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Sample records for brazil neuropsychological structural

  1. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

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    Bressan Rodrigo A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured

  2. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

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    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  3. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil

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    Brito G.N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418. A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8, who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children

  4. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

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    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  5. METHODOLOGY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT: QUALITATIVE (METASYNDROMAL ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE DEFI CIT STRUCTURE) AND QUANTITATIVE (PSYCHOMETRIC ESTIMATE) ASPECTS

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    Yuri V. Mikadze

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is a necessary step that precedes neurorehabilitation. It implies both qualitative and quantitative assessment of patients possible cognitive defi cit. Qualitative approach aims to defi ne the structure of the cognitive defi cit while quantitative procedures give estimate of the magnitude of the defi cit. Complex pathology aff ects multiple brain regions and reveals in a series of neuropsychological syndromes associated with these brain areas. Metasyndrome analys...

  6. Eating disorder psychopathology, brain structure, neuropsychological correlates and risk mechanisms in very preterm young adults.

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    Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at childhood and adolescence, were investigated using prospectively collected data throughout childhood/adolescence. VPT-born individuals had high levels of ED psychopathology at age 21 years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15 years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14 years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd.

  7. Factor Structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision with Learning-Disabled Children.

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    Snow, Jeffrey; Hynd, George W.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the factor structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision in a population of learning-disabled children (N=100). Factor analysis and varimax rotation revealed three factors: a language-general intellectual factor, a reading-written expression factor, and a sensory-motor factor. (Author/MCF)

  8. Neuropsychological syndromes in patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep electric stimulation of pallidar complex structures

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    Yu V Mikadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the results of neuropsychological examinations in 10 patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent deep electrical stimulation of pallidar complex structures. The general neuropsychological test battery that had been developed by A.R. Luria and allowed the qualitative classification of the cognitive impairment symptoms detectable on examination to be made was used to study cognitive functions. The patients were examined before and just after surgery and in the late period (following 1—2 years. The examinations have shown that the syndromes indicative of dysfunctions in the deep, parietal, and occipital and prefrontal regions of the left hemisphere and in the parietooccipital regions of the right hemisphere are stable components that determine the pattern of cognitive disorders and are preserved throughout all examinations.

  9. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients are disproport......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...... for cognitive neuropsychology are opened up. The questions addressed in this symposium is whether the questions posed by cognitive neuropsychology are still relevant, and whether new methods can spark a new interest in the field, or if the time has passed when the observation of single and double dissociations...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk...

  10. Stratigraphic and Structural Characteristics of the Santa Marta Impact Structure, Brazil

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    Oliveira, G. J. G.; Chamani, M.; Góes, A. M.; Crósta, A. P.; Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Reimold, W. U.

    2016-08-01

    Santa Marta structure is a moderate-size complex impact structure formed in sedimentary targets, Brazil. We provide an overview of the stratigraphy and deformation patterns of the strata identified within the structure.

  11. Finding regional models of the Alzheimer disease by fusing information from neuropsychological tests and structural MR images

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    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Initial diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsy-chological tests. This work presents an automatic strategy that uses Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to learn brain models for different stages of the disease using information from clinical assessments. Then, a comparison of the discriminant power of the models in different anatomical areas is made by using the brain region of the models as a reference frame for the classification problem, by using the projection into the AD model a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is constructed. Validation was performed using a leave- one-out scheme with 86 subjects (20 AD and 60 NC) from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database. The region with the best classification performance was the left amygdala where it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 85% at the same time. The regions with the best performance, in terms of the AUC, are in strong agreement with those described as important for the diagnosis of AD in clinical practice.

  12. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

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    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  13. Population genetic structure in the Holstein breed in Brazil.

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    Magalhães Araújo da Silva, Mário Henrique; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes; Costa, José Lauro; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Costa, Claudio Napolis; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the population genetic structure of the Holstein breed in Brazil through pedigree analysis with the aim of supporting genetic management of extant herds. We used data from genealogical records of 204,511 animals in farms from south and southeast Brazil. Pedigree records between 1943 and 2005 were divided into seven periods of 8 years to estimate the effective population size (N e ). N e varied during the study periods, ranging from 0.19 to 3016.25. There was an increase in the percentage of inbred animals over time, from 0.18 to 5.0 %. However, this figure may be an underestimate due to the low completeness of pedigree, primarily related to paternal pedigree. The effective number of founders (fe) was 473 animals and ancestors (fa) was 471. The genetic contribution of 260 ancestors (founders or not) accounted for 50 % of the genetic variability in the population. The average relatedness coefficient (AR) and inbreeding coefficient indicate that the Holstein breed in Brazil is being effectively managed, despite a moderate founder effect and the low number of animals that are responsible for the population variance.

  14. Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report

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    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: in Brazil, palliative care (PC is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. EXPERIENCE REPORT: the hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. CONCLUSION: this experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals.

  15. [Autism and neuropsychology].

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    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  16. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different funct...

  17. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

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    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  18. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  19. Fronts and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System

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    Severov, Dimitri

    and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System (BCCS) are stud-ied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984"data, and two Sea surface temperature (SST) data bases: "Meteor satellite"(1989-1994) and "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000).The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, fronts, inter-frontal and frontal zones are analysed and classified: a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; b) the Inter-frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Sub-tropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteris-tics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the fronts of the BCCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. D. N. Severov (a) , V. Pshennikov (b) and A.V. Remeslo (c) a -Sección Oceanologé Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 ıa, a Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel. (598-2) 525-8618, Fax (598-2) 525-8617, mail: dima@fcien.edu.uy b -Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 Mon-a tevideo, Uruguay, mail: seva@fisica.edu.uy c -Atlantic Research Inst. For Fisheries Oceanology (Atlant

  20. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

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    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  1. Machado-Joseph disease op azorean ancestry in Brazil: the Catarina kindred neurological, neuroimaging, psychiatric and neuropsychological findings in the largest known family, the «Catarina» kindred

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    J. Radvany

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available At the moment 9 seemingly independent families with the clinical diagnosis of MJD are known in Brazil. The largest family tree of Azorean ancestry contatins 622 individuals in 9 generations. 236 were examined, 39 found to be affected by two examiners. Pheno-types I, II and III were expressed by 12, 23 and 4 patients with age of onset by phenotypea being 10-48, 14-54 and 30-55 respectively. Although clinically more severe, juvenile onset type I disease did not show as severe a ponto-mesencephialic atrophy on MRI as the father with type II disease of similar symptomatic duration. None of the 8 patients examined with MRI showed olivary atrophy or pallidal abnormalities. 12 affected and 23 at risk were evaluated with neuropsychological tests. Attention was normal in both groups. Verbal memory scores were below normal in the affected and there was greater decay with time than in the risk group. Both scored below normal in identifying silluettes and constructional praxis. Visual memory scores were well below normal for both, with many rotations but no omissions or confabulations. A peculiar pattern of multiplying internal details called «the fly-eye effect» was observed in 6 affected and 8 at risk. Defective color distinction when multiple colors presented close to each other, in face of proper naming of individual colors («color simultantagnosia», was looked for in 29 people. 4/10 affected and 4/19 at risk showed this phenomenon. Cognitive dysfunctions in this MJD family are prominent in the sphere of vision. Whether they constitute an early manifestation in those at risk and thus serve as a clinical identifier of the illnes is yet to be established. Depression was looked for in the history of the family with DSM III-R criteria and an atempt at quantification with the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale. There was no significant quantitative difference between affected and at risk. Once undeniably symptomatic however, the patients had no, or less

  2. An Empirical Comparison of Competing Factor Structures for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: A Project FRONTIER Study†

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    Torrence, Nicole D.; John, Samantha E.; Gavett, Brandon E.; O'Bryant, Sid E.

    2016-01-01

    The original factor structure of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has received little empirical support, but at least eight alternative factor structures have been identified in the literature. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare the original RBANS model with eight alternatives, which were adjusted to include a general factor. Participant data were obtained from Project FRONTIER, an epidemiological study of rural health, and comprised 341 adults (229 women, 112 men) with mean age of 61.2 years (SD = 12.1) and mean education of 12.4 years (SD = 3.3). A bifactor version of the model proposed by Duff and colleagues provided the best fit to the data (CFI = 0.98; root-mean-squared error of approximation = 0.07), but required further modification to produce appropriate factor loadings. The results support the inclusion of a general factor and provide partial replication of the Duff and colleagues RBANS model. PMID:26429558

  3. High-level phylogeographic structuring of Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera, Crambridae) in Brazil: an important tomato pest

    OpenAIRE

    André V.P. Maia; Cícero Almeida; Kleber R. Santoro; João L.A. Melo; OLIVEIRA José V.; Raul N.C. Guedes; César A. Badji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neoleucinodes elegantalis is an important tomato pest in Brazil, occurring throughout the country and resulting in economic losses in agriculture. In several species, biogeographic studies in Brazil indicate the structuring of populations, following the refuge model, with a split between the populations of the northeast and the southeast regions of Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the phylogeography of N. elegantalis in Brazil, understanding its population structure ...

  4. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  5. The neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Frith, U

    1996-08-01

    In this review, we aim to bring together major trends in autism research at three levels: biology, behaviour and cognition. We propose that cognitive theories are vital in neuropsychology, which seeks to make connections between brain abnormality and behavioural symptoms. Research at each of the three levels is incomplete, but important advances have been made. At the biological level, there is strong evidence for genetic factors, although the mechanism is, as yet, unknown. At the behavioural level, diagnosis and education are becoming more coherent and less controversial, although the possibility of autism subtypes has provoked new debate. At the cognitive level, three major theories are proving fruitful (mentalizing impairment, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence), although the relation and overlap between these is uncertain. Rapidly advancing technology and methodology (e.g. brain imaging, gene mapping), as tools of cognitive theory, may help to make autism one of the first developmental disorders to be understood at the neuropsychological level.

  6. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  7. Sociocultural factors in neuropsychological assessment

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    Lozano Gutiérrez, Asucena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare professionals are now faced with a growing number of patients from different ethnic groups, and from different socio-economic backgrounds. In neuropsychology there is an increasing need of reliable and culturally fair assessment measures. Knowledge about variables that affect neuropsychological functioning such as age, education and culture allows both an objective assessment and an accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to analyze the main variables that affect neuropsychological assessment and to describe a series of neuropsychological tests that may minimize current weaknesses in the cognitive assessment of Spanish speakers.

  8. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with dementing illness.

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    Fields, Julie A; Ferman, Tanis J; Boeve, Bradley F; Smith, Glenn E

    2011-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has a distinct role in the detection and monitoring of cognitive and functional changes associated with dementing illness. Molecular, structural and functional neuroimaging studies have advanced our understanding of the anatomy and physiology underlying neurodegenerative disease; however, the overlap in pathological features of different dementia-associated diseases limits the information that can be obtained by these methods. Incorporation of information obtained from multiple sources can help to increase diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. Neuropsychological test findings provide unique value as biomarkers of dementia, as differentiators of disease topography and in the estimation of disease risk and trajectory. However, psychometric test properties--such as construct validity, stability and the use of appropriate norms--must be understood, because they influence both the application of neuropsychological tests and the interpretation of their results. Finally, measurement of cognitive strengths and weaknesses in patients at risk of dementia can be helpful to predict changes in functional abilities, design appropriate and effective interventions, and assist family and health-care providers in the planning of the patient's future care needs. This Review describes the key characteristics of neuropsychological testing in the assessment of patients at risk of dementia.

  9. Future directions in the neuropsychology of epilepsy.

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    McDonald, Carrie R; Taylor, Joanne; Hamberger, Marla; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Schefft, Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Two important themes for future clinical research in the neuropsychology of epilepsy are proposed: (1) the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie neuropsychological impairment in people with epilepsy, and (2) neuropsychological status of persons with new-onset epilepsy.

  10. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

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    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  11. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

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    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know.

  12. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  13. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision.

  14. Brief neuropsychological assessment of adults post-stroke in the left hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, Josiane; Rodrigues, Jaqueline de Carvalho; Martins,Sheila Cristina Ouriques; Brondani, Rosane; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Fonseca,Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropsychological assessment investigates cognitive deficits to improve the diagnosis, the prognosis and the rehabilitation of patients. In Brazil, stroke is a major cause of hospitalization and the leading cause of mortality and disability. The stroke in the left hemisphere (LH) is associated with different degrees of loss of language and other cognitive impairments, for example, in the memory. We compared the performance in brief neuropsychological tasks of the left hemisphere poststro...

  15. [The twenty-first century as a neuropsychology era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Desgranges, B; Lambert, J; Belleville, S; Platel, H

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews how neuropsychology, in the French-speaking world, has evolved as a discipline focused on research, teaching and clinical work. The article targets the last 30 years as this corresponds to the time at which the Société de Neuropsychologie de Langue Française (French-Speaking Neuropsychological Society) was created. The review addresses how the cognitive neuropsychology approach and the advent of brain imaging have shaped the field of neuropsychology in recent years. It presents the status of the discipline in the main French-speaking countries (where neuropsychology is currently developed) including France, Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. It also analyzes a number of indicators that reflect the vitality of the discipline and its cohesion as a science and as a clinical domain. These indicators include the creation of specialized journals, organization of scientific meetings, accessibility to training programs in neuropsychology, development of discipline-oriented clinical programs, and the increase in scientific productivity. The Quebec academic environment is used as an illustration, whereby structured clinical doctoral training programs that meet national standards in neuropsychology were implemented to train clinical neuropsychologists. Finally, the authors emphasize the major role that the discipline is likely to play at different levels of society in the near future.

  16. Theoretical Relevance of Neuropsychological Data for Connectionist Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Iza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic information-processing paradigm in cognitive psychology has met a growing challenge from neural network models over the past two decades. While neuropsychological
    evidence has been of great utility to theories concerned with information processing, the real question is, whether the less rigid connectionist models provide valid, or enough, information
    concerning complex cognitive structures. In this work, we will discuss the theoretical implications that neuropsychological data posits for modelling cognitive systems.

  17. [Neuropsychological test in daily practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoni, Jean-Marie; Pertusio, Françoise Bernasconi; Caldara, Anne-Sarah; Khateb, Asaid; Lubini, Deborah; Martory, Marie-Dominique; Mayer, Eugène; Ortigue, Stéphanie; Pegna, Alan J; Valenza, Nathalie

    2003-04-01

    Neuropsychology is a scientific discipline, born in the XIX century, and bridges the fields of neurology and psychology. Neuropsychologists apply scientific knowledge about the relationship between brain function and mental performances. The major clinical role of a neuropsychological evaluation is to help to establish medical and functional diagnosis in patients (adults or infants) with different neurological pathologies such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, dementia, epilepsy.... Such analysis necessitates accurate observation of behaviour and administration of tests of mental abilities (e.g. language, memory...). Test results can also help to clarify the nature of cognitive difficulties and to support the formulation of plans for neuropsychological therapy and functional adjustment in every day life.

  18. Numerical Modeling of the Araguainha Impact Structure, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Crósta, A. P.; Wünnemann, K.; Collins, G. S.; Reimold, W. U.; Köster, P.

    2016-08-01

    The Araguainha structure is the largest complex impact structure in South America. It was formed in sedimentary rocks overlaying a granitic basement.We used the iSALEcode to simulate the formation of the Araguainha impact structure.

  19. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Janine; Maebe, Kevin; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857), an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE) in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001). The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  20. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Palma

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857, an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001. The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  1. Sociocultural effects in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Canseco, E; Quintanar, L; Navarro, E; Meneses, S; Ardila, A

    1985-07-01

    The group selected for this evaluation consisted of 109 normal people with an average age of 25, coming from two different sociocultural levels (high and low) of Mexico City. All were completely evaluated by Luria's battery for neuropsychological assessment, adapted by Ardila, Ostrosky, and Canseco, 1981. This group of tests measures nine different areas: Motor Functions, Somatosensory Knowledge, Auditory Knowledge, Visuospatial Knowledge, Cognitive Processes, Language, Reading, Writing and Basic Calculations. For all of these, the higher performance standards were achieved by the subjects from the high sociocultural level. A significant interaction between sociocultural level and sex was observed. The differences between sexes appear only in subjects from the low sociocultural level. Factor analysis of the battery revealed that the most sensitive items to sociocultural level were those related on one hand, to the handling of complex structural and conceptual aspects of language and on the other hand, to the organization of motor sequences and in general motor programming. Research related to the differences found is reviewed and implications for clinical assessment are discussed.

  2. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Santos Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region.

  3. Cyber-Neuropsychology: application of new technologies in neuropsychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Ramos, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Soto-Pérez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation deals with the study of cerebral functioning through the persons' performance. It makes it possible to collaborate the clinical diagnosis and to provide information on deficit and skills. Specialized care in rural environments is uncommon, and often means impossibility to access some services. This study has aimed to evaluate the possibility of using neuropsychological evaluation by internet videoconferences. Our research was based on the traditional and online application of the SCIP-S to 30 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both groups underwent the two conditions inversely. The results show some differences and similarities when the results in both types of applications SCIP-S are compared. In conclusion, cyber-neuropsychology is possible and may be a complement and alternative to traditional assessment when they cannot develop.

  4. Autistic disorder: a neuropsychological enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, R A

    1992-06-01

    Autism is increasingly viewed as an expression of an unidentified neurological disorder. Because understanding of neurological dysfunction is basic to evaluation and treatment in occupational therapy, this article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature since 1985 concerning the neuropsychology of autistic disorder. The research is categorized into four basic types: (a) neuropsychological testing of functional abilities, (b) treatment studies based on neuropsychological hypotheses, (c) autistic-related diseases and genetic disorders, and (d) neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies. The research shows a spectrum of neurological impairments within the brain stem, cerebellum, midbrain, and frontal lobe. These impairments are associated with deficits in socioemotional skills, sensory processing, motor planning, and cognitive flexibility. This research suggests that persons with autistic disorder need evaluation and treatment of a wide spectrum of functional deficits.

  5. Adolescent Schizophrenia: A Methodologic Review of the Current Neuroimaging and Neuropsychologic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the methodology in articles that have reported structural neuroimaging or neuropsychological data in adolescent patients with schizophrenia. Identification of methodological issues led to the finding that, at present, no conclusions can be made regarding the presence or absence of neuropsychologic dysfunction or structural…

  6. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  7. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  8. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  9. L. Vygotsky, A. Luria and developmental neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Akhutina; Nataly M. Pylaeva

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  10. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  11. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology.

  12. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  13. 'Mommy, I miss daddy'. The effect of family structure on children's health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the relationship between single motherhood and children's height-for-age z-scores in Brazil. In order to isolate the causal effect between family structure and children's condition, we estimate an econometric model that uses male preference for firstborn sons and local sex ratios to instrument the probability of a woman becoming a single mother. Our results have a local average treatment effect interpretation (LATE). We find that children being raised by a single mother (whose marital status is affected by a firstborn girl and a low sex ratio) have a height-for-age z-score that is lower than that of children of similar characteristics that cohabit with both progenitors. We claim that the increasing trend of single motherhood in Brazil should be of concern in health policy design.

  14. Depression in France and Brazil: factorial structure of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Poirier-Littré, Marie France; Bourdel, Marie Chantal; Loo, Henri; Guelfi, Julien Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Among various research strategies for depression, the cross-cultural approach is a useful tool to investigate depressive disorders. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was applied to 130 depressed inpatients in France and Brazil. Items were factorized by principal component analysis with Varimax rotation using the Kaiser or simulation method for factor sorting. Three factors were obtained in France, and four in Brazil. The first factor includes the core symptoms of depression in both samples. Qualitative and quantitative differences appeared in the anxiety factor between Brazilian and French samples. Insomnia items appeared as another factor for both groups. A limitation of this study is that it was conducted with small inpatient samples. Principal component analysis of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression for depressive inpatients in these two countries showed a similar structure. Differences observed were in the way anxiety items were distributed.

  15. Neuropsychological Definition of Learning: Strategies for Rewiring Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwegen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    For many years, most scientists believed that the physical structure of our brains, and by definition the people we had become, was set after the initial developmental period of early childhood and adolescence. New research in the area of neurology and neuropsychology is revealing that our brain is a much more open system than ever thought…

  16. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  17. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  18. High-level phylogeographic structuring of Neoleucinodes elegantalis Guenée (Lepidoptera, Crambridae in Brazil: an important tomato pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André V.P. Maia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neoleucinodes elegantalis is an important tomato pest in Brazil, occurring throughout the country and resulting in economic losses in agriculture. In several species, biogeographic studies in Brazil indicate the structuring of populations, following the refuge model, with a split between the populations of the northeast and the southeast regions of Brazil. The objective of this work was to analyze the phylogeography of N. elegantalis in Brazil, understanding its population structure and the demographic patterns. Larvae were collected from eight locations throughout Brazil, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was analyzed. A total of 628 bp in 51 individuals were obtained, showing 12 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.836. Spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA and cluster analysis showed two populations, indicating population structuring between individuals from the northeast (population 1 and southeast (population 2 regions of Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the clades corresponding to the groups defined by SAMOVA have a divergence time of 0.2–0.5 million years, suggesting isolation during climatic events and a separation of the two populations coinciding with the predicted refuges to the Atlantic forest.

  19. [Formula: see text]Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN): Guidelines for Practicum Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron P; Roper, Brad L; Slomine, Beth S; Morrison, Chris; Greher, Michael R; Janusz, Jennifer; Larson, Jennifer C; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Ready, Rebecca E; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Whiteside, Doug M; Willment, Kim; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Practical experience is central to the education and training of neuropsychologists, beginning in graduate school and extending through postdoctoral fellowship. However, historically, little attention has been given to the structure and requirements of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. A working group of senior-level neuropsychologists, as well as a current postdoctoral fellow, all from a diverse range of settings (The AACN Practicum Guidelines Workgroup), was formed to propose guidelines for practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. The Workgroup reviewed relevant literature and sought input from professional organizations involved in education and training in neuropsychology. The proposed guidelines provide a definition of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, detail entry and exit criteria across competencies relevant to practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, and discuss the relationship between doctoral training programs and practicum training sites. The proposed guidelines also provide a methodology for competency-based evaluation of clinical neuropsychology practicum trainees and outline characteristics and features that are integral to an effective training environment. Although the guidelines discussed below may not be implemented in their entirety across all clinical neuropsychology practicum training sites, they are consistent with the latest developments in competency-based education.

  20. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness.

  1. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  2. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  3. Climate affects the structure of mixed rain forest in southern sector of Atlantic domain in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevegnani, Lucia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Gasper, André Luís de; Meyer, Leila; Vibrans, Alexander Christian

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of environmental factors in determining the variation in forest structure. We obtained the data through sampling units placed regularly in a grid of 10 km × 10 km in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. The axes of Detendred Correspondence Analysis summarized the vegetation structure and we used these as response variables in ordinary least square models, and environmental variables as predictors. Moran Eigenvector Maps were used as spatial predictors, enabling the variance partitioning. The results revealed influence of climatic factors, especially thermal and rainfall in determining the vegetation structure. The physical geography (high plateaus) and positioning below the Tropic of Capricorn line are the main static elements influencing the climate and therefore the vegetation.

  4. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  5. Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, L E; Pollina, D A; Scheffer, S R; Krupp, L B

    1999-01-01

    The neuropsychiatric sequelae of chronic Lyme disease remains unclear. This study sought to characterize the psychological status of a group of participants who met criteria for post-Lyme syndrome (PLS). These measures were then used to examine the influence of psychological status on neuropsychological performances. Thirty PLS participants completed a structured psychiatric interview, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Lyme Symptom Checklist, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. As a group, the PLS participants did not appear to have an elevated incidence of psychiatric disorders, and psychiatric history was not useful for understanding neuropsychological performances or symptom reports. The mood of the PLS participants was characterized by lowered levels of positive affect (PA) and typical levels of negative affect. This combination can be distinguished from depression and is consistent with previous findings of affect patterns in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. PA was also linked to both total symptom severity and severity of cognitive complaints, but not to duration of illness, neurological manifestations at initial diagnosis, or treatment history. Relative to published normative data, neuropsychological performances were not in the impaired range on any measure. Neither psychological status nor symptom report were useful for understanding any aspect of cognitive functioning. It is concluded that decreased PA is the most useful marker of psychological functioning in PLS.

  6. Gorceixite from Catalão, Goiás, Brazil: Rietveld Crystal Structure Refinement

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    Viviane Carillo Ferrari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Gorceixite is an abundant aluminum phosphate in Brazilian laterite phosphate ores and is one of the most importantgangue minerals. Catalão I mine, Goiás, Brazil, one of the biggest phosphate mines in Brazil, contains great amounts ofgorceixite, whose structural formula, as suggested by microprobe analysis, is (Ba0.76Ca0.19Sr0.10Ce0.01Σ1.06(Al2.74Fe3+0.25Σ2.99(P0.96Si0.03Σ0.99O4(PO3OH(OH6.02. Its crystal structure, rich in Ca, Sr, and Fe, was refined by the Rietveld method appliedto X-ray powder diffraction data for trigonal and monoclinic structural models. The statistical parameters for the two modelsare so similar that they do not allow clear distinction of which is the better structural model for gorceixite. The cell parametersobtained for the trigonal model, space group R3m, are a = 7.0791(3 Å, c = 17.089(1 Å, V = 741.68(7 Å3, Z = 3, and for themonoclinic model, space group Cm, a =12.195(8 Å, b = 7.040(5 Å, c = 7.055(5 Å, β = 125.19(5°, V = 495 Å3, Z = 2.A particular feature of the Catalão gorceixite is the replacement of some Al in the X-site by Fe3+, with minor distortions incrystallochemical sites. These features may alter physical-chemical mineral characteristics, such as density and heavy metalretention capacity.

  7. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  8. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  9. Structuring Factors Of The Cumacean Communities Of The Continental Shelf Of Southeastern Brazil

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    Pedro Abib Cristales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cumaceans are benthic crustaceans distributed worldwide, from intertidal to abyssal plains. They live in sandy and muddy bottoms and can sometimes be found in the water column. Despite their ecological importance as food items for fishes and other organisms and their usefulness as environmental indicators, very few studies have investigated their biodiversity and distribution in Brazil. The present paper reports an ecological study of the cumacean species found on the continental shelf off Santos, southeastern Brazil. It investigates the composition and spatio-temporal structure of the communities, the main environmental factors responsible for the maintenance of that structure and analyzes the effects of the seasonal oceanographic changes on the community descriptors. A grid of 21 stations located between 10 and 100 m depth was created in winter 2005 and summer 2006 and the sediment samples collected with a 0.1 m2 box corer. Twenty four species were obtained, five of them being the most numerous: Diastylis sexpectinata, D. sympterygiae, Eudorella sp., Oxyurostylis salinoi and Anchistylis notus, the latter highly dominant in summer. Diastylis sympterygiae was characteristic of the shallowest and least saline stations (< 16 m depth; S = 33.07 - 34.2 in both seasons. Of the total of 919 individuals, nearly 70% occurred in summer. The area was divided into four depth bands and no significant temporal difference was found as regards the density distribution of cumaceans in those bands as between the samples of the two campaigns. There were, however, spatial differences within bands in the summer campaign: the higher values of density, diversity and richness were close to the 50 m isobath in both campaigns, a fact that could well be attributed to the ongoing effect of the South Atlantic Central Water in this area. The results showed also that depth and the sediment particle size were the main structural factors determining the composition and

  10. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  11. History of neuropsychology through epilepsy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W

    2010-06-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions.

