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Sample records for brazil policies infrastructure

  1. Mental health research in Brazil: policies, infrastructure, financing and human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jair de Jesus Mari; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Naomar Almeida-Filho; Jerônimo Gerolin; Pratap Sharan; Shekhar Saxena

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing i...

  2. Mental health research in Brazil: policies, infrastructure, financing and human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair de Jesus Mari

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was US$101 million, of which US$3.4 million (3.4 was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the São Paulo State Funding Agency (Fapesp, 53.2% and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%. The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing, with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientic Information (ISI-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area.

  3. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  4. Cyberspace Policy For Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Dorsey; Raines, Richard; Williams, Paul; Hopkinson, Kenneth

    The first step in preparing any battlespace is to define the domain for attack and maneuver. The various military service components have directed authority to focus their efforts in specific domains of operations (e.g., naval operations are mainly in the maritime domain). However, cyberspace operations pose challenges because they span multiple operational domains. This paper focuses on U.S. cyberspace policy related to defending and exploiting critical infrastructure assets. Also, it examines the issues involved in delineating responsibility for U.S. defensive and offensive operations related to critical infrastructures.

  5. Policy and planning for large infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems and their causes and cures in policy and planning for large infrastructure projects. First, it identifies as the main problem in major infrastructure development pervasive misinformation about the costs, benefits, and risks involved. A consequence of misinformation...... the likelihood that it is their projects, and not the competition's, that gain approval and funding. This results in the "survival of the unfittest," where often it is not the best projects that are built, but the most misrepresented ones. Finally, the paper presents measures for reforming policy and planning...... for large infrastructure projects, with a focus on better planning methods and changed governance structures, the latter being more important....

  6. Oral health policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  7. Mental health research in Brazil: policies, infrastructure, financing and human resources A pesquisa em saúde mental no Brasil: políticas, infra-estrutura, financiamento e recursos humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair de Jesus Mari

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was US$101 million, of which US$3.4 million (3.4 was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the São Paulo State Funding Agency (Fapesp, 53.2% and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%. The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing, with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientic Information (ISI-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area.O presente estudo, descritivo teve como objetivo mapear a pesquisa em saúde mental no Brasil, fornecendo uma visão de infraestrutura

  8. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.)

  9. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  10. Brazil's new national policy on solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, A.B.L.d.S.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, one of the world's largest developing countries, has recently introduced a new solid waste management regulatory policy. This new regulatory policy will have implications for a wide variety of stakeholders and sets the stage for opportunities and lessons to be learned. These issues...

  11. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    country components, ethanol and gasoline are assumed to be perfect substitutes and combined in accordance with the specified blending regulations to generate VKT. For gasoline, an upward sloping supply function is assumed for the U.S., while in the case of Brazil a perfectly elastic supply function is used reflecting the pricing policy implemented in recent years. Consumers' driving behavior and fuel choice are determined by the model in accordance with the composition of the vehicle fleets in both countries. The model also simulates the economic impacts of transportation infrastructure developments in Brazil, specifically the recently launched ethanol pipeline project which is expected to affect not only the price, production, consumption and trade of ethanol but also the land use changes in the country. All these factors are combined to assess the impacts on economic surplus and total direct Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. and Brazil. The model is calibrated for 2007 and markets conditions are projected to 2022 under different policy scenarios. Empirical results show that a free ethanol trade regime in the U.S. would reduce the domestic ethanol production, including both corn and cellulosic ethanol. The U.S. biofuel production would be consumed completely in the domestic market and part of the demand is met by imports. Brazil, on the other hand, would meet its domestic ethanol demand and export about half of its production to the U.S., China and the ROW to meet the biofuel mandates in those countries. With regards to the land use, the model results show that intensifying the current livestock systems in Brazil would release a significant amount of land for corn and soybean production, and sugarcane acreage would expand in the denominated "region of expansion". The livestock semi-intensification in Brazil, driven by the high world ethanol demand and considered as the only alternative to expand sugarcane area in this study, would reduce the aggregate GHG

  12. Security Policy Enforcement in Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ukil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a computing environment consisti ng of different facilitating components like hardware, software, firmware, networking, and servi ces. Internet or a private network provides the required backbone to deliver the cloud services . The benefits of cloud computing like “on- demand, customized resource availability and perfor mance management” are overpowered by the associated security risks to the cloud system, particularly to the cloud users or clients. Existing traditional IT and enterprise security are not adequate to address the cloud security issues. In order to deploy different cloud applicat ions, it is understood that security concerns of cloud computing are to be effectively addressed. Cl oud security is such an area which deals with the concerns and vulnerabilities of cloud comp uting for ensuring safer computing environment. This paper explores the challenges and issues of security concerns of cloud computing through different standard and novel solu tions. This paper proposes architecture for incorporating different security schemes, technique s and protocols for cloud computing, particularly in Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS systems. The proposed architecture is generic in nature, not dependent on the type of cloud deployment, application agnostic and is not coupled with the un derlying backbone. This would facilitate to manage the cloud system more effectively and provid e the administrator to include the specific solution to counter the threat.

  13. Biochar: An emerging policy arrangement in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Brazilian biochar debate is driven by Embrapa experts. • The dominant ADE/biochar discourse has been replaced by biochar/technology discourse. • The international biochar/climate change discourse hardly resonates in Brazil. • Biochar topic is not covered by any formal procedure in Brazil so far. - Abstract: Biochar, the solid product of pyrolysis, has emerged as a new technology and policy tool to address various environmental challenges (climate change, food production and agricultural waste management). The concept of biochar drew its inspiration from Amazonian practices that had led to the creation of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE): fertile soils rich in (bio)char and human artefacts. In this article, we conceptualize biochar as an emerging policy arrangement, and examine it along the four dimensions of the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA), which are actors, discourse, power and rules. We focus on Brazil as an important player in the international biochar debate. Our analysis shows that science experts are the predominant players in the network, while policy-makers, businessmen and farmers are marginally positioned. Experts from Embrapa occupy central positions and thus exercise most power in the network. Moreover, experts linked to ADE have lost prominence in the network. The reason for this is to be found in the shift from the ADE/biochar to the biochar/technology discourse. The latter discourse includes different coalitions such as ‘climate change mitigation’, the ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’. Although the biochar/climate coalition is dominant at the international level, it is far less prominent in Brazil. Nationally, it is particularly the discourses of ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’ which have prompted actors’ relationships and practices. However, the biochar/technology discourse has not (yet) been formally institutionalized in

  14. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wolsink

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmen

  15. Effect of Fiscal Policy Shocks in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ackon, Kwabena Meneabe

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a comprehensive assessment of the effect of a fiscal policy shock in Brazil. I found that gross domestic product does not rise in the short run in response to the fiscal policy shock albeit it rises in the long run. In addition, I found that unlike an advanced economy like the USA, the response of both fiscal and monetary variables estimated in the VAR are very volatile with the stock price index which represents Brazil’s financial sector in the VAR model responding negativ...

  16. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  17. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  18. Macroeconomic and policy implications of population aging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Ole Hagen

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic implications of population aging in Brazil. Three alternative yet complementary methodologies are adopted, and depending on policy responses to the fiscal implications of aging, there are two main findings: First, saving rates could increase and not necessarily fall as a consequence of aging in Brazil -- thus contradicting conventional views. Second, l...

  19. Asymmetric effects of monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilean Kleber da Silva Bejarano Aragón

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we check whether the effects of monetary policy actions on output in Brazil are asymmetric. Therefore, we estimate Markov-switching models that allow positive and negative shocks to affect the growth rate of output in an asymmetric fashion in expansion and recession states. In general, results show that: i the real effects of negative monetary shocks are larger than those of positive shocks in an expansion; ii in a recession, the real effects of positive and negative shocks are the same; iii there is no evidence of asymmetry between the effects of countercyclical monetary policies; and iv it is not possible to assert that the effects of a positive (or negative shock are dependent upon the phase of the business cycle.Neste trabalho, examinamos se os efeitos das ações de política monetária sobre o produto são assimétricos no Brasil. Para isto, estimamos modelos Markov-switching que permitem que choques positivos e negativos afetem a taxa de crescimento do produto de forma assimétrica nos estados de expansão e recessão econômica. Em geral, os resultados mostram que: i os efeitos reais de choques monetários negativos são maiores do que os de choques positivos em uma expansão; ii em uma recessão, os efeitos reais de choques positivos e negativos são iguais; iii não há evidência de assimetria entre os efeitos de políticas monetárias contracíclicas; iv não se pode afirmar que os efeitos de choques positivos (ou negativos dependem da fase do ciclo econômico.

  20. Past and current policy issues concerning tropical deforestation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Serôa da Motta, Ronaldo

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current policies concerning tropical deforestation in Brazil. In the last few years, the Brazilian government has reviewed and changed many aspects of past policies that encouraged deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon forest. Although the new set of policies is not fully implemented and, therefore, its effectiveness in controlling deforestation cannot yet be measured, a qualitative analysis of these policies suggests that they should enhance forest preservation ...

  1. Public Policy and Teacher Education in Brazil after 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Selva

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigates public policy concerning teacher education in Brazil. It is a critical rereading of historical documents focusing on laws, legal documents, projects, institutional and public policies and teaching careers developed by the Brazilian state, as well as social and scientific organisations. Emphasis is given to current…

  2. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  3. Infrastructure Policy and Economic Growth: Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Y C Tse

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that in most infrastructure projects, the government has to take up aleading role in managing the development of strategic infrastructure. This article alsodiscusses the value of an integrated approach linking the public and private sectors ininfrastructure investment. Such an integrated approach reflects both the need to buildagreement between various interested parties, and also the strength of the privatesector, whose forces may be effectively combined with foreign ventures. By so doingthe investment risk can be minimised and maximum market efficiency can be achieved

  4. Full Time School in Brazil: Policy, Curriculum and Pedagogic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Valéria Valéria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the project of integral education and full time school which is under construction in Brazil, linking history and policy to thinking the curriculum and pedagogical work in schools for extended journey. The analyzes presented here are the resulted synthesis of two completed researches and another two ongoing, concerning policy and processes of teaching and learning in public full time schools.

  5. INSTITUTIONS AND PUBLIC POLICIES IN BRAZIL: RESEARCH AGENDA FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Guerra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss on the topic of public health policy. The theoretical basis is neoinstitutionalism and public policy. Five questions-problem that can guide the study of public health policy in Brazil are presented: (1 determinants of public health policy as an institution; (2 health decentralization x legitimacy for determining public health policy; (3 establishment of consortiums of health as an instrument to legitimize the decentralization of health services; (4 the structure and organization of economic, political and social actors; and (5 institutional differences and application of models of resource allocation. Finally, considerations are made and exposed expectations of possible contributions to the study of institutions and public policies, especially in the case of health. This article contributes to the discussion of the issue of public policy in Brazil linked to newinstitutionalism discussion, which can assist researchers in defining national agendas on the formulation and conduct strategies of resource allocation and utilization of specific health policies.

  6. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  10. Cooperative Drought Adaptation: Integrating Infrastructure Development, Conservation, and Water Transfers into Adaptive Policy Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply policies that integrate portfolios of short-term management decisions with long-term infrastructure development enable utilities to adapt to a range of future scenarios. An effective mix of short-term management actions can augment existing infrastructure, potentially forestalling new development. Likewise, coordinated expansion of infrastructure such as regional interconnections and shared treatment capacity can increase the effectiveness of some management actions like water transfers. Highly adaptable decision pathways that mix long-term infrastructure options and short-term management actions require decision triggers capable of incorporating the impact of these time-evolving decisions on growing water supply needs. Here, we adapt risk-based triggers to sequence a set of potential infrastructure options in combination with utility-specific conservation actions and inter-utility water transfers. Individual infrastructure pathways can be augmented with conservation or water transfers to reduce the cost of meeting utility objectives, but they can also include cooperatively developed, shared infrastructure that expands regional capacity to transfer water. This analysis explores the role of cooperation among four water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina by formulating three distinct categories of adaptive policy pathways: independent action (utility-specific conservation and supply infrastructure only), weak cooperation (utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers), and strong cooperation (utility specific conservation and jointly developed of regional infrastructure that supports transfers). Results suggest that strong cooperation aids the utilities in meeting their individual objections at substantially lower costs and with fewer irreversible infrastructure options.

  11. A survey of impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies

    OpenAIRE

    Estache, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the main lessons from impact evaluations of infrastructure projects, programs and policies relevant to policymakers. In the process, however, it also reveals some major research gaps of relevance to academics. After a brief discussion of the motivation for the explosion of the demand for impact evaluations, it starts with some sometimes underestimated lessons for infrastructure specialists from theoretical experiment. The main focus of the paper is, however, the impact eval...

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  14. Financial stability and monetary policy -The case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Tabak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the effects of monetary policy over banks' loans growth and whether there is a bank lending channel operating in Brazil. Therefore, we employ a detailed high frequency panel data in which we include bank characteristics and ownership control. We contribute to the literature on bank lending channel by showing that during periods of loosening/tightening monetary policy, banks increase/decrease their loans. Additionally,our results illustrate that large, well-capitalized and liquid banks react differentially to the effects of monetary policy shocks. Finally, we show that the impact of monetary policy differs across state-owned, foreign and private domestic banks. These results are important for developing and conducting monetary policy.

  15. Biochar: An emerging policy arrangement in Brazil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.; Arts, B.J.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Biochar, the solid product of pyrolysis, has emerged as a new technology and policy tool to address various environmental challenges (climate change, food production and Agricultural waste management). The concept of biochar drew its inspiration from Amazonian practices that had led to the creation

  16. Brazil : Inequality and Economic Development, Volume 1. Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The present Report is motivated by the coming together o f three widespread perceptions about inequality, two somewhat newer and one long-standing. The two newer ones are; (i) that inequality may matter for the country's economic development, and (ii) that public policy can and should do something about it. The old perception, which is well borne out b y the facts, is that Brazil occupies ...

  17. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  18. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  3. Optimal railway infrastructure maintenance and repair policies to manage risk under uncertainty with adaptive control

    OpenAIRE

    Romera, Rosario; Carretero Pérez, Jesús; Pérez, Jose M.; González, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply two adaptive control formulations under uncertainty, say open-loop and closed-loop, to the process of developing maintenance and repair policies for railway infrastructures. To establish the optimal maintenance and repair policies for railway lines, we use a previous design of risk model based on two factors: the criticality and the deterioration ratios of the facilities. Thus, our theory benefits from the Reliability Centered Management methodology applicati...

  4. Enthusiasts, Deregulators, Guardians, and Skeptics: Contrasting Policy Viewpoints on the National Information Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews more than 80 National Information Infrastructure (NII)-related documents, published from 1988 to 1997, and classifies their views and authors according to a two-dimensional typology by policy analyst William Dutton. Comparisons are made between those advocating "Public" versus "Market" leadership in NII development, and between promotional…

  5. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors.

  6. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. PMID:22789090

  7. ICT health 2013: infrastructure and adoption by healthcare providers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Heimar F; Senne, Fabio; Barbosa, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The potential offered by intensive and strategic adoption of information and communication technologies for obtaining advances in the health sector is worldwide recognized. In order to monitor the implementation of ICT in health policies in Brazil and to establish internationally comparable indicators, a nationwide survey was conducted to identify the current implementation of information and communication technologies in Healthcare facilities and its adoption by providers. Data collection was carried out from February to August 2013 using two structured questionnaires. The results obtained showed that the access to internet is nearly universal in the country but clinical information systems are still in its infancy when it comes to more complex functionalities and linked to clinical decision support. Healthcare professionals indicated that the main barrier to adopt is the lack of availability related to the patient information.

  8. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule. PMID:27557353

  9. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  10. Multi-Agent-Based Simulation for Analysis of Transport Policy and Infrastructure Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Johan; Ramstedt, Linda; Davidsson, Paul; Persson, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate on the usage of multi-agent-based simulation (MABS) for quantitative impact assessment of transport policy and infrastructure measures. We provide a general discussion on how to use MABS for freight transport analysis, focusing on issues related to input data management, validation and verification, calibration, output data analysis, and generalization of results. The discussion is built around an agent-based transport chain simulation tool called TAPAS (Transportat...

  11. The Implementation Of Development Policy Of Airport And Road Transport Infrastructure In Malinau District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The implementation of development policy the airport and road transport in South Kayan District and the Kayan upstream in Malinau Regency is not yet optimal observe through observation perspective of Grindle 1980 as well as Sabatier and Mazmanian 1980 who saw the implementation of policies from the side of the interests of which are affected type benefits degrees change actorthe executive agency and technical difficulties. Geographical location of both districts that located between Indonesia and Malaysia the borded by mountainous dense jungle and the condition of erratic weather causing equipment and materials used in the project being difficult in mobilization of the trip to the region. In addition the executive policy the airport transportation and the General Working Agency to road infrastructure has a duty which includes a broad and diverse all areas East Kalimantan so that the both district was not development priority. Inland Border Area Management Board and Disadvantaged Areas BPKP2DT who specialized in shape to manage of border areas tend to only perform the function of coordination course so it does not have the authority in the implementation of development directly. So it is with telecommunication limited means of located in the area so that obstructed of coordination and oversight. However residents in the south kayan district kayan upstream support the governments policy in the construction of that infrastructure because policy felt the benefits both in the economic and social.

  12. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  13. How the Timing of Climate Change Policy Affects Infrastructure Turnover in the Electricity Sector: Engineering, Economic and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Catherine Finlay

    The electricity sector is responsible for producing 35% of US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates suggest that ideally, the electricity sector would be responsible for approximately 85% of emissions abatement associated with climate polices such as America's Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES). This is equivalent to ˜50% cumulative emissions reductions below projected cumulative business-as-usual (BAU) emissions. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the US electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society is likely to have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Unfortunately, the inertia in the electricity sector means that there may be physical constraints to the rate at which new electricity generating capacity can be built. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical---the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing GHG emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. There is a real, and thus far unexplored, possibility that the U.S. could delay climate change policy implementation for long enough that it becomes infeasible to attain the necessary rate of turnover in the electricity sector. This dissertation investigates the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. The goal of the dissertation is to answer the question: How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? Using the Infrastructure Flow Assessment Model, which was developed in this work, this dissertation shows that delaying climate change policy increases average retirements rates by 200-400%, increases average construction rates by 25-85% and increases maximum construction

  14. The reaction of bank lending to monetary policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Takeda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the relevance of the "bank lending channel'' of monetary policy transmission in Brazil. Disaggregated monthly data of the Brazilian banks balance sheets from December 1994 to December 2001 are analyzed. In addition to the short-term interest rate, we consider the effects of another monetary policy instrument frequently used in Brazil, represented by reserve requirements on overall banks deposits - demand, savings, and time deposits. Dynamic panel data techniques are employed. Our results suggest that the impact of reserve requirements is relevant and stronger for larger banks loans. This finding results from the progressive reserve rates required from banks, which affect to a greater extent banks with larger deposit volumes.Este artigo avalia o canal de empréstimos bancários na transmissão da política monetária. A análise foca os dados mensais desagregados do balanço patrimonial dos bancos comerciais brasileiros de dezembro de 1994 a dezembro de 2001. Em adição à taxa básica de juros de curto prazo, este estudo considera também os efeitos de um outro instrumento de política monetária usado freqüentemente no Brasil, representado pelos recolhimentos compulsórios sobre os depósitos à vista, de poupança e a prazo. A partir de técnicas de análise de dados em painel dinâmico, os resultados dos testes sugerem que o impacto dos compulsórios é relevante e é mais forte sobre os empréstimos dos grandes bancos, conclusão que decorre de recolhimentos compulsórios de caráter progressivo, que afetam mais fortemente os bancos com maiores volumes de depósitos.

  15. Open access and the future of scholarly communication policy and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    It is impossible to imagine the future of academic libraries without an extensive consideration of open access the removal of price and permission barriers from scholarly research online. As textbook and journal subscription prices continue to rise, improvements in technology make online dissemination of scholarship less expensive, and faculty recognize the practical and philosophical appeal of making their work available to wider audiences. As a consequences, libraries have begun to consider a wide variety of open access flavors and business models. These new possibilities have significant impact on both library services and collection policies, and the call for new skills within library staffing. Volume 9 of the series Creating the 21st-Century Academic Library is the first of two addressing the topic of open access in academic libraries and focuses on policy and infrastructure for libraries that wish to provide leadership on their campus in the transition to more open forms of scholarship. Chapters in the ...

  16. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  17. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzouk Denise

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a mental health services; and b human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus; and b the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS. Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS. At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize

  18. Contributions of Stephen J. Ball to the Research on Educational and Curriculum Policies in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at showcasing the main contributions of Stephen J. Ball to educational research in Brazil, particularly to the study of educational and curriculum policies. We also highlight some of the limitations in the incorporation of Ball's ideas in Brazil as well as some of the challenges that these author's ideas pose to…

  19. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health. PMID:27564438

  20. Protecting Brazil's tropical forest: a CGE analysis of macroeconomic, sectoral, and regional policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebelt, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    The 'deforestation problem' in Brazil consists of a variety of interrelated issues, of which this paper identifies a regional, sectoral and macroeconomic dimension. Using a regionally and sectorally disaggregated general equilibrium model of Brazil, it is shown that macroeconomic reform is complementary to conservation policies. Therefore, if not for other reasons, macroeconomic reform is urgently needed to provide an adequate framework for microeconomic conservation policies to be effective....

  1. In search of sustainable road infrastructure planning: How can we build on historical policy shifts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Road infrastructure planning is undergoing major changes. Infrastructure development is increasingly considered in relation to environmental degradation, climatic impacts and societal trends. Reinforced by the notion of sustainable development, infrastructure planning is increasingly focused on the

  2. Embodied Energy Use in China’s Infrastructure Investment from 1992 to 2007: Calculation and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure has become an important topic in a variety of areas of the policy debate, including energy saving and climate change. In this paper, we use an energy input-output model to evaluate the amounts of China’s embodied energy use in infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007. We also use the structure decomposition model to analyze the factors impacting the embodied energy use in infrastructure investment for the same time period. The results show that embodied energy use in infrastructure investment accounted for a significant proportion of China’s total energy use with an increasing trend and reflect that improper infrastructure investment represents inefficient use of energy and other resources. Some quantitative information is provided for further determining the low carbon development potentials of China’s economy.

  3. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance of agribusiness, and exclusion of family farmers that have occurred with bioethanol production through the ProÁlcool policy since 1975. This paper compares the life histories of the bioethanol and the biodiesel policies of Brazil by analyzing their substantive policy content; the power and politics of actors that struggle for the design and implementation of the policies; and the polity in terms the organization and institutionalization of the policies. The paper concludes that both policies have become submerged by and dependent on the polity and politics of primarily the energy and agricultural sectors that operate as the two semi-autonomous governance fields. This submerging has shaped the substantive contents of biofuels policies, and explains why the 2004 biodiesel policy PNPB, in spite of its objectives for social inclusion and rural development, faces similar problems in implementation as its predecessor, the 1975 bioethanol policy ProÁlcool. - Highlights: • We compare governance fields of bioethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil. • Biodiesel policy wants to learn from the mistakes made with bioethanol. • Governance fields stress dynamics between policy, polity, and politics. • Like ethanol, biodiesel became submerged by domains of energy and agriculture

  4. Policies to Avoid Cost Overruns in Infrastructure Projects: Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructure projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on why these cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce hem. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leading researcher in the area and in this article his proposals are used as the starting point. Besides a literature review, a questionnaire was sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out what they thought could reduce cost overruns. The literature review and the questionnaire were the foundation for the proposals formulated in this article. Proposals concerned three areas: (1. Organisational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPP projects but also decentralisation of budgets where cost overruns in one project in a region lead to less alternative projects in the specific region. (2. Organisational quality: It should be easy to see when and where cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be a well-developed knowledge management system in the organisation and an organisation culture of openness with a focus on improvements. (3. Organisational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in different stages of a project.   Keywords: Cost overruns, Infrastructure projects, Policy measures

  5. Discipline Policies in Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Building an Infrastructure for Social and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreth, Sascha; Brady, Sharon; Kay, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Preventing challenging behavior in young children is a national priority. The number of young children with behavioral problems is on the rise. Discipline policies can help early childhood programs build an infrastructure that promotes social and academic success. This study sought to document the extent to which existing early…

  6. National policy and mechanisms of development of local infrastructures for leisure-time physical activity - the Impala project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kudláček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inter-sectoral collaboration and social equity for all inhabitants of European Union in the sphere of approaching infrastructure for leisure-time physical activity (PA were the main reasons for implementation and financing of international project IMPALA. The project was divided into three stages. AIM: The aim of presented part of IMPALA project is to assess national policy (legislation and regulation of the development of local infrastructures for leisure-time PA. METHODS: According to the requirements established by project coordinator we carried out structured qualitative interviews with experts and policy makers on different decision-making levels. Further, the invited representatives of end users participated in focus group meeting. Also various available sources and documents were used for detailed analysis. RESULTS: Qualitative interviews provided information, which includes the issue of sports facilities in terms of national level and which documents deal with them. At the regional level whole sphere of infrastructures for leisure-time PA is organized by local and regional governments (municipalities. Participants in the focus group meeting shared with others their own positive and negative experiences with the management of infrastructures and finally made some concrete recommendations. The issue of mechanisms for infrastructure development devotes firstly to the relevant conceptual documents at national and regional level, and then describes specific examples of Olomouc and the Olomouc region in terms of planning, financing, construction and management of infrastructures for leisure-time PA. CONCLUSION: In this part of the project we found out that in the Czech Republic there is no specific national political strategy for the development of infrastructures for leisure-time PA. Development is done primarily at the local level. The biggest problem faced by end-operators is the lack of financial resources and outstanding

  7. The sources for orthodox and heterodox trade and industrial policies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    JAN-ULRICH ROTHACHER

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Brazilian government has over the past years promulgated a mix of orthodox and heterodox policies for Brazil's economic development. This paper seeks to test whether the existing economic ideas have been prescriptive in formulating the policies, or whether they have been the outcome of the "infusion of private interests" (Katzenstein, 1978) in the policy making process. To this end, the paper charts the origins of the unilateral opening for trade in the agribusiness and contrast...

  8. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population.

  9. Adaptations of renewable energy policies to unstable macroeconomic situations-Case study: Wind power in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the massive cost reduction in the last decade, wind power generation is generally still more expensive than conventional energy sources which benefit from the exclusion of externality costs in the price structure. Support policies for renewable energies guarantee the economic viability of this type of electrical power generation in many European countries. In Latin America, Brazil has become the pioneer state for renewable energy with the implementation of the PROINFA programme that supports, among other sources, wind power development of 1100 MW. This article presents an overview of the differences between the German and Brazilian wind power promotion policies with a special focus on how PROINFA can be adapted to the unstable macroeconomic situation of Brazil. The document specifically examines the adaptation of wind power promotion policies to large inflation and interest rates in Brazil

  10. Paradigms of public policies for licit and illicit drugs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Analice; Ribeiro, Marcelo; Tapia Aguilera, Amarílis; Rezende, Elton; Ogata Perrenoud, Luciane

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions that, over the last 3 decades, has been making increased efforts to develop effective public policies for controlling the use of both licit and illicit psychoactive substances. In the case of licit drugs, Brazil was a pioneer in following the guidance of the World Health Organization for tobacco control and has witnessed surprising results relating to reduction of smoking prevalence and correlated morbidity and mortality. Today, Brazil has a national structure for organizing, applying, and monitoring laws relating to tobacco. However, in the field of illicit drugs, with crack consumption as a paradigm, the situation is the opposite: its use has been increasing year by year and is being consumed at increasingly young ages and by all social classes. Thus, it is becoming an enormous challenge for public policies relating to prevention and treatment. In this context, the aim of this article is to present a review of the epidemiological data relating to tobacco and crack use in Brazil, with an analysis on the impact of public policies for controlling consumption over recent years. Despite the efforts made over the last 3 decades, Brazil still has a long way to go in order to construct a consistent and effective national drugs policy.

  11. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  12. The Impact of Local Transport Systems on Green InfrastructurePolicy Versus Reality. The Case of Poznan, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej GADZIŃSKI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was (1 to assess the level of negative impact of the road transport sector on the green infrastructure; (2 to compare the policy on green infrastructure with the actual direction of changes in transport systems; (3 to assess plans for transport development and some predictions on future impact. The research was carried out in the Poznan Metropolitan Area with the use of kernel density estimation (GIS. The analyses show that the key problem is the fragmentation of valuable natural areas and the routing of high traffic intensity roads through and nearby these areas which cause conflicts. The most negative transportation influence occurs in the agglomeration centre, where the quality of the environment is already low. At the same time existing land-use and transport strategies propose solutions neutralizing these negative impacts. Nevertheless current trends and especially new transport investment seem to negate official strategies and intensify the negative impacts on the green infrastructure.

  13. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  14. [The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion. PMID:18813481

  15. Integrated assessment of biodiesel policies aimed at family farms in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less

  16. Flaying Freire? The Workers' Party and Education Policy in Brazil, 1980-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the progression of education policy by the Workers' Party (PT) in Brazil from its experience of municipal administration to national government. The first section presents this development, noting its progression from a participatory, social(ist) project to a more reformist, elite-directed model. The second section accounts…

  17. Saving America's School Infrastructure. Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Faith E., Ed.; Thompson, David C., Ed.

    This book addresses funding for school facilities. Contents of section 1, "Overview and Scope of the Problem," are: (1) "Unmet School Infrastructure Funding Need as a Critical Educational Capacity Issue: Setting the Context" (Faith E. Crampton); (2) "Financing School Infrastructure Needs: An Overview across the 50 States" (Catherine C. Sielke);…

  18. Bridging Integration Gaps: Scenarios and Policy Recommendations to Promote Physical Infrastructure and Reduce Intra-Regional Trade Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); World Bank (WB); Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC); Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID); Banco Mundial (BM); Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief is intended to serve as the basis for the discussion of the Ministers of Finance on action needed to promote physical infrastructure and reduce intra-regional trade costs, in the context of the Third Meeting of the Finance Ministers of the Americas and the Caribbean held in Lima (Perú), on May 28, 2010. It is argued that the Latin American and Caribbean region must bridge three interrelated policy gaps in order to advance its integration agenda. First, despite advances in tr...

  19. Considerations on the food fortification policy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Murilo Martins

    2011-01-01

    Government health authorities approved, in December 2002, the ANVISA (National Sanitary Vigilance Agency) resolution number 344, making the addition of iron and folic acid to all wheat and maize flours industrialized in Brazil obligatory. After a brief review of iron deficiency, iron overload and folic acid deficiency several questions and remarks need to be made about this universal food fortification program. Iron salts and folic acid are drugs widely used in medicine and they may present u...

  20. [Welfare policies on the fringe of capitalism: the recent situation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochmann, Marcio

    2007-01-01

    Located on the fringe of global capitalism, lacking an international currency and endowed with weak technology production and dissemination capacities, Brazil is developing its own very specific approach to social welfare policies. Its 1988 Constitution ushered in acknowledged progress in these policies during the past two decades, despite constraints due to the general behavior of its lackluster economy, with rising unemployment and a shrinking job pool. In parallel, the semi-stagnation of its per capita income has been paced by a steady stream of tax adjustments, hobbling more recent developments in social spending. All these efforts often achieve little more than upholding the wealth financialization cycle, mainly for the tiny portion of society holding public debt papers. An analysis of this specifically Brazilian situation leads to a better understanding of missed opportunities for cutting away many of Brazil's social shackles, as welfare policies have significant impacts on lower-income segments of the population.

