uma coorte não selecionada. MÉTODO: Um total de 1760 pacientes consecutivos submetidos a CRM isolada, no Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, entre janeiro de 1997 e fevereiro de 2004, foram incluídos. Dados demográficos, informações do procedimento e desfechos perioperatórios foram coletados usando-se o protocolo do registro de dados da Unidade de Pós-Operatório de Cirurgia Cardíaca do nosso hospital. As variáveis consideradas estatisticamente significativas foram aquelas com p OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and to identify possible predictors of major postoperative neurologic dysfunction (defined as stroke and to evaluate early clinical outcome in a non-selected cohort. METHOD: A total of 1760 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG in the San Lucas Hospital -PUCRS, between January 1997 and February 2004, were enrolled. Demographic and laboratory data, informations regarding the procedure and perioperative endpoints were collected prospectively using a standard protocol of data register of the cardiac postoperative unit of our hospital. We considered statistically significant those variables with a p value no greater than 0.05 with a confidence interval of 95%. RESULTS: In this study, 52 (3% patients presented with major neurologic dysfunction. On the univariable analysis advanced age, higher prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease, previous cerebrovascular disease, higher mean value of fibrinogen, occurrence of shock or severe hypotension, presence of supraventricular tachycardia (atrial fibrillation or flutter, occurrence of the systemic inflammatory syndrome and prolonged mechanical ventilation were associated with stroke. On the multivariable analysis previous history of cerebrovascular disease and obstructive pulmonary disease presented as independent

  4. Lymnaea columella in northern Brazil

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a mollusc of the family Lymnaeidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil north of parallel 15ºS, as a result of the finding of Lymnaea columella in Manus and Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas. A description is given of its shell, renal organ, genital system and radula, pointing to the morphological characteristics of diagnostic value to separate it from two other species previously studied by the author, Lymnaea viatrix and L. rupestris, which also occur in Brazil.Pela primeira vez é verificada a ocorrência de um molusco da família Lymnaeidae ao norte do paralelo 15ºS no Brasil, como resultado do encontro da lYmnaea columella em Manus e Benjamin Constant, Estado do Amazonas. É apresentada uma descrição da concha, do órgão renal, do sistema genital e da rádula, sendo indicados os caracteres morfológicos que permitem distinguir a Lymnaea columella de outras espécies que também ocorrem no Brasil, previamente estudadas pelo autor, L. viatrix e L. rupestris.

  5. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  6. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  7. [Women and development in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha Neves, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the social, political and cultural status of women in Brazil. In 1976 only 29.6% of Brazilian women participated in economic activities; 54.3% of these were still employed as laborers in the countryside, while only 6% were employed in urban and industrial jobs. The greatest concentration of female labor is in the category of the very badly paid domestic employment. Man is traditionally the head of the family, even when he is not the breadwinner. Illiteracy has decreased in Brazil to 24.3%, but female analphabetism is 26.5% versus 21.9% male analphabetism. Schools are open to males and females at all levels, but the traditional and cultural structure of Brazilian society considers the home, not the school, as the only proper place for young girls, and maternity is still the primary social function of women. Politically Brazilian women have very little power, even if they make up 44% of the electoral body. Sex education does not exist in the school or in the home, and any sexuality exercised outside the bonds of marriage is considered as deviant.

  8. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  9. Genetic relationships of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from a diphtheria case and carriers by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rRNA genes Relação genética de cepas de Corynebacterium diphtheriae isoladas de caso e seus contatos por RLFP de rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on ribotyping of Corynebacterium diphtheriae intermedius strains isolated from a 9 years old child with clinical diphtheria and his 5 contacts. Quantitative analysis of RFLPs of rRNA was used to determine relatedness of these 7 C.diphtheriae strains providing support data in the diphtheria epidemiology. We have also tested those strains for toxigenicity in vitro by using the Elek's gel diffusion method and in vivo by using cell culture method on cultured monkey kidney cell (VERO cells. The hybridization results revealed that the 5 C.diphtheriae strains isolated from contacts and one isolated from the clinical case (nose case strain had identical RFLP patterns with all 4 restriction endonucleases used, ribotype B. The genetic distance from this ribotype and ribotype A (throat case strain, that we initially assumed to be responsible for the illness of the patient, was of 0.450 showing poor genetic correlation among these two ribotypes. We found no significant differences concerned to the toxin production by using the cell culture method. In conclusion, the use of RFLPs of rRNA gene was successful in detecting minor differences in closely related toxigenic C.diphtheriae intermedius strains and providing information about genetic relationships among them.No presente estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de uma análise, baseada na ribotipagem de cepas de C. diphtheriae intermedius isoladas de uma criança de 9 anos com difteria e seus 5 contatos. Análise quantitativa por RFLP de rRNA foi usada para determinar a relação destas 7 cepas de C. diphtheriae fornecendo dados de interesse epidemiológico. Nós também testamos estas cepas para toxicidade in vitro usando método de difusão de Elek e in vivo usando método de cultura celular com células VERO. Os resultados de hibridização revelaram que as 5 cepas de C. diphtheriae isoladas dos contatos e uma isolada do caso (cepa isolada

  10. Detection of virulence-associated genes of Pasteurella multocida isolated from cases of fowl cholera by multiplex-PCR Pesquisa de genes associados à virulência em cepas de Pasteurella multocida isoladas em casos de cólera aviária através da técnica de multiplex-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Q. Furian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current systems of breeding poultry, based on high population density, increase the risk of spreading pathogens, especially those causing respiratory diseases and those that have more than one host. Fowl Cholera (FC is one such pathogen, and even though it represents one of several avian diseases that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of notifiable diseases that present with sudden death, the pathogenesis and virulence factors involved in FC are still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate twelve genes related to virulence in 25 samples of Pasteurella multocida isolated from FC cases in the southern region of Brazil through the development of multiplex PCR protocols. The protocols developed were capable of detecting all of the proposed genes. The ompH, oma87, sodC, hgbA, hgbB, exBD-tonB and nanB genes were present in 100% of the samples (25/25, the sodA and nanH genes were present in 96% (24/25, ptfA was present in 92% (23/25, and pfhA was present in 60% (15/25. Gene toxA was not identified in any of the samples studied (0/25. Five different genetic profiles were obtained, of which P1 (negative to toxA was the most common. We concluded that the multiplex-PCR protocols could be useful tools for rapid and simultaneous detection of virulence genes. Despite the high frequency of the analyzed genes and the fact that all samples belonged to the same subspecies of P. multocida, five genetic profiles were observed, which should be confirmed in a study with a larger number of samples.Os atuais sistemas de criação na avicultura, baseados na alta densidade populacional, aumentam os riscos de disseminação de patógenos, especialmente das doenças respiratórias e daquelas cujos agentes etiológicos possuam mais de um hospedeiro. A Cólera Aviária (CA apresenta estas características e apesar de representar uma das patologias aviárias que deve ser considerada para o diagnóstico diferencial de

  11. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  12. Padrão de sensibilidade de 117 amostras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em 12 hospitais In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 117 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from 12 hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.V.L. Farias

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Avaliar o padrão de sensibilidade in vitro de amostras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus sensíveis (OSSA e resistentes à oxacilina (ORSA a outros antimicrobianos que podem ser utilizados no tratamento de infecções estafilocócicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO. Foram analisadas 117 amostras clínicas de S. aureus isoladas em vários hospitais de São Paulo. Também foram incluídas amostras isoladas em Campinas, SP, e João Pessoa, PB. A avaliação da sensibilidade in vitro aos antimicrobianos foi realizada pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo, utilizando os procedimentos preconizados pelo National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Foi avaliada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC para 24 antimicrobianos da classe dos beta-lactâmicos, fluoroquinolonas, aminoglicosídeos, glicopeptídeos, macrolídeos, lincosaminas e estreptograminas. Foram avaliadas tanto drogas disponíveis comercialmente quanto as que ainda se encontram em fase de pesquisa. A resistência cruzada entre dez fluoroquinolonas foi avaliada em 24 amostras. RESULTADOS. Os glicopeptídeos, o RP-59500 e a mupirocina foram os antimicrobianos que apresentaram maior atividade in vitro contra amostras de ORSA (100% sensibilidade. Oitenta e sete por cento das amostras de OSSA foram sensíveis à ciprofloxacina (MIC50 0,25mig/mL, enquanto que, para os ORSA, a sensibilidade foi de apenas 38% (MIC50 >4mig/mL. A resistência cruzada para as fluoroquinolonas foi observada mesmo para drogas não disponíveis comercialmente. As fluoroquinolonas que permaneceram ativas contra amostras resistentes à ciprofloxacina (clinafloxacina e WIN-57.273 apresentaram MICs 8 a 64 vezes mais elevados que as amostras sensíveis à ciprofloxacina, sugerindo que, quando lançadas na prática clínica, esses MICs possam se elevar ainda mais, inviabilizando o uso clínico desses compostos. CONCLUSÃO. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram uma alta taxa de resistência a

  13. Wind / hydro complementary seasonal regimes in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarante, O.A.C. do [CAMARGO SCHUBERT Engenharia Eolica, Curitiba PR (Brazil); Schultz, D.J. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bittencourt, R.M. [CHESF - Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco, Recife PE (Brazil); Rocha, N.A. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. A brief analysis is included regarding the geographic location of the interconnected grid, main hydro power plants, and estimated promising wind farm areas in Brazil. (orig.)

  14. First confirmed case of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in foals in Brazil Primeiro relato de diarreia associada à Clostridium difficile em potros no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the substantial role of Clostridium difficile in causing diarrhea and colitis in foals, there have been no confirmed diagnoses of disease caused by this bacteria in Brazil. In this paper, we describe confirmed cases of colitis caused by C. difficile in two foals in Brazil. Two five-month-old foals with a five-day history of diarrhea after antibiotic treatment for a respiratory disease were treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected, and toxigenic strains of C. difficile were isolated from the foals' feces. The treatment was based on fluid therapy and antibiotics (metronidazole and ceftiofur, and the animals experienced a gradual recovery. The association between the medical history, clinical signs, laboratory exam results and therapeutic success confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report raises the possibility that C. difficile is also a pathogen in equines in Brazil and highlights the need for up to date routine laboratory protocols for the diagnosis of this disease.Apesar da importância de Clostridium difficile como agente causador de diarreia e colite em potros, inexistem relatos confirmados de tal doença no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever dois casos confirmados de diarreia causados por C. difficile em potros, ocorridos em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os animais, com cinco meses de idade, foram encaminhados ao Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG com histórico de cinco dias de diarreia após antibioticoterapia com penicilina para uma possível pneumonia. Ambos os animais foram positivos para detecção das toxinas A/B de C. difficile e isolados toxigênicas de C. difficile foram isoladas de amostras de fezes. Os animais apresentaram melhora gradual com o tratamento baseado em metronidazol e fluidoterapia e receberam alta após sete dias. A associação do quadro clínico, exames

  15. The Significance of 2010 Iran-Turkey-Brazil Nuclear Deal for Turkey and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AKP Justice and Development Party AP Justice Party BASIC Brazil, South Africa, India, China BRICS ...of new international agencies such as BRIC , IBSA, and G20.233 Different from Cardozo, Lula prioritized cooperation with Asian and African states, in...multi-lateral networks such as: BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa), an economic group; IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa,) an

  16. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  17. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani S. Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for st...

  18. Colicinogeny in Salmonella serovars isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Carvalho Campos

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars isolated from different sources; human (291, animal (119, environmental (141, food (102 and animal feed (95. Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%, particularly isolated from foods (30.4%. Col. E1 (53 and Ia (44 were the most frequently observed, especially in S. agona for environment and food sources. Col V production was identified in 5 strains of S. typhimurium within 8 producer cultures isolated from humans. Its relationship with the sources and serovars of Salmonella are discussed.Investigou-se a produção de colicina em 748 amostras de Salmonella (97 sorovares advindas de díferentes fontes: humana (291, animal (119, ambiental (141, de alimentos (102 e rações (95. Detectaram-se 64 amostras (8,6% colicinogênicas, particularmente isoladas de alimentos (30,4%. ColE1 (53 e Ia (44 foram as mais freqüentes, especialmente no sorovar S, agona, de origem ambiental e de alimentos. Identificou-se também a produção de col V em 5 amostras de S. typhimurium dentre 8 culturas produtoras de origem humana. Discute-se a relação entre a capacidade colicinogênica e as fontes e sorovares de Salmonella.

  19. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  20. Stability and growth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enestor Dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, Brazil has succeeded in implementing and developing an economic model based on an inflation target model to keep domestic prices under control, a flexible exchange rate and a commitment to ensuring the solvency of the public sector. This model was initially adopted during Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s second term as president, and subsequently maintained and refined during Luis Inácio Lula da Silva’s two terms. Its development will certainly continue under the presidency of Dilma Rousseff. The consensus on this economic model and the relative dissociation of political and economic cycles have facilitated the stabilisation of the domestic environment and the acceleration of economic growth.

  1. Queer Counterpublics in Australia, Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyja Noack-Lundberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of Rafaael de la Dehesa, Queering the Public Sphere in Mexico and Brazil: Sexual Rights Movements in Emerging Democracies (Duke, 2010 and Kane Race, Pleasure Consuming Medicine (Duke, 2009.

  2. Poaceae: an overview with reference to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi-Wagner,Hilda Maria

    2012-01-01

    A summary of the classification of Poaceae into subfamilies according to different proposals is provided, as well as data on morphology and chorology of grasses, especially those that occur in Brazil.

  3. Community Development in Brazil: Two Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Frances; Speyer, Anne Marie; Tedrus, Maria Aparecida L.

    1998-01-01

    O'Gorman provides "Five Points for Reflection" on nongovernmental and community organizations in Brazil. Speyer and Tedrus discuss "Community Libraries: An Experience in Community Development in the Periphery of Sao Paulo." (SK)

  4. Huge Business Potential in China and Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Brazil has the largest economy in Latin America, and the world's tenth largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity. In recent years. Brazil has become a well developed nation and its exports are increasing, with major export industries that include aircraft, coffee, automobiles, soybean, steel, textiles, and electronics. Its biggest investment boom in history is still under way as it continues to focus on attracting investment from foreign countries.

  5. Frontier Security: The Case of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    technological devices—have sometimes been used to minimize the absence of human presence and provide a deterrent. Brazil is no exception, but its complex...attracted to Brazil to purchase logistical support and by the profit potential of illicit gold mining, drug trafficking , and related activities.7 The...realized that drug trafficking and the organized crime networks involved posed a serious security problem, requir- ing the reluctant armed forces to become

  6. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Szybisz, M A; Szybisz, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimes in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent $\\beta>0$. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite ...

  7. Brazil : Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Despite its origin as one of the pioneering and richest states of Brazil, Pernambuco today has a history of slower economic growth than Brazil as a whole. Pernambuco began as a sugar producing state and the expansion of sugar production led its economic development until the mid 1600s. Then Pernambuco declined, as sugar production became more profitable elsewhere in the world. It is estima...

  8. Hyphomycetes from soil of an area affected by copper mining activities in the State of Bahia, Brazil Hyphomycetes de solo de uma área de mineração de cobre no Estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella P.M. Wanderley Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of observing the impact produced by copper-mining activities on soil fungi, samples were collected from an area at the Caraíba Mining, in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This area was divided in six sub-areas: one had native vegetation and was used as control, while the others varied according to degrees of impact. The samples, collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, were submitted to serial dilutions and placed on Petri dishes with Sabouraud medium plus antibiotic. Sixty five species and 16 genera of Hyphomycetes were identified: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphylotrichum, Stilbella and Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Crhysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum and Stilbella sebacea were isolated for the first time in Brazil.Com o objetivo de observar o impacto produzido pelas atividades da mineração de cobre em fungos do solo, amostras foram coletadas de uma área da Mineração Caraíba no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Esta área foi dividida em seis sub-áreas: uma com vegetação nativa, usada como controle enquanto as outras variavam de acordo com os graus de impacto. As amostras, coletadas durante os períodos de estiagem e chuvoso, foram submetidas a diluições sucessivas e colocadas em placas de Petri contendo meio Sabouraud acrescido de antibiótico. Sessenta e cinco espécies e 16 gêneros de Hyphomycetes foram identificados: Acremonium, Acrophialophora, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Humicola, Malbranchea, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scolecobasidium, Staphilotricum, Stilbella e Trichoderma.Acrophialophora levis, Chrysosporium merdarium, Curvularia verruculosa, Malbranchea chrysosporoidea, Penicillium adametzii, Staphylotrichum coccosporum e

  9. Sobrevivência e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de Salmonella sp. isoladas em um sistema de tratamento de dejetos de suínos Survival and resistance patterns of Salmonella sp. isolated in a pig slurry treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Schmidt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi avaliada a sobrevivência de Salmonella sp., presente em dejetos suínos, durante tratamento em um sistema de separação física e lagoas de estabilização ligadas em série. Nas amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas foi determinado o perfil de resistência pelo método de difusão em ágar, usando 14 antimicrobianos. Das 20 coletas realizadas, foi possível isolar Salmonella sp. em 13 coletas no ponto correspondente ao início do sistema de tratamento e em apenas uma no ponto final do mesmo. Amostras de Salmonella sp. isoladas (161/163 pertenciam ao sorotipo Typhimurium e demonstraram resistência contra sulfonamida (100%, tetraciclina (99,4%, estreptomicina (90,1%, sulfa/trimetoprima (84,5%, ácido nalidíxico (77,6%, ampicilina (76,4%, cloranfenicol (29,2%, cefaclor (25,5%, tobramicina (13,7%, gentamicina (6,2%, amoxacilina/ácido clavulânico (5%, neomicina (5% e amicacina (3,7%. A maioria (94,5% das amostras isoladas foram resistente a 4 ou mais antimicrobianos e apresentaram grande variabilidade nos perfis de resistência. O nível de resistência e a variabilidade dos perfis mantiveram-se em nível semelhante ao longo do sistema.The survival of Salmonella sp. in pig slurry submitted to treatment in successive stabilization ponds on a pig-breeding farm was investigated. Furthermore, the isolated Salmonella strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antibiotics, using the agar diffusion method. Of a total of 20 samples taken from different points in the stabilization ponds system, 13 were positive for Salmonella sp. in the beginning and only one at the end of the system. Most of the isolated Salmonella strains (161/163 belonged to sorovar Typhimurium. These strains were resistant to sulfonamide (100%, tetracycline (9.4%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (84.5%, ampicillin (76.4%, cloramphenicol (29.2%, streptomycin (90.1%, nalidixic acid (77.6%, tobramycin (13.7%, neomycin (5%, amikacin (3.7%, cefaclor (25

  10. Biochemical characteristics of typical and atypical Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic milk and environmental samples of Brazilian dairy farms Características bioquímicas de cepas típicas e atípicas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de leite mastítico e de amostras ambientais de fazendas leiteiras brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Padilha da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports results on the biochemical characteristics of 274 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from mastitic milk, hands of milkmen and milking machines. Features included colony morphology on Baird Parker agar (BPA, catalase, coagulase and thermonuclease tests. API-Staph (bioMérieux, France was used as reference identification system. 39.4% of the colonies on BPA identified as S.aureus were atypical. They were more frequent in milk samples (94.4%. All S.aureus strains were coagulase positive but intensity of the test varied according to the source: environmental strains were 3+ or 4+, while 17.1% of strains isolated from milk presented only 1+ or 2+ results. The majority of atypical S.aureus strains presented a 4+ coagulase result. 2.2% of S.aureus strains were thermonuclease negative. Sixteen thermonuclease positive and coagulase positive strains were identified as S.hyicus.Esse trabalho relata as características bioquímicas de 274 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de leite mastítico, de mãos de ordenhadores e de ordenhadeiras mecânicas. Foram avaliadas as características morfológicas em agar Baird Parker (BPA e os resultados para os testes de catalase, coagulase e termonuclease. API-Staph foi empregado como sistema de referência para identificação. 39,4% das colônias em BPA identificadas como S.aureus apresentaram morfologia atípica, sendo mais freqüentes em leite (94,4%. Todas as cepas identificadas como S.aureus foram coagulase positivas mas a intensidade da reação variou de acordo com a fonte: cepas isoladas de amostras ambientais foram 3+ ou 4+, enquanto 17,1% daquelas isoladas de leite foram apenas 1+ ou 2+. A maioria das cepas de S aureus com morfologia atípica em agar Baird-Parker apresentaram coagulase 4+. 2,2% das cepas de S.aureus foram termonuclease negativas. 16 cepas termonuclease positivas e coagulase positivas foram identificadas como S.hyicus.