  12. Editorial perspective: Laying the foundations for next generation models of ADHD neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Coghill, David

    2014-11-01

    The JCPP has just published a virtual issue focusing specifically on the journal's contribution to progress in the field of ADHD neuropsychology over last 30 years and its role in establishing the foundations of next generation ADHD neuropsychology models. The virtual issue is structured around six themes. Here we provide a précis of the issue summarizing these themes and illustrating each with a reference to an influential paper published over the last 5 years.

  13. Vargeão Dome Impact Crater and the Cerro do Jarau Structure (Brazil) — A First Report After Recent Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaag, P. T.; Reimold, W. U.; de Oliveira, G. J. G.; Crósta, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    Impact craters in volcanic targets are significantly underrepresented on Earth but are prominent features on other planets. We investigated two structures (Brazil) in volcanics, in particular targeting structural geological observations.

  14. Regional Labor Market Differences in Brazil and Search Frictions: Some Structural Estimates

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    Paulo Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate an equilibrium job search model for six metropolitan areas located in different regions of Brazil. Two mechanisms of wage determination are considered: wage posting by monopsony firms and Nash bilateral bargaining. In order to estimate the model, we use the non-parametric method developed by Bontemps, Robin, & van den Berg [2000. Equilibrium search with continuous productivity dispersion: Theory and nonparametric estimation. International Economic Review, 41(2, 305-358]. There is significant heterogeneity among the estimated structural parameters for these regions. We succeed in rationalizing some well-known regional differences in wages, unemployment rates and productivity prevalent in Brazilian labor markets, thus offering new interpretations. Metropolitan regions in the Northeast have much lower λ0 (arrival rate of wage offers for unemployed workers andλ1 (arrival rate of wage offers for employed workers vis a vis areas in the South or Southeast regions. This is a new, and much more precise, result worth considering on the regional inequality debate in Brazil. Regional inequality in wages, besides being an outcome of its regional human capital distribution, can be rationalized as inequality of search frictions brought by differences inλ1. We found a key (indirect role for search frictions when analysing productivity differences as well. Since search frictions impact simultaneously on monopsony power as well as on productivity, in order to understand better regional productivity differences we must deepen our analysis on how these structural parameters are differentiated by regions. Labor market frictions add important insights into the regional debate, something not captured by more traditional econometric reduced form approaches.

  15. Mangrove vegetation structure in Southeast Brazil from phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Francisca Rocha; Kampel, Milton; Cunha-Lignon, Marilia

    2016-07-01

    The potential use of phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) data for discriminating distinct physiographic mangrove types with different forest structure developments in a subtropical mangrove forest located in Cananéia on the Southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, is investigated. The basin and fringe physiographic types and the structural development of mangrove vegetation were identified with the application of the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test to the SAR backscatter values of 10 incoherent attributes. The best results to separate basin to fringe types were obtained using copolarized HH, cross-polarized HV, and the biomass index (BMI). Mangrove structural parameters were also estimated using multiple linear regressions. BMI and canopy structure index were used as explanatory variables for canopy height, mean height, and mean diameter at breast height regression models, with significant R2=0.69, 0.73, and 0.67, respectively. The current study indicates that SAR L-band images can be used as a tool to discriminate physiographic types and to characterize mangrove forests. The results are relevant considering the crescent availability of freely distributed SAR images that can be more utilized for analysis, monitoring, and conservation of the mangrove ecosystem.

  16. Post-rift volcanic structures of the Pernambuco Plateau, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarque, Bruno V.; Barbosa, José A.; Magalhães, José R. G.; Cruz Oliveira, Jefferson T.; Filho, Osvaldo J. Correia

    2016-10-01

    The Pernambuco marginal basin is located on the eastern continental margin of northeastern Brazil, covers an area of 20,800 km2, and represents one of the most prominent frontiers for deep water oil and gas exploration off the Brazilian coast. The onshore region of this basin was highly affected by extrusive and intrusive magmatism during the Upper Albian, and the relation of that event with the volcanic structures observed in the offshore sector has not been thoroughly characterized to date. This study aims to characterize the major extrusive and intrusive volcanic structures of the offshore portion of this basin, which is dominated by the Pernambuco Plateau, and its stratigraphic relations. A set of 143 2D multichannel seismic sections that cover the Pernambuco Plateau region are used to interpret the major tectono-stratigraphic sequences and describe the distribution of volcanoes, sills, vent complexes and related volcaniclastic sequences. The interpretations are supported by aeromagnetic and gravimetric geophysical surveys. Volcanoes are classified into two groups that differ in terms of their morphology: shield-like structures and cone-shaped volcanic structures. Sill intrusions are mainly identified beneath the volcanic structures and are characterized by high-amplitude reflectors with short extensions and abrupt terminations. Volcaniclastic sequences are found adjacent to the volcanoes and are characterized by high-amplitude, disrupted reflections with local chaotic configurations. Vent complexes are classified on the basis of their morphologies as either eye-shaped or crater-shaped. The volcanic features identified within the available seismic dataset are concentrated in two main areas: in the centre of the plateau and near its northeastern border. These two regions are host basement outer highs and are surrounded by hyper-extended continental crust, which forms the plateau itself. The extrusive and intrusive features described in the offshore region were

  17. Neuropsychological dysfunction in bipolar affective disorder: a critical opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Jonathan; Solms, Mark; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2005-06-01

    Data from the imaging literature have led to suggestions that permanent structural brain changes may be associated with bipolar disorder. Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder display deficits on a range of neuropsychological tasks in both the acute and euthymic phases of illness, and correlations between experienced number of affective episodes and task performance are commonly reported. These findings have renewed interest in the neuropsychological profile of individuals with bipolar disorder, with deficits of attention, learning and memory, and executive function, asserted to be present. This paper critically reviews five different potential causes of neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: (i) iatrogenic, (ii) acute functional changes associated with depression or mania, (iii) permanent structural lesions of a neurodegenerative origin, (iv) permanent structural lesions that are neurodevelopmental in origin, and (v) permanent functional changes that are most likely genetic in origin. Although the potential cognitive effects of residual symptomatology and long-term medication use cannot be entirely excluded, we conclude that functional changes associated with genetically driven population variation in critical neural networks underpin both the neurocognitive and affective symptoms of bipolar disorder. The philosophical implications of this conclusion for neuropsychology are briefly discussed.

  18. Neuropsychological Basis of Self Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a connection between the face recognition, the social relationship and the development of self. There must be a reason that people recognize faces through an important and complex module like the language functions. People know each other, recognize their friends and enemies and make friends through their faces. These show its fundamental role in the world. Like the integrity builds by collective self in inner world, integrity is established through face outside worlds. Researches and comments about the center of self in the brain are made based on neurological disorders like prosopagnosia. Especially some investigations about the evoked potentials will provide us a scientific basic for this subject. This paper addresses the relationship between facial recognition and self-development in terms of neuropsychological aspects. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 255-264

  19. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI: A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets.

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    Nathalie R. de Vent

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI, datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity and range of these data surpasses that of traditional normative data, thereby enabling more accurate neuropsychological assessment. Because of the unique structure of the database, it facilitates normative comparison methods that were not feasible before, in particular those in which entire profiles of scores are evaluated. In this article, we describe the steps that were necessary to combine the separate datasets into a single database. These steps involve matching variables from multiple datasets, removing outlying values, determining the influence of demographic variables, and finding appropriate transformations to normality. Also, a brief description of the current contents of the ANDI database is given.

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor...... analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional...... and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results...

  1. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  2. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  3. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  4. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

  5. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

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    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  6. Reflections on clinical neuropsychology: a multifaceted approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a rapidly growing, independent discipline with a broad work field. Neuropsychologists are working in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, forensic organisations and research institutes. One of the most important instruments of a neuropsychologist in assessing the beha

  7. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  8. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  9. Variations of Bacterial Community Structure and Composition in Mangrove Sediment at Different Depths in Southeastern Brazil

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    Lucas William Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical mangroves are considered one of the most productive ecosystems of the world, being characterized as nurseries and food sources for fish and other animals. Microorganisms play important roles in these environments, and the study of bacterial communities is of paramount importance for a better comprehension of mangrove dynamics. This study focused on the structure and composition of bacterial communities in mangrove sediments at different depths and points, located in Southeastern Brazil. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to determine the community structure, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize the community composition. Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP patterns revealed differences in bacterial community structure according to soil attributes and depth. The parameters K and depth presented significant correlation with general community structure. Most sequences were classified into the phylum Proteobacteria (88%, which presented differences according to the depth, where the classes Betaproteobacteria (21% and Deltaproteobacteria (16% were abundant at 10 cm and Epsilonproteobacteria (35% was abundant at 40 cm depth. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of the phyla Firmicutes (1.13% and 3.8%, for 10 cm and 40 cm respectively, Chloroflexi (2.8% and 0.75%, and Acidobacteria (2.75% and 0.57% according to the depth. Bacterial diversity measurements indicated higher diversity in shallow samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that mangrove holds a diverse bacterial community, which is shaped by the variations found in the ecosystem, such as sediment properties and depth.

  10. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  11. Composition, structure, origin, and evolution of off-axis linear volcanic structures of the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Peive, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the conditions and mechanisms of the formation of linear volcanic structures in the Brazil Basin, South Atlantic. Among these objects, those related to the ascent of deep mantle plumes predominate. It is shown that the ascent of melts from plume sources leads to the formation of (a) hot spot tracks in the form of linear volcanic ridges and (b) active hot lines in the form of submarine mountain chains with trends differing from those of hot spot tracks and with a more variable character of the age distribution of volcanic rocks. Fault tectonics affects the character of plume activity. In addition, plume material from a hot spot area is dragged by a moving plate as a flow or a sublithospheric lens, which leads to the long-term existence of particular independent segments of linear structures and sometimes to late volcanism reactivation within their limits. Decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle in zones where thin lithosphere undergoes tension causes the formation of passive hot lines. The main mantle source for the considered volcanic rocks was a mixture of DMM and HIMU mantle components, with the latter abruptly dominating. In marginal oceanic regions, the EM1 component is also present (the EM2 component is found more rarely) within fragments of tectonically delaminated continental mantle that was trapped by the oceanic mantle during the breakup of Gondwana.

  12. The structural molecular biology network of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A.R.G. Barbosa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the achievements of the Structural Molecular Biology Network (SMolBNet, a collaborative program of structural molecular biology, centered in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and supported by São Paulo State Funding Agency (FAPESP. It gathers twenty scientific groups and is coordinated by the scientific staff of the Center of Structural Molecular Biology, at the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light (LNLS, in Campinas. The SMolBNet program has been aimed at 1 solving the structure of proteins of interest related to the research projects of the groups. In some cases, the choice has been to select proteins of unknown function or of possible novel structure obtained from the sequenced genomes of the FAPESP genomic program; 2 providing the groups with training in all the steps of the protein structure determination: gene cloning, protein expression, protein purification, protein crystallization and structure determination. Having begun in 2001, the program has been successful in both aims. Here, four groups reveal their participation in the program and describe the structural aspects of the proteins they have selected to study.Esse artigo descreve realizações do Programa SMolBNet (Rede de Biologia Molecular Estrutural do Estado de São Paulo, apoiado pela FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. Ele reúne vinte grupos de pesquisa e é coordenado pelos pesquisadores do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS, em Campinas. O Programa SMolBNet tem como metas: Elucidar a estrutura tridimensional de proteínas de interesse aos grupos de pesquisa componentes do Programa; Prover os grupos com treinamento em todas as etapas de determinação de estrutura: clonagem gênica, expressão de proteínas, purificação de proteínas, cristalização de proteínas e elucidação de suas estruturas. Tendo começado em 2001, o Programa alcançou sucesso em ambas as metas. Neste artigo, quatro dos grupos

  13. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  14. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  15. STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS IN A FRAGMENT OF SEASONAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST IN LAVRAS, MG, BRAZIL

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    Pablo Burkowski Meyer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aimed at describing the structural dynamics of the tree community of a forest fragment of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (Mata do Capivari situated in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, South-eastern Brazil. The study was based on three surveys carried out during an 11-year period (1997, 2003 and 2008 in 28 20×20 m permanent plots where records were made of the species and diameter at breast height (dbh of trees with dbh ≥ 5 cm, including survival, mortality and recruits. The hypothesis was that the patterns of dynamics found in the first interval (1997-2003 persisted in the second (2003-2008. The descriptors of dynamics were the rates of mortality and recruitment of individual trees (dynamics of demography, rates of gain and loss of tree basal area (dynamics of biomass, and respective net change rates. Between 2003 and 2008, the mortality rate, of 3.30%.yr-1, surpassed the recruitment rate, of 2.78%.yr-1. The gain rate in basal area was 2.72%.yr-1, only a little inferior to the loss rate, of 2.98%.yr-1. In general, these patterns repeated those of the first interval (1998-2003, with a persisting slow demographic decline, particularly concentrated near the river, and a nearly stable basal area. Comparatively speaking, the Mata do Capivari is one of the most stable among those studied in the region despite persistent human interference.

  16. STRUCTURE OF A SHRUB-TREE IN A FRAGMENT OF CAATINGA IN CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL

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    Braulio Gomes de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northeast of Brazil is the largest part of its territory occupied by scrub which is characterized by being a xerophytic vegetation considered by experts the biome most sensitive to human interference and global climate change. This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure in a remnant of savanna located in Reserva de Particular de Patrimonio Natural (RPPN in the Farm Trussú in Iguatu Ceará. 45 plots were established and sampled 10x20 cm all living and dead individuals with a stem diameter at the ground level > 3 cm and total height of > 1 m. The estimated density was 5,602 individuals ha-1 representing 52 species, 41 genera and 23 families. The studied area featuring a variety of woody component similar to that found in other areas of savanna, with Shannon diversity index of 2.19 nats/ind and equitability 0.50. The species Croton sonderianus, Combretum leprosum, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Mimosa tenuiflora had greater importance value index. The study area is well preserved and recovery process.

  17. Amphibian DNA shows marked genetic structure and tracks pleistocene climate change in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Bates, John M

    2007-12-01

    The glacial refugia paradigm has been broadly applied to patterns of species dynamics and population diversification. However, recent geological studies have demonstrated striking Pleistocene climate changes in currently semiarid northeastern Brazil at time intervals much more frequent than the climatic oscillations associated with glacial and interglacial periods. These geomorphic data documented recurrent pulses of wet regimes in the past 210,000 years that correlate with climate anomalies affecting multiple continents. While analyzing DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2) and one nuclear marker (cellular-myelocytomatosis proto-oncogene) in the forest-associated frogs Proceratophrys boiei and Ischnocnema gr. ramagii, we found evidence of biological responses consistent with these pluvial maxima events. Sampled areas included old, naturally isolated forest enclaves within the semiarid Caatinga, as well as recent man-made fragments of humid coastal Atlantic forest. Results show that mtDNA lineages in enclave populations are monophyletic or nearly so, whereas nonenclave populations are polyphyletic and more diverse. The studied taxa show evidence of demographic expansions at times that match phases of pluvial maxima inferred from geological data. Divergence times between several populations fall within comparatively drier intervals suggested by geomorphology. Mitochondrial and nuclear data show local populations to be genetically structured, with some high levels of differentiation that suggest the need of further taxonomic work.

  18. Composition and structure of bird communities in vegetational gradients of Bodoquena Mountains, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Mauricio N; Souza, Franco L; Laps, Rudi R; Ribeiro, Danilo B

    2016-03-01

    The informations of bird species distribution in different habitats and the structure of their communities are crucial for bird conservation. We tested the differences in composition, richness and abundance of birds in different phytophysiognomies at Bodoquena Mountains, western Brazil, and we demonstrated the variations in richness and abundance of birds between different trophic groups. Sampling was conducted between July 2011 and June 2012 in 200 point counts arranged in the study area. A total of 3350 contacts were obtained belonging to 156 bird species. Woodland savannas, seasonal forests and arboreal savannas had higher bird abundance and richness, while riparian forests, clean pastures and dirty pastures had smaller values of these parameters. The bird community was organized according to local vegetational gradient, with communities of forests, open areas and savannas, although many species occurred in more than one vegetation type. The insectivorous, omnivorous, frugivorous and gramnivorous birds composed most of the community. These data showed how important environmental heterogeneity is to bird communities. Furthermore, the presence of extensive patches of natural habitats, the small distance between these patches and the permeability of pastures, with high arboreal and shrubby cover, are indicated as important factors to maintain the bird diversity.

  19. Population genetic structure of two columnar cacti with a patchy distribution in eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Evandro M; Abreu, Aluana G; Andrade, Sónia C S; Sene, Fabio M; Solferini, Vera N

    2005-11-01

    The genetic variability and population genetic structure of six populations of Praecereus euchlorus and Pilosocereus machrisii were investigated. The genetic variability in single populations of Pilosocereus vilaboensis, Pilosocereus aureispinus, and Facheiroa squamosa was also examined. All of these cacti species have a patchy geographic distribution in which they are restricted to small areas of xeric habitats in eastern Brazil. An analysis of genetic structure was used to gain insights into the historical mechanisms responsible for the patchy distribution of P. euchlorus and P. machrisii. High genetic variability was found at the populational level in all species (P=58.9-92.8%, A(p)=2.34-3.33, H(e)=0.266-0.401), and did not support our expectations of low variability based on the small population size. Substantial inbreeding was detected within populations (F(IS)=0.370-0.623). In agreement with their insular distribution patterns, P. euchlorus and P. machrisii had a high genetic differentiation (F(ST)=0.484 and F(ST)=0.281, respectively), with no evidence of isolation by distance. Accordingly, estimates of gene flow (N(m)) calculated from F(ST) and private alleles were below the level of N(m)=1 in P. machrisii and P. euchlorus. These results favored historical fragmentation as the mechanism responsible for the patchy distribution of these two species. The genetic distance between P. machrisii and P. vilaboensis was not compatible with their taxonomic distinction, indicating a possible local speciation event in this genus, or the occurrence of introgression events.

  20. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  1. The Association of MRI Findings and Neuropsychological Functioning after the First Recognized Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Egelhoff, John C.; Kalnin, Andrew; Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Purpose To explore relationships between MRI abnormalities of the brain and neuropsychological functioning in children who were evaluated following their first recognized seizure. Methods Subjects were children aged 6 to 14 years with a first recognized seizure within the past 3 months who participated in a larger prospective study of child adaptation. The 249 children with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging were studied. Children underwent neuropsychological examination an average of 2.8 months and MRI examination an average of 1.3 months after the first recognized seizure. On factor analysis four factors were found for neuropsychological function: LANG = Language, PS = Processing Speed, EC = Executive/Construction, VMEM = Verbal Memory and Learning. For analysis, structural abnormalities found on MRI were classified as significant (yes/no) based on whether they were presumed to be related to the seizure condition. Results On MRI, 34 (14%) had structural abnormalities that were judged to be significant in that they were possibly related to their seizures. Children with significant abnormalities had significantly lower estimated IQ scores and significantly lower language, processing speed, executive/constructional ability, and verbal memory and learning factor scores than did children without significant abnormalities. Conclusions Children who have structural brain abnormalities at onset have slightly lower cognitive functioning overall, and all neuropsychological domains seemed to be affected relatively equally. This pattern was apparent even when we restricted the analysis to children with intellectual functioning in the broadly normal range. PMID:17442004

  2. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  3. Structure and integrity of fish assemblages in streams associated to conservation units in Central Brazil

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    Thiago Belisário d'Araújo Couto

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the spatial and seasonal distribution of the fish assemblage and evaluate the integrity of streams in a sustainable use area that includes integral protection conservation units in Distrito Federal, Central Brazil (Cerrado biome. For the study, 12 stretches of 8 streams were sampled in 2008 (dry season and 2009 (wet season. For that evaluation was estimated the Physical Habitat Index (PHI, vegetation cover (VC, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and conductivity. We recorded 22 species, about eight undescribed species, by a total of 2,327 individuals. The most representative families in number of species were Characidae (31.8%, Loricariidae (31.8%, and Crenuchidae (13.6%. Knodus moenkhausii was the most abundant species with 1,476 individuals, added to Astyanax sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Hasemania sp. they represent over 95% of the total abundance. The species Astyanax sp. (occurring in 79.2% of the stretches and K. moenkhausii (50.0% were considered constant in both seasons. The longitudinal gradient (River Continuum exerts a strong influence on the studied assemblage. According to CCA, the variables that structure the fish assemblage are based on aspects related to water volume and habitat complexity. No seasonal variation in richness, diversity, abundance, and mass were detected. A cluster analysis suggests a separation of species composition between the stretches of higher and lower orders, which was not observed for seasonality. The streams were considered well preserved (mean PHI 82.9±7.5%, but in some stretches were observed anthropogenic influence, detected in the water quality and, mainly, on the riparian vegetation integrity. The exotic species Poecilia reticulata was sampled in the two stretches considered most affected by anthropogenic activities by PHI, conductivity, and VC.

  4. The genetic structure of Leishmania infantum populations in Brazil and its possible association with the transmission cycle of visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Gabriel Eduardo Melim Ferreira

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT. POP3 (31 strains was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS. Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL.

  5. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  6. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

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    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  7. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

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    Lisa H. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  8. Neuropsychological performance of sexual assaulters and pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M L; Cole, J K; McKay, S E; Golden, C J; Liggett, K R

    1984-10-01

    Persons who had been arrested for sexual assault were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery and the results compared to a group of normal controls. The sexual assaulters performed significantly worse on 7 of the 14 scales of the battery. The data were then broken down into three groups: (1) those who had forcibly assaulted postpubescent victims, (2) those subjects who had sexually molested a prepubescent child, and (3) normal controls. A discriminant analysis correctly classified 68% of the subjects on the basis of their neuropsychological performance alone.

  9. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  10. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  11. Rhodolith bed structure along a depth gradient on the northern coast of bahia state, brazil

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    Ricardo G. Bahia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the structure of a rhodolith bed along a depth gradient of 5 to 25 m in the shelf in front of Salvador City, a region of northeastern Brazil. The dimensions, morphology and coralline algae composition of the rhodoliths were analyzed, as well as the vitality, density, and associated flora of the bed at three depths: 5, 15 and 25 m. Samples were obtained by SCUBA divers in summer 2007. Five rhodolith-forming taxa were identified: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens, and Lithophyllum sp. The encrusting growth form and the spherical shape were predominant at all depths. Rhodolith dimensions and vitality decreased and the density increased from the shallow to the deepest zones. Fifty-six macroalgal species were found as rhodolith-associated flora. The shallower depth presented higher values for macroalgal biomass and number of species. These results associated with other recent rhodolith bed descriptions indicate that the pattern of Brazilian rhodolith bed structure along depth gradients may be related to a combination of the extent and slope of the continental shelf.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de um banco de rodolitos ao longo de um gradiente de profundidade na plataforma em frente à cidade de Salvador, nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas as dimensões, a forma e composição das algas calcárias dos rodolitos, bem como a vitalidade, densidade e flora associada ao banco, em três profundidades: 5, 15 e 25 m. As amostras foram obtidas por meio de mergulho autônomo no verão de 2007. Cinco espécies de algas calcárias formadoras de rodolito foram identificadas: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens e Lithophyllum sp. A forma de crescimento incrustante e a forma esférica foram predominantes em todas as profundidades. Houve uma redução da dimensão e

  12. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  13. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  14. Neuropsychological Profiles and Behavioral Ratings in ADHD Overlap Only in the Dimension of Syndrome Severity

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    Ádám Takács

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive neuropsychological and the behavioral rating profiles of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods. Forty-two children diagnosed with ADHD (M=11.5  years, SD=1.1 and 43 typically developing children (M=11.2 years, SD=1.7 participated. We measured symptom severity with behavioral rating scales, and we administered neuropsychological tasks to measure inhibitory performance, updating/working memory, and shifting ability. Results. On the basis of the three neuropsychological variables, the hierarchical cluster analytic method yielded a six-cluster structure. The clusters, according to the severity of the impairment, were labeled as follows: none or few symptoms, Moderate inhibition and mild shifting, moderate to severe shifting with moderate updating, moderate updating, severe updating with mild shifting, and severe updating with severe shifting. There were no systematic differences in inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior across the clusters. The comorbid learning disorder appeared more likely only in severe neuropsychological forms of ADHD. Conclusion. In sum, our results suggest that behavioral ratings and neuropsychological profiles converge only in the dimension of symptom severity and that atypicalities in executive functions may manifest in nonspecific everyday problems.

  15. Neuropsychological test performance in illiterate subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Lopez-Arango, G; Uriel-Mendoza, V

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education across different age ranges on neuropsychological test performance. Two different analyses were performed. The first analysis was conducted in order to pinpoint the impact of school attendance on neuropsychological testing. A group of 64 illiterate normal subjects was selected in the Mexican Republic. Their performance was compared with two barely schooled control groups (1-2 and 3-4 years of schooling). The subjects' ages ranged from 16 to 85 years. In the second analysis, the illiterate subjects were further matched by age and sex with individuals with 1 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years of formal education. The Spanish version of the NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery (Ostrosky, Ardila, & Rosselli, 1997) was used. Results indicated a significant educational effect on most of the tests. Largest educational effect was noted in constructional abilities (copying of a figure), language (comprehension), phonological verbal fluency, and conceptual functions (similarities, calculation abilities, and sequences). Aging effect was noted in visuoperceptual (visual detection) and memory scores. In the first subject sample, it was evident that, despite using such limited educational range (from 0-4 years of formal education), and such a wide age range (from 16-85 years), schooling represented a stronger variable than age. It is proposed that education effect on neuropsychological test performance represents a negatively accelerated curve, tending to a plateau.

  16. Neuropsychological and Behavioral Aspects of Noonan Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Wingbermühle (Ellen); J.I.M. Egger (Jos); I. van der Burgt (Ineke); W.M.A. Verhoeven (Wim)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: The current paper introduces concise neuropsychological assessment as an essential tool for studying the contribution of cognition and behavior in the expression of genetic syndromes, like Noonan syndrome (NS). Cognitive and behavioral findings in NS show intelligence scores ac

  17. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  18. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  19. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  20. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  1. Vector control measures failed to affect genetic structure of Aedes aegypti in a sentinel metropolitan area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kathleen R; Ribeiro, Gilmar; Silva dos Santos, Carlos Gustavo; de Lima, Eliaci Couto; Melo, Paulo R S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; Silva, Luciano K

    2013-12-01

    In order to evaluate subpopulation differentiation, effective population size (Ne) and evidence for population bottlenecks at various geographic levels, Aedes aegypti larvae were collected longitudinally from 2007 to 2009 from four areas in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The DNA from each larva was isolated and genotyped with five independent microsatellite markers. FST and Jost's D revealed significant population structuring (Pcontrol measures did contribute to vector reduction, but this was not enough to decrease A. aegypti population genetic diversity in Salvador. The understanding of A. aegypti population dynamics may be helpful for planning and evaluation of control measures to make them more effective.