  1. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  2. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramodikoe Nylon Marishane

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the “no-fee schools” policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and in-depth interviews held with their principals. The study has found that though the no-fee policy has come to relieve poor parents of the burden of paying school fees, it does not help schools in addressing their infrastructural challenges.Marishane, Ramodikoe N. (2013. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field. International Journal of Education Policy & Leadership 8(5. Retrieved from www.ijepl.org .

  3. Considerations on the food fortification policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murilo Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Government health authorities approved, in December 2002, the ANVISA (National Sanitary Vigilance Agency resolution number 344, making the addition of iron and folic acid to all wheat and maize flours industrialized in Brazil obligatory. After a brief review of iron deficiency, iron overload and folic acid deficiency several questions and remarks need to be made about this universal food fortification program. Iron salts and folic acid are drugs widely used in medicine and they may present undesirable side effects. There are potential risks with offering iron to the normal population for a long period of time and to patients with iron overload. Other important remarks are: there is no medical follow up of this treatment in the Brazilian population; patients can decide the quantity of foods (and of these nutrients that they want to ingest; fortified foods may correct iron deficiency anemia but not necessarily the causes, which include gastrointestinal neoplasms; and folic acid in the diet may interfere with several treatment protocols that use folic acid antagonists, such as methotrexate. Finally, with the exception of some social programs, the costs of treatment using fortified foods are passed on to the population. Considering that Brazil has 330,000 active medical doctors it is suggested that our Health Ministry should invite them to take care of these important medical conditions.

  4. A national survey of health service infrastructure and policy impacts on access to computerised CBT in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenicer David

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NICE recommends computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT for the treatment of several mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. cCBT may be one way that services can reduce waiting lists and improve capacity and efficiency. However, there is some doubt about the extent to which the National Health Service (NHS in the UK is embracing this new health technology in practice. This study aimed to investigate Scottish health service infrastructure and policies that promote or impede the implementation of cCBT in the NHS. Methods A telephone survey of lead IT staff at all health board areas across Scotland to systematically enquire about the ability of local IT infrastructure and IT policies to support delivery of cCBT. Results Overall, most of the health boards possess the required software to use cCBT programmes. However, the majority of NHS health boards reported that they lack dedicated computers for patient use, hence access to cCBT at NHS sites is limited. Additionally, local policy in the majority of boards prevent staff from routinely contacting patients via email, skype or instant messenger, making the delivery of short, efficient support sessions difficult. Conclusions Conclusions: Overall most of the infrastructure is in place but is not utilised in ways that allow effective delivery. For cCBT to be successfully delivered within a guided support model, as recommended by national guidelines, dedicated patient computers should be provided to allow access to online interventions. Additionally, policy should allow staff to support patients in convenient ways such as via email or live chat. These measures would increase the likelihood of achieving Scottish health service targets to reduce waiting time for psychological therapies to 18 weeks.

  5. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ramodikoe Nylon Marishane

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the “no-fee schools” policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and in-depth interviews held with their principals. The study has found that though the no-fee policy has come to relieve poor parents of the burden of paying school fe...

  6. Macroeconomic policies and economic democracy in neoliberal Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this paper is to investigate some of the forms of conduct of macroeconomic policies related to a substantive concept of democracy, characterized by popular participation - direct or through representatives - in decisions that unevenly affect the material well-being of the entire Brazilian population. Special attention is given to decisions about the country's public indebtedness in the years following the launching of the RealPlan. Empirical evidences show a limited democracy, revealed by the material inequality, which in turn reproduces political inequality and restricts real freedom. This is combined with the selective bureaucratic insulation of economic policy decisions, and the parliament's failure to deal with the macroeconomic agenda. The latter is thus left to the control of the executive branch's economic apparatus, which on one hand submits itself to substantial political influence from finance and, on the other hand, restricts popular participation in decisions on both fiscal and monetary policies.

  7. REGION NORTH OF TEACHER EDUCATION POLICY AND EVALUATION OF POLES OPEN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso José da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present, in general, the north region and policies for teacher training implemented in the last 5 years, locating in this context the importance of the Brazil Open University system and its supporting poles face as methodology research linked to the project "Institutionalization of Distance Education in Brazil." Greater emphasis will be given to data from the states of Pará and Acre, given that two authors of this text act as coordinators of the poles supporting attendance System Open University of Brazil in these states. We design the text, based on testimony of poles coordinators who participated in participatory research, conducted by the Research Group "Teacher education and information and communication technologies", LANTE / UFF. We aim also to identify the structure and functioning of the Poles face Supporting UAB in the North as well as the assessment tool applied in this region.

  8. An energy efficiency policy model that addresses the influences of the 'infrastructures of provision'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passey, Robert; Betz, Regina; MacGill, Iain (Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, Univ. of New South Wales (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    A common focus of policy approaches to drive uptake of energy efficiency is reliance on a combination of price signals and information. These types of approaches rest on the underlying assumption that, if exposed to appropriate price signals and provided with access to relevant information, end users will make rational decisions regarding energy use. As a result, energy efficiency will occur to the extent it is financially beneficial for the end-user and economically beneficial for society. However, a growing body of research has highlighted that end-user behaviour, especially in the residential sector, is far more complex than this and heavily influenced by the broader social context (BSC) in which people live. One component of the BSC that is particularly relevant, because it has an especially strong influence on end-users' energy demand and potential interest in energy efficiency, is the infrastructure that provides energy and energy services - termed the infrastructures of provision (IoP). We have developed an approach that uses the IoP influences as a conceptual and analytical tool to identify the types of policies likely to be required to take them into account. Although we have not characterised the BSC influences to a significant extent, we discuss the degree to which they may be addressed by the types of policies used to deal with IoP influences. These types of policies not only include some financially-based measures and command and control regulations, but those with a much broader focus for example, training and accreditation of personnel as well as the creation of a regulatory environment suitable for Energy Service Companies. Without such policies, price signals and information campaigns are likely to have limited effectiveness in reducing energy use.

  9. Corporate ethical policies in large corporations in Argentina, Brazil and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Melé, Domènec; Debeljuh, Patricia; Arruda, M. Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the status of Corporate Ethical Policies (CEP) in large companies in Argentina, Brazil and Spain, with a special emphasis on Corporate Ethics Statements (CES) or documents that define the firm's philosophy, values and norms of conduct. It is based on a survey of the 500 largest companies in these nations. The findings reveal many similarities between these countries. Among other things, it emerges that most companies give consideration to ethics in business and have adopte...

  10. The institutional configuration of sport policy in Brazil: organization, evolution and dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Mendes; Adriano Codato

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has become the center of the spotlight of the whole world recently, amongst many other reasons, one of them was because it was chosen to host a series of mega sporting events - Pan American Games in 2007, Confederations Football Cup in 2013, Fifa Football World Cup 2014 Games and 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. However, little is known about the country's administrative governmental structure focused on sport policy. The available studies focus their analysis on the sport po...

  11. Energy policy and the Northwest European market. Fuel mix and infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first addresses the current fuel mix in Northwest Europe, which turns out to be reasonably balanced. Next the need for a more directional approach is discussed. Finally a number of contours for a more balanced and integrated approach for production and infrastructure are addressed for an electricity sector that fits in a more sustainable fuel mix.

  12. Large Scale Investments in Infrastructure : Competing Policy regimes to Control Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.; Read, M.L.; Zoomers, E.B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes to analyse implications of large-scale investments in physical infrastructure for social and environmental justice. While case studies on the global land rush and climate change have advanced our understanding of how large-scale investments in land, forests and water affect natur

  13. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  14. Policy and context management in dynamically provisioned access control service for virtualized Cloud infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ngo; P. Membrey; Y. Demchenko; C. de Laat

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is developing as a new wave of ICT technologies, offering a common approach to on-demand provisioning of computation, storage and network resources which are generally referred to as infrastructure services. Most of currently available commercial Cloud services are built and organize

  15. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  16. Preparing the Way for New Policy Regarding Adaptation of US Electricity Infrastructure to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The following pages represent the status of policy regarding adaptation of the electric grid to climate change and proposed directions for new policy development. While strides are being made to understand the current climate and to predict hazards it may present to human systems, both the science and the policy remain at present in an analytical state. The policy proposed in this document involves first continued computational modeling of outcomes which will produce a portfolio of options to be considered in light of specific region-related risks. It is proposed that the modeling continue not only until reasonable policy at various levels of jurisdiction can be derived from its outcome but also on a continuing basis so that as improvements in the understanding of the state and trajectory of climate science along with advancements in technology arise, they can be incorporated into an appropriate and evolving policy.

  17. Monetary policy and inflation in Brazil (1975-2000: a VAR estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella André

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates monetary policy and basic macroeconomic relationships involving output, inflation rate, interest rate, and money in Brazil. Based on a vector autoregressive (VAR estimation, it compares three different periods: moderately-increasing inflation (1975-1985, high inflation (1985-1994, and low inflation (1994-2000. The main results are the following: monetary policy shocks have significant effects on output; monetary policy shocks do not induce a reduction in the inflation rate in the first two periods, but there are indications that they have gained power to affect prices after the Real Plan was launched; monetary policy does not usually respond rapidly or actively to inflation-rate and output innovations; in the recent period, the interest rate responds intensely to financial crises; positive interest-rate shocks are accompanied by a decline in money in all the three periods; the degree of inflation persistence is substantially lower in the recent period.

  18. Climate change in Brazil: public policies, political agenda and media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelaide Lombardo, Magda; Costa Freitas, Ruimar (Univ. Estadual Paulista, Univ. de Sao Paulo Bela Vista, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    2010-07-15

    The climate change and sustainable development issue, especially in the context of energy production, have been on the current national policy rhetoric, reflecting the focus of the issue on the world scenario. The Brazilian Agroenergy Plan (2006-2011), considered as an strategic action of the federal government, is an attempt to organize a propose for Research, Development, Innovation and Technology Transfer, aiming to grant sustainability, competitiveness and greater equity between the agroenergy chain agents, starting with the reality analysis and future perspectives for the world energetic matrix. In this context, this research seeks to analyze the proposals of the State of Sao Paulo to the laws implementations that allows the goal accomplishment of 20% reduction on the greenhouse effect emissions until 2020 (base 2005), through action to the deforestation control, creation of an adaptation fund, establishment of a sustainable transportation system, mapping the vulnerabilities of the territory and financial mechanisms to the development of a low carbon economy. From the perspective of the national media coverage agenda, that has extensively approached the climate changes theme, this research collaborates to the analysis of sustainable projects inside the Brazilian perspective and context. This research will emphasize the relation between media, political speech and public policies

  19. DISTANCE EDUCATION: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES WITH FOCUS ON DESIGN OF OPEN UNIVERSITY OF BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Bizelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study at the doctoral level, is in the initial phase of the Program Graduate School of Education UNESP, SP-Araraquara campus. That makes an analysis of government policies in distance education system through the Open University of Brazil (UAB. We present in this moment, the historical background of the creation and expansion of the system of the Open University of Brazil with emphasis on policies of expansion of higher education and also the degree in pedagogy courses offered by the partner universities of the University System in Brazil Open southeast. Among the main objectives of the study is to compare the Brazilian government policies of expansion of higher education with the management and characteristics of undergraduate courses in pedagogy. Partial results indicate a total 51 universities that offer degree courses in pedagogy at UAB system in Brazil, including 12 institutions in the Southeast.

  20. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. METHODOLOGY: Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country

  1. Price-setting policy determinants: micro-evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Moura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the frequency of price changes from a survey data on Brazilian companies. The data set has the advantage of including all of the economic sectors: agricultural and food products, trading, industry and services. Strong evidence of nominal price rigidities is found on the data with average and median price durations around 10.1 and 8.1 months, which is very close to results reported for the euro area and the United States. Using econometric modeling through an ordered probit and also an OLS regression, we find that price change duration is mostly explained by the wage duration, the degree of competition, product specialization, the elasticity of demand and economic sector dummies. The empirical results refute somewhat commonly used macroeconomic modeling for monetary policy evaluation; however they do not refute time-dependent models since those are consistent with different price durations across firms. These results shed light on some stylized facts that a macroeconomic price-setting model would need to reproduce.

  2. Infrastructural support for enforcing and managing distributed application-level policies

    OpenAIRE

    Goovaerts, Tom; De Win, Bart; Joosen, Wouter

    2008-01-01

    State-of-the-art security mechanisms are often enforced in isolation from each other, which limits the kinds of policies that can be enforced in distributed and heterogeneous settings. More specifically, it is hard to enforce application-level policies that affect, or use information from multiple distributed components. This paper proposes the concept of a Security Service Bus (SSB), which is a dedicated communication channel between the applications and the different security mechanisms. Th...

  3. Federalism and health policy: the intergovernmental committees in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the dynamics of operation of the Bipartite Committees in health care in the Brazilian states. METHODS The research included visits to 24 states, direct observation, document analysis, and performance of semi-structured interviews with state and local leaders. The characterization of each committee was performed between 2007 and 2010, and four dimensions were considered: (i level of institutionality, classified as advanced, intermediate, or incipient; (ii agenda of intergovernmental negotiations, classified as diversified/restricted, adapted/not adapted to the reality of each state, and shared/unshared between the state and municipalities; (iii political processes, considering the character and scope of intergovernmental relations; and (iv capacity of operation, assessed as high, moderate, or low. RESULTS Ten committees had advanced level of institutionality. The agenda of the negotiations was diversified in all states, and most of them were adapted to the state reality. However, one-third of the committees showed power inequalities between the government levels. Cooperative and interactive intergovernmental relations predominated in 54.0% of the states. The level of institutionality, scope of negotiations, and political processes influenced Bipartite Committees’ ability to formulate policies and coordinate health care at the federal level. Bipartite Committees with a high capacity of operation predominated in the South and Southeast regions, while those with a low capacity of operations predominated in the North and Northeast. CONCLUSIONS The regional differences in operation among Bipartite Interagency Committees suggest the influence of historical-structural variables (socioeconomic development, geographic barriers, characteristics of the health care system in their capacity of intergovernmental health care management. However, structural problems can be overcome in some states through institutional and political changes

  4. Impact of External Debt and Other Macroeconomic Policies on Output in Brazil: A VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a VAR model to quantify the relative importance of external debt, exchange rates, monetary policy and other selected variables when explaining output fluctuations in Brazil. Using the money market rate as a policy instrument, impulse response functions indicate that shocks to the interest rate, the external debt, or the inflation rate have an inverse impact on output, while currency and stock prices shocks have a positive effect on economic activity. In the medium run, the explanatory power of the external debt rises while that of the money market rate and the real exchange rate decline. When money is considered as a monetary tool, output responds positively to shocks to the real monetary base or to stock prices and reacts inversely to shocks to the external debt, currency depreciation, or inflation. Therefore, the choice of different monetary policy tools is not neutral when affecting output.

  5. The institutional configuration of sport policy in Brazil: organization, evolution and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mendes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has become the center of the spotlight of the whole world recently, amongst many other reasons, one of them was because it was chosen to host a series of mega sporting events - Pan American Games in 2007, Confederations Football Cup in 2013, Fifa Football World Cup 2014 Games and 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016. However, little is known about the country's administrative governmental structure focused on sport policy. The available studies focus their analysis on the sport policies content, but not on the arrangement of its structural decision-making. The main aim of this article is indeed to describe, based on official documentation, the evolution and the current arrangements of the government responsible for the administrative structure for the planning and implementation of sports policies in Brazil. Thus, we tried to list the main problems arising from the organization of the Brazilian sports' management. These problems are: (1 inappropriate institutional structure in terms of human resources and obstacles to participation by other social actors beyond the officials (parliament and members of the Ministry of Sports in the sports policy; (2 disarticulation between public institutions generating redundancies and conflicts of jurisdiction due to the poor division of labor between bureaucracy agencies; and (3 inadequate planning proved by the lack of organization of some institutions, and by the lack of assessment and continuity of public policies over time. Therefore, we must emphasize those problems from above, and due to these administrative arrangements, Brazilian sports' policy has big challenges in the sport development in this country, which includes the creation of a national "system" for sports and a priority investment in sport education.

  6. Foreign Direct Investment: diagnosis and proposals for a public policy agenda for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanário

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses the viability to adopt policies to enhance Brazilian Foreign Direct Investment FDI. Based on statistical data and on literature review, the policy agenda frames the underling questions surrounding FDI. There is not yet a theoretical framework to deal with emergent countries economic outward FDI. There exist strong evidences that capital flows through FDI generate externalities in the following domains: macroeconomic, international trade, and microeconomic (in themes closed related to industrial organization and innovation. The theoretical proposition has its grounds in the conception that international capital flows are absolutely compatible in the following contexts: monetary, commercial, industrial organization and innovation policies. A better positioning of national enterprises internationally may result in growing partnership within the foreign environment. Brazil has not yet a set of policies to deal with inward and outward Brazilian FDI flows, without necessarily jeopardizing macroeconomic policy and the related monetary and currency stabilization goals. Summing up, it is contended that FDI stimulus by means of public policies may contribute not just to a better competitiveness and innovation of Brazilian enterprises but also to assure balanced growing and economic structural change.

  7. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  8. Estimating the cost savings and avoided CO2 emissions in Brazil by implementing energy efficient policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investing more in renewable energy sources and using this in a rational and efficient way is vital for the sustainable growth of world. Energy efficiency (EE) will play an increasingly important role in future generations. The aim of this work is to estimate how much the PNEf (National Plan for Energy Efficiency) launched by the Brazilian government in 2011 will save over the next 5 years by avoiding the construction of additional power plants, as well as the amount of the CO2 emission. The marginal operating cost is computed for medium term planning of the dispatching of power plants in the hydro-thermal system using Stochastic Dynamic Dual Programming, after incorporating stochastic energy efficiencies into the demand for electricity. We demonstrate that even for a modest improvement in energy efficiency (<1% per year), the savings over the next 5 years range from R$ 237 million in the conservative scenario to R$ 268 million in the optimistic scenario. By comparison the new Belo Monte hydro-electric plant will cost R$ 26 billion to be repaid over a 30 year period (i.e. R$ 867 million in 5 years). So in Brazil EE policies are preferable to building a new power plant. - Highlights: • It is preferable to invest in energy efficiency than to construct a big power plant. • An increase of energy efficiency policies would reduce the operating cost in Brazil. • We have a great reduction of CO2eq emissions by means of energy efficiency policies

  9. Flexible information infrastructures in Dutch e-government collaboration arrangements: experiences and policy implication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHow can the flexibility of an information architecture in e-government chains - defined as a set of multi-rational agreements - be achieved, if one acknowledges the fact that the use of ICT may automate the status quo between organizations which work together in a policy chain? Research

  10. ASSISTANCE SOCIAL POLICY IN BRAZIL AND BOLSA FAMÍLIA PROGRAM: CRITICAL POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidée de Caez-Pedroso- Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the social assistance policy in Brazil. It Is based on the critical social theory and brings as a starting point reflections on the relationship between capital accumulation and the emergence of the social question. Considering the Brazilian society and the correlation of forces between social classes, we try to present as the social rights were made in the country. Into contemporary debate, we have reviewed the main social causes, political and economic that mediated the implementation of social policies in the context of neoliberal reforms in the 1990s, when come to the fore the income transfer programs as poverty reduction strategies. When the Trabalhadores Party takes the federal government, some changes occurred mainly in the management of social welfare policy, but the liberal-conservative character of social policies remains, and in particular the actions recommended in the Bolsa Família Program. These elements point to the challenges of professionals working in the management and implementation of these social policies that are committed to the interests of the working class, both in terms of their training with regard to their professional practice.

  11. Financing national policy on oral health in Brazil in the context of the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of oral health care implemented in the Unified Health System of Brazil in the last decade. This model was conceived as a sub-sector policy that, over the years, has sought to improve the quality of life of the Brazilian population. Through a chronological line, the study presents the National Policy on Oral Health as a counter-hegemonic patient care model for the dentistry practices existing in the country before this policy was implemented. The reorganization of the levels of oral health care, the creation of reference facilities for secondary and tertiary care, through Centers of Dental Specialties and Regional Dental Prosthesis Laboratories, and the differential funding and decentralized management of financial resources were able to expand the actions of oral health for more than 90 million inhabitants. The evolution shown after the deployment of the National Oral Health Policy, as of 2004, demonstrates the greater integration of oral health care under the Unified Health System and provides feedback information to help this policy to continue to be prioritized by the Federal Government and receive more support from the state and local levels in the coming years.

  12. Eutrophication and contaminant data management for EU marine policies: the EMODnet Chemistry infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Matteo; Lipizer, Marina; Giorgetti, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative has the following purposes: to assemble marine metadata, data and products, to make these fragmented resources more easily available to public and private users and to provide quality-assured, standardised and harmonised marine data. EMODnet Chemistry was launched by DG MARE in 2009 to support the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requirements for the assessment of eutrophication and contaminants, following INSPIRE Directive rules. The aim is twofold: the first task is to make available and reusable the big amount of fragmented and inaccessible data, hosted in the European research institutes and environmental agencies. The second objective is to develop visualization services useful for the tasks of the MSFD. The technical set-up is based on the principle of adopting and adapting the SeaDataNet infrastructure for ocean and marine data which are managed by National Oceanographic Data Centers and relies on a distributed network of data centers. Data centers contribute to data harvesting and enrichment with the relevant metadata. Data are processed into interoperable formats (using agreed standards ISO XML, ODV) with the use of common vocabularies and standardized quality control procedures .Data quality control is a key issue when merging heterogeneous data coming from different sources and a data validation loop has been agreed within EMODnet Chemistry community and is routinely performed. After data quality control done by the regional coordinators of the EU marine basins (Atlantic, Baltic, North, Mediterranean and Black Sea), validated regional datasets are used to develop data products useful for the requirements of the MSFD. EMODnet Chemistry provides interpolated seasonal maps of nutrients and services for the visualization of time series and profiles of several chemical parameters. All visualization services are developed following OGC standards as WMS and WPS. In order to test new

  13. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Gimenez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher education, and for the teaching of English as a foreign language. In this paper we discuss four of these programs/policies by highlighting their innovative aspects vis-à-vis traditional practices. We conclude that, despite quantitative advances, much still needs to be done to guarantee qualitative improvements in areas such as the curriculum in order to challenge the continuing influence of predominant ideologies.

  14. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  15. THE ROLE OF POLICY ENTREPRENEURS AND ADVOCACY NETWORKS IN PUBLIC POLICY PROCESS (STUDY CASE OF BRAZIL WATER POLICY REFORM)

    OpenAIRE

    KOVERZNEVA S.A.; KULAKOVA T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity in social demands does expand the quantity of possible alternative policies and requires the changes in public governance. New strategy of governance involves dialogue among stakeholders. Various social and professional networks, united shared values, interests and beliefs could have more motivational potential for innovations, than traditional administrative approach. Key question is the role of informal advocacy groups and policy entrepreneurs in such shift. The paper examines...

  16. [Families of incarcerated women, health promotion and access to social policies in the Federal District, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Éverton Luís

    2016-06-01

    This paper assesses the options for accessing public policies available to families of women incarcerated in the female penitentiary of Brazil's Federal District. It seeks to contribute to the construction of health promotion strategies for the female population living in the prison system. Some of the claims were revealed in the national comprehensive healthcare policy for individuals in the prison system, especially those that acknowledge the importance of intersectoral actions and relationship networks to promote health. Data are presented from research conducted at the penitentiary in 2014 that used qualitative methodology by means of participant observation and semi-structured interviews with family members of women incarcerated in the Federal District. It was detected that attention must be paid to the different types of relationship that exist between incarcerated women and their families, and especially to the allegations of exhaustion and difficulty of access to public policies. A more in-depth survey into how this population organizes itself could assist in the development of public policies to promote health and overcome social vulnerability. PMID:27383346

  17. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  18. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Stan

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO. This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i business as usual, (ii increased deforestation, and (iii decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  19. Infrastructural requirements for local implementation of safety policies: the discordance between top-down and bottom-up systems of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindqvist Kent

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety promotion is planned and practised not only by public health organizations, but also by other welfare state agencies, private companies and non-governmental organizations. The term 'infrastructure' originally denoted the underlying resources needed for warfare, e.g. roads, industries, and an industrial workforce. Today, 'infrastructure' refers to the physical elements, organizations and people needed to run projects in different societal arenas. The aim of this study was to examine associations between infrastructure and local implementation of safety policies in injury prevention and safety promotion programs. Methods Qualitative data on municipalities in Sweden designated as Safe Communities were collected from focus group interviews with municipal politicians and administrators, as well as from policy documents, and materials published on the Internet. Actor network theory was used to identify weaknesses in the present infrastructure and determine strategies that can be used to resolve these. Results The weakness identification analysis revealed that the factual infrastructure available for effectuating national strategies varied between safety areas and approaches, basically reflecting differences between bureaucratic and network-based organizational models. At the local level, a contradiction between safety promotion and the existence of quasi-markets for local public service providers was found to predispose for a poor local infrastructure diminishing the interest in integrated inter-agency activities. The weakness resolution analysis showed that development of an adequate infrastructure for safety promotion would require adjustment of the legal framework regulating injury data exchange, and would also require rational financial models for multi-party investments in local infrastructures. Conclusion We found that the "silo" structure of government organization and assignment of resources was a barrier to

  20. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a

  1. Industrial Location and Public Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Philippe; Rogers, Carol Ann

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of public infrastructure on industrial location when increasing returns are present. Poor infrastructure implies costs of Samuelson's `iceberg' form and alter trade both within and between countries. Trade integration implies that firms tend to locate in countries with better infrastructure so that regional policies that affect the level of public infrastructure influence economic geography. The effectiveness of such policies decreases when infrastructure improv...

  2. The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies.

  3. The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies. PMID:25351302

  4. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River Basin – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a hydroclimatic variability, (b investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (−45.3% and irrigation (−78.0% by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader

  5. Between Care and Order: Street-Level Workers’ Discretion and Drug Policies in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quadros Rigoni (Rafaela)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This comparative study analyses the implementation of policies on so-called ‘problem drugs’ (crack cocaine and heroin) for the cities of Amsterdam (in the Netherlands) and Porto Alegre (in Brazil). Using a variant on the street level bureaucracy approach, the study assu

  6. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  7. Energy, a networked Europe - Twelve proposals for a common energy infrastructure policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just a few months before the next COP 21 in Paris, Europe has a particular responsibility to put forward proposals and to make this Conference a global success. The Europeans were the first to make the fight against climate change a large structural policy of this half-century. As pioneers, we therefore find ourselves in the front line in meeting the challenges that are technological (deployment of new means of production, massive renovation of building stock, the invention of new local energy models), societal (acceptability of changes to life styles) and economic (activation of funding channels and mobilisation of savings) that structure the energy transition. How these challenges can be met will depend on the choices made in each Member State (and even, increasingly in each region or community), but what the solutions found will have in common is that they will have to fit into energy systems whose networks, covering millions of kilometres, already provide the architecture. Continuing to 'provide a system', thanks to the networks for delivering energy (gas or electricity) under the best conditions of effectiveness and cost, is thus an absolute imperative for the security of supply for Europeans, their quality of life and the competitiveness of their businesses and therefore their jobs. Europe is the area of the world that offers the best quality energy services; this advantage must be reinforced. However, the role required of Europe's energy networks is being profoundly reshaped in this context of energy transition, since their organisation must now: - Accompany decentralisation, the means of renewable energy production being dispersed in hundreds of thousands of sites over all the territories. This requires radically reorganising the networks, in particular the distribution networks, which were not originally designed for this renewable energy collecting function. - Managing complexity of a new kind due to the variability of certain renewable

  8. [Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use. PMID:24473612

  9. [Harm reduction policies in Brazil: contributions of a North American program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglez-Dias, Aline; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Bastos, Francisco I; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid spread of the HIV epidemic and the need to control its transmission among intravenous drug users (IDU), harm reduction strategies have been incorporated in many countries, including Brazil. Considering these aspects and taking into account the emergence of drugs as a core concern on the government's agenda, especially crack cocaine, this article presents some of the contributions acquired from observing and recording the practices of an American model of research and care for IDUs, namely the UFO (You Find Out) Study. Issues such as participants' access and adherence, financing difficulties, sustainability and outcome evaluation were considered. The study involved documental research, systematic observation and interviews with key informants. Some of the UFO features that could contribute to the formulation of harm reduction policies in Brazil are highlighted. The UFO appears to be a successful example of harm reduction initiatives that successfully contact and guarantee the commitment of that risk group, ensuring its access to health services and reducing risks associated with drug use.

  10. Política de cotas no Brasil: política social? Quota policy in Brazil: social policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Luzia Leite

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as políticas de ação afirmativas - notadamente a política de cotas - como mais uma estratégia do capitalismo em seu estágio atual para passivizar a classe trabalhadora na luta pela ampliação de direitos sociais. Parte da hipótese de que segmentos historicamente explorados têm a sua não integração na sociedade como resultante da "questão social", e não de determinações particularistas. Para tanto, utiliza a teoria social crítica para analisar a emersão e o evolver das políticas sociais no Brasil e de que forma estas se metamorfoseiam sob a égide do governo Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. O sistema de cotas étnico-raciais para o ingresso no ensino superior público é aqui contrastado com a defesa de políticas públicas de caráter universal. Conclui que a assistencialização das políticas sociais é mais um instrumento para eliminar a luta política dos trabalhadores e escamotear as expressões da questão social.This article discusses affirmative action policies - notably quotas - as a current strategy of capitalism to pacify the working class in the struggle for expansion of social rights. It begins with the hypothesis that the lack of integration into society of historically exploited segments is a result of the "social question" and not of particular determinations. It therefore uses critical social theory to analyze the emergence and development of social policies in Brazil and understand in what way they were transformed under the aegis of the government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva. The system of ethnic and racial quotas for entrance into public higher education is contrasted here with the defense of public policies of a universal character. The article concludes that social policies focused on providing assistance are tools designed to eliminate the political struggle of workers and hide social expressions.

  11. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  12. Competition policy in infrastructure specific sectors in the Estonian case: entwining of natural monopoly and universal service. Konkurentsipoliitika infrastruktuursetes erandvaldkondades Eesti näitel: loomuliku monopoli ja universaalteenuse põimumine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Sepp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consensus that the successful development of infrastructure specific sectors depends a lot on the adaption of appropriate public policies and the effective implementation of these policies. The way how regulation is implemented plays an important role in infrastructure development and use. In the article the means of regulating economic policy in Estonia are systematized and evaluated looking at practices regarding both natural monopoly and universal service.

  13. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  14. The development of Korea's new long-term care service infrastructure and its results: focusing on the market-friendly policy used for expansion of the numbers of service providers and personal care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Yongho

    2013-01-01

    One of the main reasons for reforming long-term care systems is a deficient existing service infrastructure for the elderly. This article provides an overview of why and how the Korean government expanded long-term care infrastructure through the introduction of a new compulsory insurance system, with a particular focus on the market-friendly policies used to expand the infrastructure. Then, the positive results of the expansion of the long-term care infrastructure and the challenges that have emerged are examined. Finally, it is argued that the Korean government should actively implement a range of practical policies and interventions within the new system.