  11. Hyphomycetes com conidioma dos tipos esporodóquio e sinema associados a folhas de Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae, em Maringá, PR, Brasil Hyphomycetes with sporodochial and synnematous conidiomata associated with leaves of Cedrela fissilis (Meliaceae in Maringá, PR, Brazil

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    Luís Fernando Pascholati Gusmão

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas vivas e em decomposição de Cedrela fissilis Veil, foram coletadas, de janeiro a novembro de 1993, no Horto Florestal "Dr. Luiz Teixeira Mendes", Município de Maringá, PR, Brasil (23º25'S, 51º25'W, com a finalidade de isolar Hyphomycetes. As amostras foliares passaram pela técnica de lavagem vigorosa com água destilada esterilizada e plaqueamento em câmaras-úmidas. Foram isoladas três espécies com conidioma do tipo esporodóquio, Epicoccum nigrum Link, Volutella minima Hõhn. e Wiesneriomyces laurinus (Tassi Kirk, e três com conidioma do tipo sinema, Menisporopsis theobromae S. Hughes, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges e T. cubensis Castaneda & Arnold. Todas as espécies ocorreram no folhedo sendo predominantes M. theobromae, T. cristata e W. laurinus. Em folhas vivas foram isoladas apenas E. nigrum e V. minima. São apresentadas, para cada espécie, descrição, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações. Todas as espécies estão sendo citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado do Paraná; T. cubensis é referida pela primeira vez para o Brasil.With the aim to study Hyphomycetes, leaves of Cedrela fissilis Veil, were collected from January to November of 1993, in the "Horto Florestal Dr. Luiz Teixeira Mendes", Municipality of Maringá, PR, Brazil (23º25' S, 51º25' W. The leaves were prepared by washing with serial changes of sterile distilled water and incubated in moist chambers. Three species with sporodochial conidiomata, Epicoccum nigrum Link, Volutella minima Hõhn. and Wiesneriomyces laurinus (Tassi Kirk and three with synnematous type, Menisporopsis theobromae S. Hughes, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges and T. cubensis Castaneda & Arnold were isolated. All these species colonize C. fissilis leaf litter with M. theobromae, T. cristata, and W. laurinus being the most commonly found. From living leaves of C. fissilis only is. nigrum and V minima were isolated. Descriptions, geographical distributions

  12. Cepas de Pseudomonas spp. produtoras de metalo-betalactamase isoladas no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Metallo-betalactamase producing Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated in the Hospital Geral de Fortaleza

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    Júlio César Nogueira Torres

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. é um bacilo gram-negativo ubíquo de vida livre e freqüente em ambientes hospitalares. Bactérias produtoras de metalo-betalactamases (MBLs são em grande parte resistentes aos betalactâmicos de largo espectro, incluindo cefalosporinas e carbapenens. Este trabalho objetivou detectar cepas de Pseudomonas spp. resistentes ao imipenem e à ceftazidima, assim como identificar aquelas produtoras de MBLs. Foram estudadas (entre junho de 2002 e junho de 2003 311 cepas isoladas de diversas amostras clínicas no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF, bem como foram realizados testes de identificação e sensibilidade pelo sistema de automação MicroScan®/WalkAway, sendo as cepas multirresistentes confirmadas através do método de difusão em disco. A triagem para detecção de amostras produtoras de MBLs foi realizada pelo método de dupla difusão, utilizando discos com mercaptoacetato de sódio. Entre essas amostras, 24 (7,71% demonstraram produção de MBLs e padrão de multirresistência entre as cepas estudadas. Os antimicrobianos para os quais as cepas apresentaram maior sensibilidade foram a piperacilina/tazobactam com 255 (82% de sensibilidade, seguido da piperacilina isoladamente, com 229 (73,63%; imipenem com 195 (62,70%; ticarcilina/ácido clavulânico com 193 (62,05%; e ceftazidima com 138 (44,37%. A detecção dessas amostras configura um problema emergente, com importantes implicações na terapêutica antimicrobiana.Pseudomonas sp. is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacilli, of free and frequent life in hospital environment. Metallo-betalactamases (MBLs productive bacteria are largely resistant to betalactamics of wide spectrum, including cephalosporin and carbapenem. The objective of this work was to detect Pseudomonas spp. strains resistant to imipenem and ceftazidime, as well as to identify the MBLs producer ones. It was studied 311 isolated strains from several clinical samples at Fortaleza General Hospital (FGH, from June

  13. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil Produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase por novas cepas de Bacillus sp. isoladas de solo brasileiro

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    Vivian Menocci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40ºC. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55ºC. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40ºC. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0x10-3 and 2.2x10-3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4x10-3 and 3.0x10-3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4x10-3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4x10-3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins, thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product.Três linhagens de Bacillus sp (BACRP, BACNC- 1 e BACAR foram isoladas a partir de solo aderido em casca de mandioca. Foram utilizados amido de batata, amido de mandioca, maltodextrina e glicose como fonte de carbono, e temperaturas de crescimento de 25-55ºC, sendo que os três isolados apresentaram maior atividade específica de CGTase quando cultivados com amido de batata a 40ºC. Em pH 7,0 os isolados BACRP e BACAR apresentaram atividade específica de 4,0x 10-3 e 2,2x10-3 U/mg prot, respectivamente, quando cultivados em meios acrescidos de 2% de NaCl; em pH 10,0 suas atividades foram de 3,4x10-3 e 3,0x10-3 U/mg prot na mesma concentração de NaCl. Por outro

  14. Suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes com estomatite protética Susceptibility to antifungal drugs of Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis

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    Jéssica Moreira BATISTA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes portadores de próteses totais, apresentam, com freqüência a chamada estomatite protética, com a qual associa-se Candida albicans determinando a chamada candidíase eritematosa. Assim, procuramos avaliar a suscetibilidade dessa levedura a agentes antifúngicos. A suscetibilidade de dezenove cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes apresentando estomatite protética foi estudada frente a: um derivado poliênico representado, pela anfotericina B (AnB, e dois derivados azóicos, cetoconazol e miconazol. A atividade antifúngica foi estudada a partir da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração fungicida mínima (CFM, pela técnica de diluição em ágar. Os resultados obtidos, mostraram baixos valores de CIMs e CFMs (mg/ml para a AnB frente a todas as leveduras. Para o miconazol e o cetoconazol, foram observadas CIMs invariavelmente £ 4,00 mg/ml; para as CFMs, foram obtidos valores ³ 16,00 mg/ml frente a maioria das cepas. Conclui-se que a AnB apresentou maior ação fungicida in vitro enquanto os azóis demonstraram ação fungistática mas não fungicida. Acreditamos que a pesquisa de novas drogas, principalmente de uso tópico ainda é necessária, a fim de se tratar, com sucesso, a candidíase eritematosa, comumente observada nas chamadas estomatites protéticas.Users of total prosthesis present in general a high frequency of the so called denture stomatitis, associated to erythematous candidiasis. So, we evaluated the susceptibility of oral yeast to three antifungal agents. Strains of Candida albicans isolated from patients with denture stomatitis were evaluated in relation to the susceptibility of the antifungal drugs as amphotericin B (polyenic derivatives, and azole agents as ketoconazole and miconazole. The antifungal activity was evaluated, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicide concentration (MFC were determined utilizing the agar dilution method. The

  15. Optimization of polysaccharides production by bacteria isolated from soil Otimização das condições de produção de polissacarídeos por bactérias isoladas do solo

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    Silvia Messias Bueno

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Six polysaccharide-producing bacteria, isolated from soil samples and identified as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter (Strains 3B, 4B, 7B, 21B, 18E and 21D, were tested for the yield of polysaccharides produced during growth in two culture media: one containing glucose and the other sucrose (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. The yield was quantified measuring the viscosity of the broth, using the Poiscuille equation. The effect of temperature and pH of the culture media was investigated. The largest polysaccharide yield was obtained when the concentration of the carbon source was lower than 2%. Glucose and sucrose stimulated the polysaccharide production in a similar way. When the initial pH of the fermentation broth was increased from 5.0 up to 7.0, there was an increase in polysaccharide production. However, higher values (pH=8.0 caused a decrease in polysaccharide production. With regard to temperature, 30ºC was shown to be optimum, since higher or lower temperatures had a negative effect on saccharide production.Seis bactérias produtoras de polissacarídeos isoladas de amostras do solo (3B, 4B, 7B, 21B, 18E e 21D pertencentes aos gêneros Pseudomonas e Arthrobacter, foram testadas quanto ao rendimento da produção de polissacarídeos em dois caldos de cultura: um com glicose e outro com sacarose, nas concentrações de 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5%. O rendimento foi calculado medindo-se a viscosidade dos caldos, através da equação de Poiseuille. Também foi verificado o efeito da temperatura de incubação (25, 30 e 35ºC e o do pH (5, 6, 7 e 8 dos meios de cultura. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que concentrações da fonte de carbono até 2% apresentaram os maiores rendimentos do polissacarídeo. Glicose e sacarose estimularam a produção de polissacarídeos de forma similar. Quando o pH inicial do caldo de fermentação aumentou de 5,0 para 7,0 ocorreu um aumento da produção do polissacarídeo. Entretanto, valores mais altos (pH=8,0 causaram uma diminuição na

  16. Anestesia epidural com lidocaína isolada e associada ao fentanil para realização de ováriossalpingo-histerectomia em cadelas Epidural anesthesia with lidocaine and its combination with fentanyl for ovaryhysterectomy in dogs

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    R.N. Cassu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da lidocaína isolada ou associada ao fentanil na anestesia epidural, para realização de ováriossalpingo-histerectomia. Dezoito cadelas foram tranqüilizadas com acepromazina, seguindo-se indução anestésica com propofol, para a realização da punção lombossacra. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: o grupo GL recebeu lidocaína (8,5mg/kg e o GLF fentanil (5µg/kg associado à lidocaína (6,5mg/kg. Mensuraram-se as freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, variáveis hemogasométricas, concentração sérica de cortisol, necessidade de complementação anestésica com propofol durante a cirurgia, temperatura retal (T, período de latência e duração do bloqueio anestésico. Foi observada redução na FC, FR e PAS no GL e GLF, porém esses parâmetros mantiveram-se dentro dos limites fisiológicos. Para ambos os grupos, a concentração sérica de cortisol manteve-se estável após a cirurgia. Complementação anestésica foi necessária em 40% e 75% dos animais do GLF e GL, respectivamente. Conclui-se que ambos os protocolos foram suficientes para inibir a elevação sérica do cortisol, e resultaram em alterações mínimas cardiorrespiratórias, e que a complementação anestésica foi necessária.The effects of lidocaine or lidocaine associated with fentanyl for epidural anesthesia in dogs were studied. Eighteen adult healthy bitches were sedated with acepromazine, with subsequent propofol anesthetic induction for the accomplishment of lumbosacral puncture. The animals were alloted in two groups and received: 8.5mg/kg lidocaine (GL group or 5µg/kg fentanyl associated with 6.5mg/kg (GLF group. Heart and respiratory rates, systolic arterial blood pressure, blood gas variables, plasmatic concentration of cortisol, need of complementary doses of propofol for surgery, rectal temperature, and onset and duration of anesthesic block were measured. Mild alterations

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry carcasses in Dakar (Senegal Resistência antimicrobiana de Salmonella isolada de carcaças de frango em Dakar, Sénégal

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    Rianatou Bada-Alambedji

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from raw chicken. From November 2003 to April 2004 a total of 120 chicken carcasses were collected from 36 randomly selected sale points (supermarkets, traditional market, poultry slaughter house, flocks in the urban and periurban zones of Dakar, Sénégal, and examined for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was isolated from 75 (62.5% of the examined samples. Out of the 90 Salmonella isolates obtained, twenty one serotypes were identified, from which the most prevalent were S. Kentuchy 30%, S. Muenster (13.3%, S. Brancaster (8.8%, S. Enteritidis and S. Hadar (6.6%. All Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 16 selected antimicrobial agents by the agar diffusion method. Seventy one (78.9% isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. Out of 71 resistant Salmonella isolates, 33 (46.5% showed multiple resistance to five or more different antimicrobials. Resistance to ampicillin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tetracyclin and sulphonamides was the most frequent. We found 36 different patterns of multiresistant strains. The high level of antibiotic resistance of foodborne Salmonella isolates in the present study is an indication of indiscriminate and continuous use of subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics in animals. Furthermore, the results showed the possible significance of chicken meat as a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections and suggest the need for detailed epidemiological study.O presente estudo foi realizado com o propósito de aviliar a resistência aos antibióticos dos sorovares da Salmonella isolados da carne de frango crua. De novembro de 2003 até abril de 2004, um total de 120 carcaças de frango foram compradas em 13 pontos de venda e 23 centros de criação de frangos. As Salmonella foram isoladas a partir de 75 (62,2% carcaças analisadas. Vinte e um (21

  18. Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta in Gallus gallus from isolated and mixed backyard rearing systems Phthiraptera (Arthropoda, Insecta em Gallus gallus de criações de fundo de quintal isoladas e mistas

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    Ana Clara Gomes dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus, in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31% and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%, in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de malófagos em diferentes regiões do corpo de Gallus gallus, sob os sistemas de criação isolado e misto e determinar a dinâmica e estrutura da população. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 100 e 35% para as aves no sistema de criação isolado e misto, respectivamente. As espécies identificadas foram: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae e Lipeurus caponis. As aves mantidas isoladas apresentaram maior parasitismo do que

  19. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

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    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  20. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

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    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em cocos Gram-positivos catalase negativos (21 amostras de Lactococcus garvieae e 6 de Enterococcus gallinarum, isoladas do leite de fêmeas com mastite subclínica e pertencentes a uma população composta por seis rebanhos bubalinos localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O teste utilizado foi o da difusão de discos em agar Müller Hinton, segundo recomendações do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS, tendo sido testados discos com ampicilina (10mg, cefalotina (30mg, cefotaxima (30mg, cefoxitina (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromicina (15mg, gentamicina (10mg, nitrofurantoína (300mg, norfloxacina (10mg, penicilina (10 UI, tetraciclina (30mg e vancomicina (30mg. Os resultados evidenciaram que em se tratando de Lactococcus garvieae, o antimicrobiano mais eficiente foi o nitrofurantoína com 85,71% de sensibilidade, seguido da cefotaxima (61,90%, vancomicina (52,38%, norfloxacina (47,62% e cefalotina (47,62%. A maior resistência foi desenvolvida frente a penicilina e ampicilina, com 95,24% de resistênciapara os dois antimicrobianos testados. O perfil de susceptibilidade desenvolvido pelas amostras de Enterococcus gallinarum, mostrou baixa sensibilidade frente aos antimicrobianos testados, onde os maiores índices foram observados frente eritromicina e gentamicina, com 33,34% de sensibilidade para ambos; quanto à resistência desenvolvida, foi possível observar 100% de resistência com relação a vancomicina e tetraciclina, seguindo-se cloranfenicol, penicilina, ampicilina, cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, norfloxacina e nitrofurantoína, todas evidenciando uma resistência de 83,33% das amostras testadas.The susceptibility of antimicrobials was studied in Gram positive and catalase negative cocci (21 samples of Lactococcus garvieae and 6 Enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis, belonging to six buffalo herds in

  1. Perfusão isolada de membro com hipertermia na trataento das metástases em trânsito do melanoma cutâneo Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion in the treatment of in-transit melanoma metastases

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    Victor Pavan Pasin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a casuística do Setor de Tumores Cutâneos da Disciplina de Cirurgia Plástica da Escola Paulista de Medicina/ Universidade Federal de São Paulo em relação à Perfusão Isolada de Membro (PIM para o tratamento das metástases em trânsito do melanoma cutâneo, bem como os resultados conseqüentes, comparando-os com a literatura internacional. MÉTODO: De maio de 1993 a abril de 2007, 41 pacientes portadores de metástases em trânsito do melanoma cutâneo submeteram-se a 44 PIM. Por meio da observação de seus prontuários, foram avaliados quanto à toxicidade regional e sistêmica, e resposta tumoral após a PIM. Após a coleta dos resultados, procedeu-se a comparação com a literatura internacional e as posteriores conclusões. RESULTADOS: Houve 43,2% de respostas completas, 36,4% de respostas parciais e 20,4% sem resposta ao tratamento proposto. A toxicidade regional aguda descrita foi, de modo geral, restrita a edema e eritema discretos, não havendo nenhum caso de complicação sistêmica grave. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos nessa casuística corroboram os descritos pela literatura internacional, demonstrando a importância e a possibilidade da PIM para o controle locoregional das metástases em trânsito do melanoma cutâneo também na realidade brasileira.BACKGROUND: To evaluate our cases at the Skin Tumors Sector of Plastic Surgery Division at Federal University of São Paulo in relation to Isolated Limb Perfusion (ILP for the treatment of in transit melanoma metastases, as well as the results, comparing them with international literature. METHODS: From May 1993 until April 2007, 41 patients with in transit metastases of skin melanoma were submitted to 44 ILP. Medical registry observations were evaluated in terms of regional and systemic toxicity and tumoral response after ILP. The obtained results were compared with international literature and posterior conclusions were done. RESULTS: We observed 43.2% of

  2. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil Salmonella Enteritidis in Poultry: Retrospective in Brazil

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    EN Silva

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.In Brazil, Salmonella enteritidis (SE emerged as a serious problem in poultry and public health as from 1993. Epidemiological studies, including fagotyping and complementary rRNA probe, suggest that SE entered Brazil via the importation of

  3. Molecular typing of dengue virus type 2 in Brazil Tipificação molecular do vírus da dengue tipo 2 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize P. Miagostovich

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain typing is a critical tool for molecular epidemiological analysis and can provide important information about the spread of dengue viruses. Here, we performed a molecular characterization of DEN-2 viruses isolated in Brazil during 1990-2000 from geographically and temporally distinct areas in order to investigate the genetic distribution of this serotype circulating in the country. Restriction site-specific polymerase chain reaction (RSS-PCR presented the same pattern for all 52 Brazilian samples, showing the circulation of just one DEN-2 variant. Phylogenetic analysis using progressive pairwise alignments from 240-nucleotide sequences of the E/NS1 junction in 15 isolates showed that they belong to genotype III (Jamaica genotype.A tipagem de cepas é uma ferramenta fundamental para a análise epidemiológica molecular e pode fornecer informações importantes sobre a dispersão dos vírus dengue. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a caracterização molecular de amostras de vírus DEN-2 isoladas no Brasil entre 1990-2000, de áreas geograficamente e temporalmente distintas, com o objetivo de investigar a distribuição genética deste sorotipo circulante no país. A reação em cadeia pela polimerase baseada em sítios de restrição específicos (RSS-PCR apresentou o mesmo padrão para as 52 amostras Brasileiras, mostrando a circulação de apenas uma variante de vírus DEN-2. A análise filogenética utilizando alinhamento progressivo de sequências de 240 nucleotídeos da junção E/NS1 de 15 cepas mostrou que estas pertencem ao genotipo III (genotipo Jamaica.

  4. Concentração mínima inibitória de dez antimicrobianos para amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecção intramamária bovina Minimum inhibitory concentrations for ten antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus from bovine intramammary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V.P. Brito

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI de ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e tilosina para 112 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecções intramamárias bovina, em 33 rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram isoladas 24 amostras de infecção clínica, 66 de subclínica e 22 de infecção crônica. As amostras de infecção crônica foram isoladas repetidas vezes dos mesmos quartos mamários de nove vacas de um rebanho, no período de 13 meses. A CMI foi realizada em ágar Mueller Hinton, com concentrações entre 0,015 e 128µgml-1 de cada antimicrobiano. As amostras da American Type Culture Collection (ATCC recomendadas para controle de qualidade, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, foram incluídas em cada teste. Cem por cento das amostras foram susceptíveis à cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, norfloxacina e oxacilina, 91% à tetraciclina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 e à tilosina (CMI50: 2,0µgml-1, 65% à ampicilina (CMI50: 0,125µgml-1 e à penicilina G (CMI50: 0,06µgml-1. Todas foram susceptíveis à neomicina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 exceto uma amostra que apresentou um padrão intermediário. O nível de resistência para ampicilina e penicilina foi maior nas amostras isoladas de casos clínicos e nas de infecção subclínica com escores positivos no CMT (P ou = 0,125µgml-1 para penicilina foram positivas para produção de beta-lactamase.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, oxacillin, penicillin G, tetracycline and tylosin against 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine intramammary infections were determined. The strains were originated from 33 dairy herds located in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State. Twenty-four strains were isolated from clinical

  5. Production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS by Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from the tongue and throat of children with and without sore throat Produção de substâncias inibidoras semelhantes à bacteriocina por cepas de Streptococcus salivarius, isoladas da língua e garganta de crianças com e sem dor de garganta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Fantinato

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus salivarius strains, isolated from children with and without sore throat, were tested for bacteriocin production against Streptococcus pyogenes. S. salivarius strains producing bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS against S. pyogenes were more frequently found in children without sore throat. These results suggest that these children may be protected against sore throat by the presence of BLIS-positive S. salivarius strains.Cepas de Streptococcus salivarius, isoladas de crianças com e sem dor de garganta, foram testadas quanto à produção de bacteriocina contra Streptococcus pyogenes. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças que não tinham dor de garganta possuiam, na boca, cepas de bactérias produtoras de substâncias inibidoras semelhantes à bacteriocina contra S. pyogenes.