  2. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton community in the Botafogo reservoir-Pernambuco-Brazil

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    Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares de Lira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton in the Botafogo reservoir-PE-Brazil. Phytoplankton assemblages were identified from current literature and density was estimated using an inverted microscope. Concurrently to the sampling of biotic variables, measurements of abiotic parameters, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, were determined using field probes and transparency was determined with a Secchi disk. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were determined in laboratory. A total of 24 taxa were identified. Chlorophyta presented the greatest number of species. Species diversity in the reservoir was low throughout the study period. Principal component analysis revealed that Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. and Peridinium gatunense were directly correlated with oxygen, turbidity and total nitrogen; Planktosphaeria gelatinosa, P. gatunense and Euglena sp. were directed correlated with total nitrogen; rainfall explained the occurrence of Monoraphidium arcuatum and Chlorella vulgaris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a estrutura e dinâmica do fitoplâncton no reservatório de Botafogo-PE-Brasil. A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi identificada com literatura atualizada e a densidade estimada usando microscópio invertido. Concomitantemente as coletas das variáveis bióticas, foram medidos alguns parâmetros abióticos como temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e pH usando sondas de campo e transparência com disco de Secchi. Concentrações de fósforo total e nitrogênio total foram determinados em laboratório. Vinte e quatro táxons foram identificados tendo Chlorophyta apresentado maior número de espécie. A diversidade de espécie no reservatório foi baixa durante todo o período de estudo. A análise de componentes principais mostrou que Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. e

  3. Beyond functional architecture in cognitive neuropsychology: a reply to Coltheart (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, David C; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-01-01

    We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact on cognitive science due to a nearly exclusive reliance on (a) single-case studies, (b) dissociations in cognitive performance, and (c) shallow, box-and-arrow theorizing, and we advocated adopting a case-series methodology, considering associations as well as dissociations, and employing explicit computational modeling in studying "how the brain does its cognitive business." In reply, Coltheart (2010) claims that our concern is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture," without regard to how this is implemented in the brain. In this response, we do not dispute his characterization of cognitive neuropsychology as it has typically been practiced over the last 40 years, but we suggest that our understanding of brain structure and function has advanced to the point where studying the mind without regard to the brain is unwise and perpetuates the field's isolation.

  4. Spatial variation in the structure and composition of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

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    KA. Silva

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid environments of the world, microhabitats serve as models for the structure of vegetation communities. The goal of this study was to identify differences in the structures of the herbaceous communities growing on a crystalline substrate and those growing on a sedimentary substrate in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. One hundred 1 × 1 m plots were established in each area for quantitative sampling, with 69 species recorded in the crystalline area and 76 in the sedimentary area. The average plant density was higher in the sedimentary area, and average diameters and heights were greater in the crystalline area. The families and species with a high Importance Value Index (IVI and a high Mixed Ecological Value Index (MEVI differed between the areas. Of the species with high densities, only four were found in both areas. Shannon-Weiner diversity index values in the crystalline (2.96 nats/ind.-1 and sedimentary (2.89 nats/ind.-1 areas were similar. Evenness values on both substrates were also similar (0.72 and 0.71 in the crystalline and sedimentary areas, respectively. This study shows that variations in plant establishment conditions between crystalline and sedimentary areas in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil should be considered as structure-modeling factors for the herbaceous community.

  5. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

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    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  6. A motion to exclude and the 'fixed' versus 'flexible' battery in 'forensic' neuropsychology: challenges to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2007-01-01

    Two recent publications in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN) have been used by defense attorneys as the centerpiece for an argument that only a 'fixed' battery approach, exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan battery (HRB), satisfies the Daubert criteria for admissibility; and therefore, the HRB represents the only method of forensic neuropsychological assessment that should be admitted into evidence. Since this case has important implications for the practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, this 'Motion to Exclude' and its rationale are presented, which demonstrates how the legal profession uses neuropsychological literature. The critical issues of this argument for clinical neuropsychological practice are reviewed.

  7. Relationship of temporal lobe volumes to neuropsychological test performance in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain vol

  8. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  9. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

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    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  10. Structural violence in the context of drug policy and initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm in contemporary Brazil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Francisco I

    2012-01-01

    Brazil, the 6th largest world economy, has experienced rapid economic, demographic, and social structural changes during the last decade. Notwithstanding, Brazil being one of the most unequal societies worldwide, 40 million of 200 million Brazilians have moved from poverty to middle-class standards during this period. This review analyzes the success of different Brazilian initiatives aiming to reduce drug consumption-related harms, as well as the failed attempts to curb structural violence, despite some very recent initiatives have yet to be fully implemented and evaluated.

  11. Discovery of endangered annual killifish Austrolebias cheradophilus (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in Brazil, with comments on habitat, population structure and conservation status

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    Luis Esteban Krause Lanés

    Full Text Available Austrolebias genus comprises about 40 small annual killifishes endemic to South America and their highest diversity occurs in southern Brazil and Uruguay, especially in drainages of Patos-Mirim system. Austrolebiasspecies are severely threatened with extinction because their life cycle and restricted ranges. Low dispersal ability and the extensive loss and fragmentation of freshwater wetlands contribute to this threat. Accurate information on the geographic distribution and ecology of the species, vital to plan conservation and management strategies, are scarce. In order to provide basic knowledge for annual fish conservation this paper reports the presence of Austrolebias cheradophilus and present data about its population structure (CPUA, size, sex ratio, length-weight relationships and condition factor and conservation status in southern Brazil. The estimated CPUA of populations was 0.86 fish/m2. Standard length (SL of males ranged between 32.14 and 49.17 mm and for females between 25.11 and 41.6 mm. There were no differences in SL between the sexes (t-test = - 1.678; P = 0.105, and Chi-squared test demonstrated marginal differences in proportions of sexes (2.25:1; χ2 = 3.846; P= 0.07. Allometric coefficient of the LWR was slightly hyperallometric (b = 3.08 and K of the specimens ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 (mean ± S.E. = 2.12 ± 0.04. Populations have low density and their biotopes are under critical threat, mainly due to suppression by agriculture, pastures for livestock and increase housing. The species is considered "Critically Endangered" in Brazil, furthermore is strongly recommended its inclusion on lists of endangered fauna and ensures the protection of their remaining habitats.

  12. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

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    Sherin Elsheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ on these abilities. Design: Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1 and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6. Results: Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01, Narrative Memory (p<0.001 and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05 and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01. Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  13. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

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    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  14. Neuropsychological Findings in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Report

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    Selma Tural Hesapçıoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are structural and functional associations between hormone systems and central nervous system. Disturbances of thyroid hormone should cause neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is seen that there might be indistinct brain dysfunction symptoms in patients with euthyroid Hashimato disease. His neuropsychiatric profile assessed by examination and a battery included neuropsychiatric tests. Cancellation Test, Stroop Test TBAG form, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test and WISC-R tests were carried to patient. Failure in executive functioning and complex attention was determined in patient. In Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test, perceiving of visual stimulus, visual motor coordination and predicating of perceived stimulus with motor functioning were significantly disordered. WISC-R subtests were also supporting these findings. Thyroid hormones and the problems with thyroid gland may cause some disturbances in neuropsychological profile. It should be helpful to see thyroid functioning tests in patients which referred with neuropsychological symptoms. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 146-9

  15. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  16. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

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    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  17. Research contributions of counseling psychologists to neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S J; Ryan, J J; Sumerall, S W

    1998-10-01

    Research productivity of counseling psychologists with credentials in clinical neuropsychology were examined. Eighteen were ABPP/ABCN Diplomates. Division 40 Fellows, or both. They published an average of 3.06 (SD= 4.82; range = 0 to 20) neuropsychologically relevant, first-authored articles over the past 5 years. When counseling psychologists were compared to a random sample of ABPP/ABCN diplomates with doctoral degrees in other areas of psychology, no reliable differences emerged between the groups in age, research productivity, or number of years between graduation and receipt of the ABPP/ABCN diploma. Research contributions of neuropsychologists with degrees in counseling psychology are comparable to those of ABPP/ABCN diplomates who were trained in other areas of psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, and physiological).

  18. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

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    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  19. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Pruša

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychologic...

  20. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with chronic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. (Psychology) The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that hypertension has on brain function. A neuropsychological test battery comprising of the following tests was employed as a multivariate measure of brain dysfunction in a quasiexperimental, matched group design: a) The Complex Figure Test of Rey (copy, immediate recall and delayed recall), b) the Logical Memory Test, c) the Digits Span Test, d) the Verbal Paired Associate Learning Subtest, e) the Controlle...

  1. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions.

  2. Traumatic brain injury neuropsychology in Cali, Colombia

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    Quijano María Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: comparative analysis between control group and patients with TBI to determine whetherthere neuropsychological differences at 6 months of evolution, to guide timely interventioncommensurate with the needs of this population. Materials and methods: a total of 79 patientswith a history of TBI with a minimum of 6 months of evolution and 79 control subjects were evaluated.Both groups with a mean age of 34 and without previous neurological or psychiatric disorders and an average schooling of 11 years for the control group and 9 years for the TBI group.The Glasgow Coma Scale in the TBI group was classified as moderate with 11 points. The BriefNeuropsychological Evaluation in Spanish Neuropsi was applied to both groups. Results: significantdifferences (p≤0.05 in the tasks of orientation, attention, memory, language, reading andwriting were found. Conclusions: TBI generates significant neuropsychological changes, even sixmonths after discharge from the health service. It suggests that patients with head injury requiretreatment after overcoming the initial stage.

  3. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  4. [Labor market structure and access to private health insurance in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Flavia; Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Maia, Ana Carolina

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to describe health insurance coverage among different types of workers in Brazil. Health insurance coverage and labor market insertion are used to define homogeneous groups of workers. The Grade of Membership method is used to build a typology of workers. The database was the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) for 1998 and 2003, including a health survey. Five worker profiles were defined. The key variables were: health insurance coverage, schooling, and work status. The main findings show a positive association between health insurance coverage, income from work, and trade union membership.

  5. Analysis of floristic composition and structure as an aid to monitoring protected areas of dense rain forest in southeastern Brazil

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    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study forest composition and structure, as well as to facilitate management plans and monitoring programs, we conducted a phytosociological survey in the PE Caverna do Diabo State Park and the Quilombos do Médio Ribeira Environmentally Protected Area, both located within the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed 20 plots of 400 m² each, including only individuals with a circumference at breast height > 15 cm. We employed cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, including species data and abiotic data. We evaluated 1051 individuals, belonging to 155 species in 48 families. Of those 155, 18 were threatened species, 33 were endemic species, and 92 (59.4% were secondary species. The overall Shannon index was 4.524, one of the highest recorded for a dense rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We found that our sample plots fell into three blocks. The first was forest in which there had been human disturbance, showing low species richness, minimal density, and a small relative quantity of biomass. The second was undisturbed mature forest, showing a comparatively larger quantity of biomass. The third was mature forest in which there had been natural intermediate disturbance (dead trees, showing higher species richness and greater density. We identified various groups of species that could be used in monitoring these distinct forest conditions.

  6. Verbal fluency tests – application in neuropsychological assessment

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    Piskunowicz, Małgorzata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests (VFT have established position in methodology of cognitive functions research. They are used in neuropsychological assessment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. This article’s aim is to present current knowledge of the VFT both to clinicians and researchers. It describes models of cognitive processes involved in task performance mainly: semantic memory access and executive functions. and. It describes studies on verbal fluency both in healthy and impaired subjects involving neuroimaging discussing neuroanatomical structures involved in task performance. Authors are quite unanimous as to connection between frontal and temporal lobes condition and task performance, but also other cortical and subcortical structures seem to be involved. Methods of qualitative performance analysis and studies applying them are further described. This article brings up also important questions of psychometric and demographic characteristics of the task and limitations arising from the lack of Polish norms of the tool.

  7. TREE STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF AN AREA OF MIXED RAIN FOREST IN CAMPO BELO DO SUL, SC, BRAZIL

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    Silvio Formento

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the arboreal structure of a Mixed Rain Forest was assessed in the period 1992-2003. The area belongs to the “Florestal Gateados company”, located in Campo Belo do Su county, in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. The surwey was carried out in 16 sample units of 10 x 60 m (600 m², where all individuals with DAP > 10 cm Were registered, measured and identified. After the analysis, it could be concluded that: Lithraea brasiliensis was the most representative specie in the structure of the forest in both analised periods, and this was related to the high values of density, dominance, frequency, besides the distribution in all forest layers. The most important species, which increased their participation in the composition and structure were, Ocotea pulchella, Matayba elaeagnoides, Clethra scabra, Clethra uleana, Sebastiana commersoniana and Araucaria angustifolia; The species which decreased in their importância in the forest structure were, Myrsine coriacea Nectandra grandiflora Capsicodendron dinissi, Ilex theezans,Ilex dumosa and Xylosma ciliatifolium. The distribuition of the trees in the forest layers changed from increasing distribution in 1992 to uniformity in 2003, enhancing the increases in density of trees of the lower layer; the forest is in a successional process, indicated particularly by the dinamycs of the structure of the lower forest layers.

  8. Assessing neuropsychological impairment using Reitan and Wolfson's screening battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, J; Preiss, M

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to verify the applicability of Reitan and Wolfson's proposed neuropsychological screening battery for adults (2006, 2008) in the Czech population. The sample consisted of 70 participants aged 19-65 years, all of whom were examined using a screening method as well as the full Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological battery (HRNB). The correlation, logistic regression, ROC curve analysis, sensitivity and specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were all calculated. The Pearson correlation between the screening scale of neuropsychological deficit and the General Neuropsychological Deficit Scale (GNDS) from HRNB was 0.78 (p Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23, 393-398, 2008, but different from Reitan, & Wolfson in The use of serial testing in evaluating the need for comprehensive neuropsychological testing of adults. Applied Neuropsychology, 15, 21-32, 2008), 78.6% of individuals were correctly classified having neuropsychological impairment or no impairment according to the GNDS. Our results confirm that this neuropsychological screening battery has good psychometric properties in the Czech population.

  9. Neuropsychology 3.0: evidence-based science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift toward evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of Web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress toward these goals.

  10. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  11. Neuropsychological studies of musical timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine

    2003-11-01

    Musical timbre is a multidimensional property of sound that allows one to distinguish musical instruments. In this paper, studies that explore the cerebral substrate underlying the processing of musical timbre are discussed. Perceptual asymmetries measured in normal participants, deficits of musical timbre perception obtained in brain-damaged patients, as well as results obtained with various neuroimaging methods are reviewed. The findings obtained in all of these studies generally support the predominant involvement of right temporal lobe areas, and more specifically of its anterior part, in processing spectral and temporal envelopes of musical timbre. However, controversies still exist about the contribution of the left temporal lobe in timbre perception. The necessity of comparing data obtained with different perceptual paradigms (same-different discrimination and similarity judgment) and various types of stimuli (single tones and melodies) was emphasized by reporting lesion studies carried out in patients with unilateral temporal lobe lesions. The few neuroimaging studies published in this domain provided additional and complementary findings. Unlike lesion studies that allow us to infer the cerebral structures that are essential for timbre perception, the latter investigations implicate a more distributed neural network in timbre processing that extends along the superior temporal gyrus to include not only anterior but also posterior temporal regions and possibly frontal areas as well.

  12. Physiographic, stratigraphic, and structural development of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, J.V.N.

    1969-01-01

    The Quadrilatero Ferrifero is an area of some 7,000 square kilometers in central Minas Gerais, Brazil centered about lat. 20°15' S, long. 43°30' W.  For 250 years the region has poured forth a variety of mineral riches, now totaling more than $2 billion, and future production will undoubtedly be even greater.  The main products are iron ore, manganese ore, and gold.  To assist this development, the Braziliam and American Governments in 1946 jointly undertook the first detailed geologic study of the region: this report is a synthesis of the results of work and mapping by 17 Brazilian and American geologists under this program; other reports discussing the economic geology, the metamorphic geology, and the igneous geology of the region as a whole are being prepared.

  13. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

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    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique.

  15. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  16. Structural styles of the intracratonic reactivation of the Perimbó fault zone, Paraná basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Rigoti, Augustinho; Kraft, Ronaldo Paulo

    2003-08-01

    The style and origin of intracratonic deformation along the Perimbó fault zone (PFZ) in the Paraná basin, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, is defined by the integration of outcrop, borehole, aerial photography, and digital terrain modeling data. Typical structures are high-angle strike-slip and oblique-slip normal faults in the Permian sedimentary cover that propagate upward from medium-angle reverse faults in the underlying Precambrian basement. Regional and minor structures suggest blind transtensional faulting and tilting of the overlying strata controlled by the basement heritage. A hypothesis linking deformation between the cover and the basement is proposed on the basis of a structural analysis of a branched fault pattern striking N40-50E and N70-80E. Semi-detailed scale mapping shows that the PFZ has a complex history of polyphase reactivation and is characterized as a plate margin fault in the Proterozoic, evolving to an intracratonic fault in the Phanerozoic, with a main period of reactivation in Permian or Permian-Triassic transition times. The reported data imply that fault reactivation is characterized by normal to left-lateral strike-slip faulting produced by strain propagation from the La Ventana orogenic belt toward the continental interior.

  17. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Changes in a "Normal" Elderly Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, William D.; And Others

    Given the methodological problems with generating and using normative data with the elderly, the need for age-related norms on neuropsychological tests is clearly important. A study was conducted to examine a normal elderly group's performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) over time. Subjects were 57 elderly volunteers…

  18. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  19. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  20. Neuropsychology still needs to model organismic processes "from within".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, Juan; Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Arsalidou, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity.

  1. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  2. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

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    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.Keywords: eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, neuropsychology, cognitive performance

  3. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

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    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  4. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

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    Grisham JR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jessica R Grisham, Peter A Baldwin School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Abstract: Hoarding disorder (HD is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. Keywords: hoarding, information processing, neuropsychology, neurophysiology, treatment

  5. Neuropsychological impairment among former microelectronics workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R M; Mergler, D; Huel, G; Harrison, R; Cone, J

    1991-01-01

    Although chemicals posing potential neurotoxic hazards are commonly used in the microelectronics industry, there has been no systematic study of possible chronic nervous system effects in microelectronics workers. The objective of the present study was to assess neuropsychological functions of a group of former microelectronics plant assembly workers and a group of referents, using a matched pair design. During employment, the former microelectronics workers had been exposed to multiple organic solvents, including trichloroethylene, xylene, chlorofluorocarbons and trichloroethane. Referents were recruited from the same geographic region. From a pool of 180 former workers and 157 referents, 67 pairs were matched on the basis of age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, sex and number of children. Comparison of results on the subtests of the California Neuropsychological Screening Battery-Revised (CNS-R) revealed significantly lower performance by the former microelectronics workers on tests of attention/concentration, verbal ability, memory functions, visuospatial functions, visuomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, psychomotor speed, and reaction time (t-test for pairs or Wilcoxon Signed Rank p less than 0.05). No significant differences were observed for performance on tests assessing mental status, visual recall, tactile function and learning. This overall pattern of impairment is consistent with organic solvent-related chronic toxic encephalopathy, and possible early stages of dementia. These findings underline the need for more studies among workers currently or previously employed in microelectronics industries.

  6. Cognitive world: Neuropsychology of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-09-20

    It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions. Four neuropsychology cases are presented to illustrate this point: (a) prosopagnosia associated with spatial agnosia; (b) Gerstmann's syndrome; (c) dysexecutive syndrome due to a head injury; and, (d) patient with Capgras' syndrome associated with a left temporal cyst. It is further emphasized that non-brain damaged people present an enormous-but usually overlooked-dispersion in different cognitive domains, resulting in specific and idiosyncratic patterns of cognitive abilities. It is concluded that the concept of "cognitive world" in neuropsychology can parallel the concept of "perceptual world" introduced by von Uexküll in biology, which assumes that different animal species live in idiosyncratic perceptual worlds, available and knowable by the differences in their sensory system abilities. That is, different individuals live in idiosyncratic cognitive worlds, owing to their differences in cognitive abilities.

  7. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  8. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  9. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Lack of neuropsychological deficits in generalized social phobia.

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    Scott R Sutterby

    Full Text Available There are relatively few existing studies examining neuropsychological functioning in social phobia (SP, which collectively yield mixed results. Interpretation of results is further complicated by a number of methodological inconsistencies across studies, including the examination of neuropsychological domains in relative isolation from one another. The present study utilized a broader collection of neuropsychological tests to assess nine domains of functioning in 25 individuals diagnosed with generalized SP and 25 nonpsychiatric controls (NC. A mixed ANOVA revealed neither a significant group by domain interaction, nor a significant main effect of group. Furthermore, no significant group differences emerged between the SP and NC groups within each specific neuropsychological domain. These findings suggest that underlying neuropsychological deficits are not likely to account for the information processing biases observed in the empirical literature, and appear to be consistent with current theoretical models which argue for the specificity of these biases to social information.

  11. Group structure of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo Tardin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans present a group structure of great complexity and display a wide behavioral plasticity. Many efforts have been made to understand the group structures of the various species, however, this type of information is still lacking for some species. Therefore, our objectives were to 1 characterize the structure of the Sotalia guianensis groups in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 2 investigate how both behavior and season influence the group structure of this population. This species is considered "data deficient" by the IUCN. We conducted 28 boat trips using group focal procedures, and a total of 1,314 groups were observed. Of these groups, 1,268 (94.4% contained calves, the largest percentage ever reported for the species. Groups with calves were larger than those without them, suggesting a strategy to protect these individuals with underdeveloped physiology. The mean group sizes reached 17.6 ± 18.3 individuals. Within these groups, we observed that both behavior (H = 112.5, d.f. = 2, P < 0.05 and season (number of simulations: 10,000; sample size of fall-winter = 544; sample size of spring-summer = 684; P < 0.05, demonstrated a statistically significant influence. The most common degree of cohesion was mixed, and cohesion also varied with behavior (χ2 = 10.1, P < 0.05 and season (χ2 = 31.0, P < 0.05. This paper contributes towards understanding the highly variable nature of S. guianensis group dynamics. These data may be important in understanding the structure of groups in a site that is being increasingly impacted by different human activities. Moreover, this area contains the largest aggregation ever observed for this species and may therefore represent an important source of genetic diversity for the species as a whole.

  12. Brain Regions and Neuropsychological Deficits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Murat Erdem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological factors had been shown to play an important role in the emergence of obsessive-compulsive disorder by the information obtained from the methods developed over the years. According to the neuropsychological perspective, the defects had been detected mainly in executive functions, in attention, memory, visual-spatial functions; and abnormalities had been described in the frontal lobe, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus regions of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The main and the most repeated abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder are dysfunctions in executive function and visual memory. Dysfunctions of the inhibitory processes associated with the dominant frontal area lead to an insufficiency on the inhibition of verbal functions. Excessive activation of the orbitofrontal cortex that mediate the behavioral response suppression function in obsessive-compulsive disorder demonstrated by functional imaging techniques. Repeated-resistant behaviors (eg: compulsions are composed by the deteriorations of the inhibitions of motor or cognitive programs in basal ganglions provided through cycles of frontal lobe. The findings of clinical observations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder could be considered as a reflection of excessive work in 'error detection system' which is the cause of the thoughts that something goes wrong and efforts to achieve perfection. As neurobiological, this finding is observed as excessive activity in orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex representing the ability of humans to provide and detect errors. It is is expected to develop the vehicles that are more sensitive to the characteristics of cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to the neuropsychological tests, using electrophysiological and advanced functional imaging techniques will put forward a better underlying the physiopathology of this disorder in order to

  13. Evaluating strategies for honey value chains in Brazil using a value chain structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana de Figueiredo Junior, Hugo; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Amaral Filho, do Jair; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Development organizations have used value chain analysis in defining interventions for the honey business in major exporting countries like Brazil. Yet, the impact of interventions has been unclear. This paper aims at evaluating strategies of three honey value chain streams in Brazil, selected fo

  14. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparecida Ribeiro, Andreza; Quintao Lima, Diana; Anderson Duarte, Helio; Murad, Enver [ICEx, UFMG, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio Cesar, E-mail: mcpqui@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Tadeu de Freitas Suita, Marcos [UFOP, Departamento de Geologia (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil); Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaqua copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  15. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

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    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  16. Contrasting Structures and Deformational History of Syntectonic Granites of Campina Grande and Serra Redonda, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

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    Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Campina Grande and Serra Redonda Granites are intrusive along the contact of the Paleoproterozoic basement(Alto Moxotó Domain with the Tonian gneisses (Alto Pajeú Domain of the Borborema Province (northeast Brazil. TheCampina Grande Granite (U-Pb age = 581± 2 Ma shows a concentric oval-shaped structure whereas the Serra RedondaGranite (U-Pb age = 576 ± 3 Ma has a tabular shape, elongated in the NE-SW direction. The plutons are separated bythe left-lateral Galante transcurrent shear zone. In this study, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS was appliedto 64 outcrops of granites to determine the internal structures of these plutons and to explore the relationship betweenmagmatism and deformation in an orogenic setting. The magnetic fabrics are concordant with the metamorphic structure ofthe host rocks. Strike-slip shear zones controlled the emplacement of the Serra Redonda Granite, as indicated by sigmoidalfoliation, defining shear bands associated with the Galante shear zone. In contrast, the magmatic/magnetic fabric of theCampina Grande granite seems to have been produced by body (ascensional forces. The pluton displays an inward dipping, concentric planar fabric parallel to the wall rock contact and lineations highly oblique to the foliation trend. The fabric of the Campina Grande pluton is consistent with a magma moving over a ramp dipping to southwest, with the lineation at high angle to the NE-trending flow direction. The contrasting structures of the plutons reflect the episodic nature of orogenic deformation, which was punctuated by the alternation of weak and strong strains, affecting the fabric development of the syntectonic intrusions.

  17. Mayo Older Americans Normative Studies: Factor Analysis of an Expanded Neuropsychological Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Greenaway, Melanie C.; Smith, Glenn E.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Geda, Yonas E.; Ivnik, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The Mayo Cognitive Factor Scores were derived from a “core battery” consisting of the WAIS-R, WMS-R, and Auditory Verbal Learning Test. The present study sought to clarify the factor structure of an expanded neuropsychological battery in normal elderly controls. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the WAIS-III, WRAT-3 Reading, Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Category Fluency, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Visual Form Discrimination, and Trail Making Test ...