  15. Nuclear policy retrospection in Brazil and forecasting for using of small nuclear power plants - SNPs - in the Brazilian electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis highlights the nuclear energy perspectives to regain a prominent place in the world energy mix, as a competitive and safe energy source. Just considering the current international changes in the nuclear power features in the developed countries, it is assessed the suitability and feasibility of defining a new nuclear policy in Brazil, based on the development of small and medium nuclear power reactors - SMNPR. The SMNPR's may be a good nuclear strategy for Brazil to develop a national and evolutionary reactor design with several improvements in safety, by means of passive safety systems. This reactor may play a significant role in the brazilian electrical system in the long term. (author)

  16. SOCIO - CULTURAL ASPECTS OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DIALOGUE WITH PUBLIC HEALTH POLICIES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Regina Marques Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis away from individuals affected by their social and affective and reconstructionof collective values, relegating them to the condition of inferiority and subservience Sartrean,liabilities oppressive conditions imposed by society, which dismisses the other as legitimatein the intersubjective social construction. This work aims to address the social, psychologicaland symbolic carrier of tuberculosis and PPS in Brazil through integrative review in databasesScientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo and Google Scholar using the descriptorsTuberculosis Society, Culture, Psychosocial Aspects, Sociocultural Aspects; Public Policy inHealth, Social Movements and Social Control, individually or grouped according to theirproximity or remoteness to the guiding question: "How Public Policies on Health dialoguewith social movements and sociocultural aspects of Tuberculosis?". Whereas the way ofseeing a situation and its meaning in a certain reality is guiding factor, even though subjective,of actions, it is stressed that interventions should take in the full measure of human socio-economic-political-cultural. In this sense, knowledge of cultural and socioeconomic situationof a region is essential to confronting the chain of events that disease primarily social in agiven community.

  17. The Role of Municipalities and the “New Paradigm” in Safety Public Policies in Brazil: an Analysis of the Process of Shifts in Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Kruchin

    2011-01-01

    After the democratic transition in Brazil (1984) public safety has become especially relevant in the country due to high rates of crime and the feeling of insecurity among the population, especially in big cities. In this context, prevention is presented in the last decade in response to the repressive policies that have not prevented the continued growth of violence in the country.Regarding public safety, the Brazilian Constitution stipulates in its art. 144 that public safety is carry out b...

  18. A Complex Web of Education Policy Borrowing and Transfer: Education for All and the Plan for the Development of Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses how Education for All policies were transferred to Brazil and Latin America by means of ambitious educational strategic plans such as the Plan for the Development of Education and the National Education Plans -- promoted by the Federal Government of Brazil, and the Latin American Educational Goals -- promoted by the…

  19. Family agriculture public policies in Brazil
    Políticas públicas para a agricultura familiar no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Jandir Ferrera de Lima; Clarissa Pereira Junqueira

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between some family agriculture public policies and their effects on the development of this type of agriculture in Brazil. It analyzes the National Program for Strengthening Family Agriculture – Pronaf, which has contributed strongly for the development of the sector , mainly in the Southern region of the country; the implementation of the Rural Social Welfare Program as a palliative to social exclusion; and the Food Acquisition Program –PAA which guara...

  20. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  1. The social adjustment of patients with schizophrenia: implications to the mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Paulo R.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample (n=124 of schizophrenic patients from a defined catchment area of the city os S.Paulo, Brazil, who had been consecutively admitted to hospital, was assessed for psychopathological status and social adjustment levels. Sociodemographic, socio-economic and occupational characteristics were recorded: almost 30% of the subjects had no occupation and received no social benefit, more than two-thirds had a monthly per capita income of US$ 100.00 or less. Sixty-five percent presented with Schneiderian firstrank symptoms. Nearly half the sample showed poor or very poor social adjustment in the month prior to admission. The most affected areas of social functioning were participation in the household activities, work and social withdrawal. The current mental health policy of promoting extra-mural care as an alternative to the previous hospital-based model will then mean the investment in a network of new community-based services, that give effective treatment and support to patients and their families. The need of further research into the current picture of mental disorders in the country is stressed.

  2. Present international patterns of foreign direct investment: underlying causes and some policy implications for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chesnais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of the 1980s has been the substantial fall in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI to the developing countries and also, with the limited exception of the Asian NIE (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and China, to the newly industrialized countries, in particular those in Latin America. FDI has been concentrated more than ever among the advanced industrialized countries of OECD. The same period has witnessed a number of extremely important changes, both in the nature and location of basic or key technologies, the role of technology in industrial competitiveness; the most appropriate industrial management paradigm following the difficulties of the "Fordist" one; the nature of predominant international supply or market structures; and the relationships between productive and financial capital. Today a number of governments in developing countries and in NIC, among them the new government of Brazil, are again engaged in an attempt to attract FDI and to make foreign capital one of the major pillars of industrial revival and future growth. This paper argues that this policy objective is both fairly illusory and largely mistaken. It is fairly illusory in that it seriously underestimates the nature and strength of the structural factors which have been at work since the mid-1970s and seriously modified the strategies and investment priorities of the TNC which under took the brunt of the investment in developing countries and NICs in the earlier "golden age" of the 1960s and 1970s . The objective of luring foreign capital again to Brazil in ways and on a level similar to the 1960s is also largely mistaken in that it fails to recognize that the change in technological paradigms has modified the parameters of international technology transfers (cf. Ernst and O'Connor, 1989 and made indigenous and endogenous industrial growth dependent to a much higher degree than in the previous period (19601975 on factors which foreign capital

  3. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia. (letter)

  4. How a change in Brazil's sugar policies would affect the world sugar market

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Although Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, only one-third of the cane it grows is used to produce sugar; the rest is used to produce ethanol as fuel for automobiles. Still, Brazil is the world's fourth largest sugar producer. This paper asks what it would mean for Brazil and for the world sugar market if Brazil were to shift largely away from ethanol to sugar production. This question is of keen interest for the world sugar market because such a shift -- although politically d...

  5. One or two nation projects? Discourse on inequalities and equality-related policies in South Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leubolt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis contribution focuses on the social production and reproduction of social inequalities in Brazil and South Africa. It aims at interlinking different theoretical perspectives and applying them to a comparative analysis of inequality-related policies. Resorting to strategic-relational institutionalism, the historical heritage of discourse formation and the institutionalization of inequality regimes in the two countries to inform the analysis of the more recent conjuncture will be analysed. While South Africa is an example of formal racist discrimination, the Brazilian inequality regime worked on more informal patterns. The different historical heritage influences current foci of equality-related policies, which tend to be dominantly anti-racist in South Africa, while focusing on poverty reduction in Brazil during the recent years. The latter experience tended more towards a discourse of a ‘common interest’ and was better able to institutionalize policies to reduce income inequalities. South Africa is still discursively divided into ‘two nations’. Social uplifting for Africans linked to the governing parties was only partially accompanied by improved living conditions for the poor majority of Africans. Both countries are significantly structured by the respective historical heritage concerning both the creation and the reduction of inequalities. The Brazilian ‘one nation’ discourse was more successful in promoting equality-related policies than its ‘two nations’ counterpart in South Africa. Despite important improvements, both countries are now in critical junctures and societal contradictions are beginning to create new crisis tendencies.

  6. Robust monetary policy, structural breaks, and nonlinearities in the reaction function of the Central Bank of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bezerra de Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we seek to investigate the existence of nonlinearities in the reaction function of the Central Bank of Brazil arising from this policymaker's uncertainties about the effects of the output gap on inflation. Theoretically, we follow Tillmann (2011 to obtain a nonlinear optimal monetary policy rule that is robust to uncertainty about the output-inflation trade-off of the Phillips Curve. In addition, we perform structural break tests to assess possible changes in the conduct of the Brazilian monetary policy during the inflation-targeting regime. The results indicate that: (i the uncertainties about the slope in the Phillips curve implied nonlinearities in the Central Bank of Brazil's reaction function; (ii we cannot reject the hypothesis of a structural break in the monetary rule parameters occurring in the third quarter of 2003; (iii there was an increase in the response of the Selic rate to output gap and a weaker response to the current inflation gap in Meirelles–Tombini's administration; and (iv the Central Bank of Brazil has also reacted to the exchange rate in Meirelles–Tombini's administration.

  7. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Belo Leite, Dal, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmers’ engagement in the biodiesel supply chain.

  8. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family farmer

  9. Reflections on the international climate change negotiations: A synthesis of a working group on carbon emission policy and regulation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short communication presents a synthesis of a Working Group on Carbon Emission Policy and Regulation held at the University of Sao Paulo, in Brazil. The document looked at the problems with the international negotiations, the options for Brazil as it attempts to control emissions, and ways to leverage the mitigation process. Several options are currently being proposed, but these are neither clear in order to support a solid polycentric approach with adequate metrics, nor a robust international coordination and a sound scientific communication. Brazil has a central role in this process, for having successful initiatives on renewable energy and deforestation control. Its leadership can demonstrate how such policies might take shape. However, the country´s future is uncertain in terms of low carbon development. Although the country is still well positioned among BRICS to find practical solutions to the stalemate in international cooperation, several internal challenges need to be harmonized. - Highlights: • The work presents results of a recent climate change mitigation policies workshop. • It assesses Brazil's potential role in shaping future policies and negotiations. • Policies are evaluated based on domestic and international effects. • Suggests how Brazil's national effort could leverage the international processes

  10. Policies for teacher education and recommendations of the World Bank: interfaces with the current context of literacy teacher education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jani Alves da Silva Moreira; Renata Valério da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recommendations of the World Bank and its relation to the policies of teacher education in Brazil, in order to identify the concordances between current policies for teacher education in the literacy context. This is a document analysis of theoretical and critical nature, which permitted to observe that current policies for teacher education are consistent with the recommendations of the World Bank. Such guidelines generate the allocation of respons...

  11. Policies for a greener agriculture: the agro-ecological approach of current programs in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Lucimar Santiago de; Almeida, Gustavo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Based a multiple-cases-study approach, our main objective is to discuss to what extent the new political approach of 2003 has been able so far to obtain and increase concrete progress in rural areas in Brazil.

  12. Measuring the Contribution of Social Policies to Regional Inequality Dynamic in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Raul Silveira; Azzoni, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We decompose the recent changes in regional inequality in Brazil into its components, highlighting the role of spatially blind social programs. We aggregate personal income micro data to the state level, differentiating 9 income sources, and assess the role of these components in the observed changes in regional inequality indicators. The main results indicate that the largest part of the recent reduction in regional inequality in Brazil is related to the dynamics in the market-related labor ...

  13. Pluriatividade e política pública: o caso do Sul do Brasil Pluriactivity and public policy: the case of the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alves do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    The growth of contingent of pluriactive farm families (pluriactivity) has increasingly been accepted as important in reducing rural poverty and unemployment since at least two decades in the EU and very recently in Brazil. This paper supports that, differently from the EU, in the South Brazil, region of modern capitalist agriculture, it is hard to the pluriactivity to grow through the years, and in order for it to increase the public policies, it must be led mainly to avoid the exclusion of t...

  14. Development first: Linking energy and emission policies with sustainable development for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent set of information on economic and social indicators evinces that the economic stabilization plan, launched in 1994, had positive results in many areas, such as the control of inflation, better income distribution, and the slow but continuous progress of the main structural variables of the Brazilian social conditions. In 2005, Brazil had a population of 180 million, the literacy rate of 88.2%, average life expectancy of 71.3 years, infant mortality at 27.5 children per thousand and per capita income of over R$ 8,000. Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly with regard to oil. In the early 1990s, for example, Brazil was a large net oil importer, but by 2006, the domestic production met domestic demand. Brazil intends to increase its biofuels production and exports. The country case studies highlight the centrality of energy to socio-economic development of Brazil. (au)

  15. Contemporary policies of literacy teacher training in Brazil: between enhancement of performances and pedagogical management of innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rafael Dias da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current policies of literacy teacher training in Brazil, recently materialized in the Pacto Nacional pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa (PNAIC - National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age, and it aims to analyze the political strategies that can be visualized in its implementation process. Placing them in scenarios of educational reform in their modes of regulation and political domination, we acknowledge that the conceptions of teacher education put into action are enhanced through the modes of educational path individualization, at the same time that they intensify the ways of government management of literacy teacher action. We conclude that such educational intervention bets on models of large-scale assessment as strategic goal and produces efforts towards a permanent innovation in teaching, appropriate to the neoliberal regimes, predominant in the education policies mobilized in the country.

  16. How do local government associations influence policy? Assessing conditions for policy influence of interest groups in Brazil and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Macedo de Jesus (Anderson)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In recent years a considerable number of studies have been undertaken concerning the impact of interest groups' influence in the European and North American policy-making process.

  17. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.;

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Ves......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  18. The Role of Municipalities and the “New Paradigm” in Safety Public Policies in Brazil: an Analysis of the Process of Shifts in Public Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kruchin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the democratic transition in Brazil (1984 public safety has become especially relevant in the country due to high rates of crime and the feeling of insecurity among the population, especially in big cities. In this context, prevention is presented in the last decade in response to the repressive policies that have not prevented the continued growth of violence in the country.Regarding public safety, the Brazilian Constitution stipulates in its art. 144 that public safety is carry out by a set of institutions. The list that follows this statement is composed by different (but only police forces, which are exclusive responsibility of the government of the provinces. In this scenario, there is a strong demand for active participation of municipalities in public safety policies by scholars and professionals who work with the topic. This debate was developed within the political arena whereas the legal field was delegitimize as the field of productions of new truths.This thesis seeks to understand the meaning of the decentralization of public safety policies in socio-legal terms, i.e. the production of meaning and new legal interpretation through social and political discourse and the relations between a new discourse and the possibilities of new practices. A shift in the discourse have altered in practice the terms of the debate in the field, but it was necessary to investigate whether the changes in the level of discourse, rather than the regulatory system are sufficient to alter the existing political model.

  19. Infrastructure sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  20. Infrastructure sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  1. Governing biofuels in Brazil: A comparison of ethanol and biodiesel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Hospes, O.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade Brazil has implemented a new and ambitious biofuel program: the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB). When launching this program in 2004 the government stated that it wanted to avoid the same kind of geographical concentration, single crop focus, dominance

  2. Green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation policy intervention: muddying the waters or clearing a path to a more secure future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussams, L W; Sheate, W R; Eales, R P

    2015-01-01

    As dangerous climate change looms, decision-makers are increasingly realising that societies will need to adapt to this threat as well as mitigate against it. Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly seen as an ideal climate change adaptation policy response. However, with this research the authors identify a number of crucial knowledge gaps within GI and, consequently, call for caution and for a concerted effort to understand the concept and what it can really deliver. GI has risen to prominence in a range of policy areas in large part due to its perceived ability to produce multiple benefits simultaneously, termed 'multifunctionality'. This characteristic strengthens the political appeal of the policy in question at a time when environmental issues have slipped down political agendas. Multifunctionality, however, brings its own set of new challenges that should be evaluated fully before the policy is implemented. This research takes important first steps to developing a critical understanding of what is achievable within GI's capacity. It focuses on one of GI's single objectives, namely climate change adaptation, to focus the analysis of how current obstacles in applying GI's multifunctionality could lead to the ineffective delivery of its objective. By drawing on expert opinion from government officials and representatives from the private, non-government organisation (NGO) and academic sectors, this research questions GI's ability to be effectively 'multifunctional' with an inconsistent definition at its core, deficiencies in its understanding and conflicts within its governance. In light of these observations, the authors then reflect on the judiciousness of applying GI to achieve the other objectives it has also been charged with delivering.

  3. Reflexões sobre políticas de drogas no Brasil Reflections on drug policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Matos de Andrade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trás algumas reflexões sobre as políticas de drogas no Brasil, desde os momentos iniciais do enfrentamento do HIV/AIDS entre os usuários de drogas injetáveis. Nos dois primeiros capítulos, tendo como ponto de partida os programas de trocas de seringas (PTS, o autor aborda o percurso da Política de Redução de Danos no Brasil e o papel nela desempenhado pelo Departamento de DST, AIDS e Hepatites Virais. O terceiro capítulo traz as ações desenvolvidas pela Coordenação Nacional de Saúde Mental Álcool e outras Drogas e pela Secretaria de Políticas sobre Drogas - SENAD, a partir da retração do Departamento de DST e AIDS nas políticas sobre drogas, bem como o surgimento do PEAD e do "Plano Crack", enquanto planos emergenciais para fazer face ao aumento do consumo de crack no país. No quarto e quinto capítulos são discutidos os dispositivos da atual política brasileira sobre drogas, suas limitações vinculadas, sobretudo, à fragilidade da Estratégia Saúde da Família, e são analisadas criticamente algumas das ações previstas no PEAD e no "Pano Crack". No sexto capítulo o autor trás os efeitos da repressão em nome do combate ao tráfico na política brasileira sobre drogas, tendo como pano de fundo a marginalização e a exclusão social dos usuários. Por fim, são apresentadas algumas proposições para a Política de Álcool e Drogas no Brasil.This article contains some reflections on drug policies in Brazil. In the first two chapters, taking the needle exchange programs (SEPs as the starting point, the author discusses the trajectory of the Harm Reduction Policy in Brazil and the role played in it by the Department of STD, AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. The third chapter examines the actions developed by the National Coordination of Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Office of Drug Policies - SENAD, after the retraction of the Department of STD and AIDS from drug policies, as well as the

  4. ACCOUNTING COURSE IN BRAZIL: A STUDY ON THE POLICIES ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND ITS REFLECTION IN SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN THE PERIOD 2001 TO 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miguel dos Santos da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of educational public policies adopted in Brazil over the last 20 years on the supply and demand of accounting sciences courses in Brazil from 2001 to 2013. Therefore, the data was analyzed to supply and demand, number of students and graduates of the course students. The study presents a descriptive and exploratory research using data collected in the National Institute of Educational Studies Anísio Teixeira (INEP. The results show that public policies for higher education in Brazil have influenced both the supply and demand of places for the course in accounting; however, there was 20% reduction in the number of graduates. Also reveals that private higher education institutions are responsible for the largest number of supply of vacancies and the number of graduates.

  5. Monetary and fiscal policy interactions in Brazil: an application of the fiscal theory of the price level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ladeira Fialho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to verify the predominance of a monetary or fiscal dominance regime in Brazil in the post-Real period. The analysis is based on a model proposed by Canzoneri, Cumby and Diba (2000. This model proposes that there is a relationship between the public debt/GDP and primary surplus/GDP series by using the vector autoregression (VAR framework and analyzing the impulse response functions. Another aim is the extension of the article written by Muscatelli et al. (2002 about the interactions between monetary and fiscal policies using the Markov-switching vector autoregressive model (MS-VAR introduced by Krolzig (1997, since the relationship between these policies may not be constant over time. In conclusion, the macroeconomic coordination between monetary and fiscal policies in Brazil was virtually a substitute policy throughout the study period, with a predominantly monetary regime, in opposition to the non-Ricardian policies of the Fiscal Theory of The Price Level.O objetivo do presente artigo é verificar a existência de um regime de dominância monetária ou fiscal no Brasil no período pós-Plano Real. A análise é baseada em um modelo proposto por Canzoneri, Cumby e Diba (2000. O procedimento modela relação entre as séries de dívida publica/PIB e superávit primário/PIB usando um do vetor auto-regressivo (VAR e analisa as funções de impulso-resposta. Um outro objetivo é a extensão do artigo escrito por Muscatelli et al. (2002 sobre as interações entre políticas monetária e fiscal, usando agora o modelo do vetor auto-regressivo com mudanças de markov (MS-VAR introduzido por Krolzig (1997, uma vez que a relação entre essas políticas pode não ser constante ao longo do tempo. A conclusão mostra que a coordenação macroeconômica entre políticas monetária e fiscal no Brasil foi virtualmente uma política substituta durante o período estudado, com um regime monetário predominante em oposição

  6. Impact of MELD allocation policy on survival outcomes after liver transplantation: a single-center study in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Paulo Batista

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD allocation policy on survival outcomes after liver transplantation (LT. INTRODUCTION: Considering that an ideal system of grafts allocation should also ensure improved survival after transplantation, changes in allocation policies need to be evaluated in different contexts as an evolutionary process. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out among patients who underwent LT at the University of Pernambuco. Two groups of patients transplanted before and after the MELD allocation policy implementation were identified and compared using early postoperative mortality and post-LT survival as end-points. RESULTS: Overall, early postoperative mortality did not significantly differ between cohorts (16.43% vs. 8.14%; p = 0.112. Although at 6 and 36-months the difference between pre-vs. post-MELD survival was only marginally significant (p = 0.066 and p = 0.063; respectively, better short, medium and long-term post-LT survival were observed in the post-MELD period. Subgroups analysis showed special benefits to patients categorized as nonhepatocellular carcinoma (non-HCC and moderate risk, as determined by MELD score (15-20. DISCUSSION: This study ensured a more robust estimate of how the MELD policy affected post-LT survival outcomes in Brazil and was the first to show significantly better survival after this new policy was implemented. Additionally, we explored some potential reasons for our divergent survival outcomes. CONCLUSION: Better survival outcomes were observed in this study after implementation of the MELD criterion, particularly amongst patients categorized as non-HCC and moderate risk by MELD scoring. Governmental involvement in organ transplantation was possibly the main reason for improved survival.

  7. Analysis of public policies for new renewable energy in Brazil; Analise de politicas publicas para novas energias renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, M.C.; Fadigas, E.A.F.A.; Baitelo, R.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy have a prominent place among the solutions to combat global warming, but its potential is still untapped in Brazil. Without long-term policies with clear rules, you can not attract entrepreneurs and ensure stability of operation of this market. The main tools of government to promote renewable energy generation have not been efficient - the Incentive Program for Alternative Sources of Energy (Proinfa) was implemented in 2002 but put into operation just over two thirds of the energy proposal. The low success rate in repeated auctions focused on renewable energy. The objective of this paper is to discuss the prospects of the expansion of electricity generation by renewable energies in Brazil and some fundamental requirements for effective structuring of this market in the country. This argument is supported by the analysis of the proposed mechanisms used internationally and in the country, under a new law for renewable energies. As a practical demonstration of the analysis, we present a simulation of conditions of formation of the final price of renewable resources in different conditions as varied market rate of return, cost of transmission, and sale of carbon credits.

  8. Between Policies and Practices: The Challenges of Inclusive Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Marcia Denise; Mendes, Geovana Mendonça Lunardi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the second edition of the Special Education Dossier: Differences, Curriculum and Teaching and Learning Processes. We discuss policies and practices regarding the inclusive education proposal in the Basic Education context. Our starting point is the idea that we are facing a global education policy and thus many local…

  9. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  10. Contemporary state and possibilities of improvement of local infrastructures for leisure-time physical activity from the aspect of national policy, planning, building, financing and management - the Impala project, part ii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Neuls

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The second part of the IMPALA project was based on a wide discussion dealing with the problem of improving the local infrastructure for leisure time physical activity (LTPA from practical and specific points of view that were represented by invited participants from all Czech regions. One of the results of the IMPALA project was the finding from some experts that physical environment mostly in adults contribute to an increase of physical activity. AIM: The main aim of this part of the IMPALA project is to present specifically discussed problems from the area of national policy, planning, building, financing and management of the infrastructure for LTPA. METHODS: A discussion was held during a national workshop that was organized in June 2010 at the Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University in Olomouc and had a strictly structured programme that was announced and prepared by the main project coordinator. A discussion took place firstly in small groups according to each section (planning, building, financing, and management toward the assessment of a contemporary state and later on proposals whether some improvements exist. RESULTS: The biggest problem connected with planning is the non-existence of external as well as an internal evaluation of a planning process. In the building area the main problem is the accessibility of infrastructures in small villages; social-spatial aspects are not taken into account and building is also influenced by land ownership. Financing of local infrastructures for LTPA is very diverse, from public sources to private and also in different business models. Existing financial models are secured by law contracts and taken into account by operating costs. Focusing on management of infrastructures differs according to the owner, to financial sources, and to the type of infrastructure. Overemphasizing of top sport means higher allocation of finance mostly into sport infrastructures that are not or

  11. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    BnB or Uber, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructures for a heterarchical modus of accounting. Evaluative infrastructures are decentralized accounting practices that underpin distributed production processes. They are evaluative because they deploy a plethora of interacting devices...

  12. Policies for teacher education and recommendations of the World Bank: interfaces with the current context of literacy teacher education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Alves da Silva Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recommendations of the World Bank and its relation to the policies of teacher education in Brazil, in order to identify the concordances between current policies for teacher education in the literacy context. This is a document analysis of theoretical and critical nature, which permitted to observe that current policies for teacher education are consistent with the recommendations of the World Bank. Such guidelines generate the allocation of responsibility to the teachers for the success or failure of school students, verified through external assessments and based on the assessed performance.

  13. Economic performance and policies for grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic systems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the economic competitiveness of grid-connected, distributed solar photovoltaic generation through small-scale rooftop installations in five Brazilian state-capitals. The locations represent a comprehensive set of the two essential parameters for the economic viability of PV—solar irradiation and local electricity tariffs. Levelized electricity costs (LEC) for PV generation and net present values (NPV) for a specific PV system are presented. The analysis comprises three different interest rate scenarios reflecting different conditions for capital acquisition to finance the generators; subsidized, mature market and country-specific risk-adjusted interest. In the NPV analysis, revenue flow is modeled by the sale of PV electricity at current residential tariffs assuming net metering. Using subsidized interest rates, the analysis shows that solar PV electricity is already competitive in Brazil, while in the country-specific risk-adjusted rate, the declining, but still high capital costs of PV make it economically unfeasible. At a mature market interest rate, PV competitiveness is largely dependent on the residential tariff. Economic competitiveness in this scenario is given for locations with high residential tariffs. We demonstrate the high potential of distributed generation with photovoltaic installations in Brazil, and show that under certain conditions, grid-connected PV can be economically competitive in a developing country. - Highlights: ► Debt financed grid-connected PV on Brazilian rooftops can be economically feasible since 2011. ► The cost of capital in Brazil is the decisive parameter in PV competitiveness with conventional generation sources. ► Low-cost, long-term financing is an essential requirement for PV to become an economically justifiable generation alternative. ► The Brazilian market holds huge potential for distributed, residential rooftop PV systems of small size.

  14. Public policy for children in Brazil – the process of implementation of a new model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Stumpf González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently happened the 25th anniversary of the approval of the Child and Adolescent Statute. Which goals are achieved? What changed? This work analyses the Brazilian case in implementation of a new paradigm of children rights and his impact in the definition of aconcrete agenda of public policies, doing an evaluation of the new model and the changes, with focus of the development of a agenda of policies in four subjects: creation of councils, attention for the young lawbreakers, exploitation of child labour and sexual violence against children. At the end are discussed motivation for partial success in implementation of the agenda and responsibilities of the institutional actors involved.

  15. Monetary policy, inflation and the level of economic activity in Brazil after the Real Plan: stylized facts from SVAR models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisne Céspedes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers some stylized facts about the short run fluctuations of the Brazilian economy after the Real Plan, giving special attention to the identification of the effects of monetary policy shocks. A distinctive feature of this article is the careful attention paid to monetary policy developments after the Real Plan when dividing our sample into two subsamples (1996:07-1998:08 and 1999:03-2004:12. We use directed acyclic graphs to identify the Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR models. In contrast with most SVAR analysis for Brazil, we found empirical evidence that supports the view that a contractionary monetary policy indeed reduces the price level.Este artigo obtém alguns fatos estilizados sobre as flutuações de curto prazo da economia brasileira após o Plano Real, dando atenção especial à identificação dos efeitos dos choques da política monetária. Dadas as alterações na política monetária, ocorridos após o Plano Real, optamos por dividir a nossa análise em dois subperíodos (1996:07-1998:08 e 1999:032004:12. Os modelos de Auto-Regressão Vetorial Estrutural (SVAR foram identificados através do uso de grafos acíclicos direcionados. Em contraste com a maioria das análises feitas para o Brasil, que adotam modelos SVAR, encontramos evidências de que uma política monetária contracionista reduz o nível geral de preços.

  16. Biofuel sustainability standards and public policy: A case study of Swedish ethanol imports from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Gibbon, Peter

    sustainability standards for those fuels. Central to these standards are criteria addressing the direct, and sometimes also indirect, greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, transport and use of the biofuels. This case study examines the first scheme applied to a traded biofuel, the Verified...... Sustainable Ethanol Initiative (VSEI), a private initiative of the Swedish fuel-ethanol supplier, SEKAB. VSEI went into operation in August 2008 to verify that the ethanol it was importing from Brazil met its own minimum standards for ―field-to-wheel‖ (life-cycle) greenhouse-gas emission standards...... on those relating to carbon emissions, and the process by which its standards were developed. The Initiative’s brief history in applying and verifying conformity with the standards is discussed. The study notes that the perceived benefits to Brazilian producers participating in the Initiative...

  17. The Importance of Biodiversity E-infrastructures for Megadiverse Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora A L Canhos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the challenges of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development requires global cooperation, support structures, and new governance models to integrate diverse initiatives and achieve massive, open exchange of data, tools, and technology. The traditional paradigm of sharing scientific knowledge through publications is not sufficient to meet contemporary demands that require not only the results but also data, knowledge, and skills to analyze the data. E-infrastructures are key in facilitating access to data and providing the framework for collaboration. Here we discuss the importance of e-infrastructures of public interest and the lack of long-term funding policies. We present the example of Brazil's speciesLink network, an e-infrastructure that provides free and open access to biodiversity primary data and associated tools. SpeciesLink currently integrates 382 datasets from 135 national institutions and 13 institutions from abroad, openly sharing ~7.4 million records, 94% of which are associated to voucher specimens. Just as important as the data is the network of data providers and users. In 2014, more than 95% of its users were from Brazil, demonstrating the importance of local e-infrastructures in enabling and promoting local use of biodiversity data and knowledge. From the outset, speciesLink has been sustained through project-based funding, normally public grants for 2-4-year periods. In between projects, there are short-term crises in trying to keep the system operational, a fact that has also been observed in global biodiversity portals, as well as in social and physical sciences platforms and even in computing services portals. In the last decade, the open access movement propelled the development of many web platforms for sharing data. Adequate policies unfortunately did not follow the same tempo, and now many initiatives may perish.

  18. Biodiesel policy for family farms in Brazil: One-size-fits-all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Bijman, J.; Giller, K.E.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by the increasing environmental concern related to the use of fossil fuels and the growing worldwide demand for biofuels, the Brazilian government launched a national biodiesel policy promoting feedstock supply from family farms. Especially in semi-arid regions farmers have been encouraged to

  19. Responding to obesity in Brazil: understanding the international and domestic politics of policy reform through a nested analytic approach to comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2015-02-01

    Why do governments pursue obesity legislation? And is the case of Brazil unique compared with other nations when considering the politics of policy reform? Using a nested analytic approach to comparative research, I found that theoretical frameworks accounting for why nations implement obesity legislation were not supported with cross-national statistical evidence. I then turned to the case of Brazil's response to obesity at three levels of government, national, urban, and rural, to propose alternative hypotheses for why nations pursue obesity policy. The case of Brazil suggests that the reasons that governments respond are different at these three levels. International forces, historical institutions, and social health movements were factors that prompted national government responses. At the urban and rural government levels, receiving federal financial assistance and human resource support appeared to be more important. The case of Brazil suggests that the international and domestic politics of responding to obesity are highly complex and that national and subnational political actors have different perceptions and interests when pursuing obesity legislation.

  20. The future of infrastructure security :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  1. ELEMENTS FOR A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HERITAGE POLICIES IN SOUTH BRAZIL: CULTURE, TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Manoel Dias da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the contemporary condition of heritage policies in cities tumbled by official organ tipping considering in sociological perspective, the multiple mediations that affect the social goals deposited in them. The theoretical and empirical analysis presented, culture, tourism and development in shape important for the design of a theoretical approach to the phenomenon interpretative elements. The author concludes that, ambivalently, such policies intersect with social processes of identity affirmation of individuals and groups in the heritage landscape of cultural productions and at the same time, with narratives that allow the heritage of the place "resource" to programs of social development and revitalization of tourism and economic circuits in the region.