  6. Identificação do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2 no sul do Brasil Identification of bovine virus diarrhea virus type-2 (BVDV-2 in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Flores

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV, denominadas de BVDV tipo 2 (BVDV-2, foram inicialmente identificadas em surtos de BVD aguda e enfermidade hemorrágica e têm sido isoladas predominantemente na América do Norte. O presente artigo descreve dois casos de enfermidade gastroentérica/respiratória seguidos de isolamento e identificação de amostras de BVDV tipo 2 no sul do Brasil. Os vírus foram isolados de duas novilhas de diferentes rebanhos. Um dos animais apresentou enfermidade aguda, cursando com anorexia, atonia ruminal, diarréia escura ou muco-sanguinolenta, tenesmo e descarga nasal muco-purulenta. O outro animal desenvolveu enfermidade de longa duração (7 meses, caracterizada por crescimento retardado, anorexia, quadros recorrentes de diarréia, dermatite interdigital, hemorragias digestivas e genitais ocasionais, conjuntivite, artrite e pneumonia crônica. Congestão disseminada das mucosas, ulcerações extensivas e profundas na língua, palato e esôfago, áreas necróticas na mucosa do rúmen, áreas de congestão e ulcerações cobertas com fibrina no intestino delgado foram os achados mais proeminentes. Antígenos do BVDV foram demonstrados por imunohistoquí-mica no epitélio da língua, nos pulmões e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Amostras não-citopáticas do BVDV foram isoladas em cultivo celular a partir de leucócitos e do baço dos animais afetados e identificadas por imunofluorescência. Caracterização antigênica e análise filogenética desses isolados, e de outras duas amostras de BVDV isoladas de fetos coletados em matadouros, revelou tratar-se de BVDV tipo 2. A presença do BVDV tipo 2 na população bovina do Brasil possui um significado epidemiológico importante e pode ter conseqüências para o diagnóstico, estratégias de imunização e produção de vacinas.Highly virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates, named BVDV type-2 (BVDV-2, were initially identified in outbreaks of acute

  7. Substituição da agulha isolada para eletroneuroestimulação pela agulha metálica de cateter intravenoso, na verificação da punção epidural, em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Tudury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o eletroneuroestimulador como um meio adequado para confirmação do posicionamento da ponta de agulhas isoladas no espaço epidural lombossal, por meio de pequenas estimulações elétricas que provocam contrações dos músculos inervados, empregando-se agulha de cateter intravenoso em vez de agulha isolada para a eletroneuroestimulação. Foram utilizados 40 cães para procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, abdominais ou retroumbilicais que necessitassem de bloqueio epidural. Durante a introdução gradativa da agulha no canal vertebral lombossacral, estímulos elétricos de 1,5 a 0,5mA foram aplicados. Diante de contrações musculares em membros pélvicos, cauda e/ou ânus, as quais foram consideradas respostas condizentes com o correto posicionamento da agulha no espaço epidural, estimulando raízes da cauda equina, procedeu-se à administração da associação de lidocaína, bupivacaína e tramadol. Constatou-se a adequada anestesia epidural mediante relaxamento do esfíncter anal, ausência dos reflexos patelares e flexor e a analgesia na área cirúrgica abdominal. Conclui-se que o método foi eficaz para a confirmação do correto posicionamento da agulha no espaço epidural durante a realização dessa anestesia regional em cães.

  8. Caracterização biológica comparativa das cepas Berenice e Berenice-78 de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas da mesma paciente em diferentes períodos Comparative biological characterization of Berenice and Berenice-78 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from the same patient in different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lana

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available A amostra Berenice-78 de T. cruzi recém-isolada apresentou características bem distintas da cepa Berenice isolada há 16 anos da mesma paciente. Foram verificadas sua alta infectividade e baixa virulência para camundongos C3H isogênicos que sobreviveram à fase aguda da infecção. Os parasitas desta cepa apresentaram tropismo para os músculos esquelético e cardíaco, ascensão gradual da parasitemia ao longo de 25 passagens sangüíneas sucessivas e estabilidade da curva de parasitemia. A cepa Berenice apresentou as mesmas características descritas por Brener, Chiari & Alvarenga (1974 em relação ao tropismo e padrão da curva de parasitemia, sendo no entanto demonstrado que sua virulência para camundongos albinos continua aumentando com o decorrer do tempo. Foram discutidas a possibilidade de reinfecção da paciente Berenice e a importância do conhecimento de amostras de T. cruzi de baixa virulência para animais de laboratório.The Berenice-78 strain of T. cruzi is very different from the Berenice strain isolated 16 years earlier from the same pacient. The authors verified is high infectivity and low virulence for C3H inbred mice that survived the acute phase of infection. In these animals, it was verified that the tropism of parasites was more accentuated for cardiac and skeletal musculature and the parasitaemic level progressively increased with sucessive blood passages with posterior stability.

  9. Epidemiology of neurocysticercosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, S

    1996-01-01

    A revision of literature was done with the objective of tracing an epidemiologic profile of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil. The prevalence was 0.12-9% in autopsies. The frequency was 0.03-7.5% in clinical series and 0.68-5.2% in seroepidemiological studies. The disease corresponds to 0.08-2.5% of admissions to general hospitals. Patient origin was rural in 30-63% of cases. The most involved age range (64-100%) was 11 to 60 years, with a predominance (22-67%) between 21 and 40 years. The male sex was the most affected (51-80%). In the severe forms there was a predominance of urban origin (53-62%) and of the female sex (53-75%). The period of hospitalization ranges from 1 to 254 days and 33 to 50% of patients suffer 1.7 +/- 1.4 admissions. The clinical picture was variable, with a predominance of epileptic syndrome (22-92%) and intracranial hypertension (19-89%). Psychiatric manifestations were associated in 9-23% of patients. Lethality was 0.29% in terms of all diseases in general and 4.8-25.9% in terms of neurologic diseases. The asymptomatic form was detected in 6% of patients in clinical series and in 48.5% of case from autopsies. The racemose form and ventricular localization also was observed as asymptomatic form. Among the patients with cutaneous cysticercosis 65% of them showed neurologic manifestations.

  10. [The health system of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  11. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  12. Development of Biosimilars in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Braz Pereira Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a brief overview of the biosimilar industry in Brazil and in the world. Biosimilars are drugs originating from therapeutic or biological proteins, whose patents are expired or are going to expire. Similarly to the generic pharmaceutical industry, the expiration of patents for biologics allows the emergence of a new segment in the pharmaceutical companies. The advent of biosimilars enables to overcome of several barriers, not limited to regulatory aspects of intellectual property, but also issues related to process and technological expertise. At this level of complexity, the biosimilar manufacturers need to have the same expertise or capabilities compared to originator drug companies or holders of the patents. The importance of biosimilars is due to public health context and high costs of originator biologics. Due to an aging population, the incidence of chronic degenerative disease will increase and will have a major impact in healthcare system, in this way the emergence of biosimilars will result in substantial cost reductions.

  13. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantian

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  14. Brazil's neglected tropical diseases: an overview and a report card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T

    2014-08-01

    Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty.

  15. Women's motivation to become dentists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfouri, Maria G; Moyses, Samuel J; Moyses, Simone Tetu

    2013-06-01

    There has been a marked increase of women in dentistry in Brazil and in many countries around the world. The behavioral mechanisms behind the choice of career differ between men and women, and the inclination to care for others is thought by some to be more present in women than it is in men. This article discusses the reasons that lead women to choose dentistry as a profession in Brazil and the impact of feminization on the current and future profile of the profession, based on the ethics of care. The authors' review of the relevant literature published between 2000 and 2011, primarily in Brazil, suggests that whereas men have tended to choose dentistry as a good business opportunity, women have tended to base their decision on relations with other people and the flexibility of practicing the profession. Many women dentists have been found to decide to work fewer hours, report more interruptions in their activities, and have less preference to work in private practice than men dentists. In the view of service users and dental auxiliaries in Brazil, women dentists invest more time in their patients and communicate in a more pleasant, sensitive, and friendly manner. The conclusion suggests that characteristics often associated with women can affect the dental profession in Brazil by introducing greater concern with the promotion of health and other people's well-being in contrast to traditional dentistry based on curative procedures.

  16. Brazil : The New Growth Agenda, Volume 2. Detailed Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    During the last century, Brazil was one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Between 1901 and 2000, Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 4.4 percent. Brazil's long-run growth has rivaled that of counties such as South Korea, universally praised as a stellar performer. Brazil does not received the same praise. Perhaps one reason is tha...

  17. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  18. Epidemiological Scenario of Dengue in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelle C. G. Fares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. It is caused by any of four Dengue virus types or serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4 and is transmitted by mosquitoes from the genus Aedes. Ecological changes have favored the geographic expansion of the vector and, since the dengue pandemic in the Asian and Pacific regions, the infection became widely distributed worldwide, reaching Brazil in 1845. The incidence of dengue in Brazil has been frequently high, and the number of cases in the country has at some point in time represented up to 60% of the dengue reported cases worldwide. This review addresses vector distribution, dengue outbreaks, circulating serotypes and genotypes, and prevention approaches being utilized in Brazil.

  19. Architecture of Brazil 1900-1990

    CERN Document Server

    Segawa, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990 examines the processes that underpin modern Brazilian architecture under various influences and characterizes different understandings of modernity, evident in the chapter topics of this book. Accordingly, the author does not give overall preference to particular architects nor works, with the exception of a few specific works and architects, including Warchavchik, Niemeyer, Lucio Costa, and Vilanova Artigas. In summary, this book: Meticulously examines the controversies, achievements, and failures in constructing spaces, buildings, and cities in a dynamic country Gives a broad view of Brazilian architecture in the twentieth century Proposes a reinterpretation of the varied approaches of the modern movement up to the Second World War Analyzes ideological impacts of important Brazilian architects including Oscar Niemeyer, Lucio Costa and Vilanova Artigas Discusses work of expatriate architects in Brazil Features over 140 illustrations In Architecture of Brazil: 1900-1990, S...

  20. Air-driven Brazil nut effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, M.; Swift, Michael; King, P.

    2003-07-01

    A large heavy object may rise to the top of a bed of smaller particles under the influence of vertical vibration, the “Brazil nut effect.” Recently it has been noted that interstitial air can influence the Brazil nut rise time. Here we report that the air movement induced by vertical vibration produces a very strong Brazil nut effect for fine granular beds. We use a porous-bottomed box to investigate the mechanism responsible for this effect and to demonstrate that it is related to the piling of fine beds, first reported by Chladni and studied by Faraday. Both effects are due to the strong interaction of the fine particles with the air, as it is forced through the bed by the vibration.

  1. [Nursing education research groups in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Canever, Bruna Pedroso

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the organization of nursing education research groups in Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive and documentary study. Census data for 2006 were collected from the CNPq database website. Brazil has 47 education research groups, comprised of 412 researchers, of whom 91% have masters, doctoral or postdoctoral degrees. There are 307 students, of whom 92% are nursing undergraduates. However, only 9% are recipients of young investigator grants. There are also 112 technicians, of whom 75% are nursing professionals; 46% have a masters or doctoral degree. In Brazil, there are a considerable number of nursing education research groups, which contribute significantly to scientific production of nursing knowledge in Latin America. In this scenario, there are many challenges to be overcome: poor interdisciplinary cooperation; limited integration between education and practice; low number of grants awarded to young investigators and significant inequalities between the country's geographic regions in terms of access to research development.

  2. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... for acidification described the behavior of plant species in a certain region when it is exposed to acidic conditions. From these curves it was possible to derive the effect factors for terrestrial acidification. The results of this work show that spatial differentiation is meaningful when it is possible to combine...

  3. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  4. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  5. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  6. Brazil research in selected scientific areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    for Brazil and Mexico are identical, with a vast increase since 1991. In contrast, RSA follows the global growth rate. From 1996 to 2005 both Latin American countries almost doubles their research publications in English, probably influencing the growth in relative citation impact, as measured by FCI......  The paper analyses the general development of research in Brazil, 1981-2005 and compares to Mexico, Republic of South Africa (RSA) and the world. Publications from 15 research areas and their citations are analyzed for the three countries covering two five-year periods 1996-2005. The paper...... applies publication growth as well as Citedness and Field Crown Indicators (FCI). Results show that across all research fields, including the Social Sciences, from 1996 the absolute citation impact of Brazil and Mexico are alike, steadily increasing, and just below that of RSA. Publication growth patterns...

  7. US/Brazil joint pilot project objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint US/Brazil pilot project for rural electrification, whose major goals are: to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy (PV and wind) to meet the needs of the citizens of rural Brazil; to establish on-going institutional, individual and business relationships necessary to implement sustainable programs and commitments; to lay the groundwork for larger scale rural electrification through the use of distributed renewable technologies. The projects have supported low power home lighting systems, lighting and refrigeration for schools and medical centers, and water pumping systems. This is viewed as a long term project, where much of the equipment will come from the US, but Brazil will be responsible for program management, and sharing data gained from the program. The paper describes in detail the Brazilian program which was instituted to support this phased project.

  8. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  9. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  10. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  11. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial beta-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 (=ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228)....

  12. The sustainability of hydropower projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Methodio Maranhao Neto, Gil; Yana, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    The construction of hydropower plants unquestionably impacts the environment and communities. But countries such as Brazil have been able to build up a sophisticated socio-environmental legislation and institutions as well as a democratic and participative licensing process to protect the nature and the population affected. In some cases, plants greatly contribute towards the creation of local welfare to the population as well as good environmental practices. As a good example of best practices on socio-environmental standards, we will analyze Jirau Hydropower Project, currently under construction on the Madeira River, north of Brazil.

  13. New records of marine tardigrades from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Márcia Cavalcanti Da Rocha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In studies developed in the mid- and infralittoral of Cupe Beach (Pernambuco, in the shallow infralittoral of Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and in the continental shelf of northeastern Brazil, we recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters specimens of Archechiniscus marci, Batillipes lesteri, Florarctus hulingsi, Halechiniscus tuleari, Angursa lingua, Raiarctus aureolatus, Actinarctus doryphorus doryphorus, Tanarctus dendriticus, Tanarctus velatus, Neoarctus sp. and Neostygarctus sp., as well as six other species that had been previously recorded in the region. Hence, the number of marine tardigrade taxa recorded in Brazil was increased to twenty-seven.

  14. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  15. Ropivacaína isolada e associada ao fentanil ou ao tramadol administrados pela via peridural em cães Ropivacaine individually and in combination with fentanyl or tramadol, administered by peridural via in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Monteiro da Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A anestesia peridural é amplamente difundida no meio veterinário, utilizando-se o anestésico local isolado ou associado aos opióides, capazes de promover aumento do efeito analgésico. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a função cardiorrespiratória e analgésica da ropivacaína isolada ou associada ao fentanil ou tramadol. Para tanto, oito cães foram tranqüilizados com acepromazina, submetidos à anestesia peridural com um dos seguintes protocolos: GR (ropivacaína, GRF (ropivacaína + fentanil, GRT (ropivacaína + tramadol, em volume total de 0,25ml kg-1, e foram avaliados os parâmetros: freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal, pressão arterial sistólica, e gasometria do sangue arterial, os bloqueios sensitivo e motor, o grau de sedação e a ocorrência de possíveis efeitos indesejáveis. A diminuição da freqüência cardíaca nos grupos GRF e GRT foi mais intensa e ocorreu hipotermia significativa no GRF. Foi evidenciada sedação severa em GRF e GRT. O período de recuperação foi mais curto nos animais de GRT. O GRT foi o grupo que apresentou bloqueio mais cranial. Foram observadas bradicardia, hipotermia e síndrome de Shiff-Sherrington no período trans-anestésico em animais de todos os grupos. Nas 24 horas de período pós-anestésico, não foram evidenciados efeitos indesejáveis nos grupos. O GRF apresentou maior duração de anestesia e analgesia, enquanto que o GRT apresentou a menor duração de anestesia com analgesia intermediária e o GR apresentou duração intermediária, com menor analgesia. Não foram encontradas alterações respiratórias e hemogasométricas, porém, bradicardia, hipotermia e síndrome de Schiff-Sherrington, alterações trans-anestésicas comuns na anestesia peridural foram encontradas.Peridural anesthesia is broadly applied in the Veterinary field, using the isolated local anesthetic or in combination with opiates capable to increase the analgesic effect. This research

  16. Adhesive properties of an outer structure of Clostridium perfringens type A isolated from piglets with with catarrhal enteritis Propriedades adesivas de uma estrutura externa de Clostridium perfringens tipo A isolada de leitões com enterite catarral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pelosi Teixeira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available One strain (S32 of Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from a case of catarrhal enteritis of piglets. This strain was able to adhere to HeLa cells showing an adherence index (AI of 25.15 ± 1.26 (mean ± 1 standard error of the mean. Treatment of the bacterial cells with trypsin (0.25mg/ml decreased in 70%-80% the AI and metaperiodate (10mg/ml abolished completely the adherence, suggesting that the structure responsible for this phenomenon was probably a glycoprotein. Heating of bacterial suspensions (100ºC/5 min before carrying out the adhesion test decreased the AI rendering it equal to the negative controls. Rabbit homologous S32 antiserum inhibited the adherence up to dilutions of 1: 640, at least. The piglet ileal loop assay, carried out with strains S32 and Jab-1 (negative control demonstrated that the strain S32 was able to adhere to the intestinal epithelial cells when examined after Gram staining. Transmission electron microcopy (TEM demonstrated that S32 strain displayed a loose fibrillar material not seen with Jab-1. Stabilization of the bacterial cells with homologous antiserum of strain S32, followed by staining with rhuteniun red, revealed loose long fibrillar material on the outer surface of the cells, that sometimes could be seen spreading out from the cells and linking bacterial cells. The question whether this structure might be an adhesin for this strain of Cl. perfringes type A, perhaps playing a role in the pathogenesis of the catarrhal enteritis of piglets, is dependent on further studies.Uma amostra (S32 de Clostridium perfringens tipo A foi isolada de um caso de enterite catarral em leitões. Esta amostra foi capaz de aderir a células HeLa mostrando um índice de adesão (AI de 25,15 ± 1,26 (media ± 1 erro padrão da media. Tratamento das células bacterianas com tripsina (0,25mg/ml diminuiu 70%-80% e metaperiodato (10mg/ml aboliu significantemente a adesão, sugerindo que a estrutura responsável por esta

  17. Caracterização fenotípica de leveduras isoladas da mucosa vaginal em mulheres adultas Phenotypic characterization of yeasts isolated from the vaginal mucosa of adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula dos Reis Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar fenotipicamente leveduras isoladas do conteúdo vaginal de 223 mulheres adultas, sintomáticas (S e assintomáticas (A para vulvovaginite, e determinar os indicadores clínicos que possivelmente levam ao surgimento de sinais e sintomas relacionados ao acometimento da mucosa por essa patologia. MÉTODOS: inicialmente foi aplicado um questionário, com questões abertas e fechadas, sobre dados clínicos epidemiológicos. Logo, ocorreu o diagnóstico micológico com semeadura em meio Chrom Agar Candida, identificação micromorfológica e bioquímica. Métodos específicos para detecção de fatores de virulência, proteinase e fosfolipase foram empregados. A análise estatística das variáveis foi estabelecida utilizando os testes χ2 e χ2 de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Candida albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (87%, S e 67%, A, seguida de Candida glabrata (4%, S e 17%, A. O número de mulheres que referiram adoção de anticoncepcionais foi mais alto entre as sintomáticas, 77%. Nos dois grupos estudados, em torno de 87% apresentaram ciclos menstruais regulares, 57% das mulheres eram casadas com idade entre 30 a 40 anos. Em relação a práticas sexuais, houve para parte das pacientes, concomitância entre os hábitos, anal, oral e vaginal. Em relação à fosfolipase, apenas Candida albicans produziu este fator de virulência em 37,5%. A proteinase foi detectada em Candida albicans, Candida glabrata e Candida parapsilosis. Esse último fator de virulência esteve associado, principalmente, a isolados de pacientes sintomáticas. CONCLUSÕES: a colonização e infecção da mucosa vaginal por levedura é real com diversas espécies de Candida presentes. No entanto, Candida albicans se destaca como espécie prevalente em mucosa vaginal de mulheres adultas. Fica evidente a emergência de espécies de Candida não albicans, algumas com resistência intrínseca aos azólicos, tais como Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis

  18. Lidocaína com vasoconstrictor isolada e associada ao fentanil via peridural em cães Lidocaine with vasoconstrictor isolated and its combination with epidural fentanyl anesthesia in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Navarro Cassu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo cego foi avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos de diferentes doses de fentanil associado à lidocaína com vasoconstrictor via peridural em cães. Foram avaliados 28 cães adultos, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: 5mg kg-1 de lidocaína isolada (L e associada ao fentanil nas doses de 2,5, 5 e 7mg kg-1 (F2,5, F5 e F7, respectivamente. Quinze minutos antes da punção peridural, todos os animais foram tranquilizados por via intravenosa (IV com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, além de um bolus (IV de fentanil (2,5mg kg-1, administrado imediatamente antes da injeção peridural. Foram avaliados: frequência cardíaca (FC, eletrocardiograma (ECG, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, frequência respiratória (f, gases sanguíneos, período de latência, duração e extensão do bloqueio sensitivo. Houve redução da FC após a anestesia peridural em relação ao basal em F2,5, F5 e F7. A FC foi superior no L em relação ao F5 e F7 aos 30 e 60 minutos após a anestesia peridural. O período de latência não variou entre os grupos, enquanto a duração do bloqueio foi superior no F5. Bloqueio sensitivo até a 6ª vértebra lombar foi observado em quatro animais no L. Bloqueio sensitivo até a 1ª vértebra lombar foi observado em cinco cães no F2,5 e F7 e em seis cães no F5. Conclui-se que a adição do fentanil à lidocaína determinou bloqueio sensitivo mais cranial em relação ao uso isolado desse anestésico local. Paralelamente, bloqueio anestésico mais duradouro foi determinado pela adição de 5mg kg-1 de fentanil à lidocaína em relação aos demais tratamentos.The objective of this blind study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary and analgesic effects of different doses of fentanyl combined with lidocaine by epidural route in dogs. Twenty-eight dogs were distributed in four treatments: 5mg kg-1 of lidocaine with vasoconstrictor alone (L and in combination with 2.5, 5 e 7mg kg-1 of fentanyl (F2