  18. Hydrology and phytoplankton community structure at Itamaracá-Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil

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    Maria Luise Koening

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Quali-quantitative studies and hydrologic parameters were carried out in the profiles 6 (Orange and 7 (Catuama during the Victor Hensen cruise, in accordance with the bilateral scientific cooperation agreement Brazil/Germany. Hydrologically a zone of thermic and saline stability characterizes the superficial layer. The nutrient concentrations were generally low on the surface and higher at levels surpassing 100m in depth. 102 taxa were identified including diatoms (49, dinoflagellates (49, bluegreen algae (3, and euglenophyceae (1. The diversity and evenness were high, surpassing the environmental equilibrium. The clustering of samples showed evidence of 2 main groups, one encompassing the stations 32 and 38, characterized predominantly by Oscillatoria erythraeum, and another encompassing the remaining stations, characterized by dinoflagellates and diatoms. The clustering of species involved 4 groups, the biggest being oceanic marine species (49 species and coastal and eurihaline marine species (31 species. The phytoplankton density varied from 50,000 cell.l-1 to 590,000 cell.l-1, characterizing an oligotrophic environment.Estudos hidrológicos e fitoplanctônicos foram realizados em dois perfis perpendiculares à costa, em frente à Ilha de Itamaracá-PE (perfis Orange e Catuama, durante a Expedição do Navio de Pesquisas Victor Hensen, dentro do acordo de cooperação bilateral celebrado entre o Departamento de Oceanografia da UFPE e o Centro de Ecologia Marinha Tropical (ZMT-Bremen-Alemanha. A camada superficial está caracterizada por uma zona de estabilidade térmica e salina. As concentrações de nutrientes foram geralmente mais baixas na superfície e mais elevadas em profundidades acima de 100m. Foram identificados 102 táxons, incluindo 49 diatomáceas, 49 dinoflagelados, 3 cianofíceas e 1 euglenofícea. A diversidade específica e equitabilidade foram elevadas, indicando um equilíbrio ambiental. A associação das amostras

  19. Structure of the phytoplankton in a water supply system in the State of Pernambuco - Brazil

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    Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytoplankton community composition at limnetic environment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Samplings were carried out from April/2001 to March/2002. Samples to analyses the biotic variables were taken using a recipient with a large overture, at the subsurface and with a Van Dorn bottle at the bottom. The rainfall data were recorded and the water transparency was used to calculate the light attenuation coefficient, photic zone and the determination of trophic state index. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were determined in a typical dry and rainy month. Equitability, also the, similarity and diversity indexes and the densities and correlation of total densities among depths were calculated. Forty-five taxa were identified in Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp and Bacillariophyta (7spp, while flagellates were quantified in groups without identification. Cyanophyta presented highest diversity at both the depths and Planktothrix agardhii was the highest density species. Significant differences were not observed between subsurface and bottom densities. Results showed that the reservoir was eutrophicated and presented high densities of Cyanophyta.O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo da comunidade fitoplanctônica em ambiente limnético de Pernambuco, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas de abril/2001 a março/2002. As amostras para análises abióticas foram coletadas na superfície da água e destinadas às análises bióticas foram coletadas na subsuperfície e no fundo, sendo fixadas com solução de lugol e quantificadas usando microscópio invertido. Equitatividade, índices de similaridade e diversidade foram calculados, bem como correlação entre as profundidades. 45 táxons foram identificados, pertencentes as Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp e Bacillariophyta (7spp. Os flagelados foram apenas quantificados, mas não foram identificados. Cyanophyta apresentou a mais alta

  20. Update on Executive Function Neuropsychological Tests

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    Julián Marino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents different problems related to executive functions (EF assessment with neuropsychological tests. It shows an overview of EF definitions and theoreticals models created to overcome the problem of inductive lists. Also EF tests history and their emerging contexts are reviewed, to hypothetisize about its consequences over actual conditions of EF assessment practice. Later, an EF tests classification is proposed, taking into account criterias like tests origins, constructs relates and systemic or simple forms of aplication. Finally the idea of a new generation of tests supported by theoreticals and technological advances was analyzed. This includes the development of EF scientifical ontologies, reverse inferences analysis and ecological and etological validity studies.

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

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    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  2. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.

  3. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder.

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    Grisham, Jessica R; Baldwin, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder.

  4. Neuropsychological profile of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Perumal, Anna Roshini; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting. DMD is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 3,500 male live births. This disease has long been associated with intellectual impairment. Research has shown that boys with DMD have variable intellectual performance, indicating the presence of specific cognitive deficits. The aim of the study was to use a battery of intelligence, learning, and memory tests to identify a neuropsychological profile in boys with DMD. A total of 22 boys diagnosed with DMD in the age range of 6 to 10 years old were evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Memory for Designs Test. The data were interpreted using means, standard deviations, percentages, and percentiles. Normative data were also used for further interpretation. The results showed that boys with DMD had a significantly lower IQ (88.5). Verbal IQ (86.59) was found to be lower than Performance IQ (92.64). There was evidence of impaired performance on the Processing Speed, Freedom From Distractibility, and Verbal Comprehension Indexes. Specific deficits in information processing, complex attention, immediate verbal memory span, verbal working memory, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, visuoconstruction ability, and verbal learning and encoding were observed. However, perceptional organization, general fund of information, abstract reasoning, visual discrimination and acuity, visual learning and memory, and verbal memory were adequate. The neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that these children have specific cognitive deficits as opposed to a global intellectual deficit.

  5. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

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    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  6. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from a transitional forest in Maranhao, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Jivanildo P.; Andréa Ricci-Lobão; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855) in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate), but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing th...

  7. Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability Analysis of Citrus sudden death-associated virus Isolates from Infected Plants Grown in Brazil

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    Emilyn Emy Matsumura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV is a monopartite positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that was suggested to be associated with citrus sudden death (CSD disease in Brazil. Here, we report the first study of the genetic structure and molecular variability among 31 CSDaV isolates collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in CSD-affected areas. Analyses of partial nucleotide sequences of five domains of the CSDaV genomic RNA, including those encoding for the methyltransferase, the multi-domain region (MDR, the helicase, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the coat protein, showed that the MDR coding region was the most diverse region assessed here, and a possible association between this region and virus adaption to different host or plant tissues is considered. Overall, the nucleotide diversity (π was low for CSDaV isolates, but the phylogenetic analyses revealed the predominance of two main groups, one of which showed a higher association with CSD-symptomatic plants. Isolates obtained from CSD-symptomatic plants, compared to those obtained from asymptomatic plants, showed higher nucleotide diversity, nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates and number of amino acid changes on the coding regions located closer to the 5’ end region of the genomic RNA. This work provides new insights into the genetic diversity of the CSDaV, giving support for further epidemiological studies.

  8. Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability Analysis of Citrus sudden death-associated virus Isolates from Infected Plants Grown in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Emilyn Emy; Coletta Filho, Helvécio Della; de Oliveira Dorta, Silvia; Nouri, Shahideh; Machado, Marcos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV) is a monopartite positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that was suggested to be associated with citrus sudden death (CSD) disease in Brazil. Here, we report the first study of the genetic structure and molecular variability among 31 CSDaV isolates collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in CSD-affected areas. Analyses of partial nucleotide sequences of five domains of the CSDaV genomic RNA, including those encoding for the methyltransferase, the multi-domain region (MDR), the helicase, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the coat protein, showed that the MDR coding region was the most diverse region assessed here, and a possible association between this region and virus adaption to different host or plant tissues is considered. Overall, the nucleotide diversity (π) was low for CSDaV isolates, but the phylogenetic analyses revealed the predominance of two main groups, one of which showed a higher association with CSD-symptomatic plants. Isolates obtained from CSD-symptomatic plants, compared to those obtained from asymptomatic plants, showed higher nucleotide diversity, nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates and number of amino acid changes on the coding regions located closer to the 5’ end region of the genomic RNA. This work provides new insights into the genetic diversity of the CSDaV, giving support for further epidemiological studies. PMID:27999249

  9. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  10. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

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    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  11. A Re-Examination of Neuropsychological Functioning in Persian Gulf War Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 17(8), 754. 9. Sullivan, K., Krengel, M., White, R., Honn...V. (2002, September). Neuropsychological test performance in Gulf-war era veterans: Does Referral source matter? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology , 17...in patients with advanced VaD. reet edi a ther opsychology annual meeting. Octob ir, 200,2 754 Abstracts/ Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology

  12. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

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    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  13. A study of structural lineaments in Pantanal (Brazil) using remote sensing data.

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    Paranhos Filho, Antonio C; Nummer, Alexis R; Albrez, Edilce A; Ribeiro, Alisson A; Machado, Rômulo

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the structural lineaments of the Pantanal extracted visually from satellite images (CBERS-2B satellite, Wide Field Imager sensor, a free image available in INTERNET) and a comparison with the structural lineaments of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks surrounding the Cenozoic Pantanal Basin. Using a free software for satellite image analysis, the photointerpretation showed that the NS, NE and NW directions observed on the Pantanal satellite images are the same recorded in the older rocks surrounding the basin, suggesting reactivation of these basement structural directions during the Quaternary. So the Pantanal Basin has an active tectonics and its evolution seems to be linked to changes that occurred during the Andean subduction.

  14. A study of structural lineaments in Pantanal (Brazil using remote sensing data

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    ANTONIO C. PARANHOS FILHO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the structural lineaments of the Pantanal extracted visually from satellite images (CBERS-2B satellite, Wide Field Imager sensor, a free image available in INTERNET and a comparison with the structural lineaments of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks surrounding the Cenozoic Pantanal Basin. Using a free software for satellite image analysis, the photointerpretation showed that the NS, NE and NW directions observed on the Pantanal satellite images are the same recorded in the older rocks surrounding the basin, suggesting reactivation of these basement structural directions during the Quaternary. So the Pantanal Basin has an active tectonics and its evolution seems to be linked to changes that occurred during the Andean subduction.

  15. Large woody debris input and its influence on channel structure in agricultural lands of Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Felipe Rossetti; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Gerhard, Pedro; Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Anderson

    2011-10-01

    Riparian forests are important for the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems, providing structural components such as large woody debris (LWD). Changes in these forests will cause modifications in the LWD input to streams, affecting their structure. In order to assess the influence of riparian forests changes in LWD supply, 15 catchments (third and fourth order) with riparian forests at different conservation levels were selected for sampling. In each catchment we quantified the abundance, volume and diameter of LWD in stream channels; the number, area and volume of pools formed by LWD and basal area and tree diameter of riparian forest. We found that riparian forests were at a secondary successional stage with predominantly young trees (diameter at breast height diameter of riparian forest differed between the stream groups (forested and non-forested), but tree density did not differ between groups. Differences were also observed in LWD abundance, volume, frequency of LWD pools with subunits and area and volume of LWD pools. LWD diameter, LWD that form pools diameter and frequency of LWD pools without subunits did not differ between stream groups. Regression analyses showed that LWD abundance and volume, and frequency of LWD pools (with and without subunits) were positively related with the proportion of riparian forest. LWD diameter was not correlated to riparian tree diameter. The frequency of LWD pools was correlated to the abundance and volume of LWD, but characteristics of these pools (area and volume) were not correlated to the diameter of LWD that formed the pools. These results show that alterations in riparian forest cause modifications in the LWD abundance and volume in the stream channel, affecting mainly the structural complexity of these ecosystems (reduction in the number and structural characteristics of LWD pools). Our results also demonstrate that riparian forest conservation actions must consider not only its extension, but also

  16. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal lobes in depression: 20 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2016-11-01

    In 1997, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence supported the involvement of the frontal lobes and indeed the brain in depression. This was a challenge to conventional phenomenology and linked with the imperative to use neuroscience to understand major mental illness. Since that time, we are seeing ever more convincing evidence for the genetic basis of mental illness (including depression), relevant abnormality in grey and white matter and neuropsychological analysis of brain function. It has proved more difficult to pin down structural abnormality in major depression at the cellular level, but a focus on glial cells is increasingly justified by the evidence. Neuroscience continues to be a buttress against anti-scientific impulses in psychiatry and can help attract young people to enter it as a profession.

  17. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Aparecida; Lima, Diana Quintão; Duarte, Hélio Anderson; Murad, Enver; Pereira, Márcio César; de Freitas Suita, Marcos Tadeu; Ardisson, José Domingos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    Mössbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaquã copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  18. Tectonic inversion of compressional structures in the Southern portion of the Paramirim Corridor, Bahia, Brazil

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    Simone Cerqueira Pereira Cruz

    Full Text Available The Paramirim Corridor represents the maximum inversion zone of the Paramirim Aulacogen. Reverse-to-reverse dextral shear zones and various types of folds dominate such corridor. These structures reflect a stress field that is WSW-ENE oriented, developed in units of Aulacogen basement, as well as in the Lagoa Real Intrusive Suite, of Statherian age, in Espinhaço and São Francisco supergroups, of Statherian-Tonian and Cryogenian ages, respectively, and in the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre Group, of Tonian age at the most. A rich collection of extensional structures truncate compressional structures of the Paramirim Corridor, characterized by normal shear zones and foliation, which is sometimes mylonitic, down-dip stretching lineation, drag folds, traction fractures and S/C structures. In these shear zones, quartz occurs truncated by the foliation, while feldspars are fractured and altered to white mica. Distribution of the quartz c-axes is at a maximum of 14° from the Z-axis. Thus, it suggests that the deformation activated mainly the basal glide planes in the direction. The paleostress study using the Win-Tensor software demonstrated that the regimen ranged between radial and pure distention. The S1 direction oscillated around a vertical trend, while s3 was sub-horizontal, with a predominant N230-050° direction. Ar-Ar ages in biotite obtained from the extensional shear zones ranged from 480 and 490 Ma. Together, data obtained for the structures associated with the late extensional regimen described in the present study suggest that its nucleation is associated with distal and brittle-ductile sectors of the gravitational collapse zone of Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen.

  19. Structural aspects and floristic similarity among tropical dry forest fragments with different management histories in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce useful knowledge to the initiatives of protection and management of forest fragments, more specifically for tropical dry forests which suffer with frequent anthropic activities, and due to the lack of specific studies, this article aimed describe the structure and the floristic similarity among three areas of dry forest with different management histories. The study was developed in Capitão Enéas municipality, Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, where three fragments were evaluated, being one in regeneration for 30 years, another submitted to occasional fire and the third with selective cut in small scale. The sampling was developed through the point quarter method considering all the alive phanerophyte individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH > 15 cm. In the three fragments, 512 individuals, distributed in 60 species, 47 genera, and 23 families were sampled. The most representative families were Fabaceae (26, Anacardiaceae (4, Bignoniaceae (3 and Combretaceae (3. However, fourteen families were represented by only one species. Only eight species were common to all fragments - Myracrodruon urundeuva standed out with 26.9% of all sampled individuals - while a great number of species were exclusive of each fragment. The floristic and structural differences between the fragments are possibly related to the history and intensity of management in each area besides the topography variations and the presence or absence of limestone outcrops. These results show the importance of each fragment, indicating that the loss of anyone would cause negative impacts on the regional flora and consequently to the associated biodiversity.

  20. Vertical structure of an assemblage of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil

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    Fernando Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy. Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50, "less frequent" (25 < C < 50 and "occasional" (C < 25. We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810, Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.

  1. Distributed deformation structures in shallow water carbonates subsiding through a simple stress field (Jandaira Formation, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Bisdom, Kevin; Bezerra, Hilario; Reijmer, John; Cazarin, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Despite the scarcity of major deformation structures such as folds and faults, the flat-lying, post-rift shallow water carbonates of the Jandaira Formation (Potiguar Basin, NE Brazil) display well-organized fracture systems distributed of tens of km2. Structures observed in the outcropping carbonates are sub-vertical, generally N-S trending mode I and hybrid veins and barren fractures, sub-vertical roughly E-W trending stylolites and sub-horizontal stylolites. These features developed during subsidence in a simple and constant stress field characterized by, beside gravity, a significant horizontal stress probably of tectonic origin. The corresponding depth curves have different origin and slopes and, therefore, cross each other resulting in position of the principal stresses which change with depth. As a result, the type and amount of fractures affecting subsiding rocks change despite the fact that the far-field stresses remain constant. Following early diagenesis and porosity elimination in the first 100-200m depth, Jandaira carbonates experienced wholesale fracturing at depths of 400-800m resulting in a network of NNW-NE trending fractures partly organized in conjugate sets with a low interfault angle and a sub-vertical intersection, and sub-vertical stylolites roughly perpendicular to the fractures. Intense fluid circulation was activated as a consequence through the carbonates. With increasing subsidence, sub-horizontal stylolites formed providing calcite which precipitated in the open fractures transforming them in veins. The Jandaira formation lost thereby the permeability it had reached during the previous stage. Because of the lack of major deformation, the outcrops of the Jandaira Formation is an excellent analog for carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East, South Atlantic and elsewhere.

  2. Neuropsychological and socio-occupational functioning in young psychiatric outpatients: a longitudinal investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico S C Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical symptoms and neuropsychological deficits are longitudinally associated with functional outcome in chronic psychiatric cohorts. The current study extended these findings to young and early-course psychiatric outpatients, with the aim of identifying cognitive markers that predict later socio-occupational functioning. METHODS: At baseline, 183 young psychiatric outpatients were assessed. Ninety-three returned for follow-up (M = 21.6 years old; SD = 4.5 with an average re-assessment interval of 21.6 months (SD = 7.0, and primary diagnoses of major depressive disorder (n = 34, bipolar disorder (n = 29, or psychosis (n = 30. The primary outcome measure was cross-validated with various other functional measures and structural equation modelling was used to map out the interrelationships between predictors and later functional outcome. RESULTS: Good socio-occupational functioning at follow-up was associated with better quality of life, less disability, current employment and being in a romantic relationship. The final structural equation model explained 47.5% of the variability in functional outcome at follow-up, with baseline neuropsychological functioning (a composite of memory, working memory and attentional switching the best independent predictor of later functional outcome. Notably, depressive and negative symptoms were only associated with functioning cross-sectionally. Diagnosis at follow-up was not associated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychological functioning was the single best predictor of later socio-occupational outcome among young psychiatric outpatients. Therefore, framing psychiatric disorders along a neuropsychological continuum is likely to be more useful in predicting functional trajectory than traditional symptom-based classification systems. The current findings also have implications for early intervention utilising cognitive remediation approaches.

  3. Ownership and Control Structures, Corporate Governance and Income Smoothing in Brazil

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    Damiana Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between the ownership and control structure, level of corporate governance and origin of capital (foreign or domestic of Brazilian companies on their propensity to smooth income. Using a sample of nonancialrms with shares traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa at the end of 2007, we performed covariance analysis based on data from the preceding ten years, where the dependent variable was the index proposed by Eckel, an empirical proxy for smoothing. The results indicate that the more concentrated the shareholding and control structures of Brazilianrms are, both according to overall capital and voting capital, the more intensely they tend to smooth earnings to favor the interests of the majority shareholder. The results also show that this effect is less pronounced forrms with enhanced corporate governance levels and those with foreign capital.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of different varieties of Morada Nova hair sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J S B; Paiva, S R; Silva, E C; McManus, C M; Caetano, A R; Façanha, D A E; de Sousa, M A N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic diversity and population structure among varieties of White (N = 40), Red (N = 32), and Black (N = 31) Morada Nova hair sheep from flocks in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid region. Fifteen nuclear microsatellite markers and two regions of mitochondrial DNA were used. The intra-population analysis demonstrated that the White variety had higher diversity, while the Red variety had the lowest values. The Bayesian analysis to assess the genetic population structure allowed differentiation between White, Red, and Black varieties, and revealed a tendency towards sub-structuring in the White variety flocks from the States of Ceará and Paraíba. The results of analyses of molecular variance showed that the greatest genetic structure was found when comparing flocks rather than varieties (8.59 vs 6.64% of the total variation, P Dtl, both the dendrogram analysis and the principal coordinate analysis showed the formation of two main groups: one composed of White and another of Black and Red individuals. Five and two haplotypes were found for the D-loop region and the ND5 gene, respectively. A haplotype unique to the Red variety was found in the D-loop region and a variety haplotype unique to the Black variety was found in the ND5 gene; however, these frequencies were low and therefore require further validation. These results support the existence of substantial differences between the Red and White varieties and should be used as separate genetic resources and to improve conservation programs.

  5. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  6. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

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    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  7. Genetics and neuropsychology: A merger whose time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been 2 rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the 2 should advance both fields.

  8. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  9. Inclusion of neuropsychology as specialized service of health in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Rocio; Dorado, Carlos; Utria, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    This document of a reflective nature, aims to highlight the need to include to the Neuropsychology as a specialized psychological service within the Plan Obligatorio de Salud (POS). This, given that the Neuropsychology has taken increasing importance in recent times in the process of comprehensive care for persons in different circumstances have acquired a neurological disorder, through the implementation of processes of assessment, diagnostic and rehabilitation, programmes tailored to the pa...

  10. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD) patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psy...

  11. Perceived ethical misconduct: a survey of neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology.Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Co...

  12. A.R. Luria and the history of Russian neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, J M

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes Russian contributions to neuropsychology from the eighteenth up to the twenty-first century. Various approaches to the problem of the organization and localization of mental functions in the Pre-Lurian and Luria's periods are discussed. Comparisons with European and North American contributions and with contributions from subsequent Russian literature (post-Lurian period) are presented to demonstrate their interconnections in shaping the course of Russian neuropsychology and the main tendencies in its development.

  13. Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from the Pleistocene of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé, Dimila; Avilla, Leonardo S; Winck, Gisele R

    2010-12-01

    The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA) is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Simpson and Paula-Couto (1957), and developed a morphometric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals) was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event.

  14. Neuropsychological consequences of boxing and recommendations to improve safety: a National Academy of Neuropsychology education paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Robert L; Bush, Shane S; Ravdin, Lisa D; Barth, Jeffrey T; Iverson, Grant L; Ruff, Ronald M; Lovell, Mark R; Barr, William B; Echemendia, Ruben J; Broshek, Donna K

    2009-02-01

    Boxing has held appeal for many athletes and audiences for centuries, and injuries have been part of boxing since its inception. Although permanent and irreversible neurologic dysfunction does not occur in the majority of participants, an association has been reported between the number of bouts fought and the development of neurologic, psychiatric, or histopathological signs and symptoms of encephalopathy in boxers. The purpose of this paper is to (i) provide clinical neuropsychologists, other health-care professionals, and the general public with information about the potential neuropsychological consequences of boxing, and (ii) provide recommendations to improve safety standards for those who participate in the sport.

  15. Diversity and Structure of the Gama Gallery Forest in Central Brazil in 2009

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    Roberto Tramontina Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and structure of the tree community of the Gama gallery forest, in the Federal District, in 2009. A total of 151 permanent plots of 10×20 m were allocated continually along ten lines perpendicular to the watercourse. All individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH equal or greater than 10 cm were tagged and measured. In total, 114 species in 52 families and 96 genera were identified. The density was 643 ind.ha-1, the basal area was 31.52 m2.ha-1 and 13 species were frequently at least in 25% of the plots. The Shannon index was 3.91 nats.ind-1 and the Pielou index was 82%, expressing the good conservation condition and the high diversity of the vegetation. The diameter distribution curve showed an "inverted J" pattern.

  16. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Industries need to adopt the environmental management concepts in the traditional supply chain management. The green supply chain management (GSCM) is an established concept to ensure environment-friendly activities in industry. This paper identifies the relationship of driving and dependence...... that exists between GSCM practices with regard to their adoption within Brazilian electrical/electronic industry with the help of interpretive structural modelling (ISM). From the results, we infer that cooperation with customers for eco-design practice is driving other practices, and this practice acts...... as a vital role among other practices. Commitment to GSCM from senior managers and cooperation with customers for cleaner production occupy the highest level. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis....

  17. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

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    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  18. Obsessive compulsive disorder networks: positron emission tomography and neuropsychology provide new insights.

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    Bruno Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation has shed new light on the central role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. We explored this structure from a functional perspective, synchronizing neuroimaging and cognitive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This case-control cross-sectional study compared 15 OCD patients without comorbidities and not currently on serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy with 15 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education level on resting-state (18FDG-PET scans and a neuropsychological battery assessing executive functions. We looked for correlations between metabolic modifications and impaired neuropsychological scores. Modifications in glucose metabolism were found in frontal regions (orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral cortices, the cingulate gyrus, insula and parietal gyrus. Neuropsychological differences between patients and controls, which were subtle, were correlated with the metabolism of the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. CONCLUSION: As expected, we confirmed previous reports of a PFC dysfunction in OCD patients, and established a correlation with cognitive deficits. Other regions outside the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsoparietal cortex and the insula, also appeared to be implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, providing fresh insights on the complexity of OCD syndromes.

  19. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity.

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    Sergi Mas

    Full Text Available We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI, diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI, neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38 and a validation set (N = 18. Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder.

  20. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder.

  1. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  2. Morphologic and neuropsychological patterns in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, Pierre; Banciu, Eldda [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); Sauvee, Mathilde; Serra, Amelie; Moreaud, Olivier [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neurology, Grenoble (France); Medici, Maud [CIT803, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre [CIT803, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Krainik, Alexandre [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); INSERM U 836, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    We conducted a retrospective study to identify morphological subgroups of patients referred for AD or aMCI and to seek for differences across neuropsychological performances. One hundred forty-five patients (mean age = 76.01, 88 women and 57 men) referred for AD, either at the stage of dementia or aMCI, were examined using structural MRI. Five observers reviewed blindly twice all examinations. We rated microangiopathy, hippocampal, parietal atrophies, including a gradient of fronto-parietal atrophy (GFPA). A multiple component analysis (MCA) followed by a hierarchical ascending classification was conducted to identify morphologically distinct subgroups. Among these, 76 patients completed all the neuropsychological tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were further conducted on these data across morphological subgroups. The institutional review board approved the research protocol. Inter- and intra-raters' agreements were excellent and very good for microangiopathy and hippocampal atrophy ratings. They were higher for GFPA than for the parietal atrophy scale. MCA without priors identified three groups: group 1 was characterized by no/discrete microangiopathy, severe hippocampal, and predominant parietal atrophy; group 2 had significant microangiopathy, severe hippocampal atrophy, and no predominant parietal atrophy; group 3 had a mild hippocampal atrophy and parietal atrophies. In group 1, working memory profile was less impaired than in group 2 (p = 0.01). Neuropsychological performances of group 3 were higher in most domains. Combined characterization of microangiopathy, hippocampal, parietal, and GFPA allows identifying morphological subgroups among patients referred for AD and at risk. These groups have some neuropsychological differences, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms or co-existing conditions. (orig.)