  2. Environmental Economics, Law and Policy: Brazil vis-a-vis India (Part I: Theoretical Modelling)

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna; Das, Mononita

    2014-01-01

    Amidst the perils of industrialization in the forms of environmental impacts of mining and use of energy and destruction of urban biodiversity, it became imperative for the Latin American countries to design environmental policies in accordance with the respective historicity, demography, and polity of each nation. But in resolving a tussle between eco-environmental maintenance and vigorous industrialization while trying to find a choice between eco-friendly environment or prosperous economic...

  3. State-Driven Activism: Interest Mobilization in Brazil's AIDS Policy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Jessica Alexis Jolicoeur

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes a new form of political mobilization in Latin America--in which social movements make aggressive policy demands on the state, even while relying on the state for financial support. This model of interest intermediation runs contrary to existing theories of social movements and interest groups, which predict that organizations will moderate their demands and activities as a consequence of state funding.I explain the development of this new model of interest intermediation t...

  4. Analysis of the European Union's Critical Infrastructure Protection Policy and Guarantee System%欧盟关键基础设施保护法律、政策保障制度现状及评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严鹏; 王康庆

    2015-01-01

    保障关键基础设施的安全对于整个社会的运转具有至关重要的意义.欧盟较早意识到保护关键基础设施安全的重要性,并颁布了一系列法律、政策,并逐步形成一整套相对完善和较为成熟的关键基础设施法律保障体系.国际局势的不断变化,对关键基础设施保护的迫切需求,使得欧盟加快了完善关键基础设施法律体系、构建政策保障制度的进程,对欧盟关键基础设施保障体系的分析可以给我国建立起完善的关键基础设施保护制度提供参考.%The protection of critical infrastructure security is crucial to the operation of society signiifcance. The European Union earlier realized the importance of protecting critical infrastructure security, and promulgated a series of laws, policies, and gradually formed a set of relatively complete and mature key legal infrastructure security system. The changing international situation, the urgent demand of the critical infrastructure protection, the EU has accelerated the construction of security system of key infrastructure construction law, policy, analysis of EU critical infrastructure security system can give our country established the key basis for improving design provide a reference implementation of the protection system.

  5. Price policy and the gas industry development in Brazil; Politica de precos e o desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar de

    2007-07-01

    The process of energy industries liberation, characterized by the price liberation and competition introduction, contribute for the diffusion the idea that the governments must to avoid the intervention on the energy markets through, for example, the price policy implementation. This process has been emphasized that governments and economic agents seems to forget some basic principles of the market and energy authorities functioning. The Natural Gas Industry in Brazil gives an clear illustration of this process.

  6. When Procedural Legitimacy Equals Nothing: Civil Society and Foreign Trade Policy in Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Rodrigues Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-state actors contribute with inputs to the elaboration of the national interest in trade negotiations, thus enhancing its legitimacy. Nevertheless, does the participation of those actors necessarily equal influence on the part of all segments of civil society on policymaking? To answer the question, I argue that procedural legitimacy should be evaluated not only in relation to the inputs society provides to the State, but should also consider whether officials actually analyse societal contributions in decision-making. I demonstrate the empirical application of the model based upon Brazil's experience in multilateral trade negotiations during the 2000s, using Mexico as a shadow case. I conclude that foreign trade policymaking can only be democratised if, in procedural legitimacy, the State attributes equal weight to contributions from all types of societal actors, including civil society organisations and organised social movements, which tend to have less material resources and power than interest groups such as business associations and labour unions.

  7. Health conditions and health-policy innovations in Brazil: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G; Barreto, Mauricio L; do Carmo Leal, Maria; Monteiro, Carlos A; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Paim, Jairnilson; Bastos, Francisco I; Almeida, Celia; Bahia, Ligia; Travassos, Claudia; Reichenheim, Michael; Barros, Fernando C

    2011-06-11

    Brazil is a large complex country that is undergoing rapid economic, social, and environmental change. In this Series of six articles, we have reported important improvements in health status and life expectancy, which can be ascribed largely to progress in social determinants of health and to implementation of a comprehensive national health system with strong social participation. Many challenges remain, however. Socioeconomic and regional disparities are still unacceptably large, reflecting the fact that much progress is still needed to improve basic living conditions for a large proportion of the population. New health problems arise as a result of urbanisation and social and environmental change, and some old health issues remain unabated. Administration of a complex, decentralised public-health system, in which a large share of services is contracted out to the private sector, together with many private insurance providers, inevitably causes conflict and contradiction. The challenge is ultimately political, and we conclude with a call for action that requires continuous engagement by Brazilian society as a whole in securing the right to health for all Brazilian people.

  8. Dilemmas in health promotion in Brazil: the National Policy under consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Traverso-Yépez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a recurrent theme in day-to-day life, health promotion is a complex and multifaceted concept. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the dilemmas and problematic aspects of institutional ideas about health promotion. It also emphasizes the difficulty of thinking about health promotion, without also considering how to eradicate the deep social iniquities of the Brazilian context. The article develops this line of thinking in depth by analysing the National Health Promotion Policy instituted in 2006, and demonstrates the relevance of deconstructing politically correct discourses and developing processes of reflection in our health-related practices.

  9. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  10. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  11. 我国城市基础设施外资利用的政策建议%Policy proposals on the utility of foreign investment in China's urban infrastructure development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志刚; 林松秋

    2001-01-01

    The article expounds the current situation and pro blems existing in the utility of foreign investment in China's urban infrastruct ure development,and puts forward policy proposals on the utility of foreign inve stment in the urban infrastructure development.%文章论述了我国城市基础设施建设中外资利用现状及存在问题,提出了相关的政策建议。

  12. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  13. Public policies for books and reading in Brazil: The National Institute of Book (1937-1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Bragança

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monteiro Lobato and the origins of the National Book Institute; its foundation and activities (from 1937 to 1967 within the context of improvement of means of mass communication. Public Policies of the Brazilian government for books, reading and libraries: continuities and discontinuities in programs and projects and their relation with governmental changes and conflicting interests. The foundation of the Comissão Nacional do Livro Didático (National Committee of Schoolbooks and the Conselho Nacional de Cultura (National Council of Culture. The creation of the Câmara Brasileira do Livro (Brazilian Book Chamber and its purposes. A landmark: The Third Convention of Brazilian Publishers and Booksellers. The search for a regulation for the book market. Geir Campos and the Carta aos livreiros do Brasil (Letter to Brazilian Booksellers. The Revista do Livro (Book Magazine and the publication of INL. Achievements and failures until the project retake in the field during the military dictatorship.

  14. «Brazil power and multinational corporation»: brazilian multinational corporations, foreign policy and the international insertion of Brazil. An analysis based on the contributions of Robert Gilpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Actis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the XXI century evidenced transformations in the international order’s financial dimension due to the growth in the so-called emerging powers. An indicator of such phenomenon is the emergence of multinational corporations from the developing world -MNC Latecomers-, turning certain countries, as is the case of Brazil, into net issuers of Foreign Direct Investment flows. In this sense, this paper analyzes the impact that the emergence and consolidation of Brazilian multinational corporations has had since 2003 until now on the foreign policy and the international insertion of Brazil (and vice versa, taking into consideration Robert Gilpin’s classical work, “U.S. power and multinational corporation: the political economy of foreign direct investment.” Gilpin’s framework shall be useful for empirical contrast of this study case.

  15. Infrastructure Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal...

  16. The obstacles for the investments in natural gas distribution infrastructure in Brazil; Os obstaculos aos investimentos na rede de distribuicao de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Bueno, Salua Saud; Selles, Vitor [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses the main obstacles for the expansion of the Brazilian gas distribution pipelines infrastructure. The paper examines the evolution of investments in the gas chain and highlights the existence of an important unbalance between the level of investments in the upstream and transportation segments and the level of investment in the distribution network. It is clear that the level of investments in the distribution segment is not following the pace of expansion of the other segments. Given this conclusion, the paper examines the potential for increasing the level of investment in the distribution segment by augmenting the debt level of distribution companies. By analyzing the main distribution companies' financial statements, the paper shows that they there is room for an expansion in investments through financial leverage. Finally, the paper examines the main financing obstacles that impede the companies to increase their investment level. (author)

  17. Energy, a networked Europe. Twelve proposals for a common energy infrastructure policy. Report addressed to Francois Hollande, President of the French Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Europeans were the first to make the fight against climate change a large structural policy of this half-century. As pioneers, we therefore find ourselves in the front line in meeting the challenges that are technological, societal and economic that structure the energy transition. How these challenges can be met will depend on the choices made in each Member State, but what the solutions found will have in common is that they will have to fit into energy systems whose networks, covering millions of kilometres, already provide the architecture. Continuing to 'provide a system', thanks to the networks for delivering energy under the best conditions of effectiveness and cost, is thus an absolute imperative for the security of supply for Europeans, their quality of life and the competitiveness of their businesses and therefore their jobs. Europe is the area of the world that offers the best quality energy services; this advantage must be reinforced. However, the role required of Europe's energy networks is being profoundly reshaped in this context of energy transition, since their organisation must now: - Accompany decentralisation, the means of renewable energy production being dispersed in hundreds of thousands of sites over all the territories. This requires radically reorganising the networks, in particular the distribution networks, which were not originally designed for this renewable energy collecting function. - Managing complexity of a new kind due to the variability of certain renewable energies, but also the emergence of new uses, such as electric vehicles. - Ensuring solidarity between the States and regions, in a context where the technological uncertainties of the new sectors are added to the older ones of a geopolitical nature. - Continuing to ensure equal access to energy services, without the transition becoming a discriminating factor against those citizens who are economically the weakest. Pooling knowledge and thinking to adapt

  18. [Building a "Smiling Brazil"? Implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy in a health region in the State of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Aciole, Geovani Gurgel

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a case study on the implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy (PNSB), known as "Smiling Brazil", in the cities of the Regional Health Department of Araraquara (DRS III) in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was given to the municipal oral health coordinators, an interview with oral health care professionals and managers was conducted, and the official data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health were coded to assess the policy's scope: (i) expansion and qualification of actions; (ii) work conditions; (iii) care; (iv) access; and (v) planning and management. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were linked by methods triangulation. In terms of PNSB implementation, the majority of the cities (52.6%) were classified as "good", with 42.1% classified as "bad". Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, despite strides in oral health care and access to different levels of care, the cities still experience difficulties in implementing the policy's principles.

  19. 长三角完善现代化枢纽型基础设施体系的思路和对策%Ideas and Policy Recommendations on Improving Infrastructure System in Yangtze River Delta to a Modernized Hub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢京辉

    2009-01-01

    Building a modernized hub - like infrastructure system is an important part of the regional infrastructure building in Yangtze River Delta. This paper analyzes the developmental trend and major problems in building a modernized hub - like infrastructure building in Yangtze River Delta, proposes tasks in the short run and in the long run, and points out major institutional and practical issues to be solved, to serve as references for policy -making in improving the infrastructure system in Yangtze River Delta.%现代化枢纽型基础设施体系建设是长三角区域基础设施建设的重要内容.本文对长三角现代化枢纽型基础设施体系的发展态势、存在的主要问题进行了分析,提出长三角现代化枢纽型基础设施体系建设的长远和近期任务,并提出需要解决的重大体制机制,力争为长三角完善现代化枢纽型基础设施体系提供决策参考.

  20. Exploring the Limits and Potentials of Youth Participation in Public Policy at the State and Municipal Level: A Study in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucicleia Barreto Queiroz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, youth entered the agenda of public policies in Brazil, recognizing not only the problems that affect young people, but also the need for a proactive perspective that views youngsters as playing a central role in the design and implementation of policy. This is a tendency that is also noticeable in other countries, and there is clearly a “vogue of youth participation” (Bessant 2004, 401 in public policy across the world. Research in the field tends to show that these experiences can be effective in promoting young people civic and political knowledge, attitudes and competences and therefore can become a strategy of non-formal citizenship education. However, there are critiques that participation in these initiatives risks pamphleteering and tokenism. The goal of this paper is to enter this debate by considering the Brazilian experience in the State of Acre and to explore whether and how opportunities for participation that youth public policies appear to stimulate are, in fact, perceived and experienced by groups involved in the process, from decision-makers to young people. Results show that, as in other countries, policies are still not living up to expectations and much more systematic work is necessary to guarantee that participation in youth policies is, in fact, a relevant citizenship experience.

  1. The Effect of Adverse Oil Price Shocks on Monetary Policy and Output Using a Dynamic Small Open Economy General Equilibrium Model With Staggered Price for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mirta Noemi Sataka Bugarin; Marcelo Kfoury Muinhos; Jose Ricardo da Costa e Silva; Maria da Glória D. Silva Araújo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to use a model economy built for Brazil, based on an optimizing dynamic general equilibrium model, in order to perform numerical simulations to derive the ability of the artificial economy to explain the impact of monetary policy interventions on Brazilian short run economic performance in terms of the inflation rate, output gap, interest rate and level of economic activity in the face of an adverse oil shock. It is an extension of Bugarin et al. (2005) conc...

  2. Energy efficiency programs in Brazil: formulation of public policy, planning and management; Programas de eficiencia energetica no Brasil: formulacao de politicas publicas, planejamento e gestao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], email: bajay@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian government never had a long-term policy for energy efficiency, with clearly defined energy conservation targets, implementation strategies, time schedules and responsibilities. The planning of energy efficiency programmes in the country is still in an early stage and the management of these programmes is far from satisfactory. A critical analysis of these three forms of federal government intervention in this area is carried out in this paper and several measures are proposed to the Ministry of Mines and Energy, some other ministries and to the Energy Research Company, which can increase substantially the adoption of new energy efficiency programmes in Brazil. (author)

  3. The Importance of Biodiversity E-infrastructures for Megadiverse Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canhos, Dora A. L.; Sousa-Baena, Mariane S.; de Souza, Sidnei; Maia, Leonor C.; Stehmann, João R.; Canhos, Vanderlei P.; De Giovanni, Renato; Bonacelli, Maria B. M.; Los, Wouter; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the challenges of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development requires global cooperation, support structures, and new governance models to integrate diverse initiatives and achieve massive, open exchange of data, tools, and technology. The traditional paradigm of sharing scientific knowledge through publications is not sufficient to meet contemporary demands that require not only the results but also data, knowledge, and skills to analyze the data. E-infrastructures are key in facilitating access to data and providing the framework for collaboration. Here we discuss the importance of e-infrastructures of public interest and the lack of long-term funding policies. We present the example of Brazil’s speciesLink network, an e-infrastructure that provides free and open access to biodiversity primary data and associated tools. SpeciesLink currently integrates 382 datasets from 135 national institutions and 13 institutions from abroad, openly sharing ~7.4 million records, 94% of which are associated to voucher specimens. Just as important as the data is the network of data providers and users. In 2014, more than 95% of its users were from Brazil, demonstrating the importance of local e-infrastructures in enabling and promoting local use of biodiversity data and knowledge. From the outset, speciesLink has been sustained through project-based funding, normally public grants for 2–4-year periods. In between projects, there are short-term crises in trying to keep the system operational, a fact that has also been observed in global biodiversity portals, as well as in social and physical sciences platforms and even in computing services portals. In the last decade, the open access movement propelled the development of many web platforms for sharing data. Adequate policies unfortunately did not follow the same tempo, and now many initiatives may perish. PMID:26204382

  4. Infant mortality in Brazil, 1980-2000: A spatial panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barufi Ana; Haddad Eduardo; Paez Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important measure of human development, related to the level of welfare of a society. In order to inform public policy, various studies have tried to identify the factors that influence, at an aggregated level, infant mortality. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional pattern of infant mortality in Brazil, evaluating the effect of infrastructure, socio-economic, and demographic variables to understand its distribution across the countr...

  5. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  6. [A history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil (1960-2007): an analysis based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttems, Leila Bernardo Donato; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua; Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Silva, Aline Ferreira Melgaço da; Silva, Priscila Avelino da

    2009-06-01

    This article analyzes the history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil, based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism, identifying the predominant configurations and trends in the various administrations of the State Health Secretariat (SES-DF) from 1960 to 2007. The study indicates that the characteristics of the Federal District's health policy are dependent on the history of the original health system plans for setting priorities and goals, as well as for the health system's implementation. This influence, in addition to the centralization of decision-making processes and limited political participation, can contribute to making primary care ancillary to hospital care, thus jeopardizing its potential to produce change in the health care model.

  7. Aspects that boost innovative potential of textile and apparel industry in flanders district of creativity: inspirations for the design of policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio da Silveira Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to identify aspects of the creative economy in the region of Flanders that influence the performance of the textile and apparel value chain in order to contribute to the design of policies that can enhance the entrepreneurial creativity of this sector in Brazil. Interviews and observations were conducted during a prospective mission to the region of Flanders. Information collected was then confronted with selected theoretical and technical literature that analyze regional economies based on creative industries. Although the results reveal no evidence of an explicit coordination of the value network resulting from specific policies designed to add value to Belgian textile and apparel products, they suggest that the performance of key public and private institutions associated with broader initiatives to stimulate Research and Development in the sector in Europe, promoted by EURATEX, supports creativity for innovation and are essential foundations for the development of creative entrepreneurs.

  8. Policies for energy performance and use of renewable sources in Brazil; Politicas para el rendimiento energetico y uso de fuentes renovables en Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre; Tolmasquim, Mauricio [Southwest Energy Efficiency Proyect, CO (United States)

    2005-04-15

    The objectives for the tendencies and the energy policy in Brazil are presented along with 12 policy options searching advancement in the efficient use of energy and renewable energy. The policies are analyzed by a group of experts in relation to their impacts on source and demand of total energy as well as CO{sub 2} emissions. It is concluded that the policies will offer a wide range of advantages for Brazil, including the reduction of requirements for the investment in the energy sector, the reduction of the import as well as of the CO{sub 2} emissions and the granting of social benefits. Since Brazil looks forward to diversify its sources, reduce its dependency on imports and diminish the inefficiency and energy cost, its policies are focused to the adoption of energy standards for new commercial constructions, to the use extension of wind power and combined heat and energy systems and to stimulate the CHP systems using bagasse and other sugar cane products. [Spanish] Se muestran los objetivos de las tendencias y la politica energetica en Brasil junto con 12 opciones de politicas para avanzar en el uso eficiente de energeticos y de la energia renovable. Las politicas son analizadas por un grupo de expertos en relacion con sus impactos en fuente y demanda de energia totales, asi como emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se concluye que las politicas ofreceran una amplia gama de ventajas para Brasil, incluyendo la reduccion de requisitos para la inversion en el sector energia, el descenso tanto de la importacion como de las emisiones de CO{sub 2} y el otorgamiento de beneficios sociales. Dado que Brasil busca diversificar sus fuentes, reducir su dependencia de la importacion y disminuir la ineficacia y gasto de la energia, sus politicas estan enfocadas a la adopcion de estandares de energia para nuevas construcciones comerciales, la ampliacion del uso de los sistemas combinados de calor y energia, usar el poder del viento y estimular los sistemas de CHP usando bagazo y otros

  9. Infrastructural fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Jensen, Casper

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the supposedly small-the micro-and the supposedly large-the macro-has been a long-standing concern in social theory. However, although many attempts have been made to link these two seemingly disjoint dimensions, in the present paper I argue against such an endeavour....... Instead, I outline a fractal approach to the study of space, society, and infrastructure. A fractal orientation requires a number of related conceptual reorientations. It has implications for thinking about scale and perspective, and (sociotechnical) relations, and for considering the role of the social...... theorist in analyzing such relations. I find empirical illustration in the case of the development of electronic patient records in Danish health care. The role of the social theorist is explored through a comparison of the political and normative stance enabled, respectively, by a critical social theory...

  10. The Evaluation of Guiding Private Capital into Urban Infrastructure Construction Field Policy%民间资本进入城镇基础设施建设领域政策评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁辰宇

    2012-01-01

    我国民间资本具有极大的存量。近年来,国家出台一系列政策积极引导民间资本进入城镇基础设施建设领域,因此政策评估的重点是考察其目标的实现程度和对社会的影响。费希尔政策评估框架有效整合了事实和价值两个层面的评估,以该模式为框架对民间资本投资城镇基础设施建设政策做出多层次的评估,不仅有助于分析政策的各种效果和意义,也为推进我国公共政策评估提供了新的思路。%China has a great amount of private capital,and in recent years,governments stage a series of policies actively to guide private capital into urban infrastructure construction field, thus the target achieving degree and social influence is the key of policy eval- uation. The Frank Fisher policy evaluating framework effectively integrates the fact and value evaluation. We use this framework to make multi-level evaluating of guiding private capital into urban infrastructure construction field pohcy ,not only contribute to analyzing all sorts of effect and significance, but also provides a new concept to promoting public policy evaluation efficiency.

  11. South-South Development Cooperation and Soft Power. The case of Brazil's foreign policy and technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bry, Sandra

    of the agent's attractive actions without which a country's soft power is non-existent. Therefore this thesis maintains that soft power theory should shift its current analytical focus from the agent to the subject and enhance the analysis on the role of subject's perceptions in the creation of ‘soft......The objective of this thesis is to advance scientific knowledge on South-South Development Cooperation and on the understanding of southern countries' ambitions in contributing to international development, taking Brazil as a case. The main research question addresses the reasons behind Brazil....... The second and third articles apply the theory of soft power to study Brazil's ambitions in participating in development cooperation. Elaborated by Joseph Nye, soft power theory asserts that a country can gain or maintain power by making its image attractive to other countries. To date, empirical research...

  12. Thinking Copenhagen: the cognitive dimension of climate change policy making In Brazil and the United States - doi:10.5102/uri.v7i1.976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Langevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cognitive dimension of climate change policy making in Brazil and the United States as both countries prepare for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or COP15 in Copenhagen. The comparative policy analysis is framed by Putnam (1988 and informed by Bazerman (2009, but adapted to explore the cognitive expressions of policymaking through investigation of public opinion, newspaper coverage, and policymaker statements. The analysis reveals key differences in the ways that Brazilian and U.S. citizens, journalists, and policymakers understand global warming and climate change and think through the policy alternatives for addressing this global challenge through national policy and international negotiations. Brazil’s cognitive dimension provides its negotiators with a wide range of strategic positions, allowing this country to play the role of dealmaker. The U.S. administration arrives at Copenhagen with a narrow win-set, limited by the discordant and divisive cognitive expressions that surround policymaking. These differences limit bilateral cooperation and complicate the COP15 negotiations.

  13. Desigualdades raciais no Brasil: síntese de indicadores e desafios no campo das políticas públicas Racial inequalities in Brazil: a synthesis of social indicators and challenges for public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Heringer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende sistematizar e analisar indicadores que revelam a dimensão das desigualdades raciais no Brasil. Parte-se do princípio de que as desigualdades raciais, ao afetarem a capacidade de inserção dos negros na sociedade brasileira, comprometem o projeto de construção de um país democrático e com oportunidades iguais para todos. Essas desigualdades estão presentes em diferentes momentos do ciclo de vida do indivíduo, desde a infância, passando pelo acesso à educação, à infra-estrutura urbana e cristalizando-se no mercado de trabalho e, por conseqüência, no valor dos rendimentos obtidos e nas condições de vida como um todo. Também serão apresentadas as principais vertentes do atual debate político sobre desigualdades raciais no Brasil, identificando as iniciativas por parte do Estado brasileiro e da sociedade civil destinadas a enfrentar a discriminação e as desigualdades raciais. Finalmente, pretende-se apontar alguns desafios colocados para os formuladores de políticas de saúde a partir deste quadro.This article aims to systematize and analyze social data that reveal the dimension of racial inequalities in Brazil. The point of departure is that racial inequalities affect the capacity for integration of Blacks into Brazilian society and jeopardize the proposal to build a democratic society with equal opportunities for all. Such inequalities are present at different moments in the individual life cycle, beginning in childhood and continuing through school years, in access to urban infrastructure, and crystallizing in the labor market, consequently determining the income and living conditions of Afro-Brazilians as a whole. The article also analyzes the main positions in the political debate on racial inequalities in Brazil, identifying recent initiatives by both the Brazilian government and civil society to deal with racial discrimination and racial inequalities. The article concludes by identifying key

  14. 巴西纳米技术政策及发展初探%Preliminary Study of Brazil Nanotechnology Policy and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹桂林; 陈俊琛; 何丹农

    2015-01-01

    本世纪以来,世界各国纷纷制定纳米技术发展战略和计划,巴西作为金砖国家之一,也积极制定各类政策,推动国内纳米技术发展。巴西政府非常重视计划和规划对纳米技术发展的引导,连续制定了多个纳米技术发展计划,建立了纳米科学与技术合作网络,国家纳米技术联合实验室体系等较为完整的纳米技术科研体系,同时非常重视科学界与产业界的结合,注重成果转化,取得了明显的成绩。期望巴西相关的纳米技术政策对我国有一定借鉴意义。%Since this century, many countries implemented nanotechnology development strategies. As one of the BRIC countries, Brazil also set up many policies to promote the development of nanotechnology. Brazilian government attached great importance to the national plan to lead the development of nanotechnology, launched a series of programs, established “Networks on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology”and “National System of Nanotechnology Laboratories”, forming a complete nanotechnology development system. Meanwhile, Brazilian government encouraged the cooperation between enterprise and research institutions, made much account of achievements transformation, and has been made obvious achievement. The practices and experiences of Brazil in nanotechnology policies is expected to be valuable to the related policy making in China.

  15. Too Undisciplined to Legislate? Party Unity and Policy-making in Brazil Demasiado indisciplinados para gobernar? Unidad partidaria y elaboración de políticas en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Gaylord

    2012-01-01

    Discipline and cohesiveness of political parties are essential for legislatures to engage in policy-making. Parties in Brazil have historically been considered ideologically weak and uninvolved in policy issues of national importance. Analyses of roll-call votes, however, have shown that parties can be disciplined government supporters. This paper tests the claim that Brazilian parties have also become programmatic actors in their own right. The paper uses statutory delegation content to test...

  16. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  17. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  18. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  19. Quality policy in the petroleum and natural gas in Brazil: new focusing and approaches; Politica da qualidade na industria de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: novos enfoques e abordagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Valcir dos Reis; Chagas, Nilo Koscheck das [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: valcir@ppe.ufrj.br; nilorruama@uol.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper approaches the post-service concept, and discusses the manifestation form on the present productive and organizational processes. The work proposes to consider the concept use in the formulation and implementation of public policies oriented to the improvement of goods and services quality, particularly the strategic and infra-structural activities as in the case of the petroleum and natural gas.

  20. Land use change emissions from oil palm expansion in Pará, Brazil depend on proper policy enforcement on deforested lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil aims to increase palm oil production to meet the growing national and global demand for edible oil and biodiesel while preserving environmentally and culturally significant areas. As land use change (LUC) is the result of complex interactions between socio-economic and biophysical drivers operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales, the type and location of LUC depend on drivers such as neighboring land use, conversion elasticity, access to infrastructure, distance to markets, and land suitability. The purpose of this study is to develop scenarios to measure the impact of land conversion under three different enforcement scenarios (none, some, and strict enforcement). We found that converting 22.5 million hectares of land can produce approximately 29 billion gallons (110 billion liters) of biodiesel a year. Of that, 22–71% of the area can come from forest land, conservation units, wetland and indigenous areas, emitting 14–84 gCO2e MJ−1. This direct land use emission alone can be higher than the carbon intensity of diesel that it intends to displace for lowering greenhouse gas emissions. This letter focuses narrowly on GHG emissions and does not address socio-economic–ecological prospects for these degraded lands for palm oil or for other purposes. Future studies should carefully evaluate these tradeoffs. (letter)

  1. Air quality status and trends over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil as a result of emission control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Air pollutants concentrations shows benefits of Brazil's emission control policies. • Reduction in concentrations were due to vehicular emission control program. • SO2 concentration reduction was due to a decrease in sulphur content used in fuels. • Monthly, weekly and diurnal cycle averages indicate the effects of vehicle emissions. - Abstract: Fourteen years of regulated air pollutants concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the benefits of Brazil's emission control policies on air quality conditions and to evaluate the temporal patterns between 1996 and 2009 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP includes one of the largest cities in the world (São Paulo) and its light-duty vehicular fleet has a very important characteristic in that it uses, on a large scale, fuels such as ethanol derived from sugar cane and compressed natural gas. Nowadays, ethanol makes up more than 50% of the fuel used in Brazil. The frequent episodes with high ozone and PM10 concentration values in the MASP are mostly associated with vehicular emissions – primary emission of particles and gases enrolled in ozone photochemical production and formation of secondary fine particles. Although the fleet has increased at a substantial rate, annual mean values show a diminishing tendency for all pollutants except for ozone, which presents no significant tendency. This diminishing tendency in the analyzed period is due to the vehicular emission control program established by the Brazilian Government in 1986, called PROCONVE (Program for the Control of Vehicular Emission). Monthly mean values, as expected, show higher concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone during wintertime. The diurnal cycle of the pollutants in most of the stations shows two peaks, associated with rush hours, except for ozone, whose peak follows the maximum radiation incidence. Secondary (nocturnal) ozone concentration maxima were sometimes verified around

  2. What European Research Infrastructure Consortia need to consider in their IPR and Data policies – The Case of the European Spallation Source (ESS-ERIC) (IN PREPARATION)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Minssen, Timo; Wested, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to issues such as user access, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management and dissemination. In the context of ESS, where the majority of users of the facility will come from all over the world and from multi-disciplinary fields with various stakeholder interests in the research project, the ESS...... policies must be created with a view to ensuring that the resulting research environment is compatible with the users’ obligations to their collaborative research partners. In view of these objectives, this article discusses what issues and perspectives ERICs, and in particular the ESS, need to consider...... in their IPR and data policies in order to achieve the ‘right’ balance between commercialization and open access, having regard to the ERIC regulations and the mandate of ESS....

  3. Articulating Soft and Hard Infrastructures: Emerging New Roles for Designers and Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Hard infrastructure are often purposed by urbanists to facilitate further economic and societal development. However, the recent protests in Brazil and Turkey against the urban plans told the other side of the story of infrastructure: the design of hard infrastructure alone is not enough. Roberto Ro

  4. La nueva política nacional de vivienda en Brasil: Desafíos y limitaciones/The New National Housing Policy in Brazil: Challenges and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Bonduki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende dar a conocer la política y el plan nacional de vivienda de Brasil. Para esto, está dividido en dos partes. La primera parte, trata de una trayectoria histórica de la política de vivienda de este país, que resulta importante para reflexionar debido los errores hechos en el pasado, que pueden cometerse de nuevo, y a los avances que pueden rescatarse para ser aplicados de nuevo si hay una posibilidad de nuestra política. La segunda parte está dedicada a lo que se está haciendo actualmente.The purpose of this article is to present Brazil's national housing policy and housing plan. It is divided into two parts. The first part is about the historical trajectory of the country's housing policy. Reviewing this trajectory is crucial if the repetition of past mistakes is to be avoided and is also useful in terms of learning from advances that were made in the past that can be applied again. The second part is dedicated to the current state of affairs. Este artículo pretende dar a conocer la política y el plan nacional de vivienda de Brasil.

  5. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focacci, Antonio [Bologna Univ., Business and Management Dept., Bologna (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  6. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  7. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  8. Translating evidence to policy: urban interventions and physical activity promotion in Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz del Castillo, Adriana; Sarmiento, Olga L; Rodrigo S. Reis; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    The growing evidence of the influence of urban environment on physical activity (PA) underscore the need for novel policy solutions to address the inequality, lack of space, and limited PA resources in rapidly growing Latin American cities. This study aims to better understand the PA policy process by conducting two case studies of Bogotá’s Ciclovía and Curitiba’s CuritibAtiva. Literature review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was cond...