  19. Tensão superficial estática de misturas em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl isoladas ou associadas com adjuvantes Static superficial tension of glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl tank mixtures with or without adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a tensão superficial estática, o pH e a produção da espuma de misturas em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl, associadas ou não com adjuvantes. Dois trabalhos foram realizados, sendo a primeira etapa desenvolvida em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e 20 repetições, representados por soluções dos herbicidas glyphosate (540,0 g e.a. ha-1 e chlorimuron-ethyl (7,5 g ha-1, isolados e em mistura em tanque nas formulações: Polaris®; Roundup Ready®; Classic®; Polaris® + Classic®; Roundup Ready® + Classic® e testemunha (água. Na segunda etapa foram estudados em DIC 70 tratamentos e 20 repetições, em fatorial 2 x 5 x 7, constituído por duas misturas de glyphosate com chlorimuron-ethyl (Polaris® + Classic® e Roundup Ready ® + Classic®, cinco adjuvantes (Joint Oil®; Nimbus®; Assist®; Natur' Oil® e Agr' Óleo® e sete doses dos adjuvantes (0,000; 0,031; 0,062; 0,125; 0,250; 0,500 e 1,000% de v/v. As soluções de Polaris® e Roundup Ready®; isoladas ou em misturas com Classic®; caracterizaram-se por tensões superficiais estáticas de 43,2 e 35,9 mN m-1 e pH médios em torno de 4,5 a 4,6, respectivamente. As misturas de Polaris®+Classic®; Roundup Ready®+Classic® e Classic® apresentaram a maior quantidade e persistência da espuma ao longo do tempo, quando comparadas às formulações de Polaris® e Roundup Ready®. Os adjuvantes promoveram redução da tensão superficial quando associados às misturas de Polaris® + Classic® e Roundup Ready® + Classic®; caracterizando-se em termos de eficiência pela ordem decrescente: Nimbus® (36,5% e 25,8% This work aimed to evaluate static superficial tension, pH and foam production in glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl tank mixtures with or without adjuvants. The experiment consisted of two stages, with the first stage being arranged in a complete randomized design, with six treatments and 20 replications, represented

  20. Metátese de olefinas no Brasil: "Brazil is romping it!" Olefin metathesis in Brazil: Brazil is romping it!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Milton E. Matos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the olefin metathesis reactions are summarized here (types of reactions, mechanism and catalysts. In particular, the research groups that have been working on this chemistry in Brazil are presented. The main goal of this paper is to make this type of reaction more widely known in the Brazilian chemical community.

  1. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  2. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Brasileiro, Conferencia Mundial de Energia. Recursos Fnergeticos do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Maio, 1970. Carvalho Filho, Milton X. As Con ferencios...Navas Interamericanas e a Posica Brasile: a. Marinba de Brasil, Brasilia, D. F 18 Maio 1983 Carvalho, Sergio A M. 0 Papel da Empresa Privada Brasifuro

  3. Brazil--On the Road to Greatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    plenty. fAn unforeseen blessing is the unemployment rates now being experienced in the large cities on the East Coast. They make a ready pool of labor...Brazil and in the Amazona delta, but nothing that would cause them to think their- worries are over. Purchases of oil have been cut back in the past

  4. Brazil - not a country for beginners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    ... in the functioning of its democracy, and in its many years of continuous economic growth. Today, Brazil stands alongside China, Russia and India under the BRIC acronym as one of the world's leading destinations for foreign direct investment (FDI). With an annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 7.4% in 2010, coupled with vast geological potential, Br...

  5. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  6. Technology and Terrorism in the Movie Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The movie "Brazil" calls attention to the relationship between technology and terrorism. Terrorism appears to be a threat to the order that technology creates. But terrorism forces technology to adapt and change so that technology perfects itself as a system. In the movie, terrorism is equated with any form of bureaucratic deviance so that…

  7. Rural Brazil at the cross-roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.

    1951-01-01

    The study attempts to detect and discuss the most urgently needed changes, as to resource distribution, production methods and supporting services in Brazilian agriculture. For that, it was necessary to describe and evaluate the existing situation in rural Brazil, a task taken up in the first part

  8. IBM Brazil: and environmental modern view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremonesi, Valter [IBM Brasil, Industria, Maquinas e Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, Rj (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Information of practical experiences on Environmental Affairs at IBM Brazil plant and branch offices is presented, with a modern view of the mission, resources, support, waste management, monitoring programs, recycling, energy conservation, partners programs, nature preservation 2rograms, recognitions and image. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn; Brownstein, John S.; Marinho, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre F.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year. PMID:27618573

  10. Climatic change in northeastern Brazil: paleoparasitological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris eggs were observed in Kerodon rupestris coprolites dated 9,000 years before present, collected in archeological sites of São Raimundo Nonato, northeastern Brazil. However, present day local rodents seem not to be infected by the parasite, suggesting its disappearence due to climatic changes.

  11. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  12. Implementing the Schoolwide Enrichment Model in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Fleith, Denise; Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) has been one of the most widely used models in the education of the gifted in Brazil. It has inspired the political and pedagogical project of the Centers of Activities of High Abilities/Giftedness recently implemented in 27 Brazilian states by the Ministry of Education. In this article, our experience in…

  13. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  14. "Almost invisible scars": medical tourism to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2011-01-01

    Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources,

  15. Pentecostalism and premarital sexual initiation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula A. Verona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal denominations in Brazil are recognized for their promotion of conservative norms and punitive sanctions related to the sexual behavior of their young members. Moreover, they have created unique space for their followers to actively participate in a religious environment. Using data from the PNDS-2006 (National Survey on the Demography and Health of Children and Women, Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher de 2006, we examine the associations, in Brazil between religion, as measured by religious affiliation and attendance at religious services, and premarital adolescent sexual initiation. Our main results confirm a strong association between delay in sexual initiation and Pentecostalism in Brazil and suggest that this association be related to frequent attendance at religious services. These findings are intriguing, especially because Pentecostalism has emerged and concentrated among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, including the least-educated women, with lower income, and residents of urban areas. We conclude by suggesting that religion may be taking the place of family and school in communication on adolescent sexual behavior in Brazil. This hypothesis should be carefully investigated, since the religious teachings may sometimes be in favor of what families and the state see as beneficial for adolescents and youth in general, but sometimes in disaccord.

  16. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  17. Brazil: The Lula Government and Financial Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Alvaro; Braga, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    The electoral victory of Lu?s In?cio "Lula" da Silva in the presidential elections of 2002 epitomized two decades of social and political transformations in Brazil. Nevertheless, instead of launching an alternative mode of doing politics, the program of the Workers' Party affirmed a state logic with a view to gradually updating the economic…

  18. Abortion in Brazil: legislation, reality and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A C

    2000-11-01

    Abortion is illegal in Brazil except when performed to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. This paper gives a brief history of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary efforts to change abortion-related legislation in Brazil in the past 60 years, the contents of some of the 53 bills that have been tabled in that time, the non-governmental stakeholders involved and the debate itself in recent decades. The authorities in Brazil have never assumed full public responsibility for reproductive health care or family planning, let alone legal abortion; the ambivalence of the medical profession is an important obstacle. Most politicians avoid getting involved in the abortion debate, but the majority of bills in the 1990s have favoured less restrictive legislation. Incremental legislative and health service changes could help to improve the situation for women. Advocacy is probably the most important action, to promote an environment conducive to change. Clandestine abortion is a serious public health problem in Brazil, and the inadequacy of family planning services is one of the causes of this problem. The solutions should be made a priority for the Brazilian public health system.

  19. "Almost invisible scars": medical tourism to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.

    2011-01-01

    Along with a handful of other nations in the developing world, Brazil has emerged as a top destination for medical tourism. Drawing on the author’s ethnographic fieldwork in plastic surgery wards, this article examines diverse factors—some explicitly promoted in medical marketing and news sources, o

  20. Dengue situation in Brazil by year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G Schatzmayr

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1 and 2 have been isolated in Brazil by the Department of Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, in 1986 and 1990 respectively, after many decades of absence. A successful continental Aedes aegypti control program in the Americas, has been able to eradicate the vector in most countries in the 60's, but the program could not be sustained along the years. Dengue viruses were reintroduced in the American region and the infection became endemic in Brazil, like in most Central and SouthAmerican countries and in the Caribbean region, due to the weaning of the vector control programs in these countries. High demographic densities and poor housing conditions in large urban communities, made the ideal conditions for vector spreading. All four dengue types are circulating in the continent and there is a high risk of the introduction in the country of the other two dengue types in Brazil, with the development of large epidemics. After the Cuban episode in 1981, when by the first time a large epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome have been described in the Americas, both clinical presentations are observed, specially in the countries like Brazil, with circulation of more than one dengue virus type. A tetravalent potent vaccine seems to be the only possible way to control the disease in the future, besides rapid clinical and laboratory diagnosis, in order to offer supportive treatment to the more severe clinical infections.

  1. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  2. Caracterização microbiológica e clínica de surtos de "red leg" em Minas Gerais e avaliação do efeito bactericida in vitro do Vantocil IB® para Aeromonas hydrophila Microbiological and clinical characterization of "red leg" outbreaks in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and evaluation of in vitro bacterial effects of Vantocil IB® for Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina de Almeida

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo da caracterização da ocorrência de "red leg" em Minas Gerais, avaliaram-se rãs jovens e adultas que apresentavam úlceras nas patas e dedos, derrame hemorrágico na pele da região ventral, incoordenação motora, altas taxas de mortalidade em adultos e abscessos hepáticos à necropsia. No cultivo de fragmentos de pele lesada e abscessos, foi isolado e identificado Aeromonas hydrophila. O efeito bactericida do VANTOCIL IB® foi superior ao permanganato de potássio, determinado pela concentração inibitória mínima para colónias isoladas.With the objective of characterizating lhe ocurrence of "red leg" in Minas Gerais, Brazill, young and adult frogs which presented in theirpads and limbs hemorragie in the skin of the ventral region, incordination, high death rate in adults and hepatic abscess at necropsy, have been evaluated. In fragment culture ofdamage skin and abscess, Aeromonas. hydrophila hás been isolated and identified. The bactericidal effect of VANTOCIL IB® was higher than that of potassium permanganate, as determinated by the minimal inhibitory concentration for isolated colonies.

  3. Genetic diversity of the VP1/VP2 gene of canine parvovirus type 2b amplified from clinical specimens in Brazil Diversidade genética no gene VP1/VP2 do parvovirus canino tipo 2b amplificado de material clínico no Brasil

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    Cesar A. D. Pereira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the genetic diversity in the VP1/VP2 gene of CPV type 2b isolates from symptomatic dogs in Brazil. A total of 21 isolates collected from 1990 through 1995 previously typed as CPV2b by PCR assay were studied. Overall we found a high degree of similarity among sequences from different CPV clinical isolates collected. Genetic analysis of this selected region gave no indication of a specific Brazilian parvovirus lineage.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética no gene VP1/VP2 do parvovírus canino tipo 2b a partir de amostras isoladas de cães sintomáticos no Brasil. Foram estudadas 21 amostras coletadas no período de 1990 à 1995, previamente caracterizadas como CPV 2b pela técnica de PCR. Observou-se alto grau de similaridade entre as seqüências estudadas e a análise genética da região selecionada não indicou a presença de uma linhagem brasileira específica.

  4. Freqüência e percentual de suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas em pacientes atendidos na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza Frequency and susceptibility percentile of bacteria isolated in patients assisted in the intensive care unit of the General Hospital of Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇAO: As infecções hospitalares, hoje, são motivo de grande preocupação no âmbito hospitalar, principalmente nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs, nas quais encontramos uma associação de fatores propícios ao surgimento de infecções. Objetivos: Verificar a freqüência e o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos das bactérias isoladas de pacientes da UTI do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza (HGF. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: As bactérias foram isoladas em meio de cultura e a identificação e o teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos realizados por meio do sistema de automação MicroScan WalkWay. RESULTADOS: No período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002 houve 34% de positividade de bactérias no aspirado traqueal de pacientes da UTI; 10% de positividade no cateter; 26% de positividade na urina; e 30% de positividade no sangue. As bactérias mais freqüentes do aspirado traqueal foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16% e Klebsiella pneumoniae (15%. Em cateteres, houve maior freqüência de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN (25% e Staphylococcus aureus (25%; na urina, predominaram Klebsiella pneumoniae (16% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%. Em hemoculturas, as bactérias mais isoladas foram SCN (41% e Staphylococcus aureus (17%. Foi observado, em relação ao perfil de suscetibilidade, que as Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de aspirado traqueal apresentaram total suscetibilidade à piperacilina e resistência total à ceftriaxona e à cefotaxima. A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolada de aspirados traqueais foi totalmente sensível ao imipenem, não apresentando resistência total a nenhum antimicrobiano testado, e apresentou suscetibilidade de 54% à ceftazidima. Em cateter ela apresentou resistência a ampicilina/sulbactam, cefepima, cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ceftriaxona, cefuroxima, gentamicina, piperacilina/tazobactam, piperacilina, ticarcilina/clavulanato e tobramicina, bem como suscetibilidade ao imipenem. Na urina, observamos 55% de

  5. Demand for fisheries products in Brazil

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    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption per capita in Brazil is relatively modest when compared to other animal proteins. This study analyses the influence of protein prices, other food prices and population income on the fish demand in Brazil. First, the problem of fish supply in Brazil is characterized. It is followed by reviews of the relevant economic theory and methods of Almost Ideal Demand System - AIDS and their elasticity calculations. A descriptive analysis of fish demand in Brazil using the microdata called "Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar" (Familiar Budget Research - POF 2002-2003 is presented. Finally, demand functions and their elasticities are calculated for two different cases: one considering five groups of animal proteins (Chicken; Milk and Eggs; Fish; Processed Proteins and Red Meat and other with seven groups of food categories (Cereals; Vegetables and Fruits; Milky and Eggs; Oils and Condiments; Fish; Other processed foods; and Meats. The main results are: per capita consumption of fish (4.6 kg per inhabitant per year is low in Brazil because few households consume fish. When only households with fish consumption are considered, the per capita consumption would be higher: 27.2 kg per inhabitant per year. The fish consumption in the North-East Region is concentrated in the low-income class. In the Center-South Region, the fish consumption is lower and concentrated in the intermediate income classes. The main substitutes for fish are the processed proteins and not the traditional types of meat, such as chicken and red meat.

  6. Programa de manejo da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus na cultura da cana-de-açúcar com aplicação isolada ou seqüencial de MSMA Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus management program in sugarcane crop with isolated or sequential application of MSMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Foloni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesmo após muitos anos de estudos e experimentação, a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus permanece como sério problema para a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, exigindo a constante busca por novas alternativas de manejo. Assim, este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar um programa de manejo da tiririca em área da cultura da cana-de-açúcar densamente infestada, utilizando aplicações isoladas ou seqüenciais de MSMA, em dois anos sucessivos. Para isso, um experimento foi conduzido duas vezes, na mesma área, no período compreendido entre os anos de 1994 e 1996, ou seja, em dois anos agrícolas da cultura da cana-de-açúcar, variedade SP 71-1406. No trabalho, foram utilizados dez tratamentos com aplicações isoladas ou seqüenciais de MSMA sobre a tiririca, que foi a espécie dominante na área. Após as aplicações de MSMA, avaliaram-se a altura e seletividade dos tratamentos à cana-de-açúcar, bem como a altura e o controle percentual da tiririca e o número total, massa fresca e viabilidade dos tubérculos. Concluiu-se que o herbicida MSMA apresentou efeitos negativos iniciais sobre a altura e fitotoxicidade aparente da cana-de-açúcar, que regrediram com o decorrer das avaliações, não sendo observados ao término do experimento. A aplicação isolada de MSMA mostrou controle eficiente da tiririca, porém houve reinfestação. A aplicação seqüencial, para as duas maiores doses, resultou em constância no nível de controle. A análise do número, massa e viabilidade de tubérculos corrobora os dados de controle visual de desinfestação da área.Even after years of studying and experimentation, purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus is still a serious problem to sugarcane crop, demanding constant search for new management alternatives. Thus, this work aimed to determine a purple nutsedge management program for a highly infested sugarcane area, using isolated or sequential applications of MSMA, in two successive years. Thus

  7. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  8. Ehrlichiosis in Brazil Erliquiose no Brasil

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    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a disease caused by rickettsial organisms belonging to the genus Ehrlichia. In Brazil, molecular and serological studies have evaluated the occurrence of Ehrlichia species in dogs, cats, wild animals and humans. Ehrlichia canis is the main species found in dogs in Brazil, although E. ewingii infection has been recently suspected in five dogs. Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA has been detected and characterized in mash deer, whereas E. muris and E. ruminantium have not yet been identified in Brazil. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by E. canis appears to be highly endemic in several regions of Brazil, however prevalence data are not available for several regions. Ehrlichia canis DNA also has been detected and molecularly characterized in three domestic cats, and antibodies against E. canis were detected in free-ranging Neotropical felids. There is serological evidence suggesting the occurrence of human ehrlichiosis in Brazil but its etiologic agent has not yet been established. Improved molecular diagnostic resources for laboratory testing will allow better identification and characterization of ehrlichial organisms associated with human ehrlichiosis in Brazil.Erliquiose é uma doença causada por rickettsias pertencentes ao gênero Ehrlichia. No Brasil, estudos sorológicos e moleculares têm avaliado a ocorrência de espécies de Ehrlichia em cães, gatos, animais selvagens e seres humanos. Ehrlichia canis é a principal espécie em cães no Brasil, embora a infecção por E. ewingii tenha, recentemente, despertado suspeita em cinco cães. O DNA de E. chaffeensis foi detectado e caracterizado em cervo-do-pantanal, enquanto que E. muris e E. ruminantium ainda não foram identificadas no Brasil. A erliquiose monocítica canina causada pela E. canis parece ser altamente endêmica em muitas regiões do Brasil, embora dados de prevalência não estejam disponíveis em muitas delas. O DNA de E. canis também foi detectado e caracterizado

  9. Avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico frente aos antibióticos de uso sistêmico

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    Bárbara Trindade Di Santi

    Full Text Available ResumoIntroduçãoBactérias associadas ao insucesso do tratamento endodôntico são capazes de adquirir e expressar resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos comumente empregados para tratar infecções, o que torna necessário, em determinadas situações, a realização de testes laboratoriais para detectar a resistência ou a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana desses micro-organismos.Objetivoavaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das cepas de Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Actinomyces viscosus e Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico.Material e métodoCepas clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis (n=3, Enterococcus faecium (n=3, Actinomyces viscosus (n=3 e Staphylococcus aureus (n=3, coletadas in vivo de canais radiculares com insucesso endodôntico, foram testadas quanto à suscetibilidade antimicrobiana por meio do método E-test em duplicata, utilizando os antibióticos: Amoxicilina (AC, Rifampicina (RI, Moxifloxacina (MX, Vancomicina (VA, Tetraciclina (TC, Ciprofloxacina (CI, Cloranfenicol (CL, Benzilpenicilina (PG, Amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico (XL, Doxiciclina (DC, Eritromicina (EM e Azitromicina (AZ.ResultadoTodas as cepas clínicas testadas foram suscetíveis aos antibióticos AC, XL, PG, DC, MX, TC e VA. Todos os isolados das espécies de S. aureus foram suscetíveis aos 12 antibióticos testados. As cepas de E. faecalis, E. faecium e A. viscosus mostraram padrão de suscetibilidade intermediário contra EM. Algumas cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium foram resistentes a AZ e RI.ConclusãoAs cepas clínicas isoladas dos canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico mostraram perfis diferentes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e nenhum isolado de E. faecalis e E. faeciumapresentou-se suscetível a AZ e EM.