  3. Neurobiological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence from recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tomohiro; Okada, Kayo; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2014-08-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was previously considered refractory to most types of therapeutic intervention. There is now, however, ample evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and behavior therapy are highly effective methods for treatment of OCD. Furthermore, recent neurobiological studies of OCD have found a close correlation between clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and brain function. A large number of previous neuroimaging studies using positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have identified abnormally high activities throughout the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in patients with OCD. Most studies reported excessive activation of these areas during symptom provocation. Furthermore, these hyperactivities were decreased after successful treatment using either selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or behavioral therapy. Based on these findings, an orbitofronto-striatal model has been postulated as an abnormal neural circuit that mediates symptomatic expression of OCD. On the other hand, previous neuropsychological studies of OCD have reported cognitive dysfunction in executive function, attention, nonverbal memory, and visuospatial skills. Moreover, recent fMRI studies have revealed a correlation between neuropsychological dysfunction and clinical symptoms in OCD by using neuropsychological tasks during fMRI. The evidence from fMRI studies suggests that broader regions, including dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior regions, might be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Further, we should consider that OCD is heterogeneous and might have several different neural systems related to clinical factors, such as symptom dimensions. This review outlines recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of OCD. We will also describe several neurobiological models that have been developed recently. Advanced findings in these fields will update the

  4. Neuropsychological impairment in auto-immune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, R; Niemann, T; Biehl, G; Hinrichsen, H; Kirch, W

    1992-10-01

    Estimations of the prevalence of central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) vary from 25 to 75%. In order to assess possible deficits in memory, attention, and/or reaction time, a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 15 patients with SLE and to two matched groups of control subjects; eight patients on corticosteroids and 15 healthy controls. The test battery included the Multiple Choice Word Fluency Test (MWT-B), Benton Visual Memory Scale, Syndrome Short Test (SKT; attention and memory), Attention and Concentration Test (d2), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subtests for Comprehension, Digit Span, Block Design, a Computer Controlled Reaction Time task (CCRT), and a Learning and Memory Test (LGT-3). Results revealed a statistically significant short-term memory deficit (for all six relevant subtests used) and a marked delayed simple reaction time in SLE patients as compared with scores in healthy subjects. An attention deficit as well as the expected difference between the estimated premorbid and actual level of intelligence could not be demonstrated. With three exceptions (SKT-9 figural recognition, Benton Visual Memory, and LGT-3 figural recognition), patients treated with corticosteroids did not differ from healthy controls. They also did not differ from SLE patients in any of the parameters tested. It therefore appears that the demonstrated deficit in short-term memory and reaction time in SLE patients may not only be due to the neuropsychiatric manifestation of SLE but possibly also result from medication side-effects.

  5. Adaptive Immunity in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, R Lee

    2015-12-01

    Neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders are becoming a greater proportion of the global disease burden; however the pathogenic mechanisms by which these disorders originate and contribute to disease progression are not well-described. Increasing evidence supports neuroinflammation as a common underlying component associated with the neuropathological processes that effect disease progression. This collection of articles explores the role of adaptive immunity in autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, neurotrauma, and psychological disorders. The section emphasizes the interactions of T cells with innate cellular responses within the CNS and the effects on neurological functions. One recurrent theme is that modified and aggregated self-proteins upregulate innate-mediated inflammation and provide a permissive environment for polarization of T cells to proinflammatory effector cells. Moreover, infiltration and reactivation of those T effector cells exacerbate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress to greater neurotoxic levels. Another recurrent theme in these disorders promotes diminished regulatory functions that reduce control over activated T effector cells and microglia, and ultimately augment proinflammatory conditions. Augmentation of regulatory control is discussed as therapeutic strategies to attenuate neuroinflammation, mitigate neurodegeneration or neuronal dysfunction, and lessen disease progression.

  6. A neuropsychological investigation of decisional certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Aaron M; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The certainty that one feels following a decision increases decision-making efficiency, but can also result in decreased decision accuracy. In the current study, a neuropsychological approach was used to examine the impact of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) on core psychological processes promoting decision certainty: selective exposure, overconfidence, and decisiveness. Given previous research demonstrating that vmPFC damage disrupts the generation of negative emotional (somatic) states that have been associated with selective exposure and overconfidence, it was hypothesized that damage to the vmPFC would disrupt engagement in selective exposure, decrease overconfidence, and increase indecision. Individuals with vmPFC damage exhibited increased indecision, but contrary to our hypothesis, engaged in similar levels of selective exposure and overconfidence as the comparison groups. These results indicate that indecision may be an important psychological mechanism involved in decision-making impairments associated with vmPFC injury. The results also suggest that the vmPFC may not be critical for selective exposure or overconfidence, which provides support for a recent "desirability" account of selective exposure.

  7. Late neuropsychologic status after childhood head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeff, H; Abraham, E; Brenner, T; Horowitz, I; Apter, N; Sadan, N; Najenson, T

    1988-01-01

    A neurologic and neuropsychologic test battery was administered to a sample of 35 children drawn from all those in a defined geographic area who had been hospitalized for head trauma before age 7 during the years 1970-1976. Examination was performed 3 1/2 to 10 years after injury, at age 6-15. Twelve subjects had been diagnosed at the time of injury as suffering moderate insult and had been referred to the metropolitan neurosurgical center, while twenty-three with only mild injury had been retained for observation in a local pediatric ward. The twelve with more severe insult were significantly inferior to the other subjects on the Block Design and Coding subtests of the revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The Koppitz score of the Bender Test, the WISC-R scatter, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the GATB Motor Speed Test and the Bourdon-Wiersma Vigilance Test showed less diagnostic power and failed to distinguish between the group with more severe injury and that with less. A detailed and carefully scored neurologic examination also failed to distinguish between the two groups. The findings suggest that relatively common traumatic injury may be associated with detectable late cognitive deficit, and that some WISC-R subtests may be among the best measures for detecting such deficit.

  8. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  9. Changes in the structure due to strong winds in forest areas in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria Salis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal climate presents marked seasonality and eventually strong winds occur, especially in the beginning of the rainy season, which may last from September or October until April. A phytosociological study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a strong wind on the composition and structure of two forest formations in Pantanal wetland, a semideciduous forest (19º 15’ 32’’S and 55º 45’ 23.7’’W and a forested savanna - “cerradão” (19° 17’ 21’’S and 55º 45’ 8.9’’W, with trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm. After the strong wind, a reduction of 6% of the basal area and volume in the semideciduous forest was observed, mainly due to the uprooting of Xylopia aromatica trees. In the forested savanna, the basal area and volume reduction was even higher; an estimated 10%, representing 69 uprooted trees per hectare, mainly of Copaifera martii trees. In both areas it was observed that the uprooted trees presented an average height and diameter bigger than the trees that remained intact. Usually, the trees that were uprooted presented higher wood density and the species that had broken branches had a lower density.

  10. Palaeomagnetism of the Permo-Triassic Araguainha impact structure (Central Brazil) and implications for Pangean reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Elder; Brandt, Daniele; Tohver, Eric; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.

    2014-07-01

    The configuration of the Pangea supercontinent has been a topic of intense debate for almost half a century, a controversy that stems from discrepancies between the geology-based Pangea-A and the palaeomagnetically based Pangea-B. Recent palaeomagnetic compilations aimed at resolving this controversy have identified the poor quality of palaeomagnetic data from Gondwana for Permian times as a major obstacle. Specifically, the vast majority of Gondwanan poles come from sedimentary rocks that are prone to biases from compaction or are poorly dated. Here, we present a new palaeomagnetic pole for cratonic South America based on impact melts from the 254.7 ± 2.5 Ma Araguainha impact structure (AIS). The granite basement, the impact-generated melt sheet and veins were sampled at 28 sites (169 specimens) and provided a reliable palaeomagnetic record similar to that of volcanic rocks. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization indicate a stable characteristic remanent magnetization carried by both magnetite and haematite. All sites but one show a single palaeomagnetic direction of normal polarity with a mean direction of Dec = 357.4°; Inc = -38.9°; N = 28; k = 62.35; α95 = 3.5°, yielding a palaeomagnetic pole (AIS) at Lat = -84.2; Lon = 326.6; K = 83.5; A95 = 3.6°; SB = 9.6°. The new pole provides a firm constraint on the position of Gondwana which is consistent with the Pangea A configuration.

  11. Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae from the Pleistocene of Brazil

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    Dimila Mothé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Sipson and Paula-Couto (1957, and developed a orphoetric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event.O registro fossilífero do Quaternário de Águas de Araxá (QAA é representado principalmente pelo acúmulo de restos dentários e de esqueleto de diversos tamanhos, atribuídos a uma população pretérita do mastodonte Stegomastodon waringi. Foram analisados 97 molares de acordo com os estágios de desgaste propostos por Simpson e Paula-Couto 1957, e desenvolveu-se um índice morfométrico de desgaste. A estrutura populacional (proporção entre indivíduos imaturos, subadultos, adultos, adultos maduros e adultos senis foi identificada e comparada com populações de elefantes atuais. Foi

  12. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome.

  13. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L.; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species’ specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  14. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  15. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-07-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  16. Savant Syndrome: Clinical and Neuropsychological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Savant syndrome defines the people who have severe developmental and mental disabilities but also have extraordinary mental skills which are missing in many people. Although general mental capacity is under average mental level, savant has excessive knowledge about one or more domains. It is accepted that as many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Males outnumber females by an approximate 6 : 1 ratio in savant syndrome. Savant skills are limited to five general categories. These are music, art, calender calculating, mathematics and mechanical or spatial skills. Savant skills can also be divided into three as savants who have splinter skills, talented savants and prodigious savants. A remarkable memory welds to the special abilities determined in savant syndrome. Savant syndrome can be congenital or it can be acquired. Most often savant skills emerge in childhood, superimposed on some underlying developmental disability present at birth. However, acquired savant skills can also appear, when none were previously present, in neurotypical individuals following brain injury or disease later in infancy, childhood or adult life. Savant skills don’t depend on only rote memory. It is approved that an enhanced or spared ability to represent and manipulate highly organised domain-specific information. Various theoretic models were defined to explain the neuropsychological profile in savant syndrome. Interest in savants has a long history, stretching back to the early 18th century; nevertheless, the savant syndrome remains as much a mystery now as it did when it was first described. Given that many questions about the existence and nature of savant talent remain unanswered, it seems likely that research efforts will continue unabated.

  17. Reversible denaturation of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) and implication of structural destabilization on digestion by pepsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Gaspari, M.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Knol, E.F.; Hefle, S.L.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2005-01-01

    The high resistance of Brazil nut 2S albumin, previously identified as an allergen, against proteolysis by pepsin was examined in this work. Although the denaturation temperature of this protein exceeds the 110 °C at neutral pH, at low pH a fully reversible thermal denaturation was observed at ∼82 °

  18. The independent influence of concussive and sub-concussive impacts on soccer players' neurophysiological and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Davis; Lepine, Julien; Ellemberg, Dave

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating research demonstrates that repetitive sub-concussive impacts can alter the structure, function and connectivity of the brain. However, the functional significance of these alterations as well as the independent contribution of concussive and sub-concussive impacts to neurophysiological and neuropsychological health are unclear. Accordingly, we compared the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of contact athletes with (concussion group) and without (sub-concussion group) a history of concussion, to non-contact athletes. We evaluated event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited during an oddball task and performance on a targeted battery of neuropsychological tasks. Athletes in the sub-concussion and concussion groups exhibited similar amplitude reductions in the ERP indices of attentional resource allocation (P3b) and attentional orienting (P3a) relative to non-contact athletes. However, only athletes in the concussion group exhibited reduced amplitude in the ERP index of perceptual attention (N1). Athletes in the sub-concussion and concussion groups also exhibited deficits in memory recall relative to non-contact athletes, but athletes in the concussion group also exhibited significantly more recall errors than athletes in the sub-concussion group. Additionally, only athletes in the concussion group exhibited response delays during the oddball task. The current findings suggest that sub-concussive impacts are associated with alterations in the neurophysiological and neuropsychological indices of essential cognitive functions, albeit to a lesser degree than the combination of sub-concussive and concussive impacts.

  19. A survey of parent satisfaction with pediatric neuropsychological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Beetar, John T; Yeates, Keith Owen; Boyer, Katrina; Colvin, Andrew N; Mangeot, Shanley

    2007-12-01

    Satisfaction with pediatric neuropsychological evaluations was surveyed by asking parents or guardians of children who completed pediatric neuropsychological evaluations at a large children's hospital over a 2-year period to complete a 30-item rating scale. The scale included items drawn from published measures of consumer satisfaction, and incorporated a well-validated measure of general satisfaction. A total of 338 surveys were distributed, with 117 completed, for a return rate of 35%. Respondents were generally similar to non-respondents, except that respondents had a higher average level of maternal education and were more likely to have been referred for neuropsychological evaluations by sources outside the hospital. Parents were generally satisfied with pediatric neuropsychological evaluations, although some parents indicated that the evaluations did not provide as much help as expected. A factor analysis of the survey instrument revealed four dimensions of satisfaction: General Satisfaction, Clinician Acceptance/Empathy, Provision of Help, and Facilities/Administrative Assistance. Maternal education was negatively correlated with all four factors, but no other demographic, patient, or clinician variables were significantly related to satisfaction. Future studies could survey physicians and educators to provide a more complete understanding of satisfaction with pediatric neuropsychological evaluations.

  20. Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinfeld Matthew

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM, 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA, and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects.

  1. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  2. A status report on the practice of forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Robert L

    2004-05-01

    The practice of forensic neuropsychology has experienced tremendous growth over the past two decades, becoming perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of practice within the field of clinical neuropsychology. Indeed, there have been many important advancements in the field that have helped to position neuropsychologists as instrumental participants within the forensic arena. Yet, there is currently no consensus in our field regarding what constitutes competency in forensic neuropsychology and also no specific guidelines or standards of practice to inform neuropsychologists about how to operate in the forensic arena. There are even fewer safeguards to protect the public from questionable methods of practice. This article provides a status report on the practice of forensic neuropsychology. It employs a framework emphasized by Otto and Heilbrun (2002) in their assessment of the field of forensic psychology. Emphasis is directed toward identifying recent advances in the field and documenting some of the inherent flaws and weaknesses in forensic practice to help advance the practice of forensic neuropsychology toward a more established specialty area.

  3. Neuropsychological changes in melancholic and atypical depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaipo, Nayanne Beckmann; Foss, Maria Paula; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario Francisco

    2017-02-01

    There is not a consensus as to whether neuropsychological profiling can distinguish depressive subtypes. We aimed to systematically review and critically analyse the literature on cognitive function in patients with melancholic and atypical depression. We searched in databases PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo for papers comparing the neuropsychological performance of melancholic patients (MEL) to non-melancholic depressive patients (NMEL), including atypical depressives, and healthy controls (HC). All studies were scrutinised to determine the main methodological characteristics and particularly possible sources of bias influencing the results reported, using the STROBE statement checklist. We also provide effect size of the results reported for contrasts between MEL; patients and NMEL patients. Seventeen studies were included; most of them demonstrated higher neuropsychological impairments of MEL patients compared to both NMEL patients and HC on tasks requiring memory, executive function, attention and reaction time. Detailed analysis of the methodologies used in the studies revealed significant variability especially regarding the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics of patients and differences in neuropsychological assessment. These findings suggest that MEL may have a distinct and impaired cognitive performance compared to NMEL depressive patients on tasks involving verbal and visual memory, executive function, sustained attention and span, as well as psychomotor speed, this last especially when cognitive load is increased. Additional studies with adequate control of potentially confounding variables will help to clarify further differences in the neuropsychological functioning of depressive subtypes.

  4. Neuropsychological predictors of adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, R H; Goldstein, M Z; Dobraski, M; Tannenhaus, J

    1997-10-01

    This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. Amixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both depression and dementia were prevalent among patients. The kitchen skills assessment was abnormal in 69% of patients, compared to none of the normal volunteers. Estimated premorbid IQs, psychiatric diagnosis, and neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted the pass/fail status on the kitchen skills assessment, but there was no effect for age, education, gender, or depression. The discriminant function analysis classified 92% of cases, and the canonical correlation coefficient was .84. Of the neuropsychological tests employed in the study, two tests involving visuospatial processing and attention were retained in the discriminant function analysis. The results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that visuospatial tasks are more predictive of instrumental activities of daily living than are cognitive tasks emphasizing verbal and memory abilities. In addition, we conclude that neuropsychological test data are useful and valid for the purpose of guiding clinical judgments regarding activities of daily living in geriatric psychiatry patients.

  5. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of Eastern Amazonian Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Jan E.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul;

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety...... malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An...

  6. Community structure of the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds ( Halodule wrightii in Formoso River estuary - Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H.C. Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds are used by juvenile fishes in different ways, generally as nursery sites, shelter from predators, reducing competition and increasing availability of food resources, thus establishing a relationship of connectivity with other ecosystems. In the present study, the community structure of the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds on the Formoso River (Pernambuco - Brazil was evaluated during the winter of 2008. Twenty-seven manual trawls (15 daytime and 12 nighttime were performed, and a total of 358 fishes belonging to 18 families, 21 genus and 25 species were collected. The Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE by trawling average was 13.5 and 4.95 individuals per species per trawl. The most abundant families were Scaridae (n = 111, Tetraodontidae (n = 63, Lutjanidae (n = 56, Mullidae (n = 39 and Engraulidae (n = 19. Ecological indices for dial changes were always higher for the night period, confirming that such areas are used more frequently during this period. The need for measures to conserve these areas is emphasized, by its importance and vulnerability to human impacts.Pradarias de fanerógamas são utilizadas pela ictiofauna, de maneira geral como ambiente de berçário, abrigo contra predadores, diminuição de competição em aior disponibilidade de recursos alimentares, estabelecendo uma relação de conectividade com demais ecossistemas costeiros. No presente estudo foi avaliada a estrutura da ictiofauna associada às pradarias de fanerógamas do estuário do Rio Formoso no litoral de Pernambuco durante o inverno de 2008. Foram realizados no total 27 arrastos manuais (15 diurnos e 12 noturnos, nos quais foram amostrados 358 peixes pertencentes a 18 famílias, 21 gêneros e 25 espécies. A Captura por unidade de esforço (CPUE média por arrasto foi de 13,5 indivíduos e 4,95 espécies por arrasto. As famílias mais abundantes foram Scaridae (n = 111, Tetraodontidae (n = 63, Lutjanidae (n = 56, Mullidae (n = 39 e Engraulidae

  7. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion.

  8. Neuropsychological profile of patients with primary systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U; Ardila, A

    2001-01-01

    Arterial hypertension represents a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. It has been hypothesized that chronic hypertension may eventually result in small subcortical infarcts associated with some cognitive impairments. One hundred fourteen patients with primary systemic hypertension (PSH) and 114 matched subjects were selected. PSH patients were further divided in four groups depending upon the hypertension severity. In addition to the medical and laboratory exams, a neuropsychological evaluation was administered. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was used. An association between level of hypertension and cognitive impairment was observed. Most significant differences were observed in the following domains: Reading, executive functioning, constructional, and memory-recall. No differences were observed in orientation, memory-recognition, and language. Some neuropsychological functions appeared impaired even in the PSH group with the least risk factors. Cognitive evaluation may be important in cases of PSH not only to determine early subtle cognitive changes, but also for follow-up purposes, and to assess the efficacy of different therapeutic procedures.

  9. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Maia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the results of a descriptive and exploratory study, with the intent to understand the results of a 21 male schizophrenic patients interned in a Portuguese Mental Health Care Centre, evaluated with neuropsychological test. We tried also to link these tests with variables such as schooling, family contact or lengh of internment. The assessment instruments were: Digits Series and Vocabulary Task, both from WAIS, Raven Progressive Matrices, Rey’s Complex Figures, Luria’s Series Neuropsychological Screening, Clock Task - Neuropsychological Screening and Visual Search and Attention Test. Results show that there is not an attention deficit clinically significant, even that data suggests light attention affection; also variables like family contact and schooling appear as protective factors of memory and also seems to be important for the planning / organization functions.

  10. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  11. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....

  12. Graduate admissions in clinical neuropsychology: the importance of undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W

    2013-11-01

    Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.

  13. Variable patterns of neuropsychological performance in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, S; Suarez, P; Casey, C Y; Cherner, M; Marcotte, T D; Letendre, S; Grant, I; Heaton, R K

    2008-08-01

    Based upon prior findings with group means, a "prototypical pattern" of neuropsychological results with HIV infection has emerged: impaired executive functioning, motor skills, speed of information processing, and learning, with intact memory retention, most language skills, and visuospatial functioning. We examined neuropsychological results from 553 HIV+ adults to determine the number of patterns seen among individuals with HIV infection. Factor analysis of a relatively comprehensive neuropsychological battery identified 6 component factors: verbal memory (VeM), visual memory (ViM), processing speed (PS), attention/working memory (A/WM), executive function (EF), and motor (M). These factor scores were submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis, to determine the appropriate number of clusters or patterns in the cohort. Final cluster membership was then determined by K-means analysis, based on the Lange, Iverson, Senior, and Chelune (2002) method. A 6-cluster solution was found to be most appropriate. The definitions of the clusters were based upon ipsative scoring of factor scores to indicate relative strengths and weaknesses (independent of overall level of performance): Cluster 1: strong EF; Cluster 2: strong M, weak VeM and EF; Cluster 3: strong PS, weak ViM and EF; Cluster 4: strong VeM, weak M; Cluster 5: strong A/WM; Cluster 6: strong VeM, weak EF. Neuropsychological-impairment rates differed across clusters, but all 6 clusters contained substantial numbers of impaired and unimpaired individuals. Cluster membership was not explained by demographic variables or psychiatric or neuromedical confounds. Thus, there does not appear to be a single, prototypical pattern of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV infection for this battery of representative neuropsychological tests.

  14. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances, thyroid hormones, and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-12-30

    Minimal data exist regarding the neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aging populations and the possible mediating effects of thyroid hormones (THs). Hence, the aims of this study were to: (i) assess associations between PFASs and neuropsychological function, and (ii) determine if such associations are mediated by changes in circulating THs in an aging population. We measured perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) in serum and performed neuropsychological tests in 157 men and women aged 55-74 years and living in upper Hudson River communities. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to assess associations between PFASs and neuropsychological test scores. Mediation analyses were performed in a subset of 87 participants for whom information was available on both PFASs and THs. We obtained TH-mediated, non-TH mediated, and total effects of PFASs on neuropsychological test scores. Overall, our results suggested a protective association between higher PFOA and tasks of executive function. A one interquartile range higher PFOA was associated with a 16% lower perseverative score (that is, improved performance) on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (p-value=0.04). T4 and fT4 partially mediated the protective effect of PFOS on Block Design Subtest total scores, a measure of visuospatial function, in the 87 person subsample. Our findings do not suggest that PFASs are associated with poor neuropsychological function. There was some evidence of mediation for the association between PFASs and neuropsychological functions by THs, although some other modes of action also appear likely.

  16. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Iannone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of children aged 6—12 years, 86 twins and 86 singletons, submitted to paediatric, neurological, psychological, and ophthalmological examinations. Inclusion criteria were twin pregnancy and gestational age 27—36 weeks for index group; same gestational age, but single pregnancy, for the comparison group. All children underwent paediatric and neuropsychiatric examinations, cognitive assessment, and psychological evaluation by standardized tests for screening of learning specific disorders and language difficulties, and finally, ophthalmological examination. In order to study their role in predicting neuropsychological outcome, we examined some perinatal prognostic factors by statistical analysis. Unfavourable neuropsychological outcome was observed in 55/172 (32% children, with different prevalence in the two groups, 42/172 (24% in twins and 13/172 (8% in singletons. Statistical analysis performed for examined prognostic factors showed significant differences in neuropsychological outcome with regard only to gestational age < 32 weeks, low birth weight, intraventricular haemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. The incidence of neuropsychological diseases in the two groups showed significant difference about language and learning difficulties. Our data suggest that preterm twins represent a particular high-risk category of premature babies, mostly regarding the risk of so-called “minimal brain dysfunction”, so a careful follow-up is recommended.

  17. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  18. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for acl injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, A.; Meijer, M.; Cortes, N.; Gokeler, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OBJECTIVE: Assess differences between male and female athletes in jump-landing technique in relation to their neuropsychological capabilities. DESIGN: Experim

  19. Growth and survival of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758, (Molusca: Pectinidae in different cultivation structures at Praia Grande do Bonete, Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Stojanov Bueno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistical projections show that aquaculture could represent 40% of the world’s annual seafood production in the next decade. The scallop Nodipecten nodosus presents high commercial value and good culture potential, but there are few studies about its culture in Brazil. This paper aims to evaluate the performance of four different culture structures (three traditional and two alternative regarding growth, survival and simplicity of cleaning off the fouling. Growth was significantly better in the alternative bo-net structure, with 57.6mm after 301 days. Survival was 97.0% in the bo-net structure, 95.6% in the lanter-net and common lantern structures, and 69.2% in the pearl-net structure. There were also significant differences among the fresh weights of fouling attached to the different structures, the highest values being observed in the bo-net and lanter-net structures. Significant differences were not registered among the fouling dry weights. The fresh weights of fouling attached to the shells presented significant differences, with the highest values registered in scallops cultivated in the lanter-net structure. Alternative structures (bo-net and lanter-net can be employed, because they resulted in better growth and survival of the cultivated scallops.

  20. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  1. History of neuropsychological study of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbe, Frank M; Zimmer, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Although the medical literature has a long history of description and comment on concussion, the occurrence of concussion within the context of sports other than boxing was not judged to be problematic until the 1980s. Neuropsychological assessment played a critical and integral role in identifying the cognitive sequelae of concussion and mapping out the short- and long-term vagaries in recovery. This paper captures that history and expands upon current applications of neuropsychological assessment in the diagnosis and management of sport-related concussion.

  2. Tourette's syndrome in children: neurological, neuropsychological and psychiatric issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovedani, P; Masi, G

    2000-06-01

    The interplay between neurologic, neuropsychologic and psychiatric features makes Tourette's syndrome (TS) a paradigmatic model for neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this paper is to review this complex interplay of clinical features. After a survey of some epidemiological studies, the natural history of neurological, behavioral and psychological characteristics of the syndrome is described. The problem of high psychiatric comorbidity, firstly with obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, is discussed. Neuropsychological features of TS are considered, as they can negatively affect the quality of life of affected patients. Considerations on treatment, pharmacologic as well as educational and psychotherapeutic, conclude this review.

  3. Neuropsychology of reward learning and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Choate, Victoria; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Levitt, James J; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward learning may underlie both cognitive and motivation deficits, as expressed by neuropsychological impairment and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  4. [Neuropsychological course of patients with craniocerebral injuries in rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, S; Pierobon, A; Viola, L; Mastretta, E; Majani, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe a neuropsychological assessment and intervention model in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients. The theoretical and methodological frameworks are described and the following diagnostic and rehabilitative flowchart is fully explained: 1. first visit with patient and his relatives; 2. clinical and testing assessment; 3. diagnostic balance and its communication to patient and his relatives; 4. neuropsychological rehabilitation and psychological counseling. Whenever necessary, patient's relatives are involved. Furthermore, TBI patients' health related quality of life is outlined as an important clinical and scientific issue deserving more attention, in spite of the objective methodological difficulties which its evaluation implies.

  5. On becoming a peer reviewer for a neuropsychology journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; O'Bryant, Sid E; Westervelt, Holly James; Sweet, Jerry J; Reynolds, Cecil R; van Gorp, Wilfred G; Tranel, Daniel; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The peer-review process is an invaluable service provided by the professional community, and it provides the critical foundation for the advancement of science. However, there is remarkably little systematic guidance for individuals who wish to become part of this process. This paper, written from the perspective of reviewers and editors with varying levels of experience, provides general guidelines and advice for new reviewers in neuropsychology, as well as outlining benefits of participation in this process. It is hoped that the current information will encourage individuals at all levels to become involved in peer-reviewing for neuropsychology journals.