  9. [The climate change policy of the city of São Paulo, Brazil: reflexivity and permeability of the health sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Rubens; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2014-10-01

    São Paulo is today an unsustainable city in which social and environmental vulnerabilities are obliged to tackle the uncertainties of climate change. To face up to this situation, in 2009 the city unveiled its Climate Change Policy. The scope of this paper is to analyze how the health sector is preparing to contribute to the implementation of this policy by 2012. Content analysis was the method adopted by examining official documents and conducting semi-structured interviews. In a context of social transformation affected by environmental degradation and socio-environmental consequences there is a need for the cessation of inertia and a demand for new knowledge systems. The outcomes of the study showed a positive intersectorial dialectic relationship, since the research hypothesis was that the health sector would be called upon to back actions on air quality monitoring. Its verification showed a broad scope introducing health promotion and preventive actions as the determinant focus, especially influencing other public policies. Thus, the process under scrutiny acquired reflexivity when evolving with interactive measures breaking with the traditional sectorial and reductionist policy model. It shows an intersectorial perspective based on the importance of issues related to local public health.

  10. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 19. Development or improvement of infrastructure for knowledge valorisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. All five universities managed to organise workshops visited each by 30-60 participants. At these workshops the relationship and possibilities for co-operation between university, industry, companies, communities etc. were discussed. In total 13-14 workshops have been organised. Most workshops focussed on a specific topic interesting to both local industry and university. Although the contents, audience and (in-depth) discussions were very different at each university, it can be said that ties with local industry in all regions have been improved.

  11. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  12. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  13. O papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil The role of States in mental health policy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gabriela Simon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o papel dos estados na política de saúde mental no Brasil no período de 1990 a 2009. A metodologia incluiu a aplicação de questionário eletrônico nas coordenações estaduais de saúde mental de 24 estados brasileiros, revisão documental e análise de base de dados oficiais. Os resultados obtidos apontaram que os estados utilizam várias estratégias e instrumentos na condução da política de saúde mental, principalmente no monitoramento e na prestação de serviços. No entanto, percebeu-se que os estados ainda não desenvolvem de forma sistemática as funções de planejamento, coordenação federativa e coordenação da atenção. O financiamento em saúde mental representa um dos grandes desafios para a gestão dessa área nos estados. Os achados deste estudo sugerem que a superação dos desafios relacionados à condução estadual da política de saúde mental depende da articulação entre governo federal, estados e municípios na elaboração de políticas que atendam à especificidade de cada região, da promoção de um planejamento participativo e de investimentos para o setor.This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting

  14. Políticas sociais de atendimento às crianças e aos adolescentes no Brasil Social policies for children and adolescents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Rus Perez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a emergência e o desenvolvimento das políticas sociais de atendimento infanto-juvenil concomitante ao processo de desenvolvimento do sistema de proteção social nacional, focalizando algumas das principais representações atribuídas à infância, de acordo com o período histórico e político de cada época. Busca-se apresentar a noção de infância instituída sob a constituição do aparato do Estado de Bem-Estar brasileiro, de forma a situá-la em um contexto mais amplo de transformações históricas e políticas que envolveram a emergência e consolidação das políticas sociais destinadas ao atendimento à criança e ao adolescente no Brasil ao longo do século XX e início do século XXI.This article analyses the emergence and development of social policies for children and adolescents attendance that are in line with the development process of the Brazilian social protection system, focusing on some of the main representations attributed to childhood, according to the historical and political periods. It seeks to present the notion of childhood instituted under the constitution of the Brazilian welfare state, in such a way as to place it within the broader context of the historical and political transformations that involved the emergence and consolidation of the social policies directed towards children and adolescents in Brazil in the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st.

  15. 美国关键基础设施保护立法、政策现状评析及发展趋势%Research of the Present Legislation and Policy of American Critical Information Infrastructure Protection and Development Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康庆; 张绍武

    2015-01-01

    American focus on critical infrastructure security long-standing. In 1990s, 62, 63 executive orders issued laid the foundation America critical infrastructure protection system of legislation, policy. After 9.11 incident, America has promulgated many laws, national strategy, executive orders to improve critical infrastructure, legal policy, security system, and gradually formed a perfect system, accountability unity, distinct critical infrastructure security system. Critical infrastructure protection concept is clear, the protection mechanism of the division of labor between the more reasonable, perfect protection framework tends to become a prominent feature of this period America critical infrastructure protection legislation, policy protection system.%美国对关键基础设施安全的关注由来已久.20世纪90年代, 62、63号总统行政令的颁布奠定了美国关键基础设施立法、政策保护体系的基础."9·11"事件后,美国先后出台多部法律、国家战略、行政命令以完善关键基础设施的法律政策保障制度,逐步形成了体系完善、权责统一、层次分明的关键基础设施保障制度.关键基础设施保护概念日渐明确、 保护机构间的分工更加合理、保护框架趋于完善成为这一时期美国关键基础设施保护立法、政策保护体系的突出特点.

  16. Company as mediator for sustainable development: work in the TRANSPETRO nearest community of Chacaras Douradinho for public policy of Uberlandia, MG-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boloni, Leonardo [WBS Empreendimentos Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vidal, Marlon; Castro, Newton Camelo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we will present the experience of relationship between the team of keeping track of pro pipelines and TRANSPETRO and the Chacaras Douradinho community, particularly in this community approach to public bodies of the city of Uberlandia, MG, in view of the population's access to public policies available in the region. Through these links with public agencies and also with an association of residents, has been made, more intensively between 2006 and 2008, activities of environmental in nature Chacaras Douradinho, a community across the range of Pipeline Sao Paulo - Brazil - OSBRA situated in rural area of the city and still is considered by the local mayor as an irregular. This impossible to receive the various services offered by municipal authorities. Chacaras Douradinho residing in approximately 200 families, most low-income, who do not have documentation of their land, living in temporary work, family agriculture and the resources that they possess. The proposed work aligns with the concept of sustainability, based on the National Program of Social and Environmental Responsibility TRANSPETRO. (author)

  17. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  18. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  19. The Status Quo and Future Policy Development of Research Infrastructures in the EU%欧盟大型科研基础设施概述及政策走向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勤

    2015-01-01

    European Research Area (ERA) was initiated aiming at pooling the advanced resources in science and technology and providing innovative solutions to meet the socioeconomic challenges in the world. Research Infrastructures (RIs) acts as an important component, to serve as an effective platform for joint research, to create more opportunities of research and innovations, and to promote exchanges of knowledge and experiences among the multi-disciplinary researchers in various EU member states. The article studies the status quo and the future roadmap of the RIs development in the EU, and analyzes the management structure, funding, legal arrangement, operational procedures, evaluation methodologies, international cooperative activities and future policy framework, which can be taken as clues and models in developing the research infrastructures in China.%欧盟研究区建设的主要目标是统筹科技优势资源,集中一切力量为当今世界面临的经济社会挑战提供科技与创新解决方案.科研基础设施是其重要组成部分,为跨成员国和跨不同区域的科技人员提供高效的联合研究平台,创造研发创新机遇,促进知识积累与经验共享.本文对欧盟及其成员国科研基础设施建设状况及其未来发展路线图进行总体研究,就其建设与运行的管理结构、资金投入、法律安排、程序运作、评估方式、国际合作,以及未来政策走向进行系统分析,为我国的大型科研基础设施和创新体系建设提供有益的线索和经验借鉴.

  20. Infrastructure and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik; Piermartini, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role that quality of infrastructure has on a country's trade performance, estimating a gravity model that incorporates bilateral tariffs and a number of indicators for the quality of infrastructure. The paper looks at the impact of the quality of infrastructure (road, airport, port and telecommunication, and the time required for customs clearance) on total bilateral trade and on trade in the automotive, clothing and textile sectors. In order to obtain unbiased estimat...

  1. Bike Infrastructures and Design Qualities: Enhancing Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Harder, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Decisions on transportation projects are typically – alongside the project costs – based on the potential for the project to contribute to broad public policy goals. Information on how specific design qualities enhance cycling will help decision makers to develop better and more cost-effective bike...... infrastructures. This article aims to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability – funded by the Danish Research Council. The overall purpose of the Bikeability project is to investigate and document relations between cycling motivation from different socio- demographic groups and distinct design....... The main element of the case studies is a questionnaire amongst users of the three infrastructures allowing the determination of socio-economic characteristics of the users and effects of the infrastructure in terms of the use of bike. Furthermore, the users were asked to assess the infrastructure project...

  2. The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of reforestation in Brazil and makes an evaluation of federal government policies used to stimulate that activity. Despite the huge increase of reforestation areas in Brazil since the 1970s, what put up Brazil as the sixth large country with reforested areas, a scarcity of roundwood from reforested areas is happing in that country during the first decade of the 21st century. Federal government implemented three programs to foster the reforestation in Brazil d...

  3. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, S M; Rovere, E L L; Mahler, C F

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities' boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  4. The ICT Infrastructure: A Driver of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure changes on higher education. Addresses issues such as ICT hardware, networks, and leadership and skills; budgets; policy (including access to information, information privacy, information security, and ownership of faculty course materials); changes in…

  5. Wealth, economic infrastructure, and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry L. Jordan

    1997-01-01

    An argument that it's not the specific "growth" programs that governments enact which determine a nation's prosperity, but the totality of the state's attitude toward the accumulation of private wealth, including the central bank's management of money.

  6. Bridging Integration Gaps: Scenarios and Policy Recommendations to Promote Physical Infrastructure and Reduce Intra-Regional Trade Costs Title: Cómo Reducir las Brechas de integración: Escenarios y Recomendaciones de Políticas para Promover la Infraestructura Física y Reducir los Costes del Comercio Intrarregional

    OpenAIRE

    Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC); Inter-American Development Bank (IDB); World Bank (WB); Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief is intended to serve as the basis for the discussion of the Ministers of Finance on action needed to promote physical infrastructure and reduce intra-regional trade costs, in the context of the Third Meeting of the Finance Ministers of the Americas and the Caribbean held in Lima (Perú), on May 28, 2010. It is argued that the Latin American and Caribbean region must bridge three interrelated policy gaps in order to advance its integration agenda. First, despite advances in tr...

  7. Telecom infrastructure leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slides to accompany a discussion about leasing telecommunications infrastructure, including radio/microwave tower space, radio control buildings, paging systems and communications circuits, were presented. The structure of Alberta Power Limited was described within the ATCO group of companies. Corporate goals and management practices and priorities were summarized. Lessons and experiences in the infrastructure leasing business were reviewed

  8. Clustering of Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.K.C.A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bundling or converging infrastructure has been the leading principle for locating infrastructure since the mid seventies. It is assumed to offer certain advantages, such as a restriction of severance, consumption of free space and environmental hindrance. However, the concept of converging infrastru

  9. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...... on sustainable sewage management....

  10. The new Africa and Brazil in the Lula era: the rebirth of Brazilian Atlantic Policy A nova África e o Brasil na era Lula: o renascimento da Política atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Flávio Sombra Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Cold War world, Africa has been an important focus of Brazilian foreign policy. Having a significant historical weight in building our nation, African countries are also part of the moves adopted by Brazil's foreign policy. The main purpose of the present text is to show this relevant regional dimension regarding Brazil's international insertion during the Lula era. The work is divided in two parts: the first part approaches Africa's international insertion throughout recent years and the second analyses the dimension occupied by African affairs in Brazil during the Lula era. The main argument is that the new role played by Africa in the international scene coincides with a global BrazilNo mundo pós-Guerra Fria, a África tem tido um papel de destaque para política externa brasileira. Além de ter significativo peso histórico na formação da nação, os países africanos também são parte do movimento adotado pela política externa brasileira. O propósito central deste texto é mostrar essa dimensão regional relevante da inserção internacional do Brasil na era Lula. O trabalho está dividido em duas partes: a primeira versa sobre a inserção internacional da África em anos recentes e a segunda analisa a dimensão ocupada pelo continente na política externa brasileira. O argumento central é que o novo lugar ocupado pela África no cenário internacional coincide com o Brasil global

  11. Security infrastructure for dynamically provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Demchenko; C. Ngo; C. de Laat; D.R. Lopez; A. Morales; J.A. García-Espín

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services

  12. Emerging New Roles for Designers and Planners: Articulating Soft and Hard Infrastructures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Hard infrastructure are often purposed by urbanists to facilitate further economic and societal Hard infrastructure are often purposed by urbanists to facilitate further economic and societal development. However, the recent protests in Brazil and Turkey against the urban plans told the development.

  13. Food Safety Policy in Brazil and Its Enlightenment to Chinese Food Safety Management%巴西食品安全政策综述及对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马颖; 谢莹莹; Mello Victor

    2016-01-01

    Brazil was one of the poorest countries in the world ,and many people in Brazil were faced with the problem of starvation .However ,with the effective support of the Brazil government ,the public policy of the food and nutrition security of the citizens has been realized .This paper introduces the content of food safety policy in Brazil ,and analyses comprehensively its characteristics ,then puts forward the enlightenment to Chinese government for the establishment of food safety policy .Revie-wing the food security policies and measures ,there are some characteristics ,like the food safety and nutrition combination ,emphasis on the citizens'rights of food safety ,pay attention to social responsi-bility and participation mechanism construction and constantly improvement of the food safety envi -ronment ,etc .These characteristics have great significance for the construction of food safety for Chi-nese government .%巴西曾是世界上最贫困的国家之一,其很多国民曾面临着饥饿的威胁。然而,在政府的有效作为和有力支持下,巴西逐渐建立了公民食品及营养安全方面的公共政策。据此,阐述了巴西食品安全政策的主要内容,分析了巴西食品安全政策的主要特点,提出了其对我国在食品安全政策建立方面的启示。从食品安全方面的政策措施来看,巴西能够将食品安全及营养相结合、强调公民的食品安全权利、注重社会责任和参与机制建设、努力营造食品安全环境,而这些措施对我国食品安全建设极具借鉴意义。

  14. Information infrastructure(s) boundaries, ecologies, multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mongili, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book marks an important contribution to the fascinating debate on the role that information infrastructures and boundary objects play in contemporary life, bringing to the fore the concern of how cooperation across different groups is enabled, but also constrained, by the material and immaterial objects connecting them. As such, the book itself is situated at the crossroads of various paths and genealogies, all focusing on the problem of the intersection between different levels of scale...

  15. Energetic infrastructure and sustainable development: present situation and alternatives for the state of Roraima, Brazil; Infraestrutura energetica e desenvolvimento sustentavel: situacao atual e alternativas para o estado de Roraima, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Antonio de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to analyze the current situation of energy structure available of Roraima state, as well as viable alternatives to enlarge the base of the structure and minimize the impact to the environment, thus providing the support necessary for sustainable development of the state. In the theoretical framework, sought to present the main links between natural resources, economy and environment, and between infrastructure and economic development, where it is present energy infrastructure. Examined the capacity of generating electricity in Roraima and the existent limitations of the current structure available. Verifying the available options for energy production from renewable source in the state, analyzing their potential and viability. Were also proposed for energy planning strategies with the goal of providing the essential foundation for the sustainable development of Roraima. As a result of the search is highlighted the source of energy with the greatest potential in the state is water. The biomass and solar energy can be alternatives to attend isolated communities. The study also found that the current structure of energy Roraima does not provide the support necessary for a reliable and sustainable development. (author)

  16. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  17. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Chinowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future.

  18. Directions of development of transport infrastructure of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kopytko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the transport infrastructure development as a basic factor of national security, the stable and dynamic economic growth, its integration into the European and world economic space are considered. The most important element of the transport infrastructure in the modern economy is a network of logistic providers, which reduce transaction costs and improve the quality of transport service. And the main direction of government policy according to infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activities for establishing and operating the infrastructure objects, that is a burden for the State, from a cost sphere to an efficient business based on the state-private partnership.

  19. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  20. CERN printing infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, R

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer regis...

  1. Contribution of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil to the development of plant cultivars and their impact on agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida das Graças Claret de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of breeding programs in northern Brazil and their main impacts on agriculture. Their contribution to the breeding of the species palm oil, acai fruit, cacao, cupuaçu, guarana, tomato, camu-camu, cocona, peach palm, and rubber was laid out in detail. Advances in breeding programs of institutions such as Embrapa, Ceplac, Inpa, and Universities require investments in infrastructure and in human and financial resources to ensure continuity and efficiency in economic, social and environmental gains. The improvement of native species, the main focus of the breeding programs of the institutions in the Northern region of Brazil, is a form of exploiting the Amazonian biodiversity for the benefit of society. Therefore, policies to foster research institutions should be a subject of deliberation and action of the scientific and technological community in Brazil.

  2. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  3. Infant mortality in Brazil, 1980-2000: A spatial panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barufi Ana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important measure of human development, related to the level of welfare of a society. In order to inform public policy, various studies have tried to identify the factors that influence, at an aggregated level, infant mortality. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional pattern of infant mortality in Brazil, evaluating the effect of infrastructure, socio-economic, and demographic variables to understand its distribution across the country. Methods Regressions including socio-economic and living conditions variables are conducted in a structure of panel data. More specifically, a spatial panel data model with fixed effects and a spatial error autocorrelation structure is used to help to solve spatial dependence problems. The use of a spatial modeling approach takes into account the potential presence of spillovers between neighboring spatial units. The spatial units considered are Minimum Comparable Areas, defined to provide a consistent definition across Census years. Data are drawn from the 1980, 1991 and 2000 Census of Brazil, and from data collected by the Ministry of Health (DATASUS. In order to identify the influence of health care infrastructure, variables related to the number of public and private hospitals are included. Results The results indicate that the panel model with spatial effects provides the best fit to the data. The analysis confirms that the provision of health care infrastructure and social policy measures (e.g. improving education attainment are linked to reduced rates of infant mortality. An original finding concerns the role of spatial effects in the analysis of IMR. Spillover effects associated with health infrastructure and water and sanitation facilities imply that there are regional benefits beyond the unit of analysis. Conclusions A spatial modeling approach is important to produce reliable estimates in the analysis of panel IMR data. Substantively, this paper

  4. Globalization, Poverty And Role Of Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastaire Sèna ALINSATO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to complement the theoretical and empirical literature on the globalization-poverty nexus. Based on a simple model of social welfare, the paper demonstrates that the different types of globalization have different effects on social welfare. The main empirical findings suggest that globalization contributes to poverty reduction but with a larger magnitude in the presence of infrastructures instruments. It follows that good quality of infrastructure is a necessary condition for a higher globalization effect on poverty reduction. The empirical evidence also supports the idea that globalization driven by the reduction in information access cost and the removal of barriers to their dissemination has the greatest impact on poverty reduction. Finally, the study discusses the economic policy implications and suggests in particular investment in adequate ICT and energy infrastructures for globalization to contribute significantly to the reduction of poverty.

  5. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Tom L

    2010-08-13

    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale. PMID:20705852

  6. Connectivity and Resilience: A Multidimensional Analysis of Infrastructure Impacts in the Southwestern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Shenkin, Alexander; Barnes, Grenville; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas A.; Castillo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure is a worldwide policy priority for national development via regional integration into the global economy. However, economic, ecological and social research draws contrasting conclusions about the consequences of infrastructure. We present a synthetic approach to the study of infrastructure, focusing on a multidimensional treatment…

  7. Regulatory authority infrastructure for Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Namibia is participating in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Model Project for the Improvement of National Regulatory Authority Infrastructures in Member States. The paper illustrates our experience in solving problems and difficulties confronted in establishing an effective regulatory authority operating within the existing national infrastructure that should be supported by the Government. An effective regulatory authority is seen as part of the wider administrative scope of our Government through ministerial mandates given by the State from time to time, guaranteeing its independence when implementing legal provisions under statutes. Sections of the report illustrate our experience in the following areas: 1. National radiation protection policy 2. Structure of our national regulatory authority 3. Laws and regulations 4. Provisions for notification, authorization and registration 5. In-depth security measures for radiation sources and radioactive material 6. Systems for the inspection of radiation sources, radioactive materials, enforcement of legal provisions 7. Extent of the applications of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country. The paper provides information regarding existing Government policy on radiation protection; structure and legal aspects of the national regulatory, including statutes and regulations; the extent of application and uses of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials; human resources: strengths and constraints; management practices and financing of regulatory authority; and plans for emergency recovery of orphan sources. National plans for management of disused sources, recovery of orphan sources, abnormal emergencies, communication of information to affected persons on exposure effects, and the safety training of persons using these applications are discussed. the paper provides a summary and some suggestions of the way forward for Namibia. (author)

  8. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses are analyzed in terms of the serious shortage of funds invested and disparate investment in rural infrastructure; the opportunities faced by the rural infrastructure construction are analyzed in terms of support form the macrocontrol of the state and the threats are analyzed from the aspects of land preservation and environmental protection. Thus in order to further promote the Beijing rural infrastructure construction and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction, the following countermeasures are put forward. In the first place, the government should adjust the fiscal policies and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction. In the second place, the laws should be perfected to provide constitutional guarantee for infrastructure construction. In the third place, healthy supervision system of rural infrastructure should be managed well and use well. In the fourth place, the government should attach importance to disparate demands and shift from the unified standard to classified standard. In the fifth place, the government should enforce the supervision on capital and operation so as to improve the service efficiency of capital.

  9. Sustainability of Urban Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Tanac Zeren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to overview the different approaches for evaluation of urban infrastructure sustainability. In this context, urban infrastructure covers transportation, energy, water, sewage and information networks as well as waste management and blue-green infrastructure, in terms of both the supply and demand side. A common effort of partners in the European project “C8—Best Practice in Sustainable Urban Infrastructure”, developed under the Cooperation in Science and Technology program (COST, in brief COST C8, was focused on defining the methods, indicators and criteria for evaluation of sustainability, and resulted in a guidebook for decision-makers in local authorities. Here, the COST C8 matrix for simple sustainability assessment of urban infrastructure is applied to The Path (POT case—a circular memorial and recreational park around the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The applicability and acceptance of the matrix in 43 other cases of sustainable urban infrastructure, collected in the COST C8 project, is presented and discussed.

  10. Políticas de línguas e educação escolar indígena no Brasil Language policies and indigenous schools in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bastos Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, após uma breve revisão conceitual sobre planejamento e política lingüística, modelos de políticas de línguas e um caso exemplar de política lingüística no mundo, abordarei questões atuais de políticas de línguas no Brasil, como o ensino bilíngüe em escolas indígenas, o financiamento a pesquisas para documentação de línguas em extinção, a revitalização de línguas ou de variedades de línguas e investimento governamental em material didático específico para a educação indígena.In this article, after a brief conceptual revision on language planning and policy, models of language policies and an exemplary case of language policy in the world, I will approach actual issues about languages policies in Brazil, such as the bilingual education in indigenous schools, the financing to research for documentation of languages in extinction, the revitalization of languages or their varieties and the governmental investment in specific didactic material for the indigenous education.

  11. The tale that wags the dog? : The Norwegian Government's promotion of StatoilHydro as an agent of energy and climate policies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on involving business in development work. This thesis uses the case of StatoilHydro in Brazil. I show that StatoilHydro has substantial financial and political support from the Norwegian Government and is promoted as an agent of Norway’s energy and climate initiatives in Brazil despite their different interests. Based on a framework for studying TNCs’ power, I analyze whether the governmental decision to promote StatoilHydro in such a way is due to the company’s ...

  12. Building safeguards infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the clean and safe growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports these three areas should be robust. The focus of this paper will be on the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards, and the integration of safeguards infrastructure with other elements critical to ensuring nuclear energy security

  13. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  14. PERSPECTIVES ON URBAN WATER INFRASTRUCTURE IN CHINA FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: SDMUWEIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junying CHU; Jining CHEN; Ji ZOU

    2003-01-01

    Based on system dynamics approach, SDMUWEIC model is developed in order to evaluate future dynamics of urban water infrastructure development in China. Firstly, this paper presents the basic structure and characteristics of the model, focusing on water infrastructure's dynamic relationships with population increase, economic development, water resources shortage and water conservation practices. Secondly, model veracity and robustness tests based on behavior reproduction and uncertainty analyses are illustrated. Thirdly, based on the model, future patterns of China's urban water infrastructure investment requirements are simulated, and effectiveness of two different policy scenarios are evaluated. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn, allowing insights into China's sustainable water infrastructure policies and managements.

  15. Collaborative financial infrastructure protection

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Survey recently released by Symantec found that 53% of interviewed IT security experts from international companies experienced at least ten cyber attacks in the last five years, and financial institutions were often subject to some of the most sophisticated and large-scale cyber attacks and frauds. The book by Baldoni and Chockler analyzes the structure of software infrastructures found in the financial domain, their vulnerabilities to cyber attacks and the existing protection mechanisms. It then shows the advantages of sharing information among financia

  16. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Becerici, Neslihan; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dushkin, Andrei; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hashemi, Kevan; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issakov, Vladimir; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kalinowski, Artur; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Vine, Micheal; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shumin; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Luisa, Luca; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martini, Agnese; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mladenov, Dimitar; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; 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    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  17. Políticas públicas para o controle da anemia ferropriva Public policies to control iron deficiency in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Szarfarc

    2010-06-01

    discuss perspectives and interventions to control anemia; 1982/83 - distribution of iron supplement to Pregnancy Programs and 1st consultation to measure hemoglobin concentration; 1992 - Brazilian government commitment to reduce the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women by 1/3; 1994 - Implementation of the "Vivaleite" Program to provide iron fortified milk to families with under 6-year-old children and incomes of up to 2 minimum wages; June 2002-2004 - wheat and corn flour fortification with iron; 2005 - Iron supplementation program to breastfeeding women; March 2009 - Reports published on the prevalence of anemia in women (15 to 49 years old and children (6 to 59 months in Brazil. August 2009 - the 1st Inter-institutional Commission Meeting for the Implementation, accompaniment and monitoring of fortification policies of wheat and corn flour and their "subproducts" was established by the Health Minister.

  18. Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context. Policy Research Working Paper 4517

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate,…

  19. Analysing Job Creation Effects of Scaling Up Infrastructure Spending in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Maisonnave; Ramos Mabugu; Margaret Chitiga; Véronique Robichaud

    2013-01-01

    In a first for South Africa, we draw on literature on infrastructure productivity to model dynamic economywide employment impacts of infrastructure investment funded with different fiscal tools. According to the South African investment plan, the policy will affect the stock of infrastructure as well as the stock of capital of some private and public sectors. Increased government deficit financed infrastructure spending improves GDP and reduces unemployment. However, in the long term, the pol...

  20. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Azenildo M

    2015-01-01

    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted. PMID:26361918

  1. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  2. Network Infrastructure Security

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Angus

    2009-01-01

    Attacks to network infrastructure affect large portions of the Internet at a time and create large amounts of service disruption, due to breaches such as IP spoofing, routing table poisoning and routing loops. This book includes conceptual examples that show how network attacks can be run, along with appropriate countermeasures and solutions

  3. Infrastructuring for Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Danholt, Peter; Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    indicators for quality in treatment to guide and govern their performance, in order to investigate whether this may generate a new performance measurement infrastructure that will improve quality of healthcare. The project is entitled: “New governance in the patient’s perspective”....

  4. Documentation of Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the software infrastructure developed within the WorkSPACE  project, both from a software architectural point of view and from a user point of  view. We first give an overview of the system architecture, then go on to present the  more prominent features of the 3D graphical ...

  5. Social experience infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Using the case of Kühlungsborn in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern as an example of a resort in which social experience infrastructure plays a pivotal role in the ongoing success of attracting German tourists from especially Berlin, Hamburg and Hanover it is the aim of this article in a descriptive...

  6. CERN Printing Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today’s situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer ...

  7. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  8. Study on Rural Poverty Reduction Effect of Traffic Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping; GUO; Bin; ZHANG; Xiyan; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    To systematically comb and explore the rural poverty reduction effect of traffic infrastructure,the author analyzed the mechanism,main channels and actual effect of rural traffic infrastructure on poverty reduction.It revealed that rural traffic infrastructure exerts positive or negative effect on poverty reduction directly or indirectly.The positive channel includes increasing non-agricultural employment opportunities,reducing costs for agricultural production,transportation and labor transfer,increasing availability of social service,and promoting adjustment of agricultural industrial structure and development of rural tourism resources.On the whole,traffic infrastructure has significant positive influence on rural poverty reduction.Finally,it summarized policy recommendations for building pro-poor traffic infrastructure,and came up with vacancy of related research field and future exploration direction.

  9. 巴西烟叶生产与卷烟市场及公共政策研究%Production and Cigarette Market of Brazil and the Public Policy Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚金龙; 金萍

    2012-01-01

    得益于其较为优越的地理位置和气候条件,巴西已成为全球重要的烟叶生产与出口国,随着跨国烟草公司的进入,国内烟叶与卷烟市场也逐渐趋向多元化发展,卷烟价格在政府多次提高税率之后也随之增长。为了抑制卷烟消费,政府还出台了卷烟零售价格的最低限价。在公共卫生政策方面,政府计划出台香味烟禁令以达到其控烟之目的。%Benefit from the unique geographical location and climatic condition,Brazil has become an important tobacco producing and exporting country in the world,with the entry of the multinational cigarette companies,the tobacco market and the cigarette industry have gradually become more diversified,the price of cigarettes have been raised gradually while the government has been rise the cigarette tax rate.In order to curb cigarette consumption,Brazil government also introduced a minimum price for the retail price.In public health policy,the government intends to introduce the ban of flavored cigarettes in order to achieve its tobacco control purpose.

  10. Security infrastructure for on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Demchenko; B. Ngo; C.T.A.M. de Laat; T. Wlodarczyk; C. Rong; W. Ziegler

    2011-01-01

    Providing consistent security services in on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services is of primary importance due to multi-tenant and potentially multi-provider nature of Clouds Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) environment. Cloud security infrastructure should address two aspects of the I

  11. Networks, deregulation, and risk : the politics of critical infrastructure protection

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Ryan Nelson

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation, "Networks, Deregulation, and Risk: The Politics of Critical Infrastructure Protection," engages post-9/11 debates over the role of public policy and novel technologies in crafting and maintaining resilient infrastructure networks against the threat of terrorism. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, networks of communication, electric power, and transportation (as well as others) became sites of anxiety, debate, and, ultimately, intervention. The dissertation examine...

  12. Contemporary state and possibilities of improvement of local infrastructures for leisure-time physical activity from the aspect of national policy, planning, building, financing and management - the Impala project, part ii.

    OpenAIRE

    Filip Neuls; Michal Kudláček; Jana Vašíčková; Zdeněk Hamřík

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The second part of the IMPALA project was based on a wide discussion dealing with the problem of improving the local infrastructure for leisure time physical activity (LTPA) from practical and specific points of view that were represented by invited participants from all Czech regions. One of the results of the IMPALA project was the finding from some experts that physical environment mostly in adults contribute to an increase of physical activity. AIM: The main aim of this part o...

  13. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agen

  14. Modeling Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model for expressing critical infrastructure dependencies. The model addresses the limitations of existing approaches with respect to clarity of definition, support for quality and the influence of operating states of critical infrastructures and environmental factors.

  15. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This book is for system engineers and administrators who have a fundamental understanding of information management systems and infrastructure. It helps if you've already played around with Chef; however, this book covers all the important topics you will need to know. If you don't want to dig through a whole book before you can get started, this book is for you, as it features a set of independent recipes you can try out immediately.