  10. Genes associated with pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli (APEC isolated from respiratory cases of poultry Genes associados à patogenicidade de Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC isoladas de frangos de corte com sintomatologia clínica respiratória

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    Ana C.G.P. Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The virulence mechanisms of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC have been continually studied and are believed to be multi-factorial. Certain properties are primarily associated with virulent samples and have been identified in avian isolates. In this study a total of 61 E. coli, isolates from chicken flocks with respiratory symptomatology, were probed by Polimerase Chain Reation (PCR for the presence of genes responsible for the adhesion capacity, P fimbria (papC e F11 fimbria (felA, colicin production (cvaC, aerobactin presence (iutA, serum resistance (iss, temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, and presence of K1 and K5 capsular antigens (kpsII. The iss gene was detected in 73,8%, tsh in 55,7%, iutA in 45,9%, felA in 39,3%, papC in 24,3%, cvaC in 23% and kpsII in18%.Os mecanismos de virulência das amostras de Escherichia coli potencialmente patogênicas para aves (APEC têm sido continuamente estudados e acredita-se ser multifatorial. Certas propriedades são associadas primariamente a amostras virulentas e vêm sendo identificadas em amostras de E. coli isoladas de aves. Neste estudo um total de 61 amostras de E. coli, isoladas de frangos de corte com problemas respiratórios, foram testadas através da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, para a presença dos genes responsáveis pela capacidade de adesão, fimbria P (papC e fimbria F11 (felA, produção de colicinas (cvaC, presença de aerobactina (iutA, resistência sérica (iss, hemaglutinina temperatura sensível (tsh e presença de dos antígenos capsulares K1 e K5 (kpsII. O gene iss foi detectado em 73,8%, tsh em 55,7%, iutA em 45,9%, felA em 39,3%, papC em 24,3%, cvaC em 23% e kpsII em 18%.

  11. Identificação microbiológica e sensibilidade in vitro de Candida isoladas da cavidade oral de indivíduos HIV positivos Microbiological identification and in vitro sensitivity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity of HIV-positive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arias Wingeter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase orofaríngea é a infecção fúngica mais comum entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana e seu tratamento é realizado com antifúngicos tópicos ou sistêmicos, que são indicados empiricamente com base em dados clínicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência de leveduras em lavados bucais de indivíduos HIV positivos, comparando os resultados entre pacientes com diferentes condições de imunodeficiência e verificar o perfil de susceptibilidade das espécies isoladas frente aos antifúngicos visando avaliar se as opções de tratamento utilizadas na prática clínica atingem a maioria das espécies identificadas. Leveduras foram isoladas em 58% das amostras de lavado bucal coletadas e Candida albicans foi a espécie mais (93% freqüente. Resistência ou susceptibilidade dose dependente, frente aos antifúngicos testados foi registrada em aproximadamente 17% das amostras. A importante variabilidade de resposta sugere limitações quanto à eficácia das terapias instituídas empiricamente.Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It can be treated with either systemic or topical antifungal agents, which are indicated empirically on the basis of clinical data. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of yeast in mouthwashes from HIV-positive patients, compare the results between patients presenting different states of immunodeficiency, and investigate the susceptibility profile of the species isolated in relation to antifungal agents, with the aim of evaluating whether the treatments used in clinical practice are able to reach the majority of the species identified. Yeasts were isolated from 58% of the mouthwash samples collected. Candida albicans was the most (93% frequent species. Resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility in relation to the antifungal agent tested was registered in

  12. Detecção de cepas patogênicas pela PCR multiplex e avaliação da sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isoladas de leitões diarréicos Detection of pathogenic strains by multiplex PCR and antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Macêdo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a freqüência dos genes de fímbrias (K88, K99, 987P, F18 e F41 e toxinas (LT, Stb, StaP e Stx2e de cepas de E. coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia usando a técnica de PCR multiplex com primers específicos para esses genes, e estudou-se o padrão de sensibilidade das cepas patogênicas pelo método de difusão em disco ao florfenicol, ceftiofur sódico, colistina, fosfomicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxiciclina, tetraciclina e lincomicina. Foram utilizadas 144 amostras de E.coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia, provenientes de granjas localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais. Dessas, 42 (29,2% foram positivas para pelo menos um dos fatores de virulência testados. Dentre essas 42 amostras, 23 (54,8% apresentaram genes de fímbria e toxina, sete (16,6% apresentaram somente genes de toxinas e 12 (28,6% amostras somente genes de fímbria. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrou que o florfenicol (89,5 % e o ceftiofur sódico (84,2% foram as drogas de melhor eficácia in vitro sobre cepas de E. coli com fatores de virulência.The frequency of virulence determinants genes for fimbrial adhesions (K88, K99, 987P, F18 and F41 and toxins (LT, Stb, StaP and Stx2e in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic piglets using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay with specific primers for these genes was studied. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of pathogenic isolates for florfenicol, sodium ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxycycline, tetracycline and lincomycin was also tested using the disk diffusion method. E. coli were isolated from 144 diarrheic piglets from farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Forty-two out of 144 studied samples (29.2% were positive for at least one tested virulence factor. Out of these 42, 23 samples (54.8% contained fimbria and toxin genes, seven (16.6% samples had genes for toxins only and 12 (28.6% samples

  13. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors of squamous cell cervical cancer treated by radical hysterectomy or combined radiation therapy; Carcinoma espinocelular do colo uterino submetido a cirurgia radical isolada ou em combinacao com radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Francisco Ricardo Gualda; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Abrao, Fauzer Simao [Fundacao Antonio Prudente, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital A.C. Camargo; Franco, Eduardo Luiz [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Oncology; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Brentani, Maria Mitzi [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1996-04-01

    Six hundred and nine cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri in a retrospective analysis (1953-1982) at the A.C. Camargo Hospital, Antonio Prudente Foundation, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The patients were submitted to radical surgery and radiation therapy, individually or in combination. A multivariate analysis of the different variables were performed according to the Cox`s regression method. The variables of prognosis value, in decreasing order of importance, were: the decade of patient`s admission, the modality of therapy employed, the presence of residual tumor in the surgical specimens and the clinical stage of the disease. Other variables like ethnic group, age of first menstrual flux, menopause, number of pregnancy, kind of delivery, number and kind of abortion, were found to be of no prognostic importance. The decade of admission was of independent prognostic significance. The presence of residual tumor in the surgical specimens was more important than lymph nodes spreading, but the overall survival was affected by the increase in the number of positive lymph nodes. Patient`s age was a weak prognostic factor accounting for a reduction in the survival time among cases with age upper to 45 years old. Radiation therapy sterilizes a considerable number of lymph nodes but not all of them in every patient. There are a specific group of patients where the radical surgery is necessary in order to carry a complete debulking of the disease. (author) 82 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  15. Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de amostras clínicas e ambientais de frangos de corte e matrizes pesadas Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from clinical and environmental broiler chickens and breeders broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from clinical and environmental poultry samples in the Southern Brazil during the years of 1999, 2000 and 2001 was evaluated. Among the 79 isolated samples, 64 (81% were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested, showing 22 different resistance patterns. Tetracycline showed the highest percentage (64,5% of resistance among the antimicrobial agents used. Resistance to drugs at different levels was found as the following: ampicillin (1.2%, kanamycin (1.2%, ciprofloxacin (2.5%, enrofloxacin (8.8%, gentamicin (21.5%, streptomycin (20.2%, nitrofurantoin (26.6%, and nalidixic acid (30.4%. None of the S. Enteritidis strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, and polimycin B. Among the 64 S. Enteritidis strains that showed resistance, 43 (67.2% were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Twenty-one (32.8% strains were resistant to only one of the antimicrobial agents, 14 to tetracycline, three to nalidixic acid, three to nitrofurantoin, and one to gentamycin. These antimicrobial resistance levels suggest a high occurrence of tetracycline resistant S. Enteritidis strains and resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents.

  16. A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Giorgi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Scymnobius Casey (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Scymnini from Pernambuco, Brazil. Scymnobius pernambucensis sp. nov. from Pernambuco, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This is the third species of this genus recorded from Brazil.

  17. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  18. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

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    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  19. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  20. Selaginella P. Beauv. from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Heringer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Selaginella P. Beauv. is the only genus in the family Selaginellaceae Willk. The genus is monophyletic, has a cosmopolitan distribution, contains about 750 species and can be characterized by the presence of rhizophores, leaves, a ligule, heterospory and adaxial, reniform sporangia. Twenty species were found in the study area: Selaginella alstonii, S. contigua, S. convoluta, S. decomposita, S. erectifolia, S. erythropus, S. flexuosa, S. jungermannioides, S. macrostachya, S. marginata, S. microphylla, S. muscosa, S. producta, S. sellowii, S. sematophylla, S. suavis, S. sulcata, S. tenella, S. tenuissima and S. vestiens. Two new species records for the state are presented (S. jungermannioides and S. tenella. We present descriptions of the genus and species, an identification key, the synonyms pertaining to Brazil, illustrations, and comments about the taxonomy and distribution of species in Brazil.

  1. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... of existing oil and waste today. A methodological discussion was also necessary to include sustainable dimensions on the scenario methods. Therefore, the environment, economics, technology, social, territorial, national and international institutional, cultural and political aspects were considered....... In order to carry on this work, it was necessary to develop a cross-disciplinary research, since sustainability requires a long run vision and a comprehensive approach. Brazil is a large country (851 Mha), with soil and weather conditions that are suitable to produce oilseeds, and available land...

  2. The legacy of monazite processing in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources containing naturally occurring radionuclides may lead to enhanced levels of radioactive isotope and enhanced potential for exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in products, by-products, residues or wastes. Such resources include, for instance, monazite, the processing of which, in Brazil, generated a great amount of radioactive residues, being stored in buried concrete tanks, in temporary storage buildings and in sealed trenches. In addition, during the 1980s there were no radiological protection rules concerning the storage and transportation of these kinds of residues. Mineral radioactive residues were used as landfills and the residues of chemical processes contaminated floors and buildings. The decommissioning process and cleaning of old plants have generated tons of wastes that has been added to previously produced wastes. This paper reports and discusses the cycle of monazite in Brazil and its consequences in terms of site remediation and amount of wastes and residues generated and stored.

  3. Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".

  4. John Banister: an Elizabethan surgeon in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Amílcar D'Avila de

    2011-03-01

    In Brazil's sixteenth-century history, very few references are made to health professionals. On the expedition of Edward Fenton, dispatched by the English Crown in 1582 to set up a trading post in Asia, was the famous barber-surgeon and physician John Banister. The naval squadron, diverted from its original route to repeat the feats of Sir Francis Drake, stopped over in Africa, crossed the Atlantic and anchored off the Santa Catarina coast in Brazil. In these waters, the expedition degenerated into piracy and returned unsuccessful to Europe. John Banister is considered the person who liberated English anatomy from mediaeval slavery, shedding upon it the light of the Renaissance. It was the first time that anyone of this importance in the area of health had visited these latitudes.

  5. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  6. Record of Diglyphus walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A R; Bueno, V H P; Silva, D B; Costa, V A

    2011-01-01

    Leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are pests of various crops, mainly in greenhouses, and have Diglyphus spp. as important leafminer larval parasitoids. Until recently, only Diglyphus insularis (Gahan) had been reported in Brazil. In here we report the first records of Diglyphus begini (Ashmead), D. intermedius (Girault) and D. isaea (Walker) in Brazil. These parasitoids were found parasitizing leafminer larvae on cultivated and spontaneous plants in some areas of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  7. Adequacy of public maternal care services in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Brazil, hospital childbirth care is available to all, but differences in access and quality of care result in inequalities of maternal health. The objective of this study is to assess the infrastructure and staffing of publicly financed labor and birth care in Brazil and its adequacy according to clinical and obstetric conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies. Methods Nationwide cross-sectional hospital-based study “Birth in Brazil: national survey i...

  8. Developments in Latin America: The Temporary Staffing Industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Watts

    2011-01-01

    While many countries are still struggling to escape the effects of the financial crisis, Brazil has experienced strong economic growth, providing a stimulus for further investment and temporary staffing agency expansion. This Working Brief aims to outline some of the developments that have occurred in the temporary staffing industry in Brazil. I briefly outline the regulatory context for temporary staffing in Brazil before highlighting the characteristics of the industry and detailing the eme...

  9. Restoring the Unwritten Alliance: Brazil-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Brazil will be a huge opportunity lost for substantial economic trade and growth. Already Brazil has concluded Common Market of the South ( MERCOSUR ...similar. Another regional South American organization not mentioned in the NMS is MERCOSUR , in which Brazil has become the natural leader due to its...proactively working to solve problems. UNASUR, MERCOSUR , and even the Community of Latin American and Carib- bean States are potential U.S. partners

  10. Periodontal conditions of elders in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain; Maria Daucirlene Costa Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the periodontal conditions of elderly patients assisted in a Specialized Dentistry Center in Northeastern of Brazil. Methods: Quantitative and cross-sectional study conducted with 152 elders. It was used a questionnaire to get information about socio-demographic aspects (age, sex, gender, income, and education), general healthand periodontal clinical examination based on the Communitarian Periodontal Index (CPI), an indicator recommended by the World Health Organization...

  11. THE BACHELOR OF BIOCHEMISTRY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Cordeiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The economic and social development of Brazil in the last decade has contributed to the installation of new graduate and undergraduate programs, as are the case with bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. These graduates are prepared to work in industry, research institutes and universities in areas of knowledge involving Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This is happening in developed countries since the first half of the last century, surprising and late is the implementation of bachelor of Biochemistry in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the Bachelor in Biochemistry in Brazil from the perspective of the main difficulties of implementing and courses maintenance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with undergraduate students, graduates, professors, staff and managers from bachelor degrees in Biochemistry at UFV, UFSJ and UEM. The sampling procedure was non probabilistic for judgment (choice of the subjects involved and interested in the course of biochemistry to undergraduate students, graduates, professors and staff and non probabilistic for convenience to managers. The qualitative assessment to depict the representative keywords was performed using words cloud by WordleTM. RESULTS: The study included 5 managers, 24 professors, 12 staff, 25 undergraduate students, 5 graduates. For the students the main reason for the course selection should be scientific vocation and affinity with chemistry and biology; most cited positive parameters were faculty and great structure, practical classes and broad playing field; most cited negatives were high mandatory disciplines, little student free time and lack of sophisticated equipment. Despite the conception of the programs have happened in different contexts and regions we noted similarities deficiencies and distresses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties must be

  12. Brazil: Changing Patterns of Foreign Trade,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    other chemicals, newsprint, pulp for paper , synthetic rubber , iron and steel mill products , sulphur , asbestos, aluminum , copper, and zinc. Latin...synthetic fibers and their waste, synthetic rubber, crude fertilizer, sulphur , and metal scrap) accounted in 1964 for 54.5 percent of U.S. exports to Brazil...industrial minerals as phosphates, potash, kaolin , and asbestos. To date , however , exploration for the most needed ore, copper, has revealed few promising

  13. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Nacional da Colonizaqio Reforma Agriria-INCRA) in Rond6nia, was dramatically successful. INCRA settled some 7,000 families on 100-hectare plots, opened many...Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (Instituto Nacional da Coloniza~o e Reforma Agriria- INCRA), the agency in charge of administering the Land...Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1977. Willems, Emilio. Followers of the New Faith: Culture Change and the Rise of Protestantism in Brazil and Chile. Nashville

  14. Thimerosal: current sources of contact in Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios

    2014-01-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury derivative found in ophthalmic solutions and certain vaccines in Brazil. Although most studies suggest the prevalence of thimerosal sensitivity to be quite high, this condition does not currently have any clinical relevance. The present article surveyed 184 Brazilian products (151 topical medications and 33 vaccines) and found that thimerosal was only present in 3 ophthalmic solutions and 5 vaccines. PMID:24770530

  15. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  16. Physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith,Samuel C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study, based on a systematic literature review, was to describe the prevalence of physical activity (or inactivity) in the Brazilian population. The databases consulted were: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal. The terms "physical activity", "physical exercise", "physical inactivity", "sedentary" "Brazil", and "Brazilian" were used in the search. Overall, 47 studies (all cross-sectional) with random samples were found, and in 26 studies ...

  17. Coal prep in Brazil: the Polish approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilli, C.B.

    1988-02-01

    With one exception, all coal mined in Brazil is washed at the pit head because of its high dirt content. Since the early 1970s five complete coal preparation plants have been designed and constructed by a consortium, using Polish technology. Among the changes effected by the Polish engineers was the introduction of Polish designed equipment. These have led to several small modifications on the usual flowsheet design, which have increased recoveries. 4 figs.

  18. Solidarity Economy Networks: the Case of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla-Carrascal, Ivette Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    This article presents reflections (resulting from a Master’s dissertation in sociology) about diversecontributions by the solidarity economy networks in the construction of a solidarity market in Brazil.The first part of the article is a discussion about the different characteristics of the networks in terms ofmore general social theories, such as networks in the field of the solidarity economy. The second partbriefly characterizes the Redes Bodega, acs Amazonia, Rede Ecovida, Central do Cerr...

  19. Carbonatite complexes from Brazil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C. B.; Ruperti, E.; Morbidelli, L.

    This paper reviews general aspects regarding the occurrences of alkaline rocks associated with carbonatites in Brazil. Currently twenty-two complexes are listed in the literature, but only a few have been thoroughly studied. Special attention is given to the geological association and geochronology of such rocks, and petrological problems are only briefly discussed as a consequence of insufficient information. Data on mineral resources are also provided for some complexes. Eight occurrence are being mined, particularly for phosphate and niobium.

  20. Quidgest internationalization strategic plan to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Maria do Rosário Pinto de Mesquita Ortigão

    2012-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics An International Strategic Plan to Brazil is the subject of this work project. The author studies the prospect of the Portuguese company Quidgest increasing its international presence. Quidgest is a software consultant that develops Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. After an extensive analysis focused on Brazil’s economy, business ...

  1. Perspectives on bioenergy and biotechnology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa-Jr, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Menossi, Marcelo; dos Santos, Raphael Revert; Filho, Sylvio Ortega; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest producers of alcohol from biomass at low cost and is responsible for more than 1 million direct jobs. In 1973, the Brazilian Program of Alcohol (Proalcool) stimulated the creation of a bioethanol industry that has led to large economic, social, and scientific improvements. In the year 1984, 94.5% of Brazil's cars used bioethanol as fuel. In 2003/2004, 350.3 million of sugarcane produced 24.2 million t of sugar and 14.4 billion L of ethanol for an average 4.3 million cars using ethanol. Since its inception, cumulative investment in Proalcool totals US$11 billion, and Brazil has saved US$27 billion in oil imports. The ethanol production industry from sugarcane gene-rates 152 times more jobs than would have been the case if the same amount of fuel was produced from petroleum, and the use of ethanol as a fuel is advantageous for environmental reasons. In 2003, one of the biggest Brazilian ethanol industries started consuming 50% of the residual sugarcane bagasse to produce electrical energy (60 MW), a new alternative use of bioenergy for the Brazilian market. Other technologies for commercial uses of bagasse are in development, such as in the production of natural fibers, sweeteners (glucose and xylitol), single-cell proteins, lactic acid, microbial enzymes, and many other products based on fermentations (submerged and semisolid). Furthermore, studies aimed at the increase in the biosynthesis of sucrose and, consequently, ethanol productivity are being conducted to understand the genetics of sugarcane. Although, at present, there remain technical obstacles to the economic use of some ethanol industry residues, several research projects have been carried out and useful data generated. Efficient utilization of ethanol industry residues has created new opportunities for new value-added products, especially in Brazil, where they are produced in high quantities.

  2. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela

    2008-01-01

    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  3. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Thais Elias; Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyatheasubincisa, Cyclodiumtrianae, Elaphoglossumstenophyllum, Hypoderrisbrauniana, Pleopeltisstolzei, Thelypterisarcana, Thelypteriscomosa, Thelypterisvaldepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodiumflagellare, Tectariaheracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophilasalvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurumcostatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypterisrolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  4. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  5. Potential Intake Of Intense Sweeteners In Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, M C; Ioshi, S H

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intense sweetener intakes was carried out in the winter of 1990 and summer of 1991 in Brazil. Data on the potential intake of the intense sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin were generated, based on a representative sample of 673 individuals who completed a questionnaire designed to collect information on demographic details and habitual usage of sweetener-containing food and drinks. The respondents were randomly chosen among intense sweetener consumers living the cities...

  6. PREVALÊNCIA DE SALMONELLA EM PRODUTOS DE FRANGOS E OVOS DE GALINHA COMERCIALIZADOS EM PELOTAS, RS, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CHICKEN PRODUCTS AND HEN'S EGGS FROM PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Baú

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de Salmonella em produtos de frangos e ovos de galinhas, os sorovares mais freqüentes e sua sensibilidadea a antimicrobianos, foram investigados em Pelotas, Brasil, no período de maio de 1997 a outubro de 1998. Um total de 124 amostras de produtos de frangos obtidas em supermercados e açougues e 94 amostras de 6 unidades de ovos de galinhas obtidas em supermercados e feiras-livres foram analisadas através do método convencional de cultivo. Entre as amostras de produtos de frangos analisadas, 13 (10,48% continham salmonelas. Os 13 isolamentos de salmonelas realizados foram sorotipificados como S. enteritidis (10, S. anatum (1 e S. enterica subespécie enterica sorovar 3,10:e,h:- (2. Todas as cepas isoladas foram resistentes à penicilina G e sensíveis aos demais antimicrobianos testados. Em amostras de ovos, não foram detectadas salmonelas.The prevalence of Salmonella in chicken products and hen's eggs, the most frequent serovars and their antimicrobial sensitivity, were investigated in the city of Pelotas, Brazil from May 1997 through October 1998. A total of 124 samples of chicken products obtained from local supermarkets and butcher shops, and 94 samples of eggs (6 units each obtained from supermarkets and street vendors, were examined through standard cultivation procedures. Salmonella were detected in 13 (10,48% samples of chicken products. Among the 13 strains of salmonellae isolated, 10 were serotyped as S. enteritidis, 1 was S. anatum and 2 were S. enterica subsp. enterica sorovar 3,10:e,h:-. All strains isolated were resistant to penicillin G and susceptible to the others antimicrobial drugs tested. Hen's eggs were not found contaminated with salmonellae.