  6. Discovery of endangered annual killifish Austrolebias cheradophilus (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae) in Brazil, with comments on habitat, population structure and conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Esteban Krause Lanés; Ândrio Cardozo Gonçalves; Matheus Vieira Volcan

    2014-01-01

    Austrolebias genus comprises about 40 small annual killifishes endemic to South America and their highest diversity occurs in southern Brazil and Uruguay, especially in drainages of Patos-Mirim system. Austrolebiasspecies are severely threatened with extinction because their life cycle and restricted ranges. Low dispersal ability and the extensive loss and fragmentation of freshwater wetlands contribute to this threat. Accurate information on the geographic distribution and ecology of the spe...

  7. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Olívia Penatti Pinese; José Fernando Pinese; Kleber Del Claro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado) because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with e...

  8. Three trail making tests for use in neuropsychological assessments with brief intertest intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Thomas M; Ryan, Jeanne P; Lent, Allyson; Wallis, Ashley; Schachter, Harris; Coder, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Practice effects in serial neuropsychological assessment have led to the use of alternate forms to measure change in cognitive functioning. The construct validity of three variants of the Trail Making Test was explored over a 3-week period in a sample of 158 undergraduate students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a two-factor (sequencing-shifting) model was identified to best represent the data. Latent means structural analysis indicated the absence of order effects, lending support for the construct validity of the three tests. The study provides evidence that the three tests can be offered as potential alternative instruments in serial assessment.

  9. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveyeva E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure, are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions and temporary storage (working memory, activating and neurodynamic components of activity, separate operational characteristics, and motivational impairments of patients with ADHD. The possibility of disclosing some clinical variants of the ADHD syndrome, differing in mechanisms, is also discussed in the article.

  10. Brief Report: Neuropsychology of Autism: A Report on the State of the Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine

    1996-01-01

    This review of the literature on the neuropsychology of autism identifies several consistent findings, such as: existence of neuropsychological impairments in a wide range of domains; large individual differences in certain neuropsychological domains; greater difficulty with tasks involving social information; possible association of the amygdala…

  11. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  12. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  13. Attorneys Influence Expert Evidence in Forensic Psychological and Neuropsychological Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees-Haley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that attorneys are influencing data relied on by psychological experts in forensic cases, usually by advising clients how to respond to psychological tests or by prompting them in other ways. This article alerts psychologists to this threat to the validity of psychological and neuropsychological evaluations.…

  14. [Metallic mercury poisoning and neuropsychological effects: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cöp, Esra; Cengel Kültür, S Ebru; Erdoğan Bakar, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is an extremely toxic heavy metal that can devastate central nervous system. We present the case of a 15 year old adolescent with mercury intoxication following 4 days of exposure to elemental mercury at home who was consulted by department of pediatrics with complaints of demonstrated emotional lability, memory impairment, disinhibition, and impulsivity. Olanzapin 2,5 mg/day was initiated. Her neuropsychological performance was evaluated by a neuropsychological test battery at initial examination. Deterioration in neuropsychological functions like interference effect and attention (Stroop Test TBAG form), verbal fluency and switching to other category (Verbal Fluency Test, /(VFT), verbal short term and long term memory and recognition (Auditory Verbal Learning Test, /(AVLT) was detected. In 9 months follow up period her complaints resolved. Initial neuropsychological deficits were also fully recovered at follow up. There was an increase in intelligence scores with increased ability to pay and sustain attention. She had better performance at Stroop Test TBAG form, VFT and AVLT which was similar to her normal peers. In this case report, the clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in mercury intoxication and protection from potential toxic effects of laboratory materials like mercury at schools were discussed. School administrators should be aware of and parents and students should be given necessary protective information.

  15. Left and right in the Bible from a neuropsychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F

    1994-03-01

    Although in several neuropsychological works dealing with hemispheric specializations a few passages of the Bible referring to the left and the right have been mentioned now and then, a systematical study with a neuropsychological approach to this topic was still a missing link. By using concordance texts from the Bible books of the Hebrew Canon (Old Testament, OT) and from the New Testament (NT), all the verses containing any reference to the left and the right (OT = 151, NT = 49 verses) have been identified and classified into 10 groups: (1) references to space, (2) symmetric sayings, (3) the right hand is the favorite hand, (4) right eye preference, (5) God's right hand, (6) the right side is more prestigious, (7) the right side in liturgy, (8) left hand preference, (9) fatal left-hand shots, and (10) on the left side. Some statistical considerations have been put forward and a neuropsychological, anthropological approach has been suggested for the purpose of interpreting the most interesting verses. According to the author of the present paper, it would be worthwhile commenting on some texts of ancient and modern literature not only from a linguistic, historical, religious and theological point of view, but also by means of a neuropsychological approach.

  16. Neuropsychological Divergence of High-Level Autism and Severe Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Judith M.; Hamburger, Susan D.

    1990-01-01

    To determine variations in cognitive characteristics, 10 nonretarded men with infantile autism, residual state, were compared with 15 severely dyslexic men and 25 controls on a neuropsychological test battery. The dyslexics showed a reduced digit span and the autistic group exhibited impaired problem-solving skills. (Author/JDD)

  17. Evaluation of Consumer Satisfaction with Information Derived from Neuropsychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H. B.; Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of information derived from a consumer satisfaction questionnaire was demonstrated via an analysis of feedback from 22 referring health professionals (21 physicians and 1 clinical psychologist) who replied to questions about their satisfaction with neuropsychological evaluation reports. The questionnaire used was the Neuropsychology…

  18. Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Larry.Moore.ctr2@wpafb.af.mil) L3 Communications 5950 East Sossaman Road, Suite 102, Mesa , AZ 85212 USA Abstract The last 2 decades have...activity and cognitive processing. The debate surrounding the role and utility of neuropsychological data in understanding human cognition has been

  19. Pedophilia: neuropsychological evidence encouraging a brain network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tost, Heike; Vollmert, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie; Schmitt, Andrea; Dressing, Harald; Braus, Dieter F

    2004-01-01

    Although the vast majority of current pathogenetic theories support a neurobiological understanding of psychiatric disorders, the brain functional correlates of pedophilia are largely unknown. Based on prior behavior genetics research on human sexual orientation and phenomenology as well as the phenotypical intersection of pedophilia with other psychiatric spectrum disorders, we hypothesize the involvement of striato-thalamo-cortical processing loops in the formation of pedophilic urges and behaviors. Data from a current neuropsychological pilot study in four pedophiles encourage our brain functional perspective. As deduced from the network model, all four patients exhibited pronounced and circumscribed deficits in cognitive domains mediated by striato-thalamically controlled areas of the frontal cortex. All patients were especially impaired in neuropsychological functions associated with the prefrontal and motor processing loops (e.g., response inhibition, working memory and cognitive flexibility), with a performance level located up to five standard deviations below the normative data. Contrary to this, neuropsychological performances in cognitive domains without a comparable high frontal loading were in all participants unobtrusive. In future, studying gene by environment interactions in combination with functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment is promising to elucidate the pathophysiological relationship of psychiatric disorders that are characterized by inadequate urges and poor behavioral inhibition.

  20. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  1. Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

  2. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  3. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Leposavić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with mood changes. The aim of this study is the establishing of differences between neuropsychological profiles of depression and dementia. The sample included three groups: the first group represented the patients with endogenous depression, the second – the patients with dementia, and the third one – healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery. Two patient groups were tested during the stage of remission/adequate mood. Abilities most susceptible to depression are: attention, executive functions and memory. Cognitive flexibility and general cognitive ability are preserved in depressive patients. Depressive patients express cognitive disorders of moderate degree during the remission stage. Impairment pattern in the group of depressive patients does not indicate intellectual degradation of the dementia type. Neuropsychological deficiencies of the patients with endogenous depression suggest frontal limbic dysfunction. Еxcesses in cognitive functioning of demented patients are more serious and massive in comparison with cognitive difficulties in depressive patients.

  4. Assessing Medication Effects in the MTA Study Using Neuropsychological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…

  5. Integrating Neuropsychology and School Psychology: Potential and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Paul B.; Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    The neurological basis of learning disabilities (LD), and other handicapping conditions commonly found in school-age children, makes the integration of neuropsychology and school psychology plausible. However, there has been longstanding debate over the required level of education, training, supervision, and credentialing needed for the practice…

  6. The Boder Test: Neuropsychological and Demographic Features of Dyslexic Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics of 30 children in reading categories defined by performance on the Boder Test. Provided evidence that the Boder Test may be a nonbiased valid screening test for the identification of dyslexia and dyslexic subtypes. (JAC)

  7. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and ‘weak’ central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region o...

  8. Avaliação neuropsicológica da criança Neuropsychological assessment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle I. Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a metodologia empregada na avaliação neuropsicológica de crianças e suas contribuições, priorizando aqueles aspectos de interesse dos profissionais da área da saúde, em especial pediatras, psicólogos, psiquiatras, neurologistas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura sobre o tema proposto nos últimos anos e incluídas referências de livros texto e manuais dos testes imprescindíveis para a compreensão do exame neuropsicológico e aporte da experiência da Unidade de Neuropsicologia do HSL - PUCRS. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A avaliação neuropsicológica não se limita a aplicação de testes psicométricos e neuropsicológicos organizados em baterias, mas objetiva, também, avaliar a relação destes achados com a patologia neurológica e/ou comportamental e em estabelecer a possível área cerebral envolvida. Adicionalmente, a interpretação cuidadosa destes resultados deve ser associada à análise da situação atual do sujeito e do contexto onde vive. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado final deve fornecer um perfil neuropsicológico do paciente que, combinado à avaliação dos aspectos neurológicos/clínicos, psicológicos e sociais, permitirá auxiliar no seu diagnóstico e/ou orientar sobre o melhor aproveitamento de suas potencialidades.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods used for neuropsychological assessment in children, emphasizing aspects of interest to pediatricians, psychologists and neurologists. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of the published literature concerning neuropsychological assessment, including textbooks and reference manuals. The experience of the Neuropsychology Unit at Hospital São Lucas, Brazil, is described. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Neuropsychological assessment should not be limited to the application of psychometric and neuropsychological tests; it should also correlate test findings with the neurological/behavioral disorder and establish which part of the brain is likely

  9. Systems Biology, Neuroimaging, Neuropsychology, Neuroconnectivity and Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2016-01-01

    The patient who sustains a traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically undergoes neuroimaging studies, usually in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases the neuroimaging findings are clinically assessed with descriptive statements that provide qualitative information about the presence/absence of visually identifiable abnormalities; though little if any of the potential information in a scan is analyzed in any quantitative manner, except in research settings. Fortunately, major advances have been made, especially during the last decade, in regards to image quantification techniques, especially those that involve automated image analysis methods. This review argues that a systems biology approach to understanding quantitative neuroimaging findings in TBI provides an appropriate framework for better utilizing the information derived from quantitative neuroimaging and its relation with neuropsychological outcome. Different image analysis methods are reviewed in an attempt to integrate quantitative neuroimaging methods with neuropsychological outcome measures and to illustrate how different neuroimaging techniques tap different aspects of TBI-related neuropathology. Likewise, how different neuropathologies may relate to neuropsychological outcome is explored by examining how damage influences brain connectivity and neural networks. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes that occur following TBI and how best to capture those pathologies via different neuroimaging methods. However, traditional clinical neuropsychological techniques are not well suited for interpretation based on contemporary and advanced neuroimaging methods and network analyses. Significant improvements need to be made in the cognitive and behavioral assessment of the brain injured individual to better interface with advances in neuroimaging-based network analyses. By viewing both neuroimaging and neuropsychological processes within a systems biology

  10. White matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20-50% as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE. We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = -2.25+/-1.77, non-NPSLE = -1.22+/-1.03, Controls = -0.10+/-.57; F = 13.2, p<.001. In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results.

  11. Association of HLA-DRB1 alleles and neuropsychological function in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yi-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Huang, Yu-Shu; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chao, Yu-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Evidence suggests an association between autism and immune dysfunction. The associations between human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A2, B44, DRβ1*04 (DR4), C4B, and haplotype B44-SC30-DR4 and autism have been reported in western countries but there is a lack of such information in Asian population. This study aimed to assess the association between HLA-DRB1 allele frequencies and the clinical phenomenology of autism. The sample included 141 participants (male, 87.2%), who were diagnosed with autistic disorder based on clinical assessments and structured interviews using the Chinese version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and 156 healthy controls (male, 38.6%). The HLA-DRB1 alleles were determined by sequencing-based typing method. A subsample of patients (n=39) were assessed for intelligence and neuropsychological functions. The results showed that the pattern of DRB1 allele frequencies was significantly different between patients with autism and the controls (P=0.047). After adjusting for sex by haplotype regression, the frequencies of DR4, DR11, and DR14 were significantly different between patients with autism and healthy controls. In addition, patients with autism and DR4, DR11, or DR14 had different performance on intelligence and neuropsychology tests. Despite a relatively small sample size and a case-control association design, the findings suggest HLA-DRB1 gene might be associated with autism in Han Chinese. The true functional variants associated with autism in our samples remain to be further clarified. It warrants a replication study of a larger family sample and to validate the HLA genetic association with autism and its influence on neuropsychological function.

  12. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

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    Francisca eSá

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological difference between two types of AD using the conventional dividing line of 65 years.Methods: We evaluated the results obtained in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery – Battery of Lisbon for the Assessment of Dementia (BLAD, at a Dementia clinic in the University Hospital of Coimbra and a Memory Clinic. Consecutive patients with a clinical probable diagnosis of mild to moderate AD, using standard criteria (DSMIV and NINCDS-ADRDA, were selected. Statistical analysis was performed using Qui-square and U-Mann-Whitney, for categorical and non-categorical variables.Results: The sample included 280 patients: 109 with early-onset AD and 171 with a late-onset form. Groups were comparable in gender, education, severity of disease and MMSE. In BLAD, the early onset group had lower scores in Naming (p=0,025, Right-Left Orientation (p=0,029 and Praxis (p=0,001, and better performances in Orientation (p=0,001 and Visual Memory (p=0,022. After application of Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons only Praxis and Orientation could differentiate the two groups.Discussion: The results are suggestive of dissociated profiles between early and late-onset AD. Younger patients have a major impairment in Praxis and a tendency for a great impairment in neocortical temporal functions. Late-onset form had a tendency for worse performances in Visual Memory and Orientation, suggesting a more localized disease to the limbic

  13. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  14. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  15. Wearing-off in Parkinson’s disease: neuropsychological differences between on and off periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caillava-Santos F

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabiane Caillava-Santos,1,2 Regina Margis,2 Carlos Roberto de Mello Rieder2–4 1Psychology Department, Universidade da Região da Campanha, Bagé, RS, Brazil; 2Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina, Ciências Médicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Movement Disorders Center, Division of Neurology, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 4Movement Disorder Clinic, Division of Neurology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilBackground: Levodopa-associated motor fluctuations are common complications observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. Although nonmotor fluctuations are a significant cause of morbidity, they frequently are not properly identified. Few studies have characterized the nonmotor emotional fluctuations and their relation to motor fluctuations.Aims: The objective of the present study is to analyze the occurrence of fluctuations in anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as in cognitive function (memory, language, executive function, and attention, and their relation to motor fluctuations in PD patients presenting wearing-off phenomenon.Methods: Twenty-four patients were assessed during the wearing on-off periods. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used to assess anxiety and depression, respectively, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Stroop Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, Weschler Memory Scale - digits (WMS and Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA for assessing executive functions, verbal memory, attention and work memory and verbal fluency, respectively.Results: Patients presented higher depression and anxiety scores in the wearing-off period (P<0.05. Differences were also found in the semantic verbal fluency (P=0.017 and executive function (P=0.008 tests performance.Conclusions: Nonmotor

  16. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  17. Assessing neuropsychological performance in a migrant farm working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Salgado, Hugo; Hendrix, Terence; Fraga, Miguel; Cherner, Mariana

    2011-08-01

    Neuropsychological impairments (NPI) can lead to difficulties in daily functioning and ultimately contribute to poor health outcomes. However, evidence for the feasibility of NPI assessment in resource-limited settings using tests developed in high literacy/high education cultures is sparse. The main objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility and appropriateness of conducting neuropsychological assessments among a migrant farm worker population in Baja California, Mexico and (2) preliminary describe neuropsychological test performance in this unique population. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to 21 presumably healthy adults (8 men, 13 women) during a two-day international health services and research collaboration. All but one neuropsychological test (i.e. figure learning) was feasible and appropriate to administer to the study population. Contrary to expectations, participants performed better on verbal rather than nonverbal neuropsychological tests. Results support inclusion of neuropsychological tests into future studies among migrant farm worker populations in Baja California, Mexico.

  18. Leading Educational Change Using a Neuropsychological Response-to-Intervention Approach: Linking Our Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsken, Deborah; Stoeckel, Amanda; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology may be described as the study of brain-behavior relationships (National Academy of Neuropsychology [NAN], 2001). Clinical neuropsychology represents the application of knowledge of the intricacies of these relationships to individual cases. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the public schools,…

  19. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear

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    Nolan M. Dehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain.A geometria das zonas de cisalhamento no CinturãoParaíba do Sul no Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, delineia uma estrutura-em-leque com direção NE. Estaszonas de cisalhamento mergulham para SE no flanco norte, e para NW no flanco sul da estrutura. Esta geometria tem sido interpretada de duas formas: (a implantação de um regime transpressivo ou (b dobramento tardio de superfícies de empurrão originalmente sub-horizontais. A lineação de estiramento mineral mostra caimento para ENE-ESE, no flanco norte, e para NNE-NE, no flanco sul, onde ocorre a Zona

  20. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion: Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to consider smoking status in alcoholism studies and vice versa. Keywords: MRI, morphometry, neuropsychology, tobacco, alcohol

  1. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  2. Factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women from São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil: an approach using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Valente, Camila Maia; Ribeiro, João Victor Fonseca; Almeida, Laysa Andrade; Costa, Ludmilla Emilia Martins; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2017-01-23

    The factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women were analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 1,446 pregnant women from a prenatal cohort who were interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in São Luís, Brazil. In the initial model, socioeconomic status occupied the most distal position, determining sociodemographic factors, social support and the behavioral factors that ultimately determined physical violence, which was investigated as a latent variable. Structural equation modeling was used in the analysis. Pregnant women who were from more disadvantaged backgrounds (p = 0.027), did not reside with intimate partners (p = 0.005), had low social support (p violence. Low social support was the primary mediator of the effect of socioeconomic status on physical violence. The effect of marital status was mainly mediated by a high number of lifetime intimate partners.

  3. The structure of the natural gas industry in Brazil; A estrutura da industria de gas natural no Barsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Cristiane R.; Fontes, Cristiane M.; Andrade, Marcelo C.; Goncalves, Raquel G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The opening of the Brazilian economy and the end of the state-owned oil company PETROBRAS monopoly made possible for national and international companies to become concessionaires of the rights and obligations regarding the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas. The increasing of the oil reserves and production, together with the technological development and the more restricted environmental legislation, resulted in a gradual increased participation of the natural gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply. Around 3% for many years, the participation of gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply has increased to 7.5% in 2002, as mentioned in the 2003 Brazil Energy Balance (BEN). The 2003 production was more than 100 millions boe, and the import was more than 37 millions boe according to the National Oil Agency (ANP). We present in this article a summary of today's situation, and the consumer market full development limitations. (author)

  4. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, standardize, and test the reliability of a short neuropsychological test battery in the Spanish language. This neuropsychological battery was named "NEUROPSI," and was developed to assess briefly a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, and executive functions. The NEUROPSI includes items that are relevant for Spanish-speaking communities. It can be applied to illiterates and low educational groups. Administration time is 25 to 30 min. Normative data were collected from 800 monolingual Spanish-speaking individuals, ages 16 to 85 years. Four age groups were used: (1) 16 to 30 years, (2) 31 to 50 years, (3) 51 to 65 years, and (4) 66 to 85 years. Data also are analyzed and presented within 4 different educational levels that were represented in this sample; (1) illiterates (zero years of school); (2) 1 to 4 years of school; (2) 5 to 9 years of school; and (3) 10 or more years of formal education. The effects of age and education, as well as the factor structure of the NEUROPSI are analyzed. The NEUROPSI may fulfill the need for brief, reliable, and objective evaluation of a broad range of cognitive functions in Spanish-speaking populations.

  5. Neuropsychological effects of the CSMD1 genome-wide associated schizophrenia risk variant rs10503253.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, G

    2013-03-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10503253, located within the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene on 8p23.2, was recently identified as genome-wide significant for schizophrenia (SZ), but is of unknown function. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of this CSMD1 variant in vivo in patients and healthy participants using behavioral and imaging measures of brain structure and function. We compared carriers and non-carriers of the risk \\'A\\' allele on measures of neuropsychological performance typically impaired in SZ (general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory and attentional control) in independent samples of Irish patients (n = 387) and controls (n = 171) and German patients (205) and controls (n = 533). Across these groups, the risk \\'A\\' allele at CSMD1 was associated with deleterious effects across a number of neurocognitive phenotypes. Specifically, the risk allele was associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological measures of general cognitive ability and memory function but not attentional control. These effects, while significant, were subtle, and varied between samples. Consistent with previous evidence suggesting that CSMD1 may be involved in brain mechanisms related to memory and learning, these data appear to reflect the deleterious effects of the identified \\'A\\' risk allele on neurocognitive function, possibly as part of the mechanism by which CSMD1 is associated with SZ risk.

  6. The enigma of Gerstmann's syndrome revisited: a telling tale of the vicissitudes of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kleinschmidt, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Eighty years ago, the Austrian neurologist Josef Gerstmann observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe and suggested that it was due to damage of a common functional denominator. Ever since, these claims have been debated and an astute synopsis and sceptical discussion was presented 40 years ago by MacDonald Critchley in this journal. Nonetheless, Gerstmann's syndrome has continued to intrigue both clinical neurologists and researchers in neuropsychology, and more frequently than not is described in textbooks as an example of parietal lobe damage. In this review, we revisit the chequered history of this syndrome, which can be seen as a case study of the dialectic evolution of concepts in neuropsychology. In light of several modern era findings of pure cases we conclude that it is legitimate to label the conjunction of symptoms first described by Gerstmann as a 'syndrome', but that it is very unlikely that damage to the same population of cortical neurons should account for all of the four symptoms. Instead, we propose that a pure form of Gerstmann's syndrome might arise from disconnection, via a lesion, to separate but co-localized fibre tracts in the subcortical parietal white matter, a hypothesis for which we have recently provided evidence using combined imaging of functional and structural organization in the healthy brain.

  7. Some Unusual Neuropsychological Syndromes: Somatoparaphrenia, Akinetopsia, Reduplicative Paramnesia, Autotopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Some unusual neuropsychological syndromes are rarely reported in the neuropsychological literature. This paper presents a review of four of these unusual clinical syndromes: (1) somatoparaphrenia (delusional belief in which a patient states that the limb contralateral to a brain pathology, does not belong to him/her); (2) akinetopsia (cortical syndrome in which patient losses the ability to perceive visual motion); (3) reduplicative paramnesia (believe that a familiar place, person, object, or body part has been duplicated); and (4) autotopagnosia (disturbance of body schema involving the loss of ability to localize, recognize, or identify the specific parts of one's body). It is concluded that regardless of their rarity, it is fundamental to take them into consideration in order to understand how the brain organizes cognition; their understanding is also crucial in the clinical analysis of patients with brain pathologies.

  8. The neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates of slowly progressive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Aresi, Anna; Reati, Fabiola; Riva, Alice; Gobbo, Clara; Bizzi, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 64-year-old woman affected by slowly progressive visual agnosia is reported aiming to describe specific cognitive-brain relationships. Longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessment, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET) were used. Sequential neuropsychological evaluations performed during a period of 9 years since disease onset showed the appearance of apperceptive and associative visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and prosopoagnosia, but excluded dementia. MRI showed moderate diffuse cortical atrophy, with predominant atrophy in the left posterior cortical areas (temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital cortical gyri). 18FDG-PET showed marked bilateral posterior cortical hypometabolism; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed severe focal N-acetyl-aspartate depletion in the left temporoparietal and lateral occipital cortical areas. In conclusion, selective metabolic alterations and neuronal loss in the left temporoparietooccipital cortex may determine progressive visual agnosia in the absence of dementia.

  9. Misuse of statistical tests in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Jay, Kristin A; McComb, Jason; McLaughlin, Jason R

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews the (mis)use of statistical tests in neuropsychology research studies published in the Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology in the years 1990-1992 and 1996-2000, and 2001-2004, prior to, commensurate with the internet-based and paper-based release, and following the release of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on Statistical Inference. The authors focused on four statistical errors: inappropriate use of null hypothesis tests, inappropriate use of P-values, neglect of effect size, and inflation of Type I error rates. Despite the recommendations of the Task Force on Statistical Inference published in 1999, the present study recorded instances of these statistical errors both pre- and post-APA's report, with only the reporting of effect size increasing after the release of the report. Neuropsychologists involved in empirical research should be better aware of the limitations and boundaries of hypothesis testing as well as the theoretical aspects of research methodology.

  10. Neuropsychological and MMPI correlates of patients' future employment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnan, O S; Heaton, R K; Lehman, R A

    1978-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that patients' neuropsychological test scores correlate not only with neurologic status but also with their success in coping with some of the demands of daily living. This study investigated the utility of such laboratory test scores in predicting several vocational variables. Patients who had recieved neuropsychological evaluations were recontacted and questioned about their employment over the previous 6 mo. Of the 78 individuals who participated, 25 had been chronically unemployed. The remaining 53 were asked about job stability, hours worked, and wages earned, and were administered the Minnsota Job Requirements Questionnaire. Patients' scores on the Halstead-Reitan Battery, the WAIS and the MMPI were highly correlated with employment status (employed or chronically unemployed), income, and skills required on the jobs held. The results suggest that these tests may have clinical utility in assessing patients' employability, as well as the types of jobs for which they are suited.

  11. Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401).

  12. The neuropsychology of attention: revisiting the "Mirsky model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Leonard F; Joyce, Arthur W; Wurglitz, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences derived from brain lesion studies. Mirsky and colleagues developed a systematic clinical evaluation of this model by applying a group of neuropsychological tests. Since the introduction of what has been commonly referred to as the "Mirsky model," significant advances have been made in our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. This article applies current neuroscientific principles to "update" our understanding of attention and the "Mirsky model." We also demonstrate how the interpretation of neuropsychological tests can be modified according to principles of large-scale brain systems and patterns of brain network functional connectivity.

  13. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics.

  14. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience.

  15. Motor assessment in pediatric neuropsychology: relationships to executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Executive function often refers to control behaviors such as "initiating," "sustaining," "inhibiting," and "switching." These mechanisms contribute to regulation of thinking and emotion but can be observed most clearly in the motor system. Neuropsychology has been influenced by "top-down" models of cognitive control that emerged from information-processing theories of cognition. In fact, neural models provide evidence that control processes are highly interactive within the cortico-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Cognition unfolds in response to motor-driven adaptation, and evidence exists for similar firing of brain cells and circuits during "imagined action" as in actual motor behavior. The motor system develops early and yet is not routinely assessed in neuropsychological evaluation of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This article reviews some of the approaches to motor assessment that have sensitivity to neurodevelopmental disorders, and advocates for inclusion of motor assessment, particularly in evaluating control processes independent of culture, language, and other confounders.