  16. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  17. GRID infrastructure sustainability guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Nicolas; Gorgan, Dorian; Giuliani, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A grid computing infrastructure can be defined as a cluster of loosely coupled, networked computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. Grid computing is an important part of the enviroGRIDS project, because it will allow one to perform computationally-intensive simulations of the hydrological balance of the Black Sea Catchment and will permit to analyze large quantity of high resolution data sets. It is therefore important that the ability to use grid computing is maintained throu...

  18. Strategic Spatial Planning's Role in Legitimizing Investments in Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper discusses to what extent spatial visions might play an important role in not only supporting, but also legitimizing the need for investments in transport infrastructures. Drawing on discussion of an ‘infrastructure turn’ in strategic spatial planning (Dodson 2009), this paper explores...... for decades (Kingdon 2011). In conclusion, the paper suggests that the case of the Loop City potentially reveals a wider trend in strategic spatial planning, in which political lobbying for key infrastructure projects, rather than land use policies, becomes the focal point for preparation of strategic plans....... Such a development raises a number of concerns about strategic spatial planning’s potential for guiding future urban development....

  19. Durability of critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Pascu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of three linearmodels, typical for critical infrastructures, are successively calculated. In order to enhance the durabilityof critical infrastructures the solution based on redundancies is chosen. Five types of connection theredundancies for each of the three models are considered. Three topological schemes for connecting theredundancies are adopted: locally, by twining and globally. Absolute values of durability in all fifteenmodels with redundancies are further calculated. Then, the relative performances of enhanced durabilityin the same fifteen models, compared with the three original models, considered as references, areanalysed. The relative costs of the same fifteen models and in similar topologic conditions are furtheranalysed. By dividing the performance with cost the relative profitableness of each model is obtained.Finally, the three initial models, each reshaped with redundancies in three selective modes, arecompared from the perspective of their relative profitableness. The outcomes of this paper are original.They are of practical interests in planning the maintenance programs and checking the plausibility ofproposed interventions according to the clause 7.4 of ISO 13822:2001

  20. O Bolsa Família: problematizando questões centrais na política de transferência de renda no Brasil The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ozanira da Silva e Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Programa Bolsa Família foi criado em 2003 com o objetivo de unificar os Programas de Transferência de Renda iniciados em nível municipal, estadual e federal desde 1995. É concebido como uma expressão do processo de desenvolvimento desses programas no Brasil. Transferência de renda é entendida enquanto uma transferência monetária direta efetuada a indivíduos ou a famílias. O pressuposto central é de que articular uma transferência de renda com políticas e programas estruturantes, principalmente no campo da educação, saúde e trabalho, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode interromper o ciclo vicioso da pobreza do presente e sua reprodução no futuro. Portanto, uma articulação entre uma transferência monetária com políticas e programas estruturantes, direcionados a famílias pobres, pode possibilitar a construção de uma política de enfrentamento à pobreza e à desigualdade social. Nesse artigo, é apresentado o desenvolvimento histórico dos Programas de Transferência de Renda, no Brasil, orientado por um esforço problematizador do significado e do alcance desses programas no âmbito das políticas sociais brasileiras, considerando suas potencialidades e limites enquanto política de inclusão social.Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income

  1. Malawi's infrastructure: a continental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Vivien; Shkaratan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure contributed 1.2 percentage points to Malawi's annual per capital GDP growth over the past decade. Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region s middle-income countries could increase that contribution by 3.5 percentage points. Malawi's successes in infrastructure development include reaching the Millennium Development Goals for water and making GSM t...

  2. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  3. Hydrogen infrastructure for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to review the factors already discussed in the literature and identify gaps or issues which seem to require further debate in relation of the introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector. Studies in the academic and grey literature have analysed transport systems with a rather wide range of hydrogen penetration rates, utilisation of the infrastructure, hypotheses on the dynamics of the systems, capital costs of the infrastructure and hydrogen price. Most of the issues which could widen the debate in the literature are related to policy instruments. In particular, more attention should be paid to the policy instruments needed to foster co-ordination among stakeholders, persuade drivers to buy hydrogen vehicles despite the existence of a sparse infrastructure; guarantee investment in the early, possibly loss-making, retail stations and to foster financially sustainable government commitments. The effect of limited availability of hydrogen vehicle models on the penetration rates in the literature and the sensitivity of the hydrogen price to taxation from the government are other two issues deserving a more in-depth discussion. (author)

  4. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  5. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  6. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  7. 中国农村基础设施现状:皖省例证与政策选择%Status and Policy Choice of Rural Infrastructure in China:Example from Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    依据农村基础设施建设状况的背景,对安徽省水库移民地区进行实地调查。从长期看,农民纯收入与支援农村生产支出、各项农业事业费、农业基本建设支出、水利建设投资存在着显著的正相关关系。预测显示,未来五年随着支援农村生产支出、各项农业事业费、农业基本建设支出、支农总支出等投入的较大幅度增加,农民人均纯收入将呈现规模报酬递减趋势,但到2015年农民人均纯收入可到达万元以上。现阶段,我国农村基础设施建设投入规模仍然不足,结构矛盾较为突出。应通过建立稳定的农村基础设施建设投入增加的长效机制,调整基础设施建设在地区间和项目间优先序等措施来改善农村生产生活环境,提高农民收入。%Based on the current status of rural infrastructure,we made a field survey in reservoir immigrants regions of Anhui Province.The results show that in the long term,there is a significant positive correlation between the net income of farmers and the expenditure for supporting rural production,the operating expenses of agriculture,agriculture and infrastructure spending,investment in water conservancy construction.The estimate indicates that,with the expenditure for supporting rural production,the operating expenses of agriculture,agriculture and infrastructure spending,the total agriculture expenditure in a substantial increasing in the next five years,the per capita net income of farmers will be showing the trend of decreasing returns in scale,but by 2015 rural per capita net income will reach the million or more.At present,China's rural infrastructure investment scale is still insufficient,and has a structural contradiction.Thus,we should establish a long-term stable increasing mechanism of rural infrastructure investment,adjust the priority order of the infrastructure construction in the inter-regional and inter-project.

  8. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  9. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines.

  10. The environmental public policy context in the prevention and control aspects of oil incidents for the exploration and production phases in Brazil; O contexto das politicas publicas ambientais nos aspectos de prevencao e controle dos incidentes com oleo durante as etapas de exploracao e producao de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert Junior, Carlos Alberto; Walter, Tatiana; Nicolodi, Joao Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    It is not possible to state that Brazil is unprepared to respond oil incidents emergencies, in Coastal Zone, Continental Shelf and EEZ oil E and P, without an analysis with clear premises. First, we need to understand the context that lays this question, which it is not limited in the National Contingency Plan, as lately evidenced in media. Thus, we note that Brazil has a complex political and legal arrangements targeted to oil incidents prevention and control. In this context, comes this paper, in order to reveal this curtain, listing actors, legislation and other aspects that underlie the public policy governance in reference. (author)

  11. Radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to

  12. Agile infrastructure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new 'shared monitoring architecture' which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  13. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  14. LHCb Silicon Tracker infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ermoline, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a vital part of the experiment. It consists of four planar stations: one trigger and three inner tracking stations. The operation of the Silicon Tracker detectors and electronics is provided by its infrastructure: cooling system, high- and low-voltage power supply systems, temperature and radiation monitoring systems. Several components of these systems are located in the experimental hall and subjected to radiation. This paper mainly concentrates on the recent development: requirements definition, evaluation of possible implementation scenarios, component choice and component radiation tests.

  15. Políticas e gestão da educação básica no Brasil: limites e perspectivas Policies for and management of basic education in Brazil: limits and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernandes Dourado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda o cenário político e pedagógico em que se realizam as políticas direcionadas à gestão da educação básica, buscando explicitar concepções, ações e programas governamentais, bem como suas interfaces com a suposta qualidade preconizada para esse nível de ensino no Brasil. Nesta perspectiva, ao analisar tais políticas e programas no contexto de reforma do Estado, indica os limites e perspectivas desse processo, sob a ótica da construção de novos parâmetros para a qualidade e gestão democrática da escola pública.This paper approaches the political and pedagogical scenario in which the policies directed to manage basic education take place. It seeks to explicit the government's conceptions, actions and programs and their interfaces with the supposed quality advocated for this teaching level in Brazil. When analyzing these policies and programs in the context of the reform of the State, it thus points out the limits and perspectives of this process in order to allow building new parameters for the quality and democratic management of public school.

  16. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  17. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a “real-world” retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation’s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to

  18. O gênero nas políticas públicas de educação no Brasil: 1988-2002 Gender and educational policies in Brazil: 1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Pereira Vianna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientado pela teoria das relações de gênero, este artigo examina as principais leis, planos e programas federais que especificam as diretrizes nacionais das políticas públicas de educação no Brasil. Entre os documentos privilegiados para análise destacam-se a Constituição Federal (CF/1988, a nova Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação (LDB/1996, o Plano Nacional de Educação (PNE/2001 e os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Fundamental (PCN/1997. Mostramos que adotar a ótica de gênero para a análise dessas políticas permite avaliar como elas podem facilitar ou dificultar a aquisição de padrões democráticos, uma vez que a política educacional não tem um papel neutro, dissociado de preconceitos, entre os quais destacamos o de gênero.Oriented by the theory of gender relations, this paper examines the main legislation and federal plans and programs, which specify the national guidelines for the public education policies in Brazil. More attention for the purpose of analysis was given to documents such as the Brazilian Federal Constitution (CF/1988, the New Act of Guidelines of Education, (LDB/1996, the National Education Plan, Act n. 10.172 (PNE/2001 and the National Curricular Parameters for the Elementary School (PCN/1997. Taking the viewpoint of gender to analyze such policies enables us to evaluate how they can make more easier or difficult the acquisition of democratic standards, as the public education policy is neither neutral nor free of prejudices, such as gender prejudice.

  19. Energy infrastructure in India: Profile and risks under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies – a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters and implementation of adaptation measures, and iv) sustainability actions along energy infrastructures that enhance climate resilience and simultaneously deliver co-benefits to local agents. -- Highlights: •Climate risks to energy infrastructures adversely impact energy security. •Case studies of a port and a railway show their future climate change vulnerability. •Managing climate-induced risks through preventive adaptation policies

  20. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  1. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  2. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management

  3. Metaphors, models and communicative spaces: designing local wireless infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Communications policies, like many other social policies, are founded on an ideal of democracy that frames increased access to and autonomy of communication infrastructure as aspects of democratic public spheres. Projects that aim at developing these capacities must grapple with the way such new media technologies are integrated into existing contexts or spaces, often using metaphors to frame their expectations. This paper analyzes how such metaphors are employed in the case of local wirele...

  4. The Infrastructure Gap and Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andres; Dan Biller; Jordan Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an economic logic for underpinning decentralization in the infrastructure sectors. It starts by detailing the definition of the infrastructure gap and the methodologies to calculate it. It provides some global trends for developing countries in terms of the gap and briefly discusses financing possibilities for developing countries to address the gap. Then it turns to the discussion of the link between the infrastructure gap and decentralization, providing a typology infras...

  5. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answering this question I examine a recent controversy over plans to build a new road-pricing infrastructure...... to curb congestion in Copenhagen. The so-called payment ring project has now been officially dropped, but only after becoming one of the most heated topics in Danish politics in recent years. Thousands of people mobilized on Facebook pages for and against the actualization of the payment ring. I suggest...... that such issue-oriented pages represent an interesting reappropriation of the Facebook platform, whose ’pages’ feature is mainly targeted at commercial brands and other institutions. The majority of the pages founded in reaction to the payment ring were marked by sharp protests, something that generates...

  6. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  7. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the institutional infrastructure of the car are presented and justified. The analysis condition of the car market’s institutional infrastructure showed the problems associated with the state of institutions which have an impact on the functioning of the car market. Measures to stimulate the car market does not cover entire sector as a whole, and imported institutions do not give the expected effect because of inconsistency formal and informal elements of the institutional infrastructure. Presented assessment of the institutional infrastructure of the car market confirms the dependence of the state of the industry market cars from institutional infrastructure. Only reforming the institutions at all levels of the industry, from production to car sales can have a positive effect on the industry. Changes in the institutional infrastructure should be focused on improving the competitiveness, stability and independence from external factors

  8. Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's hydroelectric development of the Xingu River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Phillip M

    2006-07-01

    Hydroelectric dams represent major investments and major sources of environmental and social impacts. Powerful forces surround the decision-making process on public investments in the various options for the generation and conservation of electricity. Brazil's proposed Belo Monte Dam (formerly Kararaô) and its upstream counterpart, the Altamira Dam (better known by its former name of Babaquara) are at the center of controversies on the decision-making process for major infrastructure projects in Amazonia. The Belo Monte Dam by itself would have a small reservoir area (440 km2) and large installed capacity (11, 181.3 MW), but the Altamira/Babaquara Dam that would regulate the flow of the Xingu River (thereby increasing power generation at Belo Monte) would flood a vast area (6140 km2). The great impact of dams provides a powerful reason for Brazil to reassess its current policies that allocate large amounts of energy in the country's national grid to subsidized aluminum smelting for export. The case of Belo Monte and the five additional dams planned upstream (including the Altamira/Babaquara Dam) indicate the need for Brazil to reform its environmental assessment and licensing system to include the impacts of multiple interdependent projects. PMID:16738820

  9. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  10. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  11. Políticas públicas para educação de jovens e adultos no Brasil: a permanente (reconstrução da subalternidade - considerações sobre os Programas Brasil Alfabetizado e Fazendo Escola Public policy for youth and adult education in Brazil: non-commission permanent (rebuilding - considerations about Literate Brazil and Doing School Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Rummert

    2007-01-01

    adult education represent reorganization of the same logic that always guided youth and adult education policy in Brazil; a policy that consists in sociability necessity of capital itself. Thus, compensatory and superficial education policies reinforces non-commission of educational proposals for working class by economical reorganization that produces structural unemployment and new ideological formulations centered on enterprising and employment. This text focuses Literate Brazil Program as well as Doing School Program inside the complex of govern policy for education, intending to clear up how much such policy reasserts selective and excluding characteristics of Brazilian public education system.

  12. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  13. CIPedia©: A Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Theocharidou, M.; Rome, E.

    2015-01-01

    CIPedia© http://www.cipedia.eu is a Wiki-based body of common knowledge for the wide international community of critical infrastructure (CI) protection and resilience stakeholders such as policy makers, researchers, governmental agencies, emergency management organizations, CI operators, and even th

  14. Análise da infra-estrutura existente em unidades de produção agrícola para processamento de mel na região do Vale do Paraíba-SP Analysis of production unit infrastructure of honey processing agricultural in the Paraiba Valley, São Paulo state-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eugênio Veneziani Pasin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar a existência de infra-estrutura para processamento de mel, em Unidades de Produção Agrícola-UPAs na região do Vale do Paraíba-SP. Para a realização desse trabalho utilizou-se o método de levantamento dos dados primários através de questionário. No período de janeiro de 2005 a março de 2006 realizou-se o trabalho com a amostra de 116 UPAs, que representam 33,7% do total de unidades onde há atividade apícola. Para avaliar-se a associação e a relação de dependência entre as variáveis equipamentos, casa do mel, escolaridade, tempo na atividade e número de colméias na UPA, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado X² . Os resultados revelaram que a centrífuga está presente em 58,6% das UPAs e a casa do mel em 29,3% das UPAs das unidades da região. O nível de escolaridade, tempo de permanência do apicultor na atividade e o número de colméias são variáveis que estabelecem relações significativas com a existência de centrífuga e de casa do mel na UPA.The aim of this paper is to analyze the infrastructure for honey process in Agricultural Production Units (UPAs located in the Paraíba Valley (São Paulo state, Brazil. For this study to be carried out, the search of primary data method using a questionnaire was applied. From January 2005 to March 2006, 116 UPAs samples, representing 33.7% of all bee-related UPAs were used. For the association and relation of dependence among the equipment variables, "casa do mel", staff education level, time in the activity and number of bee-hives in the UPA, the chi-square (X² statistical tests were applied. The results revealed that centrifuges were present in 58.6% of UPAs, while the type of "casa do mel" occured in 29.3% of UPAs in the region. The staff education level, time in the activity and number of bee-hives are variables which are important when considering the existence of centrifuges and "casa do mel" in the UPA.

  15. Interdependence between government levels in Brazilian health policy: the implementation of Emergency Care Units in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Machado, Cristiani Veira; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Konder, Mariana Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses policymaking related to Emergency Care Units (ECU) in the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2013, duly identifying the relationships between the various levels of government in this process. It prioritized the context of policy formulation, the factors that motivated the inclusion and maintenance of ECUs on the state agenda and the process of how the policy was implemented in the state. The study was based on the literature that defines the agenda and implementation of public policies and on contributions from historic institutionalism. The research involved analysis of documents, secondary data, and 51 interviews with people in positions of authority in state and municipal governments. The priority given to ECUs in the government agenda was the result of a confluence of historical, structural, political and institutional factors, as well as the current context. The results of this study indicate the existence of interdependence between levels of government, however federal coordination problems have prejudiced the integration of the various components of emergency health care in the state.

  16. Death in hospital and at home: population and health policy influences in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil (1996-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Iwamoto Marcucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and epidemiological transition involves prolonged terminal illnesses and an increased demand for end-stage support in health services, mainly in hospitals. Changes in health care and government health policies may influence the death locations, making it possible to remain at home or in an institution. The scope of this article is to analyze death locations in the city of Londrina, State of Paraná, from 1996 to 2010, and to verify the influence of population and health policy changes on these statistics. An analysis was conducted into death locations in Londrina in Mortality Information System (SIM considering the main causes and locations of death. There was an increase of 28% in deaths among the population in general, though 48% for the population over 60 years of age. There was an increase of deaths in hospitals, which were responsible for 70% of the occurrences, though death frequencies in others locations did not increase, and deaths in the home remained at about 18%. The locations of death did not change during this period, even with health policies that broadened care in other locations, such as the patient´s home. The predominance of hospital deaths was similar to other Brazilian cities, albeit higher than in other countries.

  17. Designing infrastructures for creative engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    provides a useful frame for discussing important challenges and opportunities in terms of engaging audiences. We further argue that when designing infrastructures, one of the important challenges is to develop the social aspect of infrastructure in the form of creating, maintaining and developing...

  18. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  19. Prioritizing Infrastructure Investments in Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo, Darwin; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; House, Schuyler

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure services are significant determinants of economic development, social welfare, trade, and public health. As such, they typically feature strongly in national development plans. While governments may receive many infrastructure project proposals, however, resources are often insufficient to finance the full set of proposals in the short term. Leading up to 2020, an estimated US$836 ...

  20. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  1. Exploring Citizen Infrastructure and Environmental Priorities in Mumbai, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Joshua; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Beig, Gufran

    2016-06-01

    Many cities worldwide seek to understand local policy priorities among their general populations. This study explores how differences in local conditions and among citizens within and across Mumbai, India shape local infrastructure (e.g. energy, water, transport) and environmental (e.g. managing pollution, climate-related extreme weather events) policy priorities for change that may or may not be aligned with local government action or global environmental sustainability concerns such as low-carbon development. In this rapidly urbanizing city, multiple issues compete for prominence, ranging from improved management of pollution and extreme weather to energy and other infrastructure services. To inform a broader perspective of policy priorities for urban development and risk mitigation, a survey was conducted among over 1200 citizens. The survey explored the state of local conditions, the challenges citizens face, and the ways in which differences in local conditions (socio-institutional, infrastructure, and health-related) demonstrate inequities and influence how citizens perceive risks and rank priorities for the future design and implementation of local planning, policy, and community-based efforts. With growing discussion and tensions surrounding the new urban sustainable development goal, announced by the UN in late September 2015, and a new global urban agenda document to be agreed upon at 'Habitat III', issues on whether sustainable urbanization priorities should be set at the international, national or local level remain controversial. As such, this study aims to first understand determinants of and variations in local priorities across one city, with implications discussed for local-to-global urban sustainability. Findings from survey results indicate the determinants and variation in conditions such as age, assets, levels of participation in residential action groups, the health outcome of chronic asthma, and the infrastructure service of piped

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  3. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  4. Considerations on Optimal Financial Invest ment into Infrastructural Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The enlargement of government's investment into infrastructural construction is both a help medicine curing economic contraction and an effective measure to accumulate long-term economic growth.. However, the investment by finance into infrastructure also has a problem of optimization and reasonable selection. In view of market economic requirements, the policy direction of financial investment into infrastructural industries must be doing something at the expense of some other things. In the process of the adjustment and optimization of economic structure, state financial investment into infrastructural facilities has to first of all solve the problem of delimitating the best fields and selecting trades. As to the infrastructure facilities producing and selling pure public products, the development must be made by financial investment;As to the production fields of subpublic products, finance should ensure reasonable investment; As to the infrastructural facilities of pure privite production, finance should completely, in principle, pull out and let market supply. On this basis, selections should be made on best capital soureces and investment ways. The capital sources should be mainly from tax and regulational income and direct investment may be made. As to the production fields of most subpublic production, the best capital sources are national debt income and indirect investment may be made. In addition, the optimization of financial investment into infrastructural facilities must reform the managerial system of infrastructural facilities and raise investment efficiency. Only by scientifically selecting and arranging the financing ways and managerial system in investment fields,can the maximum economic efficiency and social welfare results be realized in carrying out financial investment into infrastructural facilities.

  5. MAGNET/INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    Most of the infrastructure at Pt5 has been completed and is now passing their commissioning phase. The power distribution is almost completed. During autumn the powering of UXC55 racks from USC55 cabinets has been achieved. The full control/safety chain has been tested by injecting smoke into the sensitive rack volume in YE+ racks and is being extended to all the other racks as soon as cabling is done. The USC55 cooling station has all the water circuits commissioned and running. The annual maintenance of the surface cooling towers has been done during weeks 45 and 46 and a special plan has been set up, in close coordination with the CERN technical department. All the USC55 racks have passed a campaign of cleaning of the water filters and quality checks. A new partition of the USC55 area, for the function of the AUG (General Emergency Stop) buttons, is being done. This has an impact on the design of the underground UPS (Uninterruptible Power System) that secure the Magnet system and the electronics racks ...

  6. Flexible Computational Science Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-06

    FleCSI is a compile-time configurable framework designed to support multi-physics application development. As such, FleCSI attempts to provide a very general set of infrastructure design patterns that can be specialized and extended to suit the needs of a broad variety of solver and data requirements. Current support includes multi-dimensional mesh topology, mesh geometry, and mesh adjacency information, n-dimensional hashed-tree data structures, graph partitioning interfaces, and dependency closures. FleCSI also introduces a functional programming model with control, execution, and data abstractions that are consistent with both MPI and state-of-the-art task-based runtimes such as Legion and Charm++. The FleCSI abstraction layer provides the developer with insulation from the underlying runtime, while allowing support for multiple runtime systems, including conventional models like asynchronous MPI. The intent is to give developers a concrete set of user-friendly programming tools that can be used now, while allowing flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations that can be applied to architectures and runtimes that arise in the future. The control and execution models in FleCSI also provide formal nomenclature for describing poorly understood concepts like kernels and tasks.

  7. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  8. Estado, política educacional e direito à educação no Brasil: "o problema maior é o de estudar" State, educational policy an right to education in Brazil: "the biggest problem is to study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Cardoso de Araujo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata das relações entre os problemas de acesso, permanência e qualidade e a configuração histórica do Estado brasileiro e, consequentemente, da política educacional que foi traçada a partir dessa configuração. Destaca as profundas desigualdades sociais e regionais e o correlato processo excludente quanto ao direito à educação no Brasil, tanto do ponto de vista normativo-político, quanto do ponto de vista das dinâmicas intraescolares. As conclusões evidenciam a necessidade de reflexão sobre a dívida histórica do país com a constituição de um sistema nacional de ensino e com a garantia do direito à educação.The article deals with the relationships between the problems of access, retention and quality and historical configuration of the Brazilian state and therefore the educational policy that was drawn from this setting. Highlights the profound social and regional inequality and exclusionary process correlated to the right to education in Brazil, both in terms of normative and political, as the point of view of the school dynamics. The findings highlight the need for reflection on the historical debt of the country with the establishment of a national education system and ensuring the right to education.

  9. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  10. Poder legislativo e política externa no Brasil: jogando com as regras Legislative power and foreign policy in Brazil: playing with the rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Anastasia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quais são os cursos de ação que um legislador talentoso, com preferências intensas em alguma área de política externa, seria capaz de identificar no atual arranjo institucional brasileiro, com vistas a ampliar a sua participação no processo decisório relacionado a tal tema? Este artigo toma como objeto o processo decisório relativo à política externa brasileira, dividindo-o, analiticamente, em dois tempos: o primeiro tempo abriga o jogo ex ante do exame das matérias de política externa pelo Poder Legislativo, ou seja, antes de as proposições serem formalmente apresentadas para tramitação e decisão legislativas. No segundo tempo, é jogado o jogo ex post no início da apreciação formal das referidas proposições pelo Poder Legislativo, sejam quais forem os seus autores. Para tanto, foi mobilizado o conceito de heresthetics, de William Riker, significando a capacidade de estruturar o mundo de forma a ganhar o jogo, transformando a situação de desfavorável em favorável para consecução de seus objetivos.What courses of action would allow a talented legislator in the current Brazilian institutional arrangement, with intense preferences in any area of foreign policy, to identify avenues for increasing their participation in decision-making in that issue area? This article centres on decision-making regarding Brazilian foreign policy, dividing it analytically in two stages: the first consists of an ex ante examination of foreign policy matters by the Legislature, that is, before bills are formally presented for legislative deliberation. In the second stage, the game is played ex post at the beginning of the formal assessment of these propositions by the Legislature. The text's approach is based on William Riker's concept of heresthetics, taken as the ability to structure the world in order to win the game, transforming an unfavorable situation into one favorable to the achievement of given goals.

  11. 75 FR 67989 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... efforts to improve the security of the Nation's infrastructure; Assist in validating and achieving IP's... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure... Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office...

  12. Políticas de saúde no Brasil nos anos 2000: a agenda federal de prioridades Health policies in Brazil in the 2000s: the national priority agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiani Vieira Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as prioridades da política nacional da saúde no período de 2003 a 2008, correspondente ao Governo Lula. A pesquisa envolveu revisão bibliográfica, análise documental, análise de dados e entrevistas com dirigentes federais. Foram identificadas quatro prioridades na agenda federal da saúde: a Estratégia Saúde da Família, o Brasil Sorridente, os Serviços de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência e o programa Farmácia Popular. A primeira configura uma política de alta densidade institucional, iniciada no governo anterior, constituindo um exemplo de "dependência da trajetória". As demais foram adotadas como marcos de governo e trouxeram inovações em áreas em que havia fragilidades da atuação federal. As quatro políticas prioritárias analisadas se voltam para problemas relevantes do sistema de saúde brasileiro, porém apresentam diferenças quanto à sua trajetória, base de apoio e implicações para os princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde. Apesar de mudanças incrementais, observou-se a predominância de elementos de continuidade na política nacional de saúde no período.This article analyzes Brazilian national health priorities from 2003 to 2008 under the Lula Administration. The study included a literature review, document analysis, and interviews with Federal health administrators. Four priorities were identified on the national health agenda: the Family Health Program, Smiling Brazil, Mobile Emergency Services, and the Popular Pharmacy Program. The first is a policy with high institutional density launched by the previous Administration, constituting an example of path dependence. The other three are innovations in areas where there had been weaknesses in Federal government action. The four policy priorities are strategies focused on solving key problems in the Brazilian health system. However, they display important differences in their historical development, political and institutional base, inclusion on

  13. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Description and User’s Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation initiated the Nuclear Energy (NE)–Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities, formerly the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility, to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE-supported and -related infrastructure. This database, known as the Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database (NEID), is used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc., to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of infrastructure calls. The Nuclear Science User Facilities developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a variety of reports from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID currently contains data on 802 research and development instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the United States and abroad. The effort to maintain and expand the database is ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions and added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements. This document provides a short tutorial on the navigation of the NEID web portal at NSUF-Infrastructure.INL.gov.

  14. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  15. Dilemas da política de distribuição de medicamentos antirretrovirais no Brasil Policy dilemmas in providing antiretroviral treatment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ferro do Lago

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata dos constrangimentos institucionais que têm afetado a política brasileira de provisão de medicamentos contra a Aids. É analisado o conflito normativo observado na política de Aids entre as regras internacionais da propriedade intelectual, em especial a proteção de patentes, e a orientação de acesso universal e gratuito a medicamentos, que norteia a política brasileira. Esses constrangimentos não têm tido sucesso em alterar a configuração distributiva da política pública brasileira; contudo, vêm alterando as condições de sustentabilidade da política pública. Considerando que a principal barreira para a produção de medicamentos protegidos por patente é institucional e não tecnológica, o governo brasileiro tem enfrentado o dilema da tomada de decisão entre a manutenção da regra de monopólio ou o incentivo à competitividade que permita o posicionamento eficiente dos produtores nacionais e dos países emergentes.This paper addresses institutional constraints that have affected Brazilian politics regarding provision of anti-retroviral treatment (ART to HIV/Aids patients. We analyzed the normative conflict resulting from international agreements on intellectual property rights, especially patent protection, and the constitutional rights of Brazilian patients to universal and free access to ART. These constraints have not substantially changed the Brazilian public policy yet, but they may impact the future sustainability of this policy. As the main barrier to the production of patented drugs is not technological but institutional, Brazilian government faces a dilemma. It may either abide by existing monopolistic restrictions or it may incite competitiveness of domestic industries and developing countries in the pharmaceutical market.

  16. An Improved Grid Security Infrastructure by Trusted Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fei; ZHANG Huanguo; SUN Qi; SHEN Zhidong; ZHANG Liqiang; QIANG Weizhong

    2006-01-01

    Current delegation mechanism of grid security infrastructure (GSI) can't satisfy the requirement of dynamic, distributed and practical security in grid virtual organization. To improve this situation, a TC-enabled GSI is discussed in this paper. With TC-enabled GSI, a practical delegation solution is proposed in this paper through enforcing fine granularity policy over distributed platforms with the emerging trusted computing technologies. Here trusted platform module is treated as a tamper-resistance module to improve grid security infrastructure. With the implement of Project Daonity, it is demonstrated that the solution could gain dynamic and distributed security in grid environment.

  17. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  18. Brazil in the global energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Frank D.; Vossoughi, Shapour [University of Kansas (KU), KS (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Brazil is the 10th largest energy consumer in the world and the third largest in the Western Hemisphere, behind the United States and Canada. Total primary energy consumption in Brazil has increased significantly in recent years; and over the past decade, Brazil has made great strides in increasing its total energy production, particularly oil. Brazil has the second-largest crude oil reserves in South America (behind Venezuela), and is one of the fastest growing oil producers in the world. According to United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Brazil had 12.2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves in 2008. In 2007, Brazil's state owned Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS) announced that it had discovered an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of recoverable reserves (including both oil and natural gas) in the Tupi field, located in the Santos Basin. In 2008, subsequent discoveries were announced, to include Jupiter and Carioca (aka Sugar Loaf). Although PETROBRAS has yet to confirm the size of the discoveries, some industry analysts estimate the total extent of recoverable oil and natural gas reserves in the entire pre-salt layer have approached 40 to 80 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The reserves occur below a salt zone that is estimated to be 7,000 meters below the ocean surface. However, Brazil faces many challenges to recover the hydrocarbons to include technical, political, fiscal, and infrastructure hurdles. In spite of the challenges ahead, these discoveries transformed the nature and focus of Brazil's oil industry, economy, and future; and the potential impact of the pre-salt discoveries upon world oil markets is vast. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the recent discoveries will affect Brazil's future and the impact it will have on the global energy world. (author)

  19. Establishing the Nuclear Security Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Programme. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides guidance on the actions that should be taken by a State to implement an effective nuclear security infrastructure for a nuclear power programme. The topics covered are: development of national policy and strategy; common nuclear security measures; infrastructure issues relating to nuclear and other radioactive material, associated facilities and cooperation with other States. The guidance provided is intended primarily for use by national policy makers, national legislators, competent authorities, institutions and individuals that are involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of the nuclear security infrastructure for a nuclear power programme.