  7. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  8. PCATool-ADULT-BRAZIL: a reduced version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Celestina de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reorganization of the Brazilian health system brings the need for on-going evaluation of the services offered to the population. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil version for adult users, validated for the Brazilian context, adequately measures the presence and extent of attributes of primary health care (PHC services. A reduced version of this instrument is required to optimize the process of implementation and use of the results in strategic actions. This article aims to present a reduced version of the PCATool-Brazil for adult users and analyze its suitability. The instrument was applied to 2404 adult residents of areas covered by primary health care (PHC units in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state. By the two-parameter logistic model of Item Response Theory (ML-2, 23 items that presented discrimination classified as moderate to strong, contemplating the seven attributes of PHC, were selected. As a measure of consistency, the results obtained with this version were compared with the complete version, revealing consistent PHC scores. These findings indicate that the PCATool-Brazil reduced version for adult users presents adequate validity and reliability, and it can be adopted as a rapid assessment tool to evaluate PHC in Brazilian services, permitting decision making guided by evidence in the development of actions to improve the quality of care offered to the population.

  9. Bioethics and Christian theology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, Márcio Fabri; Lepargneur, Hubert François

    2008-01-01

    A Christian theology is important to bioethics in Brazil not only because Brazil is a country of strong Christian traditions, but also because of its theological method and because of many practices in their Christian communities. In fact, the interaction within practice and theory is a big point of its methodology. A heritage of a long history of colonialism in South America comes to our times as enormous social inequalities. In such a context, the silent cry of poor people is heard as a question of coherence to the Christian faith and to the neighbor love. Through a constant dialog with human sciences, the method of theology, known as liberation theology, seeks the roots of social inequalities and the alternatives to a movement of spiritual and social liberation. In touch with the modern bioethics, this theology has strongly contributed to understand all the questions of bioethics in the frame of social structures and systems. On the other hand, many actual practices of the Catholic Church in Brazil with popular impact, like its annual Fraternity Campaign, develop social themes and problems that are also big concerns of bioethics. In this article we try to expose some aspects of this dialog, where theology has a well considered contribution to Brazilian bioethics, at the same time his religious discourse is open to interact with a lay discourse.

  10. Review of plant biogeographic studies in Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro FIASCHI; José R. PIRANI

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have become a major area of interest in plant systematics, and their impacts on historical biogeographic hypotheses are not to be disregarded. In Brazil, most historical biogeographic studies have relied on animal phylogenies, whereas plant biogeographic studies have largely lacked a phylogenetic component, having a limited utility for historical biogeography. That country, however, is of great importance for most biogeographic studies of lowland tropical South America, and it includes areas from a number of biogeographic regions of the continent. Important biogeographic reports have been published as part of phylogenetic studies, taxonomic monographs, and regional accounts for small areas or phytogeographic domains, hut the available information is subsequently scattered and sometimes hard to find. In this paper we review some relevant angiosperm biogeographic studies in Brazil. Initially we briefly discuss the importance of other continents as source areas for the South American flora. Then we present a subdivision of Brazil into phytogeographic domains, and we cite studies that have explored the detection of biogeographic units (areas of endemism) and how they are historically related among those domains. Examples of plant taxa that could be used to test some biogeographic hypotheses are provided throughout, as well as taxa that exemplify several patterns of endemism and disjunction in the Brazilian angiosperm flora.

  11. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the "so called" Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  12. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  13. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  14. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil.

  15. Mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Giovanna Abadia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Letícia Pinto; Trovó de Marqui, Alessandra Bernadete

    This work aimed to characterize mortality by sickle cell disease in Brazil. The MEDLINE electronic database was searched using the terms 'mortality' and 'sickle cell disease' and 'Brazil' for articles published in the last five years aiming to provide a current analysis of the subject in question. Eight studies on mortality by sickle cell disease were carried out in the Brazilian states of Maranhão, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Mato Grosso do Sul. The majority of the deaths occurred in patients with sickle cell anemia, which is the most common genotype and causes the most severe clinical manifestation of the disease. In summary, there are few published studies on mortality related to sickle cell disease in Brazil, and most are from the state of Minas Gerais. This study emphasizes the importance of developing more studies on sickle cell disease mortality, so that it may be possible to profile gene carriers and give health professionals more data to strategize the delivery of more effective assistance to these individuals. Despite the early diagnosis of sickle cell disease by the Neonatal Screening Program and the use of preventive and therapeutic measures (penicillin, immunization and hydroxyurea), mortality by sickle cell disease on the world stage is still significant.

  16. Cardiovascular Health in Brazil: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Duncan, Bruce B; Brant, Luisa C C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-01-26

    Brazil is a large country, with an evolving economy, but marked social inequalities. The population is formed by an admixture of native Brazilians, Europeans, and Africans; is predominantly urban; and faces rapid aging. Time trends related to health behaviors show a substantial reduction in smoking rates, but a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity, unhealthy eating habits, and insufficient physical activity. The high prevalence of hypertension and the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus are also causes for concern. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the leading cause of mortality since the 1960s and has accounted for a substantial percentage of all hospitalizations. In 2011, CVD was responsible for 31% of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease (31%) and cerebrovascular diseases (30%) being the leading CVD causes. Despite an increase in the overall number of CVD deaths, the age-adjusted mortality rates for CVD declined 24% between 2000 and 2011. Health care delivered by Brazil's universal public health system, which focuses on primary prevention, has contributed to this achievement. However, the decline in age-adjusted mortality differs according to race, sex, and socioeconomic status with black individuals and lower-income populations sustaining the greatest impact of CVD, especially at younger ages. With one of the world's largest public health systems in terms of population coverage, Brazil has the means to implement actions to confront the high burden of CVD, focusing on health promotion and comprehensive care. Insufficient funding, low education levels, and social inequalities remain as the main barriers to be overcome.

  17. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be expected to increase as Amazonian hydroelectric dams far from consumer centers come on line. Brazil has tremendous wind and solar potential, but these do not have the same priority as dams. At the root of many questionable policies is a decision-making process in need of reform.

  18. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  19. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  20. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    da Silva, Vicente; de Oliveira, Sonaly; Hoekstra, Arjen; Dantas Neto, José; Campos, João; Braga, Célia; de Araújo, Lincoln; Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, José; de Souza, Márcio; de Holanda, Romildo

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil's national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well...

  1. Four new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from Bolivia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Cerambycidae are described: Sphaerion iuasanga (Elaphidiini), Glypthaga arena, Hypsioma albosericea (Onciderini) from Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Hesycha jataiensis (Onciderini) from Brazil.

  2. Implementation and testing of the use of vegetable oils as fuel diesel generators in the Amazon isolated communities; Implantacao e testes de utilizacao de oleo vegetal como combustivel para diesel geradores em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Gonzalez Velaquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.; Silotto, Carlos Eduardo Grassi [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The project PROVEGAM 'Implantation and test of a unit demonstration of energetic utilization of vegetable oil', tested in operational conditions of field, the functioning of a conventional diesel engine, adapted to operate with palm oil 'in natura' in the community of Vila Soledade, city of Moju, Para State. The Vila Soledade is an isolated community that has, approximately, 700 inhabitants and it's located at one hundred kilometers from the city hall by car and more 30 minutes by boat. The electric energy of this community was previously generated, by a conventional diesel engine, obsolete and very expensive to the community, because the fuel price and the transport of the diesel oil from the city to the community. The PROVEGAM project, installed an electric generation group, MWM TD229, manufactured in Brazil, adapted with a conversion kit to operate with 'in natura' palm oil, working 6 hours per day. Because of the viscosity of the palm oil and its combustion point, it was necessary to heat the vegetable oil before its injection into the engine. The operation begins and finishes with diesel oil, in order to heat the palm oil and to clean possible residues deposited in the interior of the engine. The use of the palm oil justifies itself for being produced in the region, which means that it doesn't have to be imported. Currently, the generating group is working in the community during 5 hours per day with palm oil, and 1 hour per day with diesel oil and it already has more than 1600 hours of testing. The results of this project, so far, have confirmed the conceived premises, and this electric model of generating energy is already recommended to be implemented in other communities in the Amazon region. (author)

  3. Perspective for the generation of electrical energy in isolated communities in the Amazon: a case study; Perspectivas para a geracao de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas na Amazonia: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Valuing men and the environment in the developing process is essential due to the main model nowadays, which does not harmonize economical development and environmental preservation, besides wildly exploring the natural resources, degrading the environment and concentrating income, and being socially excluding. There is the need to create a model developed harmonically with the environment, focusing the attention on the social and environmental effects caused by the human activities and on the actions that must be taken aiming at the sustainability, the overcome of the social exclusion, and human development. This essay presents a Case Study focused on the electricity generation in an isolated community, which was developed due to the social and environmental matters. The isolated communities are located on the Brazilian North and Northeast regions, which concentrate most of the Brazilian communities with no access to the electric energy distribution network, which is the electricity supply model in Brazil. The low population density regions, like the Amazon region, present low indices of electrification because of this model, since the extension of the network for attending few consumers, is usually economically and environmentally impracticable. The insertion of an energy source of local occurrence, in this case, residues from the forest activities, will bring environmental benefits associated to the social benefits. The energy generation linked to economic activities will generate jobs and income, besides promoting the fossil fuels substitution, decreasing the CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere and the environmental impact caused by the inadequate disposal of the residues, which are many times, burned in the open skies or disposed on the rivers. (author)

  4. Genetic structure of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C epidemic strains in South Brazil Estrutura genética de cepas epidêmicas de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we report the results of an analysis, based on serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE, and ribotyping of N. meningitidis serogroup C strains isolated from patients with meningococcal disease (MD in Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC States, Brazil, as the Center of Epidemiology Control of Ministry of Health detected an increasing of MD cases due to this serogroup in the last two years (1992-1993. We have demonstrated that the MD due to N.meningitidis serogroup C strains in RS and SC States occurring in the last 4 years were caused mainly by one clone of strains (ET 40, with isolates indistinguishable by serogroup, serotype, subtype and even by ribotyping. One small number of cases that were not due to an ET 40 strains, represent closely related clones that probably are new lineages generated from the ET 40 clone referred as ET 11A complex. We have also analyzed N.meningitidis serogroup C strains isolated in the greater São Paulo in 1976 as representative of the first post epidemic year in that region. The ribotyping method, as well as MEE, could provide useful information about the clonal characteristics of those isolates and also of strains isolated in south Brazil. The strains from 1976 have more similarity with the actual endemic than epidemic strains, by the ribotyping, sulfonamide sensitivity, and MEE results. In conclusion, serotyping with monoclonal antibodies (C:2b:P1.3, MEE (ET 11 and ET 11A complex, and ribotyping by using ClaI restriction enzyme (Rb2, were useful to characterize these epidemic strains of N.meningitidis related to the increased incidence of MD in different States of south Brazil. It is mostly probable that these N.meningitidis serogroup C strains have poor or no genetic corelation with 1971-1975 epidemic serogroup C strains. The genetic similarity of members of the ET 11 and ET 11A complex were confirmed by the ribotyping method by using three restriction endonucleases

  5. Susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835, de Itajubá (MG, à infecção pela cepa "LE" de Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brasil The susceptibility of the Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835 from Itajubá, Minas Gerais to injection by strain "LE" of the Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907 from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available Infecções experimentais de descendentes de Biomphalaria tenagophila de Itajubá, MG (Brasil foram realizadas utilizando-se a conhecida cepa "LE" de Schistosoma mansoni, isolada em Belo Horizonte. Como controle, utilizou-se B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte, MG. Em conseqüência, assinalou-se, pela primeira vez, a infecção de B. tenagophila de Itajubá, à cepa de S. mansoni adaptada à B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte. Isto é, ao final do experimento, 5 (3,3% entre os 149 exemplares sobreviventes, infectaram-se. Face ao atual surto industrial da região, com grande aporte de migrantes, foi chamada a atenção para a necessidade de medidas profiláticas, em decorrência da possibilidade de instalação de foco da doença no Sul de Minas Gerais.Descendents of Biomphalaria tenagophila from Minas Gerais, Brazil were experimentally infected with the Schistosoma mansoni. B. glabrata from Belo Horizonte was used as control. The "LE" strain of S. mansoni used in both cases was isolated in Belo Horizonte. B. tenagophila from Itajubá was shown, for the first time, to be susceptible to the strain of S. mansoni adapted to B. glabrata from Belo Horizonte. A 3.3% infection rate was observed, i.e., 5 of the 149 specimen which survived until the end of the experiment were infected.

  6. The problems of nutrition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    Low income is the factor most often associated with the existence of malnutrition. Malnutrition in Brazil is more frequently found among Brazilians with less than 2 minimum salaries/family and who live in the less developed parts of the country. In 1976, 59.2% of urban residents earned 2 or less minimum salaries. A study found that those rural residents engaged in agriculture on their own or someone else's property were better paid than those who live from salaried labor alone; temporary salaried workers are the largest rural class in Brazil and have the lowest levels of nutrition. In urban areas the informal sector represent the lowest nutrition level group. The issue of food consumption by the lower classes is linked to 4 aspects of Brazilian development: 1) structure of food production, 2) distribution of income, 3) government attempts to influence prices and marketing systems, and 4) the role of government food supplementation programs. Brazil suffers today from unbalanced growth among its various economic sectors and regions, inequitable income distribution, and inadequate public services. The misconception of the necessity of a large industrial base for development resulted in the neglect of the rural sector and thus higher malnutrition. Recent regulatory efforts by the government have begun to increase rural production, but production of agricultural exports has increased at a much more rapid pace than that of domestic food commodities. Small farmers have not taken advantage of new financial opportunities offered by the government to balance production levels because: 1) banks do not have enough for the demand, 2) access to the small producer of foods is difficult, and 3) the present hesitation to risk his few possessions. The largest percentage of income in Brazil goes to the richest classes and the economy is oriented towards meeting the demands of the more prosperous classes. The government's program of minimum support prices has not been successful in

  7. Distribution of virulence genes sefC, pefA and spvC in Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 strains isolated in Brazil Distribuição de genes de virulência sefC, pefA e spvC em cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis fago tipo 4 isoladas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Salvagni Castilla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of virulence genes, sefC, pefA and spvC, was investigated in 110 Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 strains by polymerase chain reaction. Their influence in the caecal colonization and invasion of liver and spleen of one-day-old chickens was studied. Eight isolates were negative for the spvC gene, three for the pefA gene and one, for the sefC gene. These results allowed grouping the strains into four genotypes. Presence of these genes did not influence bacteria invasion in the liver and spleen of the chickens ten days after infection, although the presence of more than one fimbrial gene can be related to caecal colonization.A distribuição dos genes de virulência sefC, pefA e spvC foi investigada em 110 amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis pertencentes ao fagotipo 4 através da reação em cadeia da polimerase. A influência destes genes na colonização do ceco e invasão do fígado e baço em pintinhos de um dia de idade foi avaliada. Oito amostras foram negativas para o gene spvC, três para o gene pefA e uma amostra para o gene sefC. Estes resultados permitiram a classificação das amostras em quatro genótipos. A presença destes genes não influenciou a invasão da bactéria no fígado e baço das aves dez dias após a infecção, entretanto, a presença de mais de um gene fimbrial pode ter relação com a colonização cecal.

  8. The generation of electric power in a model of endogenous development: possible solutions for isolated communities in the Amazonas State, Brazil; A geracao de energia eletrica em um modelo de desenvolvimento endogeno: possiveis solucoes para as comunidades isoladas do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work was developed to fit the generation of electric energy for the isolated communities of the interior of the Amazonas State in a context of endogenous development. A regional development is proposed, with the inclusion of the generation of electric energy for these communities in a context of development, rather than the isolated form proposed in the federal government electrification program of 'Luz Para Todos' (Light For All). (author)

  9. Economic and financial analysis of hybrid solar-wind power generation system installed in a isolated community in Jalapao-Tocantins, Brazil; Analise economica-financeira do sistema de geracao de energia eletrica hibrido solar-eolico instalado em uma comunidade isolada no Jalapao-TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.F.; Zukowski Junior, J.C.; Nobrega, S.L. de; Marcon, R.O. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas. Curso de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: zukowski@uft.edu.br, olavo@ulbra-to.br, silvestre@ulbra-to.br

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing of energetic demand in several production sectors, the search for renewable energy sources which do not cause negative environmental impacts has become more and more relevant. Amongst all the important factors to decide for installing isolated generation systems as renewable sources or diesel and taking the distribution network to isolated communities, it should be considered the economic viability of those benefits. This study aimed to analyse the hybrid solar wind system installed in an isolated community, in Jalapao - TO. Three scenarios were analyzed: first of them, getting the capital back with MRI = 6% per year; second one, getting the capital back with MRI = 0; and third, without getting the investment back. In all the three cases, O and M costs were considered. The proceeds were calculated from the production at the communities workshop, in which the electricity was available. The results indicated that this technology is economically viable if the generated energy is used for production process. It also demonstrated that the third scenario is more interesting for the community, since the contribution per family is only 8% of its incomes. (author)

  10. Energy planning in a development environment for isolated communities: a case study from the community of Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; O planejamento energetico em um ambiente de desenvolvimento para comunidades isoladas: um estudo de caso a partir da comunidade de Pico do Amor, MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    The electricity generation in communities of the Brazilian Isolated System has been met through Diesel generators, whose O and M costs are relatively high. Whereas these communities still have low family income, it can not be expected that the electricity promote development without a specific purpose. From this point of view, this article aims to show the characteristics. (author)

  11. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains carrying enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC markers, isolated from children in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil Análise genética de amostras de Escherichia coli carreadoras de marcadores da Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica (EPEC, isoladas de crianças na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hamond Regua-Mangia

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 47 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains identified according to serotyping, presence of eae, bfp and EAF sequences, adherence phenotype and ability to induce attaching-effacing lesions were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE, and the presence of LEE genes (eae, espA, espB, tir as well as the respective alleles. Amplification of LEE genes subtypes revealed 18 different pathotypes. Typing of the eae gene showed that most strains contained nontypable intimin (42% followed by beta (35%, gamma and alpha genes (12% each. PFGE analysis revealed a variable degree of polymorphism among isolates and, in general, no clear correlation was observed among PFGE profiles and the virulence markers identified. Otherwise, grouping based on MLEE analysis showed a close association between eae allele and clonal cluster distribution leading us to indicate the eae profile as a promising marker to establish relatedness among such microorganisms.No presente estudo, 47 amostras enteropatogênicas de Escherichia coli, previamente caracterizadas pelo sorotipo, fenótipo de aderência, habilidade de induzir a formação da lesão histopatológica e presença das seqüências genéticas eae, bfp e EAF, foram analisadas de acordo com o perfil de fragmentação do DNA cromossômico pela técnica de eletroforese em campo pulsado (PFGE, as variantes isoenzimáticas através da eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE e a presença de seqüências específicas da região LEE (eae, espA, espB, tir e respectivos alelos. A amplificação destas seqüências mostrou a presença de 18 padrões genéticos distintos. A tipagem do gene eae revelou que a maior parte das amostras apresentou intimina não-tipável (42% seguida dos tipos alélicos beta (35%, gama e alfa (12% cada. A fragmentação do DNA cromossômico detectou um elevado polimorfismo genético entre as amostras estudadas e não foi observada uma correlação com os marcadores de virulência investigados. Por outro lado, a análise das variantes isoenzimáticas sugeriu uma distribuição clonal específica de variantes genéticas do locus eae, o que nos leva a indicar a sua utilização como um marcador promissor para definir as relações genéticas neste grupo de microrganismos.