  16. Neuropsychological profile of patients with bipolar depression in remission

    OpenAIRE

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja; Marinković Dragan; Pavlović Dragan; Paunović Vladimir R.

    2005-01-01

    Aim. To determine if the patients with bipolar affective disorder, after the depressive phase, would exhibit cognitive impairment in remission. Methods. Twenty three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were matched, on a case-by-case basis, to twenty-one healthy subjects in the control group, for the presence of the symptoms of depression. The patients and the control group were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results. Impairments were found in the patients compared wit...

  17. Verbal fluency tests – application in neuropsychological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Verbal fluency tests (VFT) have established position in methodology of cognitive functions research. They are used in neuropsychological assessment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. This article’s aim is to present current knowledge of the VFT both to clinicians and researchers. It describes models of cognitive processes involved in task performance mainly: semantic memory access and executive functions. and. It describes studies on verbal fluency both in healthy and impaired subjects...

  18. Neuropsychological Effects of Hostility and Pain on Emotion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Mollet, Gina Alice

    2006-01-01

    Recent research on the neuropsychology of emotion and pain has indicated that emotion and pain are complex processes that may substantially influence each other. Disorders of negative emotion and pain are known to co-occur (Delgado, 2004); however, it is not clear whether negative emotional conditions lead to pain or whether increased pain experiences lead to negative emotion. Further, certain negative emotions, such as hostility or anger, may produce differential effects on the experience of...

  19. Neuropsychology of reward learning and negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and increased negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward...

  20. Neuropsychology of Reward Learning and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We used the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) to examine the relationship of reward learning to both neuropsychological functioning and symptom formation in 65 individuals with schizophrenia. Results indicated that compared to controls, participants with schizophrenia showed significantly reduced reward learning, which in turn correlated with reduced intelligence, memory and executive function, and increased negative symptoms. The current findings suggested that a disease-related disturbance in reward...

  1. Teleneuropsychology: evidence for video teleconference-based neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro Cullum, C; Hynan, L S; Grosch, M; Parikh, M; Weiner, M F

    2014-11-01

    The use of videoconference technology to deliver health care diagnostics and treatment continues to grow at a rapid pace. Telepsychiatry and telepsychology applications are well-accepted by patients and providers, and both diagnostic and treatment outcomes have generally been similar to traditional face-to-face interactions. Preliminary applications of videoconference-based neuropsychological assessment (teleneuropsychology) have yielded promising results in the feasibility and reliability of several standard tests, although large-scale studies are lacking. This investigation was conducted to determine the reliability of video teleconference (VTC) - based neuropsychological assessment using a brief battery of standard neuropsychological tests commonly used in the evaluation of known or suspected dementia. Tests included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Digit Span forward and backward, short form Boston Naming Test, Letter and Category Fluency, and Clock Drawing. Tests were administered via VTC and in-person to subjects, counterbalanced using alternate test forms and standard instructions. Two hundred two adult subjects were tested in both rural and urban settings, including 83 with cognitive impairment and 119 healthy controls. We found highly similar results across VTC and in-person conditions, with significant intraclass correlations (mean=.74; range: 0.55-0.91) between test scores. Findings remained consistent in subjects with or without cognitive impairment and in persons with MMSE scores as low as 15. VTC-based neuropsychological testing is a valid and reliable alternative to traditional face-to-face assessment using selected measures. More VTC-based studies using additional tests in different populations are needed to fully explore the utility of this new testing medium.

  2. The parametric, psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical properties of self and world evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan N Simmons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an individual moves from adolescence to adulthood, they need to form a new sense of self as their environment changes from a limited to a more expansive structure. During this critical stage in development the last dramatic steps of neural development occur and numerous psychiatric conditions begin to manifest. Currently, there is no measure that aids in the quantification of how the individual is adapting to, and conceptualizing their role in, these new structures. To fill this gap we created the Self and World Evaluation Expressions Test(SWEET. METHOD: Sixty-five young adults (20.6 years-old, 36 with a history of drug use, completed the SWEET. A factor analysis was performed on the SWEET and the resultant factors were correlated with psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical battery that included both T1-wieghted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: WE DERIVED FOUR FACTORS: Self, Social-Emotional, Financial-Intellectual, and Spirituality. While showing limited relationships to psychological and neuropsychological measures, both white matter integrity and gray matter density showed significant relationships with SWEET factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that while individual responses may not be indicative of psychological or cognitive processes they may relate to changes in brain structure. Several of these structures, such as the negative correlation of the affective impact of world with the dorsal anterior corpus callosum white matter integrity have been observed in psychiatric conditions (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder. Further longitudinal research using the SWEET may help understand the impact of dramatic shifts in self/world conceptualization and potentially link these shifts to underlying changes in brain structure.

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  4. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Profile in a Patient with Triple A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mazzone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple A syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of adrenocorticotropic hormone resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima. Our aim was to describe the neuropsychological characteristics and the cooccurring psychopathological and neurological disorders in an Italian male child suffering from Triple A syndrome at the time of admission (T0 and after one year of follow-up (T1. Many difficulties were observed in the motor domain, as well as in manual dexterity and static/dynamic balance domains of the motor task over time. In sharp contrast with previous literature reports on frequent mild cognitive dysfunction in patients with Triple A syndrome, our child did not show any mental retardation. By contrast, he showed an average IQ at T0 with a slight improvement at T1. To our knowledge, this report is the first describing neuropsychological profile and co-occurring psychopathological problems in a child with Triple A syndrome. Considering that the Triple A syndrome is a progressive disorder which can take years to develop the full-blown clinical picture, these patients require periodical medical controls. Moreover, assessment of neuropsychological and psychopathological features should be performed in patients with this disease, in order to underline the variability of this syndrome.

  5. Cognitive neuropsychology and its vicissitudes: The fate of Caramazza's axioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology is characterized as the discipline in which one draws conclusions about the organization of the normal cognitive systems from the behaviour of brain-damaged individuals. In a series of papers, Caramazza, later in collaboration with McCloskey, put forward four assumptions as the bridge principles for making such inferences. Four potential pitfalls, one for each axiom, are discussed with respect to the use of single-case methods. Two of the pitfalls also apply to case series and group study procedures, and the other two are held to be indirectly testable or avoidable. Moreover, four other pitfalls are held to apply to case series or group study methods. It is held that inferences from single-case procedures may profitably be supported or rejected using case series/group study methods, but also that analogous support needs to be given in the other direction for functionally based case series or group studies. It is argued that at least six types of neuropsychological method are valuable for extrapolation to theories of the normal cognitive system but that the single- or multiple-case study remains a critical part of cognitive neuropsychology's methods.

  6. Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Franke-Sievert, Christiane; Jacoby, Georg E; Markowitsch, Hans J; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2007-11-01

    In addition to the core psychopathology of bulimia nervosa (BN), patients with BN often show impulsive behavior that has been related to decision making deficits in other patient groups, such as individuals with anorexia nervosa and pathological gamblers. However, it remains unclear whether BN patients also show difficulties in decision making. In this study, 14 patients with BN and 14 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, education, body mass index, and intelligence, were examined with the Game of Dice Task (M. Brand, E. Fujiwara, et al., 2005), a gambling task that has fixed winning probabilities and explicit rules for gains and losses, as well as with a neuropsychological test battery and personality questionnaires. On the task, the patients with BN chose the disadvantageous alternatives more frequently than did the comparison subjects. Performance on the Game of Dice Task was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological functions, personality, or disease-specific variables in the BN group. Thus, in patients with BN, decision making abnormalities and executive reductions can be demonstrated and might be neuropsychological correlates of the patients' dysfunctional everyday-life decision making behavior. Neurocognitive functions should be considered in the treatment of BN.

  7. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  8. Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource settings, since there are differences that may influence cognitive functioning including nutrition, history of concomitant disease, and varying HIV strains, among other possibilities. Part of the difficulty of specifying abnormalities in neuropsychological functioning among African HIV positive patients is that there are no readily available African normative databases. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the pattern of neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV positive patients in comparison to HIV negative control subjects in Uganda. Methods The neuropsychological test scores of 110 HIV positive patients (WHO Stage 2, n = 21; WHO Stage 3, n = 69; WHO Stage 4, n = 20 were contrasted with those of 100 control subjects on measures of attention/concentration, mental flexibility, learning/memory, and motor functioning. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA revealed significant group differences on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention and executive functioning between HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. Conclusion Ugandan patients with HIV demonstrated relative deficits on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention, and executive functioning compared to HIV negative controls. These results from a resource limited region where clades A and D are prevalent are consistent with previous findings in the developed world where clade B predominates.

  9. Neuropsychological endophenotypes in ADHD with and without epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, William S; Vasserman, Marsha; Vekaria, Pooja; Miles-Mason, Eavan; Hochsztein, Natanya; Bender, Heidi A

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent comorbidity in children with epilepsy. Despite similarities in behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity, it is unclear whether the neuropsychological endophenotypes of children with developmental ADHD differ from those with ADHD in the context of epilepsy. The present study compared groups of clinically referred children with both ADHD-Inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) and ADHD-Combined subtype (ADHD-C) to children with ADHD-I and ADHD-C and epilepsy on neuropsychological measures of intellectual functioning, auditory attention, working memory, and sustained attention and response inhibition. Those with ADHD and epilepsy performed more poorly on measures of intellectual function (e.g., Full-Scale IQ, Verbal IQ, Performance IQ) as well as auditory attention and working memory. Differences across the groups were also seen on a continuous performance test. Follow-up correlational analyses showed that variables such as seizure frequency and number of antiepilepsy medications predicted cognitive dysfunction in the epilepsy groups. Overall results suggest that the neuropsychological endophenotypes in developmental ADHD versus ADHD in epilepsy differ with seizure-related variables predicting cognitive dysfunction.

  10. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression.

  11. Case series in cognitive neuropsychology: promise, perils, and proper perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Brenda

    2011-10-01

    Schwartz and Dell (2010) advocated for a major role for case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology. They defined the key features of this approach and presented a number of arguments and examples illustrating the benefits of case series studies and their contribution to computational cognitive neuropsychology. In the Special Issue on "Case Series in Cognitive Neuropsychology" there are six commentaries on Schwartz and Dell as well as a response to the six commentaries by Dell and Schwartz (2011 this issue). In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the key points made in Schwartz and Dell, and I review the promise and perils of case series design as revealed by the six commentaries. I conclude by placing the set of papers within a broader perspective, providing some clarification of the historical record on case series and single-case approaches, raising some cautionary notes for case series studies and situating both case series and single-case approaches within the larger context of theory development in the cognitive sciences.

  12. Microstructural changes in the striatum and their impact on motor and neuropsychological performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cavallari

    Full Text Available Grey matter (GM damage is a clinically relevant feature of multiple sclerosis (MS that has been previously assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA of the basal ganglia and thalamus might be increased in MS patients, and correlates with disability scores. Despite the established role of the striatum and thalamus in motor control, mood and cognition, the impact of DTI changes within these structures on motor and neuropsychological performance has not yet been specifically addressed in MS. We investigated DTI metrics of deep GM nuclei and their potential association with mobility and neuropsychological function. DTI metrics from 3T MRI were assessed in the caudate, putamen, and thalamus of 30 MS patients and 10 controls. Sixteen of the patients underwent neuropsychological testing. FA of the caudate and putamen was higher in MS patients compared to controls. Caudate FA correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score, Ambulation Index, and severity of depressive symptomatology. Putamen and thalamus FA correlated with deficits in memory tests. In contrast, cerebral white matter (WM lesion burden showed no significant correlation with any of the disability, mobility and psychometric parameters. Our findings support evidence of FA changes in the basal ganglia in MS patients, as well as deep GM involvement in disabling features of MS, including mobility and cognitive impairment. Deep GM FA appears to be a more sensitive correlate of disability than WM lesion burden.

  13. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa S. L.; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L. N.; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X.; de Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called ‘Bahian cacao’ or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  14. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa S L Santos

    Full Text Available Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  15. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  16. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Jester, Jennifer M; Joel T. Nigg; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls, 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found evidence of separate executive functioning and intelligence (IQ) latent variables. Mother’s and father’s executive functioning were associated with child’...

  17. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Felipe C; Damasceno, Elaine R; Sylvestre, Lana S

    2014-03-01

    A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  18. Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Marco A. Borba-Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies have suggested that different groups of polypore species, acting as parasites and/or saprophytes, degrade different types of woody substrates. These functional groups have different decay capabilities and hence different roles in ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the community (species composition and their functionality inferred on the basis of substrate preference of wood-decaying polypores in the Atlantic Forest of Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The polypore specimens and data on the substrates were sampled in two plots (100×50 m. Among 152 specimens collected, 58 species were identified. Three main dominant groups were identified. The first group comprised three dominant species, the second group five subordinate species and the third 50 rare species. The species were ordered using cluster correspondence analysis based on relative frequency of the species in the different types of substrates and the mean size of the substrate where basidiomes were found. Five functional groups were recognized: two of them were formed by Phylloporia species (P. spathulata on living roots in the ground and P. chrysita on living trunk; and three others consisted of different species of different genera, each of them characterized by the presence of one dominant, few subordinate and several rare species.

  19. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE C. NETTESHEIM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  20. Neuropsychological testing as it relates to recovery from sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2011-10-01

    Concussion is a challenging injury for the sports medicine team, and neuropsychological testing has been used as an adjunct to other clinical measures for assessment and management, and to guide return-to-play decisions. Understanding the limitations as well as the role of neuropsychological testing in the evaluation and management of sports-related concussion is important for the sports medicine team. This article will review the evidence regarding the utility of neuropsychological testing as it relates to concussion in sports.

  1. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed.

  2. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly J; Smith, Megan M; Bruce, Jared M; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The current study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neuropsychological performance in HD. Participants with impaired oculomotor functioning performed worse than those with normal oculomotor functioning on cognitive tasks requiring oculomotor involvement, particularly on psychomotor speed tasks, controlling for covariates. Consideration of oculomotor dysfunction on neuropsychological performance is critical, particularly for populations with motor deficits.

  3. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    to identify a neuropsychological test battery to predict driving ability. However, there is no consensus as to which test such a test battery should consist of. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some neuropsychological test results and the results of an on-road test.......g. WCST will not predict the driving ability of this group. This illustrates that many things can affect the predictive value a neuropsychological test and the belief that neuropsychological testing on its own cannot predict fitness to drive. As findings in the field of driving assessment of older people...

  4. Relationships between structure of the tree component and environmental variables in a subtropical seasonal forest in the upper Uruguay River valley, Brazil

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    Máida Ariane de Mélo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze relationships among the structure of the tree component, edaphic variables and canopy discontinuity along a toposequence in a seasonal upland (hillside forest in southern Brazil. Soil and vegetation were sampled in 25 plots of 20 × 20 m each. We described the vegetation in terms of structure, richness and diversity, as well as by species distribution patterns. We evaluated canopy continuity, determined sloping and calculated spatial coordinates. We applied partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA to determine whether species distribution correlated with environmental and spatial variables. We identified 1201 individuals belonging to 76 species within 30 families. The species with highest density and frequency were Gymnanthes concolor Spreng., Calyptranthes tricona D.Legrand, Eugenia moraviana O.Berg and Trichilia claussenii DC. The pCCAs indicated significant correlations with environmental and spatial variables. Sand content, boron content and soil density collectively explained 36.17% of the species matrix variation (total inertia, whereas the spatial variables x, y and xy² collectively explained 14.27%. The interaction between environmental and spatial variables explained nearly 4.5%. However, 45.05% remained unexplained, attributed to stochastic variation or unmeasured variables. Terrain morphology and canopy discontinuity had no apparent influence on richness, and changes in species distribution were correlated with sloping, which affects soil features and determines the directional distribution of some species.

  5. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

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    FRANCIELE P. MARAGNO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  6. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

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    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  7. [Habitat heterogeneity, richness and structure of assemblages of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in areas of cerrado in the Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.

  8. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Olívia Penatti Pinese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with environmental parameters were also discussed and presented through multivariate statistics. Methods Twelve samples were taken at water surface, at 15-day intervals in 2006. It was observed a total richness of 75 species, including 12 genera, 29 species and one sub-species as new records for Minas Gerais State. Results Rotifers were the predominant group and Lecanidae was the most diverse family. Among cladocerans, Chydoridae showed the greatest richness and Bosminidae the highest abundance. Few adult copepods were sampled in this study, but nauplii were very frequent. Cyclopidae was the most common family among copepods and there was no record of Calanoida. Conclusions The difference in composition among the studied lakes was remarkable. The lake with macrophytes showed the greatest richness but the lowest density, and the opposite situation occurred in the other lake. This can be explained by the fact that aquatic macrophytes, as primary producers, exert a bottom-up effect on zooplankton community, sustaining a high local diversity in contrast with a low numeric abundance of these microorganisms. Therefore, this pattern may have been created by the surround heterogeneity and, at the same time, by the reduction of available minerals of the system caused by macrophyte matter fixation. Many studies on zooplankton need to be developed in palm swamp communities in order to better comprehend the biological diversity and the energy balance in different habitats for

  9. Structural adaptations of two sympatric epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae) to a cloudy forest environment in rocky outcrops of Southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pinheiro Moreira, Ana Sílvia; DE LEMOS FILHO, JOSÉ PIRES; dos Santos Isaias, Rosy Mary

    2013-01-01

    The survival of plants in epiphytic environments depends on vegetative adaptations capable to defraud different stresses. Based on the structural diversity of the Orchidaceae, the current study has the objective of relating the anatomical structure of Dichaea cogniauxiana and Epidendrum secundum with the distinct environments where they live. It was expected that, despite structural similarities as strategies for resource acquisition, some peculiar variations related to the distinct light mic...

  10. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition.

  11. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth

  12. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  13. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  14. The neuropsychology of good leaders making dumb mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2009-01-01

    None of us are immune from the irresistible forces that sway our thinking in irrational ways. Pattern recognition is very helpful in familiar situations. However, it can mislead us in unfamiliar situations and cause us to overlook important details that would lead us to other conclusions. Leaders are prone to make mistakes, but we can take steps to lessen the inevitability of mistakes. Encourage dissent, discuss "red flag" conditions openly, and admit mistakes. The job of a leader is too important to allow irrational neuropsychological patterns of thought to rule.

  15. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Daniel J M; Cobo, Valter J; De Aquino, Mariana A B; Fransozo, Adilson

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations.

  16. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL J.M. LIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations.

  17. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud. IN TWO FRAGMENTS AT DIFFERENT REGENERATION STAGES IN THE CAATINGA, IN SERGIPE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília da Cruz Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to analyze the vertical and diameter structure and the spatial distribution pattern of Bauhinia cheilantha in two Caatinga fragments in Sergipe, Brazil, at different regeneration stages. Thirty plots were demarcated in area I (Canindé de São Francisco and Poço Redondo, which has vegetation regeneration, and 25 plots in area II (Porto da Folha with preserved vegetation, both having 400 m2. All B. cheilanthaindividuals had their height and circumference (circumference at breast height > 6 cm measured. Possible differences in height and diameter at breast height were tested in the two populations by using Student’s T-test. The distribution pattern of species was calculated through Payandeh’s index. We sampled 154 B. cheilantha individuals, equivalent to 33.3% of the plots in area I and in 1,027 individuals in area II, totaling 100% frequency. Height and the diameter of the two populations were statistically different, where AI achieved all values lower than AII. The spatial distribution pattern of B. cheilantha found in both areas was aggregate, with values of 11.85 and 9.00, respectively. Thus, it became clear that the population in AII is at a more advanced successional status than AI, due to its longer conservation time.

  18. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  19. Structure of Poduromorpha (Collembola communities in "restinga" environments in Brazil Estrutura de comunidades de Poduromorpha (Collembola em áreas de restinga

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    Liliane Henriques Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the richness and diversity of the Poduromorpha fauna in two biotopes in Restinga de Maricá, RJ, Brazil, to identify the characteristic species of each biotope and to determine the relationships between the community structure and the abiotic environmental parameters. Representatives of the Poduromorpha (Collembola order were studied under an ecological viewpoint in halophyte-psammophyte vegetation and foredune zone in preserved areas of Restinga de Maricá, a sand dune environment in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The foredune zone showed the highest diversity, richness and equitability of springtail species. Differences in the fundamental, accessory and accidental species in each environment were encountered. Paraxenylla piloua was found to be an indicator species of the halophyte-psammophyte vegetation, while Friesea reducta, Pseudachorutes difficilis and Xenylla maritima were indicators of the foredune zone. The canonical correspondence analysis indicated pH, organic matter content and soil humidity as the most important factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of the species.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a riqueza e a diversidade da fauna de Poduromorpha em dois biótopos na Restinga de Maricá, RJ, identificar as espécies características de cada biótopo e determinar as relações da estrutura da comunidade com parâmetros ambientais abióticos. Representantes da ordem Poduromorpha (Collembola foram estudados do ponto de vista ecológico nos ambientes de vegetação halófila-psamófila reptante e de primeiro cordão arenoso em áreas preservadas da Restinga de Maricá, localizada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os maiores valores de diversidade, riqueza e equitabilidade de espécies de colêmbolos foram observados no ambiente de primeiro cordão arenoso. Foram encontradas diferenças nas espécies fundamentais, acessórias e acidentais nos ambientes

  20. The combined effect of neuropsychological and neuropathological deficits on instrumental activities of daily living in older adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdorp, E.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test perf

  1. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overdorp, E.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Claassen, J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test perf

  2. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  3. Neuropsychology of colour vision: Studies in patients with acquired brain damage, healthy participants, and cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied the neuropsychology of low-level sensory and higher-order visual perception in healthy participants, patients with acquired deficits in visual perception, and a man with a selective developmental deficit in colour processing. In neuropsychological literature, sensory diso

  4. Neuropsychological Findings in Relapsing-Remitting and Chronic-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Robert K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed neuropsychological functioning in 100 patients who had relapsing-remitting or chronic-progressive courses of multiple sclerosis (MS). Both MS subgroups showed significant neuropsychological impairment, relative to a normal comparison group (N=100), but chronic-progressive MS was associated with greater impairment in each major ability…

  5. The predictive utility of neuropsychological symptom validity testing as it relates to psychological presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Gammada, Emnet; Jeffay, Eliyas

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between multiple neuropsychological symptom validity tests (SVTs) and psychological presentation. More formally, we set out to determine if performance on neuropsychological SVTs was related to psychological symptom credibility and which specific neuropsychological SVTs were most associated with noncredible psychological presentation. Archival records from 106 litigating examinees were utilized in this study. Our results illustrate that neuropsychological SVTs are modestly related to psychological symptom credibility and that specific neuropsychological SVTs are variably associated to this end. We conclude that when multiple, but not independent, neuropsychological SVTs are employed within the context of a neuropsychological examination, they do have clinical utility as it relates to credibility of psychological presentation and these constructs do share variance reciprocally in clinically meaningful ways. When independently employed, however, the observed relationship is modest at best. Hence, to place clinical opinion on firmer scientific grounds within the context of a neuropsychological examination, multiple cognitive SVTs, in hand with psychological test instruments that include validity indexes, are essential to derive opinion that is based on science rather than faith in the instance of litigation when an incentive to manifest disability for the sake of an external reward holds probable.

  6. Neuropsychological Studies on Adolescents with Phenylketonuria Returned to Phenylalanine-Restricted Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. T. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated neuropsychological effects of high or low phenylalanine diets on nine phenylketonuric (PKU) adolescents who had been on unrestricted diets for 2 to 11 years. Results found that PKU adolescents on unrestricted diets have a neuropsychological deficit which can be partly reversed by returning to dietary phenylalanine restricted…

  7. Use of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision with Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Greta N.

    The paper examines use of a children's revision of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB-CR) for three aspects of neuropsychologic assessment in children: the absence or presence of learning disability (LD), patterns in dysfunction, and rehabilitation potential and strategies. A review of research covers the use of the battery in the…

  8. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  9. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  10. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Jeanette C.; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J. E.; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and ...

  11. Integrating Response to Intervention (RTI) with Neuropsychology: A Scientific Approach to Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    This article integrates the fundamental components of both "Response to Intervention" (RTI) and cognitive neuropsychology when identifying reading disorders in children. Both proponents of RTI and cognitive neuropsychology agree the "discrepancy model" is not a reliable or valid method to identify learning disorders in school. In addition, both…

  12. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    were asked to undergo a neuropsychological development exam intended to assess both general measures of cognition, such as IQ, as well as investigating their IPT. The overall neuropsychological development data were obtained through administration of standardized tests for children, as well as parental...

  13. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads; Leemans, Alexander

    neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... the possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC....

  14. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  15. Embedded performance validity testing in neuropsychological assessment: Potential clinical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, Tyler A; Cranston, Christopher C; Touradji, Pegah; Bechtold, Kathleen T

    2017-01-31

    The article aims to suggest clinically-useful tools in neuropsychological assessment for efficient use of embedded measures of performance validity. To accomplish this, we integrated available validity-related and statistical research from the literature, consensus statements, and survey-based data from practicing neuropsychologists. We provide recommendations for use of 1) Cutoffs for embedded performance validity tests including Reliable Digit Span, California Verbal Learning Test (Second Edition) Forced Choice Recognition, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test Combination Score, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, and the Finger Tapping Test; 2) Selecting number of performance validity measures to administer in an assessment; and 3) Hypothetical clinical decision-making models for use of performance validity testing in a neuropsychological assessment collectively considering behavior, patient reporting, and data indicating invalid or noncredible performance. Performance validity testing helps inform the clinician about an individual's general approach to tasks: response to failure, task engagement and persistence, compliance with task demands. Data-driven clinical suggestions provide a resource to clinicians and to instigate conversation within the field to make more uniform, testable decisions to further the discussion, and guide future research in this area.

  16. Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    Pain is an experience that none of us would like to have but that each one of us is destined to experience in our lives. Despite its pervasiveness, the experience of pain remains problematic and complex in its depth. Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves nociception as well as emotional and cognitive aspects that can modulate its perception. Following a brief discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain, the purpose of this review is to discuss the main psychological, neuropsychological, cultural, and existential aspects which are the basis of diverse forms of pain, like the pain of separation from caregivers or from ourselves (e.g., connected to the thought of our death), the suffering that we experience observing other people's pain, the pain of change and the existential pain connected to the temporal dimension of the mind. Finally, after a discussion of how the mind is able to not only create but also alleviate the pain, through mechanisms such as the expectation of the treatment and the hope of healing, we conclude by discussing neuropsychological research data and the attitude promoted by mindfulness meditation in relation to the pain. An attitude in which, instead to avoid and reject the pain, one learns to face mindfully the experience of pain.