  20. The neuronal infrastructure of speaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, L.M.E.; Segaert, K.M.; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using

  1. Embedded Processor Oriented Compiler Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKIC, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research of special compiler techniques and algorithms for embedded processors broaden the knowledge of how to achieve better compiler performance in irregular processor architectures. However, industrial strength compilers, besides ability to generate efficient code, must also be robust, understandable, maintainable, and extensible. This raises the need for compiler infrastructure that provides means for convenient implementation of embedded processor oriented compiler techniques. Cirrus Logic Coyote 32 DSP is an example that shows how traditional compiler infrastructure is not able to cope with the problem. That is why the new compiler infrastructure was developed for this processor, based on research. in the field of embedded system software tools and experience in development of industrial strength compilers. The new infrastructure is described in this paper. Compiler generated code quality is compared with code generated by the previous compiler for the same processor architecture.

  2. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  3. Helix Nebula: Enabling federation of existing data infrastructures and data services to an overarching cross-domain e-infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Wolfgang; Farres, Jordi; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele; Lassalle-Balier, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Helix Nebula has established a growing public private partnership of more than 30 commercial cloud providers, SMEs, and publicly funded research organisations and e-infrastructures. The Helix Nebula strategy is to establish a federated cloud service across Europe. Three high-profile flagships, sponsored by CERN (high energy physics), EMBL (life sciences) and ESA/DLR/CNES/CNR (earth science), have been deployed and extensively tested within this federated environment. The commitments behind these initial flagships have created a critical mass that attracts suppliers and users to the initiative, to work together towards an "Information as a Service" market place. Significant progress in implementing the following 4 programmatic goals (as outlined in the strategic Plan Ref.1) has been achieved: × Goal #1 Establish a Cloud Computing Infrastructure for the European Research Area (ERA) serving as a platform for innovation and evolution of the overall infrastructure. × Goal #2 Identify and adopt suitable policies for trust, security and privacy on a European-level can be provided by the European Cloud Computing framework and infrastructure. × Goal #3 Create a light-weight governance structure for the future European Cloud Computing Infrastructure that involves all the stakeholders and can evolve over time as the infrastructure, services and user-base grows. × Goal #4 Define a funding scheme involving the three stake-holder groups (service suppliers, users, EC and national funding agencies) into a Public-Private-Partnership model to implement a Cloud Computing Infrastructure that delivers a sustainable business environment adhering to European level policies. Now in 2014 a first version of this generic cross-domain e-infrastructure is ready to go into operations building on federation of European industry and contributors (data, tools, knowledge, ...). This presentation describes how Helix Nebula is being used in the domain of earth science focusing on geohazards. The

  4. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  5. Brazil: Mechanisms of Direct Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bovo, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    In the structure of Brazilian Government, regarding both the executive as well as the executive powers, the increase in ways in which society can participate in decisions of public interest, stands out. Among the shared or participatory managerial policies implemented in Brazil, the following are noteworthy: the participatory budget, managerial councils, committees dealing with watersheds, thematic conferences, plebiscites, public meetings and referenda. However, if compared to the size of Br...

  6. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto de Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  7. Building a Modular Authorization Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W; Zhao, Gansen; Otenko, Sassa; LABORDE, Romain; Su, Linying; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2006-01-01

    Authorization infrastructures manage privileges and render access control decisions, allowing applications to adjust their behavior according to the privileges allocated to users. This paper describes the PERMIS role based authorization infrastructure along with its conceptual authorisation, access control, and trust models. PERMIS has the novel concept of a credential validation service, which verifies a user’s credentials prior to access control decision making and enables ...

  8. PERMIS: a modular authorization infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W; Zhao, Gansen; Otenko, Sassa; LABORDE, Romain; Su, Linying; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2008-01-01

    Authorization infrastructures manage privileges and render access control decisions, allowing applications to adjust their behavior according to the privileges allocated to users. This paper describes the PERMIS role-based authorization infrastructure along with its conceptual authorization, access control, and trust models. PERMIS has the novel concept of a credential validation service, which verifies a user's credentials prior to access control decision-making and enables the distributed m...

  9. Forests and Forest Cover - Green Infrastructure Gaps

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data provide restoration value rankings and ecological attributes associated with green infrastructure gaps. The Green Infrastructure Assessment was developed...

  10. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  11. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  12. Infraestrutura de biossegurança para agentes biológicos em hospitais do sul do Estado da Bahia, Brasil Infraesctructura de bioseguridad para los agentes biológicos en hospitales del sur del Estado de Bahia, Brasil Biosecurity infrastructure for biological agents in hospitals from the south of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maridalva de Souza Penteado

    2010-10-01

    én el cuidado con la vida de sus trabajadores.The purpose of the study was to describe the biosecurity infrastructure in hospitals located in the South Region of Bahia State, Brazil. That was a descriptive-exploratory study carried out in commissions hospital infections control and institutional prevention commission of accidents about the existence of written norms, the accomplishment of training, the existence of concernments institutional registers to the biosecurity, and the existence of practical attention to the health of the professionals and isolated patients. Hospitals are compared according to the presence of each one of the itens under analysis as its classification, legal-financial issues, etc. It was conclude that the general situation is precarious regarding the presence of the items investigated, that impels to consider the necessity that must take into account an analysis of hospital quality, and also the care of the life of its workers.

  13. Brazilian Agriculture and Policy Changes under GATT

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Helmar

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to Brazil's development from the 1500's to the mid-1900's. During this period, Brazil's economy was geared toward exporting a small number of primary products and its society was predominantly rural (Baer 1989). Since the Great Depression, and more rapidly since World War II, Brazil's population has become urbanized and the economy has been dominated by an expanding industrial sector. Many policies and investments needed to fuel industrial growth have been at the ...

  14. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  15. Brazil - Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This country note briefly summarizes information relevant to both climate change and agriculture in Brazil, with focus on policy developments (including action plans and programs) and institutional make-up. In Brazil, the 5th largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world, agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to green house gas (GHG) emissions. ...

  16. Reframing Agrarian Citizenship: Land, Life and Power in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the changing relationship between land, citizenship, and power in Brazil, where land-related policies have historically served to situate political and economic rights in the hands of an elite land-owning minority. In response, contemporary grassroots movements in Brazil, including the Landless Rural Workers Movement…

  17. Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajber, Rachel; Mochizuki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    This article maps and explains Brazil's policies, strategies, plans and initiatives related to Climate Change Education (CCE), in the overall context of Environmental Education (EE) and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The case of Brazil offers useful insights on how to enhance climate response through education because of its unique…

  18. Federal technology policy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, K.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses federal energy and environmental policies and their impact on the U.S. economy. A brief history of the federal government`s role in developing scientific and technological infrastructure is given. Current trends in technology are summarized, with an emphasis on global aspects, and their impact on the economy is discussed. The need for a national technology policy, including continued research and development funding, is discussed and key elements of such a policy are outlined.

  19. Potencialidades e limites da política de cotas no Brasil Analyzing Strategies: The Potentials and Limits of Quota Policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARA ARAÚJO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de um balanço sobre as eleições de 1996, 1998 e 2000, o artigo analisa o impacto das cotas sobre os resultados eleitorais, concluindo pela pequena eficácia dessa iniciativa sobre o acesso das mulheres ao legislativo brasileiro. Procura, então, identificar alguns fatores explicativos para esse processo, vinculados ao contexto e ao sistema político e eleitoral. Ao mesmo tempo, tece considerações críticas sobre as avaliações que procuram explicar tais resultados a partir da "resistência partidária masculina", concebida de modo genérico. Por fim, discute a importância de uma análise multicausal para a compreensão da participação política das mulheres.Taking stock of the 1996, 1998 and 2000 election campaigns, this article analyzes the impact of quota policies on electoral outcomes, coming to the conclusion that this initiative has had limited effectiveness in promoting women's access to the Brazilian legislature. From there, I seek to identify some of the factors that could explain this process, as linked to the context and to the political and electoral system. At the same time, I develop some critical considerations regarding the evaluation of these outcomes as the results of male resistance within parties, conceived of in a generic sense. Lastly, I discuss the importance of multi-causal analysis for the understanding of women's political participation

  20. The future of infrastructure security : a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included ininfrastructure' problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions ofsecure and resilient' infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  1. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY: Government Accountability... Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology infrastructure to the...

  2. The impact of poor governance on water and sediment quality: a case study in the Pitimbu River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L.; Adamowski, J.; Gaskin, S.; Saraiva, A.

    2014-09-01

    Applying a collaborative approach under a power-sharing institutional structure, coupled with a shift in paradigms, sustainable water resources management often requires political-institutional reform to achieve its goals. Most of Brazil's river basins are subject to rapid urbanization; however, basin stakeholders generally lack sufficient institutional capacity to address the attending water resource issues. Subject to urbanisation, the Pitimbu River basin supplies potable water to approximately 280 000 people in Brazil's Natal region. This study investigated how current institutional models influence both water management and fluvial contamination by metals. Sediment samples collected at eight sites along the river revealed elevated levels of Pb, Fe, Al, Ni and Zn, whose sources were linked to industries, vehicles, as well as agricultural and construction wastes. Aluminium enrichment of surface waters was mainly linked to inadequate sanitation infrastructure. In light of this, the region's poor institutional capacity must be addressed through institutional reform, including a new management structure open to public collective water management planning. In so doing, Brazil's water policies should acknowledge capacity building as a critical element of institutional reform.

  3. An Institutional Approach to Developing Research Data Management Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. J. Wilson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the work that the University of Oxford is undertaking to implement a coordinated data management infrastructure. The rationale for the approach being taken by Oxford is presented, with particular attention paid to the role of each service division. This is followed by a consideration of the relative advantages and disadvantages of institutional data repositories, as opposed to national or international data centres. The article then focuses on two ongoing JISC-funded projects, ‘Embedding Institutional Data Curation Services in Research’ (Eidcsr and ‘Supporting Data Management Infrastructure for the Humanities’ (Sudamih. Both projects are intra-institutional collaborations and involve working with researchers to develop particular aspects of infrastructure, including: University policy, systems for the preservation and documentation of research data, training and support, software tools for the visualisation of large images, and creating and sharing databases via the Web (Database as a Service.

  4. VEGA Infrastructure for Resource Discovery in Grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG YiLi(龚奕利); DONG FangPeng(董方鹏); LI Wei(李伟); XU ZhiWei(徐志伟)

    2003-01-01

    Grids enable users to share and access large collections and various types of resources in wide areas, and how to locate resources in such dynamic, heterogeneous and autonomous distributed environments is a key and challenging issue. In this paper, a three-level decentralized and dynamic VEGA Infrastructure for Resource Discovery (VIRD) is proposed. In this architecture, every Border Grid Resource Name Server (BGRNS) or Grid Resource Name Server (GRNS)has its own local policies, governing information organization, management and searching. Changes in resource information are propagated dynamically among GRNS servers according to a link-statelike algorithm. A client can query its designated GRNS either recursively or iteratively. Optimizing techniques, such as shortcut, are adopted to make the dynamic framework more flexible and efficient. A simulator called SimVIRD is developed to verify the proposed architecture and algorithms.Experiment results indicate that this architecture could deliver good scalability and performance for grid resource discovery.

  5. Enhancing Infrastructure Security in Real Estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Dees

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available s a result of the increased dependency on obtaining information and connecting each computer togetherfor ease of access/communication, organizations risk being attacked and losing private information through breaches or insecure business activities. To help protect organizations and their assets, companies need to develop a strong understanding of the risks imposed on their company and the security solutions designed to prevent/minimize vulnerabilities. To reduce the impact threats have on a network, organizations need to: design a defense layer system that provides multiple instances of protection to prevent unauthorized access to core information, implement a strong network hardware/intrusion prevention system, and create all-inclusive network/security policies that detail user rules and company rights. In order to enhance the overall security of a basic infrastructure, this paper will provide a detailed look into gathering the organizational requirements, designing and implementing a secure physical network layout, and selecting the standards needed to prevent unauthorized access.

  6. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  7. The population question in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  8. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  9. E-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The 8th e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was held in the Globe from 4 to 5 November to discuss the development of Europe’s distributed computing and storage resources.   Project leaders attend the E-Concertation Meeting at the Globe on 5 November 2010. © Corentin Chevalier E-Infrastructures have become an indispensable tool for scientific research, linking researchers to virtually unlimited e-resources like the grid. The recent e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting brought together e-Science project leaders to discuss the development of this tool in the European context. The meeting was part of an ongoing initiative to develop a world-class e-infrastructure resource that would establish European leadership in e-Science. The e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was organised by the Commission Services (EC) with the support of e-ScienceTalk. “The Concertation meeting at CERN has been a great opportunity for e-ScienceTalk to meet many of the 38 new proje...

  10. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  11. Infrastructure needs for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is a significant component of electricity systems world-wide and in OECD countries as a whole it accounts for about 25% of the electricity supply. The current stagnation in nuclear power orders and the expectation of diminishing nuclear programmes in several countries might jeopardize industrial infrastructures based on nuclear activities. Questions arise as to whether special measures are needed to ensure that the nuclear option will be available when wanted and if so, who would take these measures. This paper provides at first an attempt to define what can be considered as ''structure'' and ''infrastructure'' and then a review of relevant issues related to industrial and governmental supporting infrastructure. In particular, the manpower availability and educational implications are examined

  12. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice.

  13. Transportation Infrastructure and the Asia-Pacific Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2005-01-01

    Adequate, well maintained transportation infrastructure is a critical element of the Pacific food system in addressing challenges of rapid urbanization. Policymakers must invest either in streamlining domestic supply chains and/or in facilitating food imports through market opening measures. Economic incentives, competitive transportation and logistic services, and policy reforms, both within the borders of individual economies as well as across the Asia-Pacific region, are also necessary. Im...

  14. Organizing infrastructure: building infrastructure projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Giezen

    2008-01-01

    The paper, which reconstructs the evolution of infrastructure planning in Holland, offers a view of the transformations that have taken place in the legislative and financial context for projects, with a particular focus on the consultation procedures followed to guarantee the feasibility of program

  15. Infrastructure gap in South Asia : infrastructure needs, prioritization, and financing

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Luis; Biller, Dan; Herrera Dappe,Matias

    2014-01-01

    If the South Asia region hopes to meet its development goals and not risk slowing down or even halting growth, poverty alleviation, and shared prosperity, it is essential to make closing its huge infrastructure gap a priority. Identifying and addressing gaps in the data on expenditure, access, and quality are crucial to ensuring that governments make efficient, practical, and effective inf...

  16. INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENTS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Kochaniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of the country brings an increasing standard of living, increasing production capacity and also bigger public safety. Economic development also causes changes in the structure of Gross Domestic Product as well as changes in the structure of employment. Regarding the fact that the economic development is a longtime process of changes that happen in economy and refers to both quantitative and qualitative changes it should be stimulated by proper investments. The aim of this article is to present a role of infrastructure investments in economic development. The concept of economic development, infrastructure investments and their mutual influence is presented.

  17. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  18. Equality inter generation and petroleum royalties at the debate on climate changes: considerations on a state policy on climate changes at the state or Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Equidade intergeracional e royalties do petroleo no debate sobre mudancas climaticas: consideracoes sobre uma politica estadual sobre mudanca do clima no estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Flavia Cahete Lopes; Araujo, Maria Silvia Muylaert de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a basis for reflection on the petrol exploitation and the royalty concept for a state policy of facing the climate changes at the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Conceptually, objective of the payment of royalties for exploitation of a exaustable natural resource is to guarantee that thr next human generations be compensated by the absence of the explored natural resource. The paper intends to verify if the present Brazilian model of distribution and application of the resources referring to the payment of royalties coming from the petroleum production provides for the future generations which can not to count with the finite natural resource.

  19. Road Infrastructure Development and Deforestation in Southwest Amazonia: a Tri-National Frontier Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda Zambrano, A. M.; Broadbent, E. N.; Asner, G. P.; Knapp, D. E.; Durham, W. H.; Duchelle, A. E.; Wunder, S.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructure development is a priority in many tropical countries. Road infrastructure, in particular, has been linked to deforestation. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how road infrastructure interacts with population and market dynamics to influence forest clearing. To address this we conducted a large-scale interdisciplinary research project in the tri-national Amazonian frontier of Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia encompassing 101,463 km2. This setting, a gradient of young to old Amazon frontier areas, provided a unique opportunity for the study of human environment interactions under varying stages of road infrastructure development while controlling for biophysical variation. We coupled multivariate statistical approaches on roads, population, markets, and deforestation with multitemporal spatial analysis of deforestation and infrastructure development using remote sensing and geographic information systems. Our results highlight the dynamic conditions occurring in Amazonian frontier regions, including rapid road infrastructure development, expansion of markets, and decrease in forest cover. We found that travel time to the nearest market dominated deforestation dynamics, with infrastructure development resulting in increased market access. Findings from this study support a deforestation framework focusing on urban population and market dynamics, and highlight the importance of modeling landscape deforestation using travel time versus spatial proximity approaches. Results are directly applicable to both furthering the theoretical understanding of human-environment interactions in frontier landscapes, as well as for applied environmental conservation and sustainable development efforts in the tropics.;

  20. From Political to Economic Siege in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Political forces in Brazil have caused significant economic changes, including hyperinflation, and policy that threaten higher education in a variety of ways, including failure to expand during a period of economic strength, severe loss of academic autonomy, lowering of academic and administrative standards, and declines in teacher education and…

  1. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  2. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present...

  3. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  4. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  5. Communications and information infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Communication and Information Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering strategies for protecting the telecommunications sector, wireless security, advanced web based technology for emergency situations. Science and technology for critical infrastructure consequence mitigation are also discussed.

  6. Science of Extreme Light Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Toshiki; Barish, Barry C.; Barty, C. P.; Bulanov, Sergei; Chen, Pisin; Feldhaus, Josef; Hajdu, Janos; Keitel, Christoph H.; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Leemans, Wim; Normand, Didier; Palumbo, Luigi; Rzazewski, Kazimierz; Sergeev, Alexander; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Teshima, Masahiro

    2010-04-01

    The infrastructure of Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) provides an unprecedented opportunity for a broad range of frontier science. Its highest ever intensity of lasers, as well as high fluence, high power, and/or ultrafast optical characteristics carve out new territories of discovery, ranging from attosecond science to photonuclear science, laser acceleration and associated beams, and high field science (Four Pillars of ELI). Its applications span from medicine, biology, engineering, energy, chemistry, physics, and fundamental understanding of the Universe. The relativistic optics that intense lasers have begun exploring may be extended into a new regime of ultra-relativistic regime, where even protons fly relativistically in the optical fields. ELI provides the highest intensity to date such that photon fields begin to feel even the texture of vacuum. This is a singular appeal of ELI with its relatively modest infrastructure (compared to the contemporary largest scientific infrastructures), yet provides an exceptional avenue along which the 21st Century science and society need to answer the toughest questions. The intensity frontier simultaneously brings in the energy horizon (TeV and PeV) as well as temporal frontier (attoseconds and zeptoseconds). It also turns over optics of atoms and molecules into that of nuclei with the ability to produce monoenergetic collimated γ-ray photons. As such, the ELI concept acutely demands an effort to encompass and integrate its Four Pillars.

  7. The neuronal infrastructure of speaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, L.M.E.; Segaert, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain’s integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using

  8. Nuclear power infrastructure and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include feasibility studies; technology evaluation; request for proposals and proposal evaluation; project and contracts development and financing; supply, construction, and commissioning; and finally operation. The IAEA is developing guidance directed to provide criteria for assessing the minimum infrastructure necessary for: a) a host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, or b) a supplier country to consider when assessing that the recipient country would be in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of nuclear power. There are Member States that may be denied the benefits of nuclear energy if the infrastructure requirements are too large or onerous for the national economy. However if co-operation could be achieved, the infrastructure burden could be shared and economic benefits gained by several countries acting jointly. The IAEA is developing guidance on the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure among countries adopting or extending nuclear power programme

  9. E-Infrastructure and Data Management for Global Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Gurney, R. J.; Cesar, R.; Cossu, R.; Gemeinholzer, B.; Koike, T.; Mokrane, M.; Peters, D.; Nativi, S.; Samors, R.; Treloar, A.; Vilotte, J. P.; Visbeck, M.; Waldmann, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Belmont Forum, a coalition of science funding agencies from 15 countries, is supporting an 18-month effort to assess the state of international of e-infrastructures and data management so that global change data and information can be more easily and efficiently exchanged internationally and across domains. Ultimately, this project aims to address the Belmont "Challenge" to deliver knowledge needed for action to avoid and adapt to detrimental environmental change, including extreme hazardous events. This effort emerged from conclusions by the Belmont Forum that transformative approaches and innovative technologies are needed for heterogeneous data/information to be integrated and made interoperable for researchers in disparate fields, and for myriad uses across international, institutional, disciplinary, spatial and temporal boundaries. The project will deliver a Community Strategy and Implementation Plan to prioritize international funding opportunities and long-term policy recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to funding and supporting global change research. The Plan is expected to serve as the foundation of future Belmont Forum funding calls for proposals in support of research science goals as well as to establish long term e-infrastructure. More than 120 scientists, technologists, legal experts, social scientists, and other experts are participating in six Work Packages to develop the Plan by spring, 2015, under the broad rubrics of Architecture/Interoperability and Governance: Data Integration for Multidisciplinary Research; Improved Interface between Computation & Data Infrastructures; Harmonization of Global Data Infrastructure; Data Sharing; Open Data; and Capacity Building. Recommendations could lead to a more coordinated approach to policies, procedures and funding mechanisms to support e-infrastructures in a more sustainable way.

  10. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  11. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  12. Distorções causadas pelas ações judiciais à política de medicamentos no Brasil Distortions to national drug policy caused by lawsuits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Sulpino Vieira

    2007-04-01

    of State of Sao Paulo, relating to the supply of drugs in 2005 were analyzed. A standardized form was used to collect data, with a view to carrying out an exploratory analysis. RESULTS: A total of 170 cases relating to the supply of drugs were brought against the Municipal Secretary of State. The National Health System (SUS was the source for 59% of the prescriptions: 26% from the municipal level, 33% from other levels. Cancer and diabetes were the diseases most commonly involved (59%. About 62% of drugs requested are on the lists of SUS services. Total expenditure was R$876,000 (Brazilian Reais, covering only non-selected items (i.e. those which are not included in the Municipal Register of Essential Medicines, 73% of which could be substituted. Of the total expenditure, 75% was spent on purchasing anticancer drugs, for which further clinical trials are required to prove their effectiveness. Two of these medicines were not registered in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of demands for drugs that have led to legal proceedings could be avoided if two SUS directives were followed, namely the organization of oncology services and the observance of reporting on essential medicines. Failure to do so causes a breakdown in the National Drug Policy, in equality of access and in the rational use of drugs within the National Health System.

  13. Software and Hardware Infrastructure for Research in Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman eMouček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other areas of experimental science, operation of electrophysiological laboratory, design and performance of electrophysiological experiments, collection, storage and sharing of experimental data and metadata, analysis and interpretation of these data, and publication of results are time consuming activities. If these activities are well organized and supported by a suitable infrastructure, work efficiency of researchers increases significantly.This article deals with the main concepts, design, and development of software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology. The described infrastructure has been primarily developed for the needs of neuroinformatics laboratory at the University of West Bohemia, the Czech Republic. However, from the beginning it has been also designed and developed to be open and applicable in laboratories that do similar research.After introducing the laboratory and the whole architectural concept the individual parts of the infrastructure are described. The central element of the software infrastructure is a web-based portal that enables community researchers to store, share, download and search data and metadata from electrophysiological experiments. The data model, domain ontology and usage of semantic web languages and technologies are described. Current data publication policy used in the portal is briefly introduced. The registration of the portal within Neuroscience Information Framework is described. Then the methods used for processing of electrophysiological signals are presented. The specific modifications of these methods introduced by laboratory researches are summarized; the methods are organized into a laboratory workflow. Other parts of the software infrastructure include mobile and offline solutions for data/metadata storing and a hardware stimulator communicating with an EEG amplifier and recording software.

  14. Software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouček, Roman; Ježek, Petr; Vařeka, Lukáš; Rondík, Tomáš; Brůha, Petr; Papež, Václav; Mautner, Pavel; Novotný, Jiří; Prokop, Tomáš; Stěbeták, Jan

    2014-01-01

    As in other areas of experimental science, operation of electrophysiological laboratory, design and performance of electrophysiological experiments, collection, storage and sharing of experimental data and metadata, analysis and interpretation of these data, and publication of results are time consuming activities. If these activities are well organized and supported by a suitable infrastructure, work efficiency of researchers increases significantly. This article deals with the main concepts, design, and development of software and hardware infrastructure for research in electrophysiology. The described infrastructure has been primarily developed for the needs of neuroinformatics laboratory at the University of West Bohemia, the Czech Republic. However, from the beginning it has been also designed and developed to be open and applicable in laboratories that do similar research. After introducing the laboratory and the whole architectural concept the individual parts of the infrastructure are described. The central element of the software infrastructure is a web-based portal that enables community researchers to store, share, download and search data and metadata from electrophysiological experiments. The data model, domain ontology and usage of semantic web languages and technologies are described. Current data publication policy used in the portal is briefly introduced. The registration of the portal within Neuroscience Information Framework is described. Then the methods used for processing of electrophysiological signals are presented. The specific modifications of these methods introduced by laboratory researches are summarized; the methods are organized into a laboratory workflow. Other parts of the software infrastructure include mobile and offline solutions for data/metadata storing and a hardware stimulator communicating with an EEG amplifier and recording software.

  15. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Fitness and Suitability Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation (NE-4) initiated the Nuclear Energy-Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE supported or related infrastructure. This database will be used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc. in order to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of the infrastructure calls. The NSUF developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a wide variety of reports from the Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID contains data on 802 R&D instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the US and abroad. A Database Review Panel (DRP) was formed to review and provide advice on the development, implementation and utilization of the NEID. The panel is comprised of five members with expertise in nuclear energy-associated research. It was intended that they represent the major constituencies associated with nuclear energy research: academia, industry, research reactor, national laboratory, and Department of Energy program management. The Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Review Panel concludes that the NSUF has succeeded in creating a capability and infrastructure database that identifies and documents the major nuclear energy research and development capabilities across the DOE complex. The effort to maintain and expand the database will be ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements.

  16. Policy of Development of Exhibition Infrastructure in Ukraine Политика развития выставочной инфраструктуры в Украине

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinash Irina P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that exhibition infrastructure is a component of the social infrastructure of the state. It analyses tendencies of development of exhibition infrastructure of Ukraine and reveals problems of its functioning. The author reveals positive tendencies of development of the exhibition infrastructure: increase of the number of exhibition centres, measures, participants, etc. It offers, on the basis of studies, directions of the policy of its development by means of: adoption of necessary legislative acts on expansion of the exhibition activity; effective use of the existing exhibition facilities; development of service infrastructure; membership of Ukraine in international exhibition organisations; and attraction of various sources of financing the projects of development of exhibition centres.Выставочная инфраструктура в данной статье выступает составляющей социальной инфраструктуры государства. В работе осуществлен анализ тенденций развития выставочной инфраструктуры Украины, выявлены проблемы функционирования. Автором выявлены положительные тенденции развития выставочной инфраструктуры: увеличение количества выставочных центров, мероприятий, участников выставок и т. п. На основе исследований предложены направления политики ее развития за счет: принятия необходимых законодательных актов по расширению выставочной деятельности; эффективного использования имеющихся выставочных площадей; развития

  17. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  18. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors ...

  19. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities. PMID:22267079

  20. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  1. A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalludin Bilal; Hishammudin Mohd Ali; Ibrahim Sipan; Nurlaila Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green infrastructure planning has grown in prominence since it was first discussed in the late 1990’s. Since the President’s Council on Sustainable Development discussed the concept researchers and academics from across the globe, though predominantly the UK, Western Europe and North America, have won the process. However, green infrastructure is an important trust in National Landscape Policy (NLP). At the moment, Malaysia is moving towards to a developed nation by the year 2020. One thing t...

  2. A discussion on indicators and criteria for sustainable urban infrastructure development

    OpenAIRE

    Danko, Cristina Carvalho; Lourenço, Júlia

    2007-01-01

    Infrastructure systems are at the core of urban sustainability issues. As population growth in urban centres continues to increase, infrastructure requires both development and rehabilitation. Unsurprisingly, this challenge is more evident in urban centres across the world and Portugal is not exception. To address this issue, the technical proposal of the Portuguese Program of the Policies for Land-Use Planning (PNPOT), and according to the Council of Ministers Resolution of Ap...

  3. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  4. Risk Assessment of Infrastructure System of Systems with Precursor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyu; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2016-08-01

    Physical infrastructure systems are commonly composed of interconnected and interdependent subsystems, which in their essence constitute system of systems (S-o-S). System owners and policy researchers need tools to foresee potential emergent forced changes and to understand their impact so that effective risk management strategies can be developed. We develop a systemic framework for precursor analysis to support the design of an effective and efficient precursor monitoring and decision support system with the ability to (i) identify and prioritize indicators of evolving risks of system failure; and (ii) evaluate uncertainties in precursor analysis to support informed and rational decision making. This integrated precursor analysis framework is comprised of three processes: precursor identification, prioritization, and evaluation. We use an example of a highway bridge S-o-S to demonstrate the theories and methodologies of the framework. Bridge maintenance processes involve many interconnected and interdependent functional subsystems and decision-making entities and bridge failure can have broad social and economic consequences. The precursor analysis framework, which constitutes an essential part of risk analysis, examines the impact of various bridge inspection and maintenance scenarios. It enables policy researchers and analysts who are seeking a risk perspective on bridge infrastructure in a policy setting to develop more risk informed policies and create guidelines to efficiently allocate limited risk management resources and mitigate severe consequences resulting from bridge failures. PMID:27575259

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The annual maintenance of detector services took place from mid November to mid January as planned. This involved a full stoppage of water-cooling circuits on November 24th with a gradual restarting from mid-January 09. The annual maintenance service included the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers and the service of the chiller plants on surface. The cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet was shut-down as well to perform the annual maintenance. In addition to that, the overall site power has been reduced from 8 to 2 MW, in order to cope with the switching to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power was reinstated at the end of January. The cooling network has seen the installation of a bypass for the endcap circuit, in order to limit pressure surges when one endcap is shut-off. In addition, filters have been added on most of the cooling loops in UXC55 to better protect the muon chambers. At the same time a global cleaning campaign of all the filters (more than 500 pieces) has been completed. As expe...

  7. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

      During the Year-End Technical Stop all the systems have been carefully inspected in order to assure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. Regarding the electrical distribution, the annual General Emergency Stop test (AUG, in CERN language) has shown a discrepancy in the action matrix, as some racks were not cut off by the AUG action as they should have been. The subsequent investigation quickly indicated that a missing connection at the main UPS switchboard was the source of the problem. The problem has been addressed to the EN/EL group responsible for the equipment and a new test is planned in the beginning of March. Some consolidation work has been carried out as well, namely the doubling of the line powering the rack that houses the DCS servers in USC55. During the last months of the technical stop, the cooling systems of CMS have undergone the usual preventive maintenance, a few corrective interventions and a huge programme of performance tests. The preventive maintenance programm...