  12. Quantification and molecular characterization of Salmonella isolated from food samples involved in salmonellosis outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Quantificação e perfil molecular de Salmonella isolada de alimentos envolvidos em surtos de salmonelose no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Mürmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the prevalence and populations of Salmonella in foods implicated in outbreaks may be important to the development of quantitative microbial risk assessments of individual food products. In this sense, the objective of the present study was to assess the amount of Salmonella sp. in different foods implicated in foodborne outbreaks in Rio Grande do Sul occurred in 2005 and to characterize the isolated strains using phenotypic and genotypic methods. Nineteen food samples involved in ten foodborne outbreaks occurred in 2005, and positive on Salmonella isolation at the Central Laboratory of the Health Department of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, were included in this study. Food samples were submitted to estimation of Salmonella using the Most Probable Number (MPN technique. Moreover, one confirmed Salmonella colony of each food sample was serotyped, characterized by its XbaI-macrorestriction profile, and submitted to antimicrobial resistance testing. Foods containing eggs, mayonnaise or chicken were contaminated with Salmonella in eight outbreaks. Higher counts (>10(7 MPN.g-1 of Salmonella were detected mostly in foods containing mayonnaise. The isolation of Salmonella from multiple food items in five outbreaks probably resulted from the cross-contamination, and the high Salmonella counts detected in almost all analyzed samples probably resulted from storing in inadequate temperature. All strains were identified as S. Enteritidis, and presented a unique macrorestriction profile, demonstrating the predominance of one clonal group in foods involved in the salmonellosis outbreaks. A low frequency of antimicrobial resistant S. Enteritidis strains was observed and nalidixic acid was the only resistance marker detected.Dados sobre a prevalência e a população de Salmonella em alimentos implicados em surtos podem contribuir na condução de análises de risco. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a quantidade de Salmonella sp. presente em alimentos implicados em surtos ocorridos no Rio Grande do Sul em 2005 e caracterizar os isolados por meio de técnicas fenotípicas e genotípicas. Dezenove amostras de alimentos obtidas em dez surtos ocorridos em 2005 e identificadas como positivas para Salmonella no Laboratório Central da Secretaria da Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul foram incluídas no estudo. A quantificação de Salmonella foi feita pela técnica do Número Mais Provável (NMP. Ao lado disto, uma colônia de Salmonella obtida de cada amostra de alimento foi submetida à sorotipificação, macro-restição com XbaI e determinação de resistência a antimicrobianos. Salmonella esteve presente em alimentos a base de ovos, maionese e frango em oito surtos. As contagens mais elevadas (>10(7 NMP.g-1 foram detectadas principalmente em alimentos contendo maionese. O isolamento de Salmonella de vários alimentos em cinco surtos resultou, provavelmente, da contaminação cruzada, enquanto as elevadas contagens encontradas, em quase todos os alimentos, podem ser explicadas por armazenamento em temperatura inadequada. Todos os isolados foram identificados como S. Enteritidis, e apenas um perfil foi encontrado na macro-restrição, demonstrando a predominância de um grupo clonal desse sorovar nos surtos de salmonelose. Uma baixa freqüência de isolados de S. Enteritidis resistentes a antimicrobianos foi encontrada, sendo a resistência ao ácido nalidíxico o único perfil encontrado.

  13. Cloning, expression and sequence diversity of iss gene from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolated in Brazil / Clonagem, expressão e diversidade na seqüência do gene iss de Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC, isolada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A proteína Iss (increased serum survival é uma importante característica de resistência ao sistema complemento da Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram clonar e verificar a diversidade da seqüência do gene iss de APEC e caracterizar a proteína Iss recombinante. O gene iss de 309 bp foi amplificado por PCR, clonado e expresso na E. coli BL21 (DE3 utilizando o vetor pET SUMO. O gene iss da APEC9 foi classificado como iss tipo 1 pela diferenciação entre 3 tipos de iss alelos. A proteína Iss foi expressa pela indução com IPTG, purificada em coluna com resina ligada ao íon níquel e utilizada na imunização de galinhas poedeiras. Anticorpos da classe IgY anti rIss reagiram com a proteina rIss, a qual apresentou massa molecular de 22 kDa, correspondendo 11kDa da Iss e 11 kDa da proteína SUMO. The Iss (Increased serum survival protein is an important characteristic of resistance to complement system of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC. The objectives of this work were to cloning and verify the sequence diversity of iss gene from APEC and characterize the recombinant Iss protein. The iss gene of 309 bp was amplified by PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 using the pET SUMO vector. The iss gene from APEC9 strain was classified as iss type 1 by differentiation of the three iss gene allele types. The protein was expressed by induction of IPTG and purified in resin charged with the nickel ion. Antibodies IgY anti rIss reacted with rIss showing a molecular mass of 22 kDa, corresponding 11KDa of Iss protein and 11 KDa SUMO protein.

  14. Leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de sítios anatomicamente distintos de profissionais militares em Cuiabá (MT, Brasil Species of Candida isolated from anatomically distinct sites in military personnel in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Alguns fungos são habitantes do organismo humano e podem vir a causar alguma doença, quando há condições propícias para seu desenvolvimento. Infecções por leveduras são comuns e frequentes em pele e mucosas; contudo, espécies emergentes têm alterado o perfil epidemiológico. A habilidade de colonizar diversos sítios anatômicos tem sido associada à patogenicidade do gênero Candida, quando as condições ambientais são particularmente favoráveis. No caso de climas quentes e úmidos, os atritos sofridos pela pele ou as defesas imunitárias debilitadas podem fazer com que as leveduras deixem de ser comensais para se tornarem organismos patógenos. OBJETIVO: Diagnosticar candidíases em profissionais militares e avaliar a frequência dessas infecções nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: Os materiais clínicos analisados foram semeados em duplicata nos meios Sabouraud Dextrose-ágar (Difco e Mycosel (Difco. Identificaram-se os agentes etiológicos por meio da observação de tubo germinativo, microcultivo e caracteres fisiológicos, assimilação de fontes de carbono (auxanograma e fermentação de fontes de carbono (zimograma. RESULTADOS: De um total de 197 pacientes estudados, 91 (46,2% apresentaram quadros clínicos de candidíases. A região genitocrural foi considerada a mais acometida (47,7%, seguida pelas regiões interdactilares (mãos e pés, 27,8%. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata e espécies emergentes, como C. krusei e C. guilliermondii, foram identificadas. CONCLUSÃO: No ambiente de trabalho, o uso de calçados e de uniformes por longos períodos de tempo, associado ao estresse e à sudorese, foi considerado fator predisponente para o desenvolvimento das infecções fúngicas.BACKGROUNDS: Some fungi are natural inhabitants of the human body but may result in disease when conditions are conducive to their development. Yeast infections are common and often occur in the skin and mucous membranes; however emerging species have changed this epidemiological profile. The ability to colonize different anatomical sites has been associated with the pathogenicity of Candida when environmental conditions are particularly favorable. In the case of hot, humid climates, the attrition suffered by the skin and weakened immune defenses may result in yeasts becoming pathogenic rather than commensal organisms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to diagnose yeast infections in military personnel and to evaluate the frequency of these infections in the individuals evaluated. METHODS: The clinical material analyzed was seeded in duplicate in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Difco™ and Mycosel medium (Difco™. The etiological agents were identified by observing the germ tubes, microculture and physiological characteristics, assimilation of carbon sources (auxanogram and fermentation of carbon sources (zymogram. RESULTS: Of a total of 197 patients evaluated, 91 (46.2% had episodes of candidiasis. The genitocrural region was the most commonly affected area (47.7% followed by the interdigital regions (between the toes or fingers (27.8%. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and emergent species such as Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were found. CONCLUSIONS: In the work environment, having to use shoes and uniforms for extended periods of time, in addition to stress and perspiration, were considered predisposing factors for the development of fungal infections.

  15. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides from in natura and pre-cooked mussels collected by workers at the Experimental Station Mussels Cultive situated in Jurujuba, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro. A total of 86 mussels (43 each in natura and precooked were analyzed and the samples were submitted to enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added of 1 and 3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl and Butterfield's Saline incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. After, the samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar (GSP, Thiossulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar (TCBS and Inositol Brilliant Green Bile Salts Agar (IBB. Aeromonas spp and Plesiomonas shigelloides were isolated from 86% in natura and precooked mussels avaliated. The biochemical characterization showed strains of Aeromonas media (37.10%, A. hydrophila (15.50%, A. caviae (14.80%, A. veronii biogroupe veronii (11.60%, Aeromonas sp. (7.36%, A. sobria (4.20%, A. trota (4.20%, A. schubertii (1.31%, A. jandaei (1.31%, A. veronii biogroupe sobria (0.52%, and Plesiomonas shigelloides (2.10%. The epidemiological relevance of these microorganisms in cases of human gastroenteritis after mussels consumption without fully cooking reveal the importance to alert the Brazilian health authorities on the presence of these pathogens in food chain and the risks for human health.

  16. Analysis of economic viability in a hybrid solar-wind system in the generation of electrical energy to an Maroon isolated community of Jalapao - TO, Brazil; Analise da viabilidade economica em um sistema hibrido solar-eolico na geracao de energia eletrica para uma comunidade isolada e quilombola do Jalapao - TO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Weder Ferreira dos; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Nobrega, Silvestre Lopes da; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano

    2008-07-01

    With the increasing of energetic demand in several production sectors, the search for renewable energy sources which do not cause negative environmental impacts has become more and more relevant. Amongst all the important factors to decide for installing isolated generation systems as renewable sources or diesel and taking the distribution network to isolated communities, it should be considered the economic viability of those benefits. This study aimed to analyse the hybrid solar-aeolian system installed in an isolated community, in Jalapao/TO. Three scenarios were analyzed: first of them, getting the capital back with MRI = 6% per year; second one, getting the capital back with MRI = 0; and third, without getting the investment back. In all the three cases, O and M costs were considered. The proceeds were calculated from the production at the community workshop, in which the electricity was available. The results indicated that this technology is economically viable if the generated energy is used for production process. It also demonstrated that the third scenario is more interesting for the community, since the contribution per family is only 8% of its incomes. (author)

  17. A idade influencia os desfechos em pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 70 anos submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica isolada Age influences outcomes in 70-year or older patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery

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    Antônio Sérgio Cordeiro da Rocha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados da cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRVM isolada com circulação extracorpórea em pacientes com idade > 70 anos em comparação àqueles com 70 anos foi fator preditivo independente para maior letalidade operatória (P=0,004 e para RRH (P=0,002, sepse (P=0,002, complicações respiratórias (P 70 anos estão sob maior risco de morte e outras complicações no pós-operatório de CRVM em comparação aos pacientes mais jovens.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG in patients >70 years-old in comparison to patients 70 years-old and G2 (age 70-year-old was an independent predictive factor for higher in-hospital mortality (P=0.004, reexploration for bleeding (P=0.002, sepsis (P=0.002, respiratory complications (P 70 years-old were at increased risk of death and other complications in the CABG's postoperative period in comparison to younger patients.

  18. Escherichia coli verotoxigênica: isolamento e prevalência em 60 propriedades de bovinos de leite da região de Pelotas, RS, Brasil Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli: isolation and prevalence in 60 dairy cattle farms from Pelotas-RS, Brazil

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    Cecília Nunes Moreira Sandrini

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A produção de verotoxinas foi investigada em 1.127 isolamentos de Escherichia coli feitos a partir de 243 bovinos de leite, de água de consumo humano e animal e de amostras de leite de 60 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Pelotas, no período de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de E. coli verotoxigênicas (VTEC nas propriedades e no rebanho, de detectar a presença de sorotipos ligados a infecções humanas e de identificar, nas propriedades e na região de Pelotas, potenciais fatores de risco de infecção para os animais. A detecção das toxinas em sobrenadante de culturas de E. coli isoladas foi realizada através do ensaio de citotoxicidade em células Vero. VTEC foi isolada em 95% (57/60 das propriedades estudadas, em 49% (119/243 dos animais testados, em 5% (3/60 das amostras de água de consumo humano, em 8,35% (5/60 das amostras de água de consumo animal e em 5% (3/60 das amostras de leite. A prevalência de bovinos infectados em cada propriedade variou de 0 a 100%. Em 2,9% (7/243 dos animais testados, foram isoladas VTEC pertencentes aos sorogrupos O157, O91 e O112, que incluem cepas responsáveis por casos de colite hemorrágica e síndrome urêmica hemolítica em humanos. Fatores de risco de contaminação, como a precipitação pluviométrica, a temperatura, o tamanho da propriedade e a concentração de animais, apresentaram evidências de influenciarem a prevalência de VTEC nos animais. Estes resultados sugerem que o grupo VTEC está amplamente distribuído na bacia leiteira de Pelotas e inclui organismos pertencentes a sorogrupos patogênicos para humanos.The production of verotoxin was investigated in 1127 Escherichia coli isolated from 243 dairy cattle, water for human and animal consumption, and milk samples from 60 dairy farms from Pelotas-Brazil, from December of 1999 to December of 2000, to determine the prevalence of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC in farms, to detect the

  19. Basic Education in Brazil: What's Wrong and How to Fix It. Thinking Brazil. No. 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2007

    2007-01-01

    While Brazil has successfully achieved universal access to basic education, the quality of education remains stubbornly low. A recent study by the Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (IPEA) shows that the average 25 years old Brazilian has completed only nine years of education. Almost eleven percent of the population is illiterate and a…

  20. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N.

    1996-04-01

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  1. House dust mites in Brazil - an annotated bibliography

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    Binotti Raquel S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been reported to be the most important allergen in human dwellings. Several articles had already shown the presence of different mite species at homes in Brazil, being Pyroglyphidae, Glycyphagidae and Cheyletidae the most important families found. This paper is an annotated bibliography that will lead to a better knowledge of house dust mite fauna in Brazil.

  2. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L; Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Tauro, Laura B; Faria, Nuno R; Pybus, Oliver G; Chiu, Charles Y

    2016-10-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia's capital city, since mid-2014.

  3. Distinct Zika Virus Lineage in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N.; Thézé, Julien; Sardi, Silvia I.; Somasekar, Sneha; Greninger, Alexander L.; Bandeira, Antonio C.; Campos, Gubio S.; Tauro, Laura B.; Faria, Nuno R.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing of isolates from patients in Bahia, Brazil, where most Zika virus cases in Brazil have been reported, resulted in 11 whole and partial Zika virus genomes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a well-supported Bahia-specific Zika virus lineage, which indicates sustained Zika virus circulation in Salvador, Bahia’s capital city, since mid-2014. PMID:27448188

  4. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  5. Publishing, Books and Library Resources: Brazil and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Book Committee, Inc., New York, NY.

    This survey synthesizes and analyzes the book resources and book requirements of Brazil, with particular reference to the educational scene, in terms of local production and distribution resources and capabilities. Information on the geography, political establishment, economy, and educational system of Brazil is presented in the introductory…

  6. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  7. Brazil - Improving Fiscal Circumstances for Growth : Volume 2. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This document is part of a series of reports by the World Bank on Brazil's potential to foment more robust economic growth and reduce poverty and inequality. The main focus of this report is on the interrelated fiscal circumstances facing Brazil, with an emphasis on public sector spending. The report is divided into two volumes. This first volume distills the essential stylized facts (that...

  8. Organic carbon stocks in the soils of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks to 1 m for Brazil, calculated using an updated Soil and Terrain (SOTER) database and simulation of phenoforms, are 65.9-67.5 Pg C, of which 65% is in the Amazonian region of Brazil. Other researchers have obtained similar gross results, despite very different spatial patte

  9. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  10. Type 2 diabetes in Brazil: epidemiology and management

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    Almeida-Pititto B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianca de Almeida-Pititto,1 Monike Lourenço Dias,2 Ana Carolina Franco de Moraes,3 Sandra RG Ferreira,3 Denise Reis Franco,4 Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Endocrinology, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4CPClin Clinical Research Center, 5Albert Einstein Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most important epidemic diseases in the world this century, and accounts for 90% of cases of diabetes globally. Brazil is one of the most important examples of the alarming picture of T2DM in emergent societies, being the country with the fourth largest number of people with diabetes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on diabetes in Brazil, specifically looking at the epidemiology and management of T2DM. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and LILACS to identify articles containing information on diabetes in Brazil. Official documents from the Brazilian government, World Health Organization, and International Diabetes Federation were also reviewed. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Brazil, epidemiology, management

  11. Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, D M; Zhang, X; Melo, A L T; Pacheco, T A; Meneses, A M C; Zanutto, M S; Horta, M C; Santarém, V A; Camargo, L M A; McBride, J W; Labruna, M B

    2013-06-28

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a highly prevalent disease in Brazil, where the genetic diversity of Ehrlichia canis remains undefined. In this study, we used the TRP36 gene to examine the genetic diversity of E. canis strains from naturally infected dogs residing in five distinct geographic regions in Brazil. E. canis DNA was detected in 82/126 (65%) dogs by dsb-specific PCR and E. canis was isolated in cell culture from 13 dogs. Sequences obtained from dsb genes amplified from the isolates were identical to the US E. canis strain. An extended molecular characterization based on the TRP36 gene identified two major genogroups based on differences among eight isolates. Isolates with tandem repeat amino acid sequence (TEDSVSAPA) identical to the previously reported TRP36 sequence were found in the midwest, northeast and southeast regions of Brazil, and classified into the US genogroup. A novel Brazilian genotype with a different tandem repeat sequence (ASVVPEAE) was also identified in midwest, northern and southern regions. Similarity in the N-terminal sequence of a US genogroup member with the Brazilian genogroup suggested that genomic recombination between the two genogroups may have occurred. Other subtypes within the Brazilian genogroup were also identified using C-terminal amino acid divergence. We identified two distinct major Brazilian genogroups and several subtypes based on analysis of TRP36, and such information will be useful for further genotyping and possible associations with disease severity, understanding of the genetic and antigenic variability of E. canis, and for developing strain-specific vaccines and diagnostic methods based on TRP36.

  12. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

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    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  13. Revisiting the use of condoms in Brazil

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    Inês Dourado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.

  14. Journalism as a profession in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ferraz Fernandez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalism as a profession in Brazil discusses the professional characteristics of Journalism in Brazil under the following aspects: 1 formal conditions of access, 2 conditions and effects of the monopoly on the journalistic activity 3 presence of a distinct culture and ethic, based on the notion of the journalist’s social responsibility and 4 characteristics of the real community of individuals who share the journalistic identity. Based on this scope, we can perceive the singularity of the Brazilian formal access conditions, albeit currently in transition. The university diploma for professional journalists, a recently eliminated mandatory requirement, created in the past a specific access condition and produced a field of specialized journalists with a university diploma. The journalists debate today about the end of their access card and a total lack of professional regulation. At the same time, there is a reduction of formal job positions, which are more concentrated with the large media groups, and worsening of working conditions and salaries. The emergence of other types of functions, due to new technological characteristics of the communication field, although potentially increasing professional possibilities, generate dilemmas regarding production and distribution of information. To these new challenges old ones have to be added, such as the need to ethically equate the work done by press offices, as these consist today the majority of job positions for journalists in the country. This work expands the discussion about these characteristics of the journalistic profession in Brazil based on quantitative and qualitative dada produced by the Comprehensive Analysis of Brazilian Communications and Telecommunications.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of dengue viruses in Brazil

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    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DEN are found as four antigenically distinct serotypes designated DEN-1, 2, 3, and 4. Laboratory evidence that strain-intratypical variation occurs among DEN viruses has been demonstrated since the 1970s, although only with the advances in molecular technologies has it been possible to determine the genetic variability of each serotype. Genotypical identification has proven to be a useful tool for determining the origin and spread of epidemics and to correlate virulence of strains. In this report we present the results of molecular epidemiological studies with the DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses that caused dengue epidemics in Brazil during the last decade.

  16. Catholic populism and education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vanilda

    1995-05-01

    Education in Brazil has been profoundly affected by populism, a movement which extols the virtue of the oppressed classes and opposes the traditional teacherstudent relationship. This movement has antecedents in nineteenth-century Russian writers such as Herzen and Bakunin. The author shows how populist ideas, often merging with Marxism, were adopted by many Brazilian Catholics from the 1950s onwards, under the influence of Vieira Pinto, Paulo Freire and others. In the realm of education this often led to an extreme form of anti-authoritarianism. While not denying certain positive aspects of this movement, the author argues that its position is fundamentally self-contradictory.

  17. Botulism in non-ruminants in Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins secreted by Clostridium botulinum and characterized by progressive flaccid symmetrical paralysis. Among non-ruminant animals, avian species and dogs are the most commonly affected by botulism, while horses and pigs are less-commonly diagnosed with the disease. Despite the importance of this disease in animals, the Brazilian literature only includes case studies and outbreak descriptions. The aim of this study was to review the main features and to provide recent data on the occurrence of botulism in non-ruminants in Brazil.

  18. Nasal mites of Tyrannidae (Aves in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Mendes

    Full Text Available A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 (Great kiscadee, and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819 (Cattle tyrant, for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960 and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961 (Rhinonyssidae. This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  19. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  20. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A

    1993-01-01

    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  1. Hashtags Functions in the Protests Across Brazil

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    Raquel Recuero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the communicative functions of hashtags during a period of major social protests in Brazil. Drawing from a theoretical background of the use of Twitter and hashtags in protests and the functions of language, we extracted a sample of 46,090 hashtags from 2,321,249 tweets related to Brazilian protests in June 2013. We analyzed the hashtags through content analysis, focusing on functions, and co-occurrences. We also qualitatively analyzed a group of 500 most retweeted tweets to understand the users’ tagging behavior. Our results show how users appropriate tags to accomplish different effects on the narrative of the protests.

  2. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

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    Thais Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa, two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia, one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii, one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii. Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains.

  3. Jean-Baptiste Charcot and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Lima, Carlos Frederico Leite de Souza; Lima, Plínio Marcos Garcia de; Germiniani, Francisco Manoel Branco; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-08-01

    Jean-Baptiste Charcot, a neurologist from the famous Salpêtrière school and a renowned maritime explorer, visited Brazil twice. The first visit was in 1903, when the first French Antarctic expedition, traveling aboard the ship Français, made a very short stopover in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. The second took place in 1908, during the famous voyage of the Pourquoi Pas? to the Antarctic, when Charcot and his crew stayed in the city of Rio de Janeiro for eight days.

  4. Jean-Baptiste Charcot and Brazil

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    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Baptiste Charcot, a neurologist from the famous Salpêtrière school and a renowned maritime explorer, visited Brazil twice. The first visit was in 1903, when the first French Antarctic expedition, traveling aboard the ship Français, made a very short stopover in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. The second took place in 1908, during the famous voyage of the Pourquoi Pas? to the Antarctic, when Charcot and his crew stayed in the city of Rio de Janeiro for eight days.

  5. The Costs of Displacement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Menezes-Filho

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses new data that combines information on workers’ education and earnings trajectories with information about their firms to estimate the costs of job displacement in Brazil. We find that high-tenure workers displaced from their firms during mass lay-offs suffer a long-term loss in monthly wages of about 20% per year. We show that this result is robust to different treatment of workers that leave the formal sector of the economy and is driven by the losses suffered by more educa...

  6. The "hot money" phenomenon in Brazil

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    Mylène Gaulard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high interest rates, Brazil attracts more and more speculative capital flows, called "hot money", under the form of foreign loans, direct or portfolio investments. Actually, the country is directly involved in a carry-trade strategy that tends to appreciate the real, what penalizes the Brazilian exportations of manufactured products. Moreover, capital inflows are extremely volatile, and their departure, causing a fall in loans granted to the Brazilian private banks, could provoke a dangerous burst of the speculative bubble they have contributed to form in the Brazilian real estate sector.

  7. Helminths parasites of whales in Brazil

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    Luís C. Muniz-Pereira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.

  8. Production and marketing of drugs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo, A; Colombo, A L; Holbrook, A M

    1991-01-01

    Brazil is typical of many developing countries in its struggle to provide basic healthcare for its citizens in face of national economic instability. Since pharmaceuticals represent a major component of modern healthcare, their production, regulation and use become an area of concern. It appears that any change in the current production patterns will require a major commitment from governments, understanding external economic pressures. There are pros and cons in a policy directed towards pharmaceutical self-sufficiency. Aside from production, efforts directed towards extending access to essential drugs and improving the appropriateness of use, would appear to be warranted.

  9. Deforestation in Brazil: motivations, journeys and tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, J. C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Bento, C. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    José Carlos Leite1; António José Dinis Ferreira2; Tanya Cristina de Jesus Esteves2; Célia Patrícia Martins Bento2 1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Brazil; 2IPC - Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra, Portugal Over the last three decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arc of deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of that recent deforestation, focusing on the Central-West and Northern regions. A number of reasons will be presented, seeking to build an approach able to identify the deepest roots of deforestation of those regions. Our actions over the environment are framed by our cultural matrix that stream from a western philosophic attitude. This way, to understand the framework where the deforestation actions are justified requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand the deforestation of the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, since the motivations for forest destruction in Brazil are complex and not entirely understood within the domains of a single disciplinary area. To search for an isolated cause to understand the recent deforestation can only be plausible if we ignore information on what actually happens. The methodology used in this work is based on a bibliographical revision, analysis of georeferrenced information, participative processes implementation and observation of stakeholder behavior, and field research. It departs from a general vision on deforestation that initially occurred at the littoral region, by the Atlantic Rainforest, right after the arrival of the Europeans, and throughout the centuries penetrates towards the interior, hitting the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. In this last case, we focused on the Vale do Alto Guaporé region, near Bolivia, where the intensity of the deforestation was verified from 1970 to 1990. Ultimately, the final result is a mosaic of reasons

  10. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

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    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  11. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

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    Richard Price

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  12. Aerobic bacterial microbiota in stomoxys calcitrans: preliminary studies in Brazil Microbiota bacteriana aeróbica em Stomoxys calcitrans: estudos preliminares no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno G. de Castro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, has a great importance in medical and veterinary health due to its feeding and reproductive habits, which can disseminate some pathogenic agents among hosts even at long distances. This study aimed to describe, for the first time in Brazil, the bacterial microbiota in segments of the stable fly. Bacterial species were isolated from three different segments (cuticle, mouth parts and abdominal alimentary tract of the stable fly. Twenty dairy farms were visited in four municipalities: Barra Mansa, Quatis, Resende and Rio Claro in the State of Rio de Janeiro in order to collect 20 flies in each site. Dissection of the flies and procedures of isolation and identification of bacterial species were performed. A total of 161 colonies of 33 distinct species were isolated, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and S. intermedius. Stomoxys calcitrans may harbor bacterial agents on their cuticle, mouth parts and abdominal alimentary tract and these bacteria may be pathogenic to their hosts.A mosca dos estábulos, Stomoxys calcitrans, possui grande importância médica e veterinária devido a seus hábitos alimentares e reprodutivos, visto que pode disseminar agentes patogênicos para hospedeiros, mesmo a longas distâncias. Esse estudo teve por objetivo, pela primeira vez no Brasil, descrever a microbiota bacteriana de segmentos da mosca dos estábulos. As espécies bacterianas foram isoladas de três diferentes segmentos (superfície externa, aparelho bucal e trato digestivo abdominal de S. calcitrans. Foram visitadas 20 fazendas leiteiras em quatro municípios: Barra Mansa, Quatis, Resende e Rio Claro no Estado do Rio de Janeiro para coletar 20 moscas em cada uma delas. A dissecção das moscas e os procedimentos de isolamento e identificação bacteriana foram realizados. Um total de 161 colônias de 33 espécies distintas foi isolado, dentre elas Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e S. intermedius

  13. Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of Paraná, Brazil Isolamento de leptospiras dos Sorovares Canicola e Copenhageni em amostras de urina de bovinos no estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Francielle Gibson da Silva Zacarias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10. Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14 and Copenhageni (LO-10. Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas.No ano de 2001, 698 amostras de urina foram colhidas aleatoriamente, durante o abate em um frigorífico do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. O exame direto em microscópio de campo escuro foi realizado imediatamente após a colheita. As cinco amostras de urina positivas neste exame foram semeadas em meio EMJH modificado, sendo possível o crescimento de leptospiras em duas (LO-14 e LO-10. As estirpes isoladas foram tipificadas, por painel de anticorpos monoclonais, como mais similares ao perfil das amostras de referência dos sorovares Canicola (LO-14 e Copenhageni (LO-10. No Brasil, inquéritos sorológicos utilizando a prova de soroaglutinação microscópica mostram o predomínio de reações para o sorovar Hardjo em bovinos. Roedores e cães são os reservatórios mais comuns dos sorovares Copenhageni e Canicola, respectivamente. A eliminação dos sorovares Canicola e Copenhageni pela espécie bovina pode resultar em um aumento na ocorrência de casos graves de leptospirose humana, principalmente na população rural.

  14. VERIFICATION OF THE PRESENCE OF CAPSULE GENE SEQUENCES IN NASOPHARYNGEAL ISOLATES OF NONTYPEABLE HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE FROM HEALTHY CHILDREN AT A BRAZILIAN DAY CARE CENTER Verificação da presença de seqüências do gene da cápsula em cepas não tipáveis de Haemophilus influenzae isoladas da nasofaringe de crianças saudáveis em uma creche brasileira

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    Maria Emilia Bonifácio da Silva

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-eight nasopharyngeal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were collected from healthy children at a day care center, and nontypeable isolates were examined by Southern blot for the presence of capsule gene sequences. Seven isolates (12% demonstrated homology with capsule-specific sequences. One isolate was characterized as an H. influenzae type b capsule-deficient strain.Cinqüenta e oito cepas de Haemophilus influenzae foram isoladas da nasofaringe de crianças saudáveis que freqüentam uma creche, e através da técnica de Southern blot foi pesquisada nas cepas acapsuladas a presença de seqüências do gene capsular. Sete cepas (12% caracterizadas sorologicamente como acapsuladas mostraram homologia com seqüências específicas da cápsula. Uma cepa foi caracterizada com uma linhagem H. influenzae tipo b cápsula deficiente.

  15. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (Brazil... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the...

  16. Perfil de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro de linhagens de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de vacas com mastite subclínica In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity to Staphylococcus spp. isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis

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    Elizabeth S. Medeiros

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro de 291 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. recuperados de amostras de leite de vacas com mastite subclínica, em 15 propriedades rurais localizadas na Região Metropolitana do Recife (A, Agreste (B e Zona da Mata (C do estado de Pernambuco. Dos 291 isolados, 170(58,4% foram classificados como Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN, 84(28,9% como Staphylococcus aureus e 37(12,7% como Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP. Para o estudo do perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos empregou-se a técnica de difusão em discos, foram avaliadas 16 drogas antimicrobianas utilizadas no tratamento das mastites. O antibiótico que apresentou melhor eficácia in vitro foi a associação entre neomicina + bacitracina + tetraciclina com percentuais de 98,4%, 99,3%, 89,7% para as regiões A, B e C, respectivamente. O antibiótico menos eficaz foi a ampicilina que apresentou 56,5% de resistência para as amostras da região A, 72,8% para a região B e 71,8% na região C. Os resultados obtidos mostram a necessidade da realização periódica de testes de sensibilidade in vitro, pois existem variações no perfil de sensibilidade e resistência que podem comprometer o tratamento do animal bem como os programas de controle da mastite bovina causada pelo Staphylococcus spp.The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial sensibility of 291 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., taken from the mammary glands of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in the regions of Metropolitan Recife (A, Agreste (B and Zona da Mata (C in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 291 isolates, 170 (58.4% were identified as negative coagulase Staphylococcus (SCN, 84 (28.9% as Staphylococcus aureus, and 37 (12.7% as positive coagulase Staphylococcus (SCP. To study sensitivity to antimicrobials, the diffusion in disks method was used with 16 antimicrobial drugs commonly employed in the

  17. Paragonimiasis: first case reported in Brazil

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    Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case from a 59 years old white female Brazilian patient, based in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil's northeastern side area, who experienced irritative cough and progressive dyspnea, and, after 18 months, was admitted to a hospital with respiratory insufficiency. The physical exam showed diffuse rales in both hemithoraces. Initial leukogram showed 14,400 cells/mL with 14% of eosinophils and chest X-ray showed peribronchovascular infiltrate, predominating in the lower half of the lung fields, and small opaque nodules. The high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest (HRCT presented compatible pattern with airways disease, especially from the small airways, with air trapping, tree sprouting images, central lobular nodules and bronchiectasis, making the results compatible with bronchiolitis and bronchiectasis. The transbroncho biopsy unveiled granulomatous lesion with necrosis, where was noticed a structure compatible to a parasitic case, and the research of the parasite eggs in the sputum was positive to paragonimus. After the praziquantel use, the patient presented a thick ferruginous expectoration and the result for BAAR examination was positive. The PCR exam and the sputum culture confirmed M. tuberculosis, and then the treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated. The authors warn that this infection may have been a consequence of economics globalization process, where the importation of parasitized crustaceans might be the cause. However, there is the need of an accurate examination for the possibility of paragonimus specimens in this area of Brazil.

  18. Coccidioidomycosis in Brazil. A case report

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    MARTINS Marilena dos Anjos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection with a relatively limited geographic distribution: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina and the southwest of the United States. In these countries, the endemic area is restricted to the semiarid desert like regions which are similar to the northeast of Brazil. Case report: The patient is a 32 year-old male, born in the state of Bahia (Northeast of Brazil and has been living in São Paulo (Southeast for 6 years. He was admitted at Hospital das Clínicas, at the Department of Pneumology in October 1996, with a 6 month history of progressive and productive cough, fever, malaise, chills, loss of weight, weakness and arthralgia in the small joints. Chest x-rays and computerized tomography disclosed an interstitial reticulonodular infiltrate with a cavity in the right upper lobe. The standard potassium hydroxide preparation of sputum and broncoalveolar lavage demonstrated the characteristic thickened wall spherules in various stages of development. Sabouraud dextrose agar, at 25° C and 30° C showed growth of white and cottony aerial micelium. The microscopic morphology disclosed branched hyphae characterized by thick walled, barrel shaped arthroconidia alternated with empty cells. The sorological studies with positive double immunodiffusion test, and also positive complement fixation test in 1/128 dilution confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has been treated with ketoconazole and presents a favorable clinical and radiological evolution

  19. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  20. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  1. Ichthyofauna Used in Traditional Medicine in Brazil

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    Ana Carla Asfora El-Deir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish represent the group of vertebrates with the largest number of species and the largest geographic distribution; they are also used in different ways by modern civilizations. The goal of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the use of ichthyofauna in zootherapeutic practices in Brazil, including ecological and conservational commentary on the species recorded. We recorded a total of 85 species (44 fresh-water species and 41 salt-water species used for medicinal purposes in Brazil. The three most commonly cited species were Hoplias malabaricus, Hippocampus reidi, and Electrophorus electricus. In terms of conservation status, 65% of species are in the “not evaluated” category, and 14% are in the “insufficient data” category. Three species are in the “vulnerable” category: Atlantoraja cyclophora, Balistes vetula, and Hippocampus erectus. Currently, we cannot avoid considering human pressure on the population dynamics of these species, which is an essential variable for the conservation of the species and the ecosystems in which they live and for the perpetuation of traditional medical practices.

  2. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J; Badaró Trindade, Angela C; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO's (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors' offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  3. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wzorek LF

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods: Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results: A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN RODENTICIDES POISONING IN BRAZIL

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    Maíra Costa Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the epidemiological profile of human poisoning by rodenticides in Brazil and Regions, in the period 2000 to 2008. This is a descriptive epidemiological study based on secondary data from the National System of Toxic- harmacological Information. Calculations were performed in the incidence rate and fatality rate. The North and Northeast regions had the highest mortality rates for the period. Children from 1 to 4 years had high incidence in all regions except in Northeast, where teenagers were most affected. The rodenticide poisoning was more incident in urban areas and among females, and had attempt suicide as predominant circumstance. Although most cases have evolved for healing, there was almost 40% unconfirmed healing in the South region and 57% of ignored evolution in Southeast. Deaths caused by ingestion of rodenticides were below 5%. The rodenticide poisoning has remained in Brazil with a major public health problem and, despite the differences in the country, the poisoning profile did not change significantly between different regions.

  5. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morena dos Santos Barbeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary.

  6. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  7. Multidecadal Variability of the North Brazil Current

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    Zhang, D.; McPhaden, M.

    2009-04-01

    The North Brazil Current (NBC) flowing northward in the tropical south Atlantic is one of the strongest western boundary currents in the world ocean. It's unique location, straddling the tropical Atlantic where currents are predominately zonal, suggests that it is a major component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Fritz Schott was one of the first to suggest using the NBC as an index for AMOC transport, which is difficult to simulate accurately in models and data assimilation systems due to a lack of observational constraints. Here, we calculate an NBC transport time series based on five decades of historical ocean observations near the western boundary off the coast of Brazil between 6° and 11°S. Results reveal a large magnitude NBC variation on multidecadal time scales that is coherent with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in sea surface temperature, multidecadal swings in Sahel Drought and Atlantic hurricane activity, as well as the subtropical and subpolar upper ocean salinity anomalies. All of these multidecadal variations have been linked to the AMOC in a number of modelling studies, suggesting that our observed multidecadal NBC variability is an useful indicator of the AMOC. Concerning the possible slowdown of AMOC under global warming and the debate about whether a slowdown has already occurred, our NBC transport time series shows no significant trend over the last half century. The results provide important constraints on climate models used for climate change projections and decadal time scale climate predictions.

  8. Dynamics of Sheep Production in Brazil

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    Samuel Rezende Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep production is present on all continents and has been practiced in Brazil since the colonization. In this study, the multitemporal dynamics of sheep production in Brazil is examined using official government data (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics-IBGE from 1976 to 2010. Maps of flock growth rates and growth acceleration maps by municipality were elaborated. The Southern states are seen to show a reduction in production mainly due to the wool crisis in the 1970s and 80s. The Northeast is seen to be important for meat production. More recently, centerwest and northern states have shown an increase in growth rates but this is still incipient. The maps of growth, acceleration and midpoint for sheep production showed a noticeable return to an increase in production in the South in recent years. The midpoint of production flow was in the northeast direction, which has stagnated. There was great dynamics in sheep production over the whole Brazilian territory, which affected supply chains due to the expansion of domestic and foreign markets. Areas with higher fluctuations in production are more vulnerable in terms of investment policies.

  9. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  10. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  11. Implementation of thermographers' certification in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Alves, Luiz M.; da Costa Bortoni, Edson

    2011-05-01

    In recent years Brazil has experienced extraordinary growth despite the recent economic global crisis. The demand for infrared thermography products and services has accompanied this growth. Like other non-destructive testing and inspection, the results obtained by thermography are highly dependent on the skills of thermographer. Therefore, it is very important to establish a serious and recognized process of certification to assess thermographers' qualifications and help services suppliers to establish credibility with their customers and increase the confidence of these costumers on the quality of these services. The Brazilian Society of Non-Destructive Testing and Inspection, ABENDI, a non-profitable, private technical-scientific entity, recognized nationally and internationally, has observed the necessity of starting a process for certification of thermographers in Brazil. With support of a work group composed by experts from oil and energy industries, transportation, universities and manufactures, the activities started in 2005. This paper describes the economic background required for installation of the certification process, its initial steps, the main characteristics of the Brazilian certification and the expectation for initiating the certification process.

  12. Analysis of medicine advertisement produced in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Lorilei de Fátima; Correr, Cassyano J.; Badaró Trindade, Angela C.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    Objective To analyze the compliance of drug advertisements with regulations in Brazil, subject to Resolution RDC No. 102/2000 since 2000, which abides by the WHO’s (World Health Organization) Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, published in 1988. Methods Drug advertisements running within the period of October 2002 to October 2003 were collected and recorded. Media sources included various AM and FM radio stations, television channels, newspapers, and magazines, as well as printed material distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, drugstores, conferences, billboards, and bus doors. All sources were located in Curitiba City, Brazil, and its surrounding area. Advertisement content was analyzed according to a conformity checklist prepared based on the legal requirements of RDC No. 102/00. Results A total of 827 advertisements for 517 different products, 83.91% regularly registered as medicinal drugs and 16.09% unregistered products that should be registered according to the Brazilian regulations, were recorded and collected. Approximately 74.73% of the advertisements did not comply with regulations; on average, such advertisements had 4.6 infractions each. Conclusions The results of this research suggest that RDC No. 102/00 is not followed, which strengthens the need to adopt new forms of regulation to prohibit excesses of the pharmaceutical industry and to protect the population from abusive and misleading drug advertising. PMID:25214926

  13. [AIDS along Brazil's borders, 1990-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres

    2009-01-01

    To study the AIDS epidemic in Brazil's border areas, from the spatial and temporal perspective. This was an ecological study in which the cases of AIDS reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil from 1990-2003 were grouped according to "hunger areas" as defined by Josué de Castro in the 1940s and according to 19 cultural subregions. Spatial assessment was based on incidence rates for border municipalities; temporal assessment considered the absolute number of cases occurring quarterly from 1990-2003 in each of the hunger areas studied (Extreme South, Midwest, and Amazon). During the study period, 7,973 cases of AIDS were reported from the Brazilian border areas: 648 in the Amazon area, 1,579 in the Midwest, and 5,746 in the Extreme South (populations of 668,098, 895,489, and 2,769,361, respectively). The subregions with the highest AIDS incidence rates in each of the three border areas were those near triple-borders, between more than two Latin American countries. Sexual transmission was predominant, with heterosexual transmission being the most frequent, followed by transmission by male homosexuality. These two categories accounted for 87.2% of the cases reported. The estimates of the trend parameter in the temporal analysis were 0.53 (P borders may be a strategy for territorial integration and for dealing with the AIDS epidemic, as long as social, economic, and cultural differences are taken into account.

  14. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  15. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Filho, Nelson A; Jacob, Cristina M; Sole, Dirceu; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Arruda, Luisa K; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Cocco, Renata R; Camelo-Nunes, Inês; Chong-Neto, Herberto J; Wandalsen, Gustavo F; Castro, Ana P M; Yang, Ariana C; Pastorino, Antonio C; Sarinho, Emanuel S

    2013-06-01

    The subspecialty of pediatric allergy and immunology in Brazil is in its early years and progressing steadily. This review highlights the research developed in the past years aiming to show the characteristics of allergic and immunologic diseases in this vast country. Epidemiologic studies demonstrated the high prevalence of asthma in infants, children, and adolescents. Mortality rates and average annual variation of asthma hospitalization have reduced in all pediatric age groups. Indoor aeroallergen exposure is excessively high and contributes to the high rates of allergy sensitization. Prevalence of food allergy has increased to epidemic levels. Foods (35%), insect stings (30%), and drugs (23%) are the main etiological agents of anaphylaxis in children and adolescents. Molecular diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) showed a high incidence of fungal infections including paracoccidioidomycosis in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and the occurrence of BCG adverse reactions or other mycobacterial infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Education in pediatric allergy and immunology is deficient for medical students, but residency programs are effective in training internists and pediatricians for the practice of allergy. The field of PID requires further training. Last, this review is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Charles Naspitz, one of the pioneers of our specialty in Brazil.

  16. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  17. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

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    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  18. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  19. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-0