  8. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    The various water-cooling circuits have been running smoothly since the last maintenance stop. The temperature set-points are being tuned to the actual requests from sub-detectors. As the RPC chambers seem to be rather sensitive to temperature fluctuations, the set-point on the Barrel and Endcap Muon circuits has been lowered by one degree Celsius, reaching the minimum temperature possible with the current hardware. A further decrease in temperature will only be possible with a substantial modification of the heat exchanger and related control valve on the primary circuit. A study has been launched to investigate possible solutions and related costs. The two cooling skids for Totem and Castor have been installed on top of the HF platform. They will supply demineralized water to the two forward sub-detectors, transferring the heat to the main rack circuit via an on-board heat exchanger. A preliminary analysis of the cooling requirements of the SCX5 computer farm has been done. As a first result, two precision...

  10. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the May 31st to June 2nd LHC Technical Stop, a major step was made towards upgrading the endcap cooling circuit. The chilled-water regulation valve on the primary side of the heat-exchanger was changed. This now allows reduction of the set-value of the water temperature cooling the RPCs and CSCs of the CMS endcaps. At the same time, the bypass re-circulating valve on the secondary circuit of the heat-exchanger was also changed to allow better regulation of this set-value. A project has been launched with the objective of improving the distribution of the chilled water to the different users. This was triggered by evidence that the Tracker compressors in USC55 receive insufficient flow. The chilled water is shared with the HVAC system and experts are now looking at how to better balance the flow between these two main users. The cooling loop filters located in UXC55 have been inspected and cleaned. Samples were sent to CERN Radioprotection Service to check for activation and to the Material Analysis...

  11. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  12. Technical infrastructure monitoring at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stowisek, Jan; Suwalska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring system (TIM) is used to monitor and control CERN's technical services from the CERN Control Centre (CCC). The system's primary function is to provide CCC operators with reliable real-time information about the state of the laboratory's extensive and widely distributed technical infrastructure. TIM is also used to monitor all general services required for the operation of CERN's accelerator complex and the experiments. A flexible data acquisition mechanism allows TIM to interface with a wide range of technically diverse installations, using industry standard protocols wherever possible and custom designed solutions where needed. The complexity of the data processing logic, including persistence, logging, alarm handling, command execution and the evaluation of datadriven business rules is encapsulated in the system's business layer. Users benefit from a suite of advanced graphical applications adapted to operations (synoptic views, alarm consoles, data analysis tools etc....

  13. Modernizing the ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Simulation infrastructure has been used to produce upwards of 50 billion proton-proton collision events for analyses ranging from detailed Standard Model measurements to searches for exotic new phenomena. In the last several years, the infrastructure has been heavily revised to allow intuitive multithreading and significantly improved maintainability. Such a massive update of a legacy code base requires careful choices about what pieces of code to completely rewrite and what to wrap or revise. The initialization of the complex geometry was generalized to allow new tools and geometry description languages, popular in some detector groups. The addition of multithreading requires Geant4 MT and GaudiHive, two frameworks with fundamentally different approaches to multithreading, to work together. It also required enforcing thread safety throughout a large code base, which required the redesign of several aspects of the simulation, including “truth,” the record of particle interactions with the detect...

  14. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  15. MANAGEMENT AND CHALLENGES OF BRAZILIAN AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE: OPERATIONAL DIFFICULTIES FOR LARGE EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luiz Knupp Rodrigues; Gláucio Caltabiano Ferreira; Cintia Manfredini; José Luis Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to present, discuss and reflect on the solutions and consequences for the achievement of major events in Brazil in relation to the main operational difficulties in its current airport infrastructure. Operational difficulties refers to various factors that hinder or prevent the development of airport activities, such as aircraft delays, flight cancellations and customer discomfort. Therefore, this article seeks to think over the structure of the facilities, the lack of investmen...

  16. iMarine - data infrastructure enabling software ?

    OpenAIRE

    Simi, Manuele; Farantatos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    iMarine Data Infrastructure Enabling Software contains the description of software and pointers to the related documentation and artifacts of the components that comprise the e-Infrastructure Management suite delivered up to M6. ? ? ? ?

  17. ISTISNA‘ FINANCING OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ZARQA, MUHAMMAD ANAS

    1997-01-01

    Projects that do not generate explicit income cannot be possibly financed on a profit-sharing basis. A suitable interest-free alternative method of financing is presented here, based on istisna‘ sale contract (commissioned or pre-ordered productio). Various aspects of using istisna‘ as a financing tool for infrastructural projects are discussed, including: (a) the illiquidity of the resulting financial claims and its implications, (b) suitability for financial intermediaries, and (c) the poss...

  18. A Statistical Analysis on the Effects of Infrastructure on Rural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuQingjiang; YangHaiyan

    2005-01-01

    Based on statistical analysis, this paper states that four types of rural infrastructure as roads, electrcity,communications, and education have statistically significant effects on agricultural production, nonagricultural production, and farmers' income in China. However, the specifics and the degrees of these influences are different.Therefore, different policies have to be implemented respectively to make full use of the limited funds in China.Meanwhile, the maturity level of rural infrastructure as with rural economic development has regional discrepancy.The levels of maturity decrease from east to west. it is urgent that the current weak situation of the rural Infrastructure in western China needs to be improved.

  19. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  20. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  1. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berscheid, Alan P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  2. Momentum in Transformation of Technical Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Current infrastructure holds a considerable momentum and this momentum is a barrier of transformation towards more sustainable technologies and more sustainable styles of network management. Using the sewage sector in Denmark as an example of a technical infrastructure system this paper argues...... that there are technical, economical and social aspects of the current infrastructures momentum....

  3. Towards a Common Language of Infrastructure Interdependency

    OpenAIRE

    Carhart, Neil; Rosenberg, Ges

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructure systems can exist interdependently with one another either by design, necessity or evolution. There is evidence that interdependencies can be the source of emergent benefits and hazards, and therefore there is value in their identification and management. Achieving this requires collaboration and communication between infrastructure stakeholders across all relevant sectors. Recognising, developing and sharing multiple understandings of infrastructure interdependency and depende...

  4. [Generic drugs in Brazil: historical overview and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Lorena Ulhôa; Albuquerque, Kemile Toledo de; Kato, Kelly Cristina; Silveira, Gleiciely Santos; Maciel, Náira Rezende; Spósito, Pollyanna Álvaro; Barcellos, Neila Márcia Silva; Souza, Jacqueline de; Bueno, Márcia; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2010-12-01

    The Brazilian generic drugs policy was implemented in 1999 with the aim of stimulating competition in the market, improve the quality of drugs and improve the access of the population to drug treatment. The process of implementing this policy allowed the introduction and discussion of concepts that had never before been used in the context of drug registration in Brazil: bioavailability, bioequivalence, pharmaceutical equivalence, generic drugs, biopharmaceutical classification system, biowaiver. The present article provides definitions for these concepts in the context of Brazilian legislation as well as a historical and chronological description of the implementation of the generic drugs policy in Brazil, including a list of current generic drug legislation. This article contributes to the understanding of the Brazilian generic drugs policy and facilitates the search for information concerning the legal requirements for registration of drugs in Brazil.

  5. Strategic pathways for energy in Brazil; Os caminhos da eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Alan Douglas; Hollanda, Jayme Buarque de; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest steps and policies to increase the introduction of cost-effective energy in conservation measures in Brazil. This report first addresses the motivations for a policy of energy efficiency and summarizes experiences in Brazil. It then considers the roles and perspectives of the diverse agents and review the instruments of policy. It concludes with an overview of strategic needs and lines of action.

  6. Perspectives in understanding open access to research data - infrastructure and technology challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, started in February 2013 with a duration of two years, has the objective to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data, based on existing good practice and addressing such hindering factors as stakeholder fragmentation, technical and infrastructural issues, ethical and legal issues, and financial and institutional policies. In this work we focus on the technical and infrastructural aspect, where by "infrastructure" we mean the technological assets (hardware and software), the human resources, and all the policies, processes, procedures and training for managing and supporting its continuous operation and evolution. The context targeted by RECODE includes heterogeneous networks, initiatives, projects and communities that are fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries. Many of these organizations are already addressing key technical and infrastructural barriers to Open Access to research data. Such barriers may include: lack of automatic mechanisms for policy enforcement, lack of metadata and data models supporting open access, obsolescence of infrastructures, scarce awareness about new technological solutions, lack of training and/or expertise on IT and semantics aspects. However, these organizations are often heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, geography, stakeholder category (publishers, academics, repositories, etc.) as well as other boundaries, and often work in isolation, or with limited contact with one another. RECODE has addressed these challenges, and the possible solutions to mitigate them, engaging all the identified stakeholders in a number of ways, including an online questionnaire, case studies interviews, literature review, a workshop. The conclusions have been validated by the RECODE Advisory Board and

  7. Anticipating Interruptions. Security and risk in a liberalized electricity infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, A.

    2013-11-01

    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged - those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define

  8. Flowscapes: Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With m

  9. The Challenge of Urban Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization almost invariably accompanies development, and the cities of India and China are experiencing spectacular increases in population. The concentration of millions of people in a small mass creates challenges for public policy, especially in the areas of basic infrastructure, public health, traffic congestion, and often law enforcement…

  10. Does infrastructure provision hinder energy integration? The case of natural gas in the southern cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navajas, Fernando

    2010-09-15

    This paper uses evidence on policies, markets and private transactions to discuss the experience of natural gas infrastructure integration in the Southern Cone of Latin America. The argument is that contracts on international exchanges supported by infrastructure may become incomplete due to contingencies related to policy-induced price distortions not anticipated at the moment of writing. Beyond regulatory risk mitigation, it calls for back-up contract provisions designed to cope with aggregate imbalances and for some supranational coordination related to information about market conditions and on energy planning dialogues that test consistency and stress situations in markets where exports originate.

  11. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales

  12. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  13. Elements of a computational infrastructure for social simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkin, Mark; Procter, Rob; Allan, Rob; Bechhofer, Sean; Buchan, Iain; Goble, Carole; Hudson-Smith, Andy; Lambert, Paul; De Roure, David; Sinnott, Richard

    2010-08-28

    Applications of simulation modelling in social science domains are varied and increasingly widespread. The effective deployment of simulation models depends on access to diverse datasets, the use of analysis capabilities, the ability to visualize model outcomes and to capture, share and re-use simulations as evidence in research and policy-making. We describe three applications of e-social science that promote social simulation modelling, data management and visualization. An example is outlined in which the three components are brought together in a transport planning context. We discuss opportunities and benefits for the combination of these and other components into an e-infrastructure for social simulation and review recent progress towards the establishment of such an infrastructure.

  14. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  15. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  16. Nuclear power infrastructure - issues, strategy and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    specific assistance and review services in the areas of infrastructure readiness, feasibility studies, draft nuclear law, regulatory frameworks and organization, siting issues, human resource development and planning, bid evaluation and technology assessment, innovations in nuclear technology are necessary to achieve an increase in nuclear energy's long term contribution to sustainable development. There are a number of international initiatives to ensure and strengthen the sustainability of nuclear power in the future such as the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) and the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The expansion of nuclear power will increase the nuclear material in use and may increase the risk of proliferation or terrorism. The need to consider the challenges associated with the expansion of nuclear power has led to a number of international initiatives based on the idea of strengthening multinational control over, and assurance of, the supply of nuclear technology and materials. The former IAEA Director General Dr. El Baradei has proposed as the first step establishment of a mechanism to assure the supply of nuclear fuel. This back-up mechanism in which the IAEA becomes a guarantor for the supply of fissile materials to civilian nuclear users could add further confidence by helping to protect against political disruptions. He established the group of experts to review multilateral arrangements, relevant to the front-end and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and the policy, legal, security, economic and technological elements of cooperation. Two factors dominate all assessments made by this group: assurance of non-proliferation and assurance of supply.The general support of timeliness of this initiative and need to continue the efforts were expressed on NPT Conference in NY where about 45 States expressed the support of some elements of MNA and on the IAEA GC in September of this year. Several networks (Asian

  17. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  18. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  19. Data Infrastructures for Asset Management Viewed as Complex Adaptive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brous, P.A.; Overtoom, I.; Herder, P.M.; Versluis, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A

    2014-01-01

    Data infrastructures represent information about physical reality. As reality changes, data infrastructures might also be subject to change. Researchers have increasingly approached physical infrastructures as being complex adaptive systems (CAS). Although physical infrastructures are often approach

  20. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March..., incident response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical infrastructure assets..., risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members...

  1. 78 FR 16861 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March... response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical infrastructure assets and... mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are...

  2. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, T; Mills, A

    2007-01-01

    User support in a grid environment is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the grid. The variety of users and VOs adds further to the challenge. One can find support requests by grid beginners, users with specific applications, site administrators, or grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the grid. The current use of the system has shown that the goal has been achieved with success. The grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned ‘regional support with central coordination’. Users can submit a support request to the central GGUS service, or to their Regional Operations' Centre (ROC) or to their Virtual Organisation helpdesks. Within GGUS there are appropriate support groups for all support requests. The ROCs and VOs and the other project wide groups such as middleware groups (JRA), network groups (NA), service groups (SA) and other grid infrastructures (OSG, NorduGrid, etc.) are connected via a...

  3. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  4. CERN anti-fraud policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy.   The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud.  CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...

  5. 77 FR 32655 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... protection security measures, incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical..., vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure:...

  6. Infrastructure Franchising and Government Guarantees Infrastructure Franchising and Government Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Galetovic

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects reduce the incentives of firms to perform efficiently, weaken the incentives to screen projects for white elephants, and shift government obligations to future periods. Thus the use of guarantees needs to be limited, and they need to be carefully designed. Franchising schemes should in principle assign risks to the parties best able to manage and control them. The mechanisms by which contracts are awarded should be simple, so that possibilities for evaluator subjectivity are reduced, the award process remains as transparent as possible, and the likelihood of having to renegotiate is minimized. Infrastructure franchises have usually been awarded on a fixed-term basis. Such contracts expose franchise holders to considerable demand risk, which investors are often unwilling to assume without government guarantees. These contracts are also inflexible, since it is difficult to determine a fair level of compensation to the franchise holder if the contract is terminated early or modified. Under an alternative mechanism, the franchise is awarded to the firm that asks for the least present value of user fee revenue for a given tariff structure, and the franchise ends when the present value of user fee revenues is equal to the franchise holder's bid. Such contracts reduce the demand risk borne by the franchise holder (and the concomitant demand for government guarantees. They also make fair compensation of franchise holders in the event of early termination straightforward, since the level of fair compensation is equal to the revenue remaining to be collected. Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects reduce the incentives of firms to perform efficiently, weaken the incentives to screen projects for white elephants, and shift government obligations to future periods. Thus the use of guarantees needs to be limited, and they need to be carefully designed. Franchising schemes should in

  7. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  8. The sharing economy in Brazil: the case of gastronomy

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTĚRBOVÁ, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    After years of boom, Brazil will experience a recession this year. There was a significant imbalance in recent years from a budgetary point of view, inflation and foreign exchange. Protectionist Brazilian policy don't support foreign trade. Therefore consumers in the current recessive market environment are more willing to work with so-called collaborative consumption, even though Brazil is a country with one of the highest crime rate and the level of trust of consumers is lower than in other...

  9. Costituzione, diritto penale e politica criminale in Brasile tra convergenze e paradossi/Constitution, loi pénale et politiques en Brésil entre convergences et paradoxes/Constitution, criminal law and policies in Brazil between convergences and paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Callegari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo cerca di analizzare come la politica criminale brasiliana abbia assunto una posizione che legittima quelle teorie note come il “diritto penale del nemico” e quei movimenti come il “Law and Order”. Cercheremo di delineare i principi costituzionali che in Brasile hanno dato origine ad un’idea di politica criminale che dovrebbe invece condurre a politiche criminali garantiste in un senso più ampio. Nonostante la previsione costituzionale di diversi diritti del cittadino nell’ambito del diritto penale e processuale penale, si vedrà come le attuali politiche criminali si sono allontanate dagli ideali previsti dalla Costituzione. Alla fine, svilupperemo anche dei ragionamenti sulle possibili origini politiche di questo attuale modello di politica criminale brasiliano. Cet article s’attache à analyser comment les politiques pénales brésiliennes ont adopté une position qui légitime ces théories connues sous le nom de « la loi criminelle de l’ennemi » et ces mouvements appelés « de l’ordre et de la loi » (Law and Order. Les auteurs essayent de délinéer les principes constitutionnels brésiliens à la base des politiques criminelles qui devraient protéger les libertés civiles. Malgré des dispositions constitutionnelles garantissant les droits des citoyens dans le domaine du droit pénal et de la procédure pénale, les auteurs verront que les politiques criminelles actuelles sont en train de s’écarter des idéaux inscrits dans la Constitution. Enfin, les auteurs puiseront certains arguments à propos d’une origine politique possible de ce modèle actuel de politique criminelle au Brésil. This article seeks to analyse how the Brazilian criminal policy has assumed a position that legitimates those theories known as the “Enemy Criminal Law” and movements known as the “Law and Order”. We will try to delineate the constitutional principles in Brazil which originated the idea of criminal policy

  10. Scaling up climate finance for sustainable infrastructure in developing cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun

    2010-09-15

    This article investigates the role of carbon finance and seeks to establish a policy framework that allows reorientation of upfront investment in urban infrastructure for facilitating transition towards low-carbon development trajectory in developing cities. It draws on an in-depth exploration of different climate finance mechanisms and their applicability in the context of fast urbanization. We suggest an integrated approach should be adopted to aggregate city-based multiple individual GHG mitigation projects dealing with buildings and transport efficiency. The sectoral approach and NAMAs-based financing schemes be included in post-Kyoto regime for shifting the current trajectories in fast growing developing cities.

  11. Brazil; 2012 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    A strong policy framework and improved income distribution and social outcomes have been important accomplishments in Brazil. The 2012 Article IV Consultation highlights that financial stability in Brazil has been underpinned by a strong banking system and framework for regulation and supervision. Executive Directors have commended authorities’ commitment to a strong policy framework, which has delivered a decade of macroeconomic stability and rising living standards. They have also welcome...

  12. South-South cooperation for development: Brazil-Africa relations in the promotion of public policies (2003-2012 Cooperación Sur-Sur para el desarrollo: las relaciones Brasil-África en la promoción de las políticas públicas (2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Santos PINHO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the classical development cooperation provided by rich countries (NorthSouth Cooperation-CNS, the South-South Cooperation (CSS is designed as a horizontal partnership between countries sharing similar problems and development challenges. Once recipient of development aid for decades, Brazil claims it has a better understanding of the needs of poor countries. Since 2003, Brazil has been deepening relations with sub-Saharan Africa both from the projection of their companies as through the internationalization of public policy. Despite the «limitations›› and «tensions›› of this type of embryonic CSS, the article argues that Brazil has contributed substantially to the development of the African continent.A diferencia de los modelos clásicos de cooperación para el desarrollo promovidos por los países ricos (cooperación Norte-Sur-CNS, la cooperación Sur-Sur (CSS se concibe como una asociación horizontal entre países que comparten problemas y desafíos similares para el desarrollo. Brasil, que durante décadas fue receptor de ese tipo de ayuda, afirma tener una mejor comprensión de las necesidades de los países pobres. Desde 2003, ese país ha profundizado sus relaciones con el África subsahariana, tanto a partir de la proyección de sus empresas como por medio de la «internacionalización›› de las políticas públicas. A pesar de las «limitaciones›› y «tensiones›› de esa modalidad embrionaria de CSS, el artículo argumenta que Brasil está contribuyendo substancialmente al desarrollo del continente africano.

  13. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being...... updatedduring operation. The presented prototypes and associatedexperimental results demonstrate the main functionalitiesof the communication infrastructure, and have led to theinitial deployment of LIWAS units....

  14. Infrastructure development and economic growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    SAHOO, Pravakar; Dash, Ranjan Kumar; Nataraj, Geethanjali

    2010-01-01

    China is the fastest growing country in the world for last few decades and one of the defining features of China's growth has been investment-led growth. China's sustained high economic growth and increased competitiveness in manufacturing has been underpinned by a massive development of physical infrastructure. In this context, we investigate the role of infrastructure in promoting economic growth in China for the period 1975 to 2007. Overall, the results reveal that infrastructure stock, la...

  15. Supply and demand for telecommunication infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Veith, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of infrastructure supply and demand is of central interest in line with Web 2.0. As the role of customers turns from a service users’ role to an information providers’ role, the traffic on existing lines increases and, simultaneously, customers’ demand for high-quality infrastructure. On the other hand, infrastructure providers carry investment risks but can hardly internalize the value provided for service providers. In consequence, politicians have to think about how to initia...

  16. Infrastructure package. Draft position statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission published on 17 November 2010 the communication entitled: 'COM(2010)0677 - Energy infrastructure priorities for 2020 and beyond - A Blueprint for an integrated European energy network'. It aims at ensuring that strategic energy networks and storage facilities are completed by 2020. To this end, the EC has identified 12 priority corridors and areas covering electricity, gas, oil and carbon dioxide transport networks. It proposes a regime of 'common interest' for projects contributing to implementing these priorities and having obtained this label. The UFE, the professional association for the electricity sector, has analyzed the EC communication and presents its remarks in this document. UFE's focusses its analysis on 5 key points: 1. Towards a European 'strategic planning' tool for future investment; 2. The correlation between networks and security of Supply (production capacities, energy mix); 3. Financing; 4. Acceptability of projects; 5. Accelerate authorisation procedures

  17. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  18. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  19. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  20. Institutional Infrastructure Component of Innovative University as a Resource for Strategic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the mission of the organization innovative infrastructure on the selection of production routines and selecting those that provide it a competitive advantage, since the introduction of innovations is a total change of abilities, skills, competencies demanded in the economic process and requires a fundamentally new organizational structure and the types of innovative infrastructure to ensure that the new working environment, and support the reproduction of innovation. We show the dominance in the domestic trials of hard state-centric models of construction and development of innovation infrastructure, including the academic world, although international experience demonstrates a shift in emphasis towards "soft" institutionalization of public infrastructure policy. We tested production of innovative active agents of the general standards activity, optimal behaviors that reduce transaction costs and ensure the development and dissemination of innovative organizational competencies in the external environment.

  1. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  2. IT Infrastructure Construction: Based on Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(U) Qing-jiang

    2006-01-01

    Information technology (IT) infrastructure is the foundation of information sharing, storage, and processing upon which the entire business depends and it changes not only inner organizational structures but also outer competitive conditions. An IT infrastructure that possesses elements unique to a particular organization and difficult to duplicate can produce competitive advantage. To achieve this advantage, not only the inner integration of technology,personnel and business process in a firm is needed, but also a platform for electronic commerce is required. The purpose of this study is to establish the whole concept framework for IT infrastructure, based on competitive advantage, and to propose ideas about the construction of IT infrastructure system.

  3. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  4. A note on inflation targeting and economic growth in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Libânio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relation between monetary policy and economic performance in Brazil during the period 1999-2006. In particular, it discusses the growth effects of the inflation targeting regime through its effects on aggregate demand. It is argued that monetary policy under IT reacts in a procyclical and asymmetric way to fluctuations in economic activity (too "tight" during recessions, not so "loose" during expansions. Such pattern may generate a downward bias in aggregate demand, with negative real effects on output growth and employment. Our results suggest that monetary policy has been procyclical and asymmetrical in Brazil under inflation targeting. The main economic policy implication of this study is that central banks should consider more seriously the real effects of monetary policy on output and employment.

  5. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    prasad, Suraj

    2016-04-01

    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  6. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  7. Canada's looming infrastructure crisis and gas tax agreements : are strategic connections being made?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's municipalities face multiple challenges in relation to the maintenance and development of services and infrastructure. This paper examined the growing infrastructure crisis in relation to sustainable community planning policies, gas tax agreements (GTA) and integrated community sustainability plans (ICSP). The study assessed the degree to which the GTA and ICSP may help to resolve the crisis and move towards the development of more sustainable infrastructure systems. The current need to upgrade or add to the infrastructure inventory represents an opportunity to adopt infrastructure technologies that are sustainable and more environmentally-friendly into municipal systems. The study demonstrated that the GTA and ICSP are financially insufficient. Jurisdictions with an existing capacity to plan and implement sustainability planning are the most successful at engaging with the ICSP process. However, there is no method of ensuring the transfer of innovative greener technologies. There is no overarching national strategy to eliminate or reduce the national infrastructure crisis. A serious national commitment is needed to address Canada's future infrastructure needs. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  9. Fighting the pipe: neoliberal governance and barriers to effective community participation in energy infrastructure planning

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Groves; Max Munday; Natalia Yakovleva

    2013-01-01

    Development of effective participatory mechanisms within infrastructure planning governance has been dependent on how far the outputs of participatory processes have an impact upon strategic policy priorities. However, neoliberal modes of governance are characterised by ‘recentralisation’ within arms-length regulatory bodies and private corporations. Tensions between participatory governance and recentralisation are exemplified by the relationship between energy privatisation and energy infra...

  10. Analysis of Public Private Interplay Frameworks in the Development of Rural Telecommunications Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    was the development of PPI models that can facilitate the facilitation of rural Broadband internet infrastructure in rural areas globally and in the specific potential deployment cases - Ghana and Nigeria. This report is relevant to National policy makers, International Donor Agencies, Telecom Network operators...

  11. Role of public organisations in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmeijer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Which roles may a public organisation play in the creation of new broadband access infrastructures? The main discussion issues about the roles of public organisations in relation to regulation and market distortion principles are given. Based upon some public policies and principles, the general req

  12. 78 FR 47003 - Draft National Spatial Data Infrastructure Strategic Plan; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... geospatial data in the United States. The FGDC operates under the authority of Office of Management and....'' Executive Order 12906 describes the NSDI as ``the technology, policies, standards, and human resources....S. Geological Survey Draft National Spatial Data Infrastructure Strategic Plan; Comment...

  13. 76 FR 80338 - Secretarial India Infrastructure Business Development Mission, March 25-30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... COMMERCE International Trade Administration Secretarial India Infrastructure Business Development Mission... Mumbai, Jaipur and New Delhi, India, March 25-30, 2012. The overall focus of the trip will be commercial....S. exports to India and discuss trade policy issues with respect to India's goal of investing...

  14. Industrial Scope of Agglomeration Economies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi; Eduardo A. Haddad, Peter Nijkamp

    2015-01-01

    The tendency towards urbanization in the emerging world accompanied by the constant pursuit for higher productivity prompts an urge for studies aiming at understanding agglomeration economies. In the context of Brazil, a country with extremely high regional disparities, exploring this issue is important not only for private stakeholders, but also for public policy practitioners. In the framework of static agglomeration effects, we investigate the industrial scope of agglomeration economies in...

  15. Assessment of the biodiesel distribution infrastructure in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's biodiesel industry is in its infancy, and must work to achieve the demand needed to ensure its development. This assessment of Canada's biodiesel distribution infrastructure was conducted to recommend the most efficient infrastructure pathway for effective biodiesel distribution. The study focused on the establishment of a link between biodiesel supplies and end-users. The current Canadian biodiesel industry was discussed, and future market potentials were outlined. The Canadian distillate product distribution infrastructure was discussed. Technical considerations and compliance issues were reviewed. The following 2 scenarios were used to estimate adaptations and costs for the Canadian market: (1) the use of primary terminals to ensure quality control of biodiesel, and (2) storage in secondary terminals where biodiesel blends are prepared before being transported to retail outlets. The study showed that relevant laboratory training programs are needed as well as proficiency testing programs in order to ensure adequate quality control of biodiesel. Standards for biodiesel distribution are needed, as well as specifications for the heating oil market. It was concluded that this document may prove useful in developing government policy objectives and identifying further research needs. 21 refs., 12 tabs., 13 figs

  16. The road against fatalities: infrastructure spending vs. regulation??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalate, Daniel; Fernández, Laura; Yarygina, Anastasiya

    2013-10-01

    The road safety literature is typified by a high degree of compartmentalization between studies that focus on infrastructure and traffic conditions and those devoted to the evaluation of public policies and regulations. As a result, few studies adopt a unified empirical framework in their attempts at evaluating the road safety performance of public interventions, thus limiting our understanding of successful strategies in this regard. This paper considers both types of determinants in an analysis of a European country that has enjoyed considerable success in reducing road fatalities. After constructing a panel data set with road safety outcomes for all Spanish provinces between 1990 and 2009, we evaluate the role of the technical characteristics of infrastructure and recent infrastructure spending together with the main regulatory changes introduced. Our results show the importance of considering both types of determinants in a unified framework. Moreover, we highlight the importance of maintenance spending given its effectiveness in reducing fatalities and casualties in the current economic context of austerity that is having such a marked impact on investment efforts in Spain. PMID:23816806

  17. Mesoscale carbon sequestration site screening and CCS infrastructure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gordon N; Middleton, Richard S; Stauffer, Philip H; Viswanathan, Hari S; Letellier, Bruce C; Pasqualini, Donatella; Pawar, Rajesh J; Wolfsberg, Andrew V

    2011-01-01

    We explore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) at the meso-scale, a level of study between regional carbon accounting and highly detailed reservoir models for individual sites. We develop an approach to CO(2) sequestration site screening for industries or energy development policies that involves identification of appropriate sequestration basin, analysis of geologic formations, definition of surface sites, design of infrastructure, and analysis of CO(2) transport and storage costs. Our case study involves carbon management for potential oil shale development in the Piceance-Uinta Basin, CO and UT. This study uses new capabilities of the CO(2)-PENS model for site screening, including reservoir capacity, injectivity, and cost calculations for simple reservoirs at multiple sites. We couple this with a model of optimized source-sink-network infrastructure (SimCCS) to design pipeline networks and minimize CCS cost for a given industry or region. The CLEAR(uff) dynamical assessment model calculates the CO(2) source term for various oil production levels. Nine sites in a 13,300 km(2) area have the capacity to store 6.5 GtCO(2), corresponding to shale-oil production of 1.3 Mbbl/day for 50 years (about 1/4 of U.S. crude oil production). Our results highlight the complex, nonlinear relationship between the spatial deployment of CCS infrastructure and the oil-shale production rate. PMID:20698546

  18. Access control infrastructure for on-demand provisioned virtualised infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Demchenko; C. Ngo; C. de Laat

    2011-01-01

    Cloud technologies are emerging as a new way of provisioning virtualised computing and infrastructure services on-demand for collaborative projects and groups. Security in provisioning virtual infrastructure services should address two general aspects: supporting secure operation of the provisioning

  19. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  20. "Health for All" in England and Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Peter; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Cowley, Sarah; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; Chiesa, Anna Maria; de Siqueira França, Francisco Oscar

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the achievements and challenges that England and Brazil face in relation to their capacity to address inequalities in health through health promotion and public health policies. Using secondary data (policy texts and related documents), this article contextualizes, explains, and critically appraises health promotion and public health efforts for the reduction of inequalities in health in the 2 countries. A historic documentary analysis was undertaken, with hermeneutics as the methodological framework. The global economic crisis has prompted the so-called developed economies of Europe to reconsider their economic and social priorities. England represents a state facing this kind of challenge. Equally, Brazil is assuming new positions not only on the world stage but also in terms of the relationship it has with its citizens and the priorities it has for state welfare. The United Kingdom continues to finance a health care system allowing universal access in the form of the National Health Service, and state concern about the public health task of reducing inequalities has recently been underlined in policy. For Brazil, although there have been recent achievements related to population access to healthcare, challenges continue, especially with regard to the quality of care.