  17. Neuropsychological treatment of dyslexia in the classroom setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B H; Obrzut, J E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate Bakker's (1990, 1992) clinical neuropsychological balance model of dyslexia when implemented in a traditional general education classroom environment. The sample included 45 middle school, right-handed boys and girls (mean age = 12.78) with L-type dyslexia (excessively fast readers who make substantive reading errors), P-type dyslexia (displaying accurate but slow and laborious reading), and M-type dyslexia (readers who commit a combination of L-type and P-type dyslexia errors). The experimental groups (L and P type dyslexia) were presented with hemisphere specific stimulation (HSS) and hemispheric alluding stimuli (HAS). HSS involves the presentation of words into the right visual field (RVF) or the left visual field (LVF) or through tactile exercises with the right or left hand. HAS is achieved by constructing semantically and phonetically challenging letters and words. The children with M-type dyslexia served as a control group and received traditional decoding and comprehension exercises. The readers were exposed to a specific treatment model for 16 weeks, depending on their reading accuracy and comprehension. Statistical analyses indicated that, although there were no significant changes in word recognition for the dyslexia subtypes, the readers with L-type, P-type, and M-type dyslexia exhibited significant improvement in reading accuracy and comprehension as assessed by results from pretest to posttest. These results suggest that Bakker's clinical neuropsychological intervention can be effectively applied to the general education setting as well.

  18. Progression of neuropsychological deficits following toluene diisocyanate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, R; Scott, N E

    1987-01-01

    Three wharf workers were acutely exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) during an accidental chemical spill. Toluene is neurotoxic as a solvent, while cyanates can cause nervous tissue injury or death by hypoxia. Chronic symptoms which occurred following the incident included headache, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, depression, sleep disturbance, memory and sexual dysfunction. Compared with two months post-exposure, at 16 months post-exposure Full Scale IQ dropped an average of 23 points. Results from additional neuropsychological testing at 16 months post-exposure indicated severe deficits in all three subjects in memory, manual dexterity, visuomotor tracking, mental flexibility, ability to detect figure-ground relationships, and word fluency. Nerve conduction velocity testing indicated abnormal peripheral nervous system function in two of the three workers; however, its etiology is not certain. These results may be relevant to the neurotoxicity of methyl isocyanate exposure, such as occurred in Bhopal, India, where an increasing magnitude of depression, anxiety, fatigue, restlessness, and headaches 18 months post-exposure have been reported. In general, continuing decrement in mental function without concomitant environmental exposure should be considered in neuropsychological assessment of chemical toxicity.

  19. Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment and perceived employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Johnny H; Boone, Kyle; Kim, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Ecological validity studies that have examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and employment in psychiatric and medical populations have found that a wide range of cognitive domains predict employability, although memory and executive skills appear to be the most important. However, no information is available regarding a patient's self-perceived work attributes and objective neuropsychological performance, and whether the same cognitive domains associated with successful employment are also related to a patient's self-perception of work competence. In the present study, 73 medical and psychiatric patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Step-wise multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual-spatial domain was the only significant predictor of self-perceived work attributes and work competence as measured by the Working Inventory (WI) and the Work Adjustment Inventory (WAI), accounting for 7% to 10% of inventory score variability. The results raise the intriguing possibility that targeting of visual spatial skills for remediation and development might play a separate and unique role in the vocational rehabilitation of a lower SES population, specifically, by leading to enhanced self-perception of work competence as these individuals attempt to enter the job market.

  20. Low-dose endotoxemia and human neuropsychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Karen Suárez; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yirmiya, Raz; Smed, Annelise; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2005-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate an association between systemic low-grade inflammation defined as 2- to 3-fold increases in circulating inflammatory mediators and age-related decline in cognitive function. However, it is not known whether small elevations of circulating cytokine levels cause direct effects on human neuropsychological functions. We investigated changes in emotional, cognitive, and inflammatory parameters in an experimental in vivo model of low-grade inflammation. In a double-blind crossover study, 12 healthy young males completed neuropsychological tests before as well as 1.5, 6, and 24 h after an intravenous injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.2 ng/kg) or saline in two experimental sessions. Endotoxin administration had no effect on body temperature, cortisol levels, blood pressure or heart rate, but circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 increased 2- and 7-fold, respectively, reaching peak values at 3 h, whereas soluble TNF-receptors and IL-1 receptor antagonist peaked at 4.5 h. The neutrophil count increased and the lymphocyte count declined. In this model, low-dose endotoxemia did not affect cognitive performance significantly but declarative memory performance was inversely correlated with cytokine increases. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a negative association between circulating IL-6 and memory functions during very low-dose endotoxemia independently of physical stress symptoms, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  1. Neuropsychological outcomes of pediatric burn patients who sustained hypoxic episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marta; Robertson, Carrie; Murphy, Kevin D; Rosenberg, Laura; Mlcak, Ronald; Robert, Rhonda S; Herndon, David N; Meyer, Walter J

    2005-11-01

    The neuropsychological outcomes of children who suffered hypoxic episodes following their burns are not completely understood and vary depending on the nature and severity of the episode. A retrospective review of youth that were admitted to this acute burn care facility over the past 20 years was conducted to identify the extent of cognitive and affective difficulties. Thirty-nine children who sustained hypoxic injuries related to their burns were compared with 21 controls that were matched for age, TBSA, and time of injury. Approximately a third of the children who survived from the hypoxia group continued to have long-term cognitive and emotional difficulties. For those who recovered reasonably well, no differences were found from the matched burned controls. These results probably underestimate the true extent of neuropsychological difficulties experienced by these youth given that detailed cognitive testing was not routinely performed. Prospective studies are needed to further characterize the full nature of difficulties and outcomes associated with burn related hypoxic injuries.

  2. Neuropsychological analysis of an idiot savant: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E; Heller, Stephanie; Sekely, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Although biological etiologies and diffuse anatomical changes have been provided as plausible explanations for the unusual behaviors observed in idiot savants, no neuropsychological case studies or explanations for these behaviors are found in the literature. We present a case in which the "diagnosis" of idiot savant was based on historical, clinical, and test data. To assess his calendar abilities, this individual was subsequently tested over a period of six months on his ability to determine the day of the week across approximately 1,000 years. For a period of approximately 100 years he was 100% accurate. The neuropsychological tests revealed marked deficits in all areas with performance generally in the lower 1-5th percentile of the population (e.g., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient [FSIQ] = 54). Tests of attention yielded the best scores although still deficient. General learning, coding, and executive function tests proved to be challenging. In contrast, tests of visuo-motor abilities were only of moderate difficulty for the individual. These findings are considered within the theoretical framework of Rimland (autism) and Squyres (memory).

  3. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bouso

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127 and controls (n = 115 at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  4. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Fernández, Xavier; Ribeiro Barbosa, Paulo César; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Araújo, Wladimyr Sena; Barbanoj, Manel J; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Riba, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127) and controls (n = 115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  5. Specificity of neuropsychological impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L J; Hollander, E; DeCaria, C M; Stein, D J; Simeon, D; Liebowitz, M R; Aronowitz, B R

    1996-01-01

    Specificity of neuropsychological dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was assessed by comparing neuropsychological performance in 65 OCD patients, 17 social phobic patients, and 32 normal control subjects. Although both patient groups showed visual constructional impairment relative to normal subjects, only patients with social phobia showed executive dysfunction. Nonconcurrent state anxiety did not correlate with neuropsychological performance. Among anxiety disorders, neuropsychological dysfunction may not be specific to OCD, but the functions implicated may differ across patient groups.

  6. Utility of cognitive neuropsychological assessment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Klaus W; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Katharina M; Makulska-Gertruda, Ewelina; Takano, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    The present review addresses the question of whether and how neuropsychological tests assessing cognition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can contribute to clinical and scientific issues concerning ADHD. Neuropsychological studies have shown various though inconsistent cognitive deficits in patients with ADHD. While patients with ADHD, at group level, may differ from healthy participants in regard to cognitive functioning, there is no distinct psychometric cognitive test or profile allowing an individual diagnosis of ADHD or the identification of subtypes according to DSM. Psychometric neuropsychological tests may provide a precise description of the cognitive problems in individual patients and offer specific information for individualized treatment planning. In addition, neuropsychological assessment may contribute to neuroscientific research by providing endophenotypes or biological markers of ADHD. Cognitive neuropsychological assessment appears to be at present of limited clinical use and confined to individual descriptions.

  7. Neuropsychological heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis / Heterogeneidade neuropsicológica na esclerose múlipla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressively disabling neurological disease which symptoms affect sensory, motor and psychological functioning. Several clinical neurological and psychological variables influence the neuropsychological profile in MS, which is extremely heterogeneous. The main objective of the present study was to investigate if it is possible to statistically stratify control subjects and MS patients from neurological, socio-demographic and neuropsychological dimensions. With this purpose we applied cluster analysis procedures to five neuropsychological instruments selected according to diagnostic accuracy from a pool of 9 neuropsychological tests. The sample was composed of 45 healthy controls and 35 MS patients with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The results indicated an ideal solution with 4 different clusters according to two dimensions: "cognitive" and "psychosocial" functioning, which represent independent but non-disjunctive aspects of neuropsychological functioning in MS.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLEEP PROBLEMS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH FIRST RECOGNIZED SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Anna W.; Byars, Kelly C.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Fastenau, Philip S.; Perkins, Susan; Austin, Joan K.; Dunn, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is associated with sleep disturbance, but little is known about how early this relationship develops and how it affects neuropsychological functioning. This study documented the frequency and types of sleep problems and examined how sleep problems are associated with seizures and neuropsychological functioning in 331 children following their first recognized seizure (ages 6 to 14) and in 225 sibling controls. Formal neuropsychological batteries were administered to all subjects. Sleep was measured using the Sleep Behavior Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist. Sleep problems were more frequent in the seizure sample relative to siblings and previously published norms; bedtime difficulties, daytime somnolence and parasomnias were the most frequently occurring sleep problems. In the seizure group, sleep problems were related to seizure parameters and to neuropsychological functioning. Seizure patients with significant sleep problems had worse neuropsychological functioning on all measures. Findings demonstrate the significant impact of sleep disturbance on children with newly recognized seizures. PMID:18687412

  9. Structural characterization of the internal domain of Paraguai Belt, in the Cangas region, south central portion of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Siqueira Costa

    Full Text Available The structural study of rocks in the district of Cangas showed the identification of three phases of deformation for the Cuiabá Group in this region. The main structure oriented 120/27 is related to the first phase of deformation defined by a slate cleavage, parallel to the bedding and to the axial plane of recumbent folds. In the early stages of this phase a family of quartz veins (V1 was generated, arranged parallel to the structures of this phase of deformation, being all almost deformed. The second phase of deformation formed a crenulation cleavage (Sn+1, axial plane of opened to gentle and asymmetric normal folds, with preferential orientation 110/68. The third phase of deformation is represented by a set of centimetric to decametric scale fractures and faults with metric slip that cut all previous structures, with orientations 35/82. Related to this phase of deformation occurs a second family of quartz veins (V2, which fills the fractures related to Dn+2 and may or may not be carrying gold mineralization.

  10. Population structure and reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira, 2000 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in the rio Ibicuí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Éverton Luís Zardo; Everton Rodolfo Behr

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze population structure (spatial distribution, seasonal distribution and distribution by length classes, sex ratio and length-weight relationship) and aspects of the reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus. Fish were sampled bimonthly using gillnets and trammel nets in lentic and lotic environments in the rio Ibicuí, between the years 2000 and 2001. Were collected 410 specimens: 230 females, 164 males and 16 specimens whose sex could not b...

  11. Brazil's premier gold province. Part I: The tectonic, magmatic, and structural setting of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Zucchetti, Márcia; Noce, Carlos; Baltazar, Orivaldo; da Silva, Luiz; Pinto, Claiton

    2001-07-01

    Rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup comprise one of the most significant Archean greenstone-belt successions in Brazil, in both their appreciable mineral productivity and extensive mineral potential. A large part of this greenstone belt is contained within the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Iron Quadrangle) region, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, which occupies the southernmost portion of the São Francisco craton. The Nova Lima Group rocks, at the base of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, host important orogenic gold deposits. The group contains lithological associations from bottom to top as follows: (1) mafic-ultramafic volcanic, (2) volcanic-chemical, (3) clastic-chemical, (4) volcaniclastic, and (5) resedimented rocks. Rocks of the resedimented, volcanic-chemical, and mafic-ultramafic volcanic associations mainly host the most important gold deposits. An early compressional deformation occurs in the rocks of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt and basement gneisses, with tangential thrusting from the north to the south or southwest. Structures generated during a second, compressional deformation, encompass NW-striking thrust faults and SW-vergent, tight to isoclinal folds, inferring a general southwest transport direction. In the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, the Paciência lineament, which strikes northwest and dips to the northeast in the south, or strikes northeast and dips to the southeast in the north, is a thrust-related, oblique ramp fault that hosts important gold deposits. The convergence of these two trends in the Nova Lima region is accommodated by roughly E-W-striking transcurrent faults, which are the most favored sites for large gold concentrations. Intracratonic extension in Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic times and NW-vergent, Trans-Amazonian compressional deformation post-date gold deposition. Late extension during the Paleoproterozoic led to basin formation and the prominent dome-and-keel architecture of the

  12. Fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil Determinant factors of capital structure for the largest companies active in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estrutura de capital é um tema ainda controverso em teoria de finanças. Desde a discussão entre a teoria tradicional, que defende a existência de uma estrutura de capital ótima que leva à maximização do valor da empresa, e a proposta por Modigliani e Miller (1958, que considera que o valor da empresa não é afetado pela forma como ela é financiada, diversos estudos empíricos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de identificar os fatores que explicam a forma como as empresas se financiam. Esta pesquisa analisa a estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil, investigando a relação entre o nível de endividamento e os fatores apontados pela teoria como seu determinante. O estudo é baseado em dados contábeis extraídos das demonstrações financeiras de empresas de capital aberto e de empresas de capital fechado. A técnica estatística utilizada no estudo é a regressão linear múltipla. Os resultados indicam que os fatores risco, tamanho, composição dos ativos e crescimento são determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas, enquanto que o fator rentabilidade não é determinante. Os resultados, também, mostram que o nível de endividamento da empresa não é afetado pelo fato de ela ser de capital aberto ou de capital fechado.Capital structure is still a still controversial issue in finance theory. Since the discussion between traditional theory, which asserts the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the firm’s value, and Modigliani and Miller’s theory (1958, which considers that the value of a firm is unaffected by how it is financed, many empirical studies have been carried out to identify the factors that explain how a firm finances itself. This research analyses the capital structure of the largest firms in Brazil and investigates the relationship between the leverage ratio and the factors indicated by theory as determinant. The study is based on accounting data extracted from

  13. Composition and structure of fish assemblage from Passa Cinco stream, Corumbataí river sub-basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Carmassi

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the fish assemblage of Passa Cinco stream and verify changes in their structure on the altitudinal gradient. Six samples were performed at five different sites in Passa Cinco stream (from the headwater, at order two, to its mouth, at order six, using an electric fishery equipment and gill nets in May, July, September and November of 2005 and January and March of 2006. The indices of Shannon's diversity, Pielou's evenness and Margalef's richness were quantified separately considering the different fishery equipment (nets versus electric fishery equipment. An ANOVA was used to compare samples collected in relation to values of abundance, diversity, evenness and richness. The representativeness of the species was summarised by their average values of abundance and weight. We captured 5082 individuals distributed into 61 species. We observed a trend of increasing diversity, richness and evenness of species from site 1 to 3, with further decrease in sites 4 and 5. The values found for habitat diversity also followed this pattern. Significant differences were found for all three indices considering the electric fishery samples. For individuals caught with nets, only the richness index showed a significant difference. Characidium aff. zebra was an important species in the headwater and transition sites and Hypostomus strigaticeps in middle-lower course sites. Despite the small extension of the Passa Cinco stream, environments structurally well defined were evidenced by the species distribution and assemblage composition along the gradient.

  14. Sex ratio and size structure of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    R. N. Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sex ratio and size structure constitute basic information in assessing reproductive potential and estimating stock size in fish populations. One hundred fifty-one individuals of Micropogonias furnieri caught by experimental otter trawls, in three zones (inner, central, and outer of Sepetiba Bay between October 1998 and September 1999 were examined. Males outnumbered females (1.3:1.0 in all zones but no significant differences were detected. Only in the outer zone (5.0:1.0 were male/female rates significantly different according to the chi-square test. No temporal differences were observed in sex ratio. Fish size ranged from 81 to 244 mm total length (TL with significant differences in 155 to 185 mm TL size classes, where males predominated, and a slightly higher number of females were observed for the smaller size class (TL = 95-150 mm. Size distribution varied according to the zone, with juveniles predominating in the inner and adults in the outer zone. Spatial difference in size structure observed in this study indicates that the inner bay is a rearing ground during the first life-cycle period, and movement toward the sea occurs as fish increase in size.

  15. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

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    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  16. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

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    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  17. THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY OF PURE STAND OF Mimosa scabrella Bentham IN MINED AREA, IN POÇOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

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    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic and structural survey of the natural regeneration of shrubby and arboreal species of the understory of an established homogeneous plantation of Mimosa scabrella Bentham was corried out  viewing, the  reclamation  of  a  mined  area,  in  Poços de  Caldas, Minas  Gerais State, Brazil. Nineteen  plots of 50 m2 (5 m × 10 m were used and the shrubby and arboreal individuals measuring equal or above 30 cm were sampled and 1,946 individuals belonging to 63 botanic families were found. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm, in each of the 19 plots, and the contents of sand, silt,clay, organic matters, pH nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were analysed. The influence of the soil variables upon the density of the sampled species was analysed using the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A significative correlation was verified among these variables at a level of 5% of probability using the Monte Carlo test. The species Miconia sellowiana, Miconia pepericarpa, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Cordia superba and Casearia sylvestris presented a close to indifferent behaviour in relation to the soil variables studied, and these species largely surpassed the other species in relation to the floristic and the strutured parameters. This behaviour reinforces the indication of the species, made by NAPPO (1999, as having a potential for use in mixed and enrichment plantation in condition similar to those of the studied area. The identification and mensuration of the enviromental variables and of the history of the area are important pieces for the understanding of the process of population dynamics, and particularly, for degraded area getting to the reclamation phase.

  18. Vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest in the Sinos River basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: richness, floristic composition and community structure.

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    Barbosa, M D; Becker, D F P; Cunha, S; Droste, A; Schmitt, J L

    2015-05-01

    The Atlantic Forest, which has a vast epiphytic richness, is a priority area for preservation, listed as one of the five most important world hotspots. Vascular epiphyte richness, composition and community structure were studied in two fragments, one of the ombrophilous (29º43'42"S and 50º22'00"W) and the other of the seasonal (29º40'54"S and 51º06'56"W) forest, both belonging to the Atlantic Forest biome in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each fragment, 40 trees, divided into four ecological zones, were analyzed. In each zone, the occurrence of the species was recorded, and the importance value of each species was calculated according to the frequency of phorophytes and intervals, and cover scores. The Shannon index was calculated for the two communities. In the fragment of the ombrophilous forest (F1), 30 epiphytic species were recorded, and in the seasonal forest (F2), 25. The highest importance value was found for Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf.) de la Sota in both fragments. The diversity indexes for F1 (H'=2.72) and F2 (H'=2.55) were similar and reflected the subtropical location of the areas. The decrease in mean richness in both fragments in zone 3 (internal crown) to zone 4 (external crown) may be associated with time and space availability for epiphyte occupation and microclimate variations. Exclusive species were found in the areas, which suggest that a greater number of preserved fragments may result in a greater number of preserved epiphytic species in the Sinos River basin.

  19. Standard of Care for Neuropsychological Monitoring in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Lessons From the Children's Oncology Group (COG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Karin S; Noll, Robert B; Annett, Robert D; Patel, Sunita K; Patenaude, Andrea F; Embry, Leanne

    2016-02-01

    As the mortality of pediatric cancers has decreased, focus on neuropsychological morbidities of treatment sequelae have increased. Neuropsychological evaluations are essential diagnostic tools that assess cognitive functioning and neurobiological integrity. These tests provide vital information to support ongoing medical care, documenting cognitive morbidity and response to interventions. We frame standards for neuropsychological monitoring of pediatric patients with CNS malignancy or who received cancer-directed therapies involving the CNS and discuss billing for these services in the United States in the context of clinical research. We describe a cost-effective, efficient model of neuropsychological monitoring that may increases access to neuropsychological care.

  20. Estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio: testes no Brasil Capital structure, dividends and interests on equity: tests in Brazil

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    Mariano Seikitsi Futema

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de capital e os dividendos são dois dos temas mais estudados em finanças corporativas. Em 2002, Fama e French estudaram esses dois temas simultaneamente dentro do contexto das teorias de tradeoff estática e pecking order. A análise conjunta significa reconhecer que o dividendo afeta a estrutura de capital e vice-versa, o que gera um problema de endogeneidade. Estendendo o estudo de Fama e French e adaptando a análise para a realidade brasileira com a inclusão de mais uma variável dependente, os juros sobre o capital próprio, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações conjuntas da estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio das empresas brasileiras para o período de 1995 a 2004. Em linhas gerais, os resultados confirmam boa parte das previsões das teorias, embora a distribuição de lucros no Brasil ainda seja muito baixa, comparada com a americana. A lucratividade demonstrou ser a variável explicativa de maior peso e influência tanto para a distribuição de lucros como para a alavancagem.Capital structure and dividends have been frequently studied in corporate finance. In 2002, Fama and French simultaneously analyzed these two subjects in the context of tradeoff and pecking order theories. The simultaneous analysis means acknowledging that dividend influences capital structure and vice versa, leading to an endogeneity problem. Extending and adapting Fama and French's study to the Brazilian environment and including yet another dependent variable, i.e. interest on equity, this article aims to analyze the relationship among capital structure, dividends and interest on equity in the context of Brazilian companies. The analysis comprises the period from 1995 to 2004. Results corroborate many of the predictions of tradeoff and pecking order theories, despite the fact that dividend payout in Brazil is low when compared to the United States. Profitability was the most significant variable in

  1. Neuropsychological profile of patients with bipolar depression in remission

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    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine if the patients with bipolar affective disorder, after the depressive phase, would exhibit cognitive impairment in remission. Methods. Twenty three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were matched, on a case-by-case basis, to twenty-one healthy subjects in the control group, for the presence of the symptoms of depression. The patients and the control group were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results. Impairments were found in the patients compared with the control group in tests of verbal learning and memory and in tests of executive function. Verbal learning and memory, as well as executive functions, did not correlate either with the clinical indices of patients, or with the demographic and baseline clinical measures of depression. Conclusion. Impaired verbal learning and memory and executive functions may represent a trait rather than the state variables in bipolar disorder.

  2. Personal semantic memory: insights from neuropsychological research on amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of personal semantic memory, knowledge that is specific and unique to individuals, by reviewing neuropsychological research on stable amnesia secondary to medial temporal lobe damage. The results reveal that personal semantic memory does not depend on a unitary set of cognitive and neural mechanisms. Findings show that autobiographical fact knowledge reflects an experience-near type of personal semantic memory that relies on the medial temporal lobe for retrieval, albeit less so than personal episodic memory. Additional evidence demonstrates that new autobiographical fact learning likely relies on the medial temporal lobe, but the extent to which remains unclear. Other findings show that retrieval of personal traits/roles and new learning of personal traits/roles and thoughts/beliefs are independent of the medial temporal lobe and thus may represent highly conceptual types of personal semantic memory that are stored in the neocortex.

  3. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  4. Dementia with Parkinson's disease: Clinical diagnosis, neuropsychological aspects and treatment

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    Jorge Lorenzo Otero

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia with Parkinson's disease represents a controversial issue in the complex group of alpha-synucleinopathies. The author acknowledges the concept of a "continuum" between Parkinson disease's (PD, Lewy body dementia (LBD, and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD. However, the practicing neurologist needs to identify the phenotypic signs of each dementia. The treatment and prognosis are different in spite of the overlaps between them. The main aim of this review was to characterize the clinical diagnoses of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PDD. Secondarily, the review discussed some epidemiological and neuropsychological issues. Selection of articles was not systematic and reflects the author's opinion, where the main text selected was the recommendations from the Movement Disorder Society Task Force for PDD diagnosis. The Pub Med, OVID, and Proquest data bases were used for the search.

  5. Neuropsychological effects of hostility and pain on emotion perception.

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    Mitchell, Gina A; Harrison, David W

    2010-02-01

    In order to examine the neuropsychological effects of hostility on emotional and pain processing, auditory emotion perception before and after cold pressor pain in high and low hostile men was examined. Additionally, quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was recorded between each experimental manipulation. Results indicated that identification of emotion post cold pressor differed as a function of hostility level and ear. Primary QEEG findings indicated increased left temporal activation after cold pressor exposure and increased reactivity to cold pressor pain in the high hostile group. Low hostile men had a bilateral increase in high beta magnitude at the temporal lobes and a bilateral increase in delta magnitude at the frontal lobes after the cold pressor. Taken together, results from the dichotic listening task and the QEEG suggest decreased cerebral laterality and left hemisphere activation for emotional and pain processing in high hostile men.

  6. Use of neuropsychological testing in idiopathic environmental testing.

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    Bolla, K I

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) report fatigue, headaches, weakness, malaise, decreased attention/concentration, memory loss, disorientation, confusion, and psychological disturbances. These neurobehavioral symptoms may be a sign of possible alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The evaluation of neurobehavioral functioning using standardized testing provides a surrogate measure of integrity of the CNS. However, the interpretation of neuropsychological test results must be made cautiously since this technique is extremely sensitive, but not specific. Abnormal test results could be due to a neurological disorder, a medical disorder, or a neuropsychiatric disorder. Therefore, when evaluating patients who present with symptoms of IEI, abnormal neurobehavioral results should not be attributed routinely to environmental chemical exposure until other causes are systematically ruled out.

  7. Neuropsychological Thoughts, Then and Now: A Tribute to Oscar Marin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Karalyn E

    2015-09-01

    This brief paper, inspired by an invitation to acknowledge and celebrate Oscar Marin's great contributions to cognitive neurology and neuropsychology, reviews the case of a patient, T.P., who had significant deficits of naming, reading, and spelling. I first studied and reported this patient 35 years ago, in 1979, when I was significantly influenced by the work of Oscar Marin and his colleagues. I have recently had the unusual opportunity to do some brief reassessment of T.P.'s current (2015) cognitive abilities, and to reassess the interpretations that I had given to her pattern of impairment in the initial studies. I suggest that advances over the last decade or so-in theorizing about, and connectionist modeling of, reading and spelling disorders-enable a more coherent account of T.P.'s acquired anomia, dyslexia, and dysgraphia, and the relationships among them.

  8. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nardone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS. Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  9. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy

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    Miriam Feliu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Miriam Feliu1,2, Christopher L Edwards1,2,3, Shiv Sudhakar4, Camela McDougald1, Renee Raynor5, Stephanie Johnson6, Goldie Byrd7, Keith Whitfield8, Charles Jonassaint8, Heather Romero1, Lekisha Edwards1, Chante’ Wellington1, LaBarron K Hill9, James Sollers, III9, Patrick E Logue11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; 2Duke Pain and Palliative Care Center; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology; 4Drexel University Medical School; 5Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 6Science Directorate, American Psychological Association; 7Department of Biology, North Carolina A&T State University; 8Department of Psychology, Duke University; 9Department of Psychology, The Ohio State UniversityAbstract: The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R. Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ, and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45 = 9.82, P < 0.0001 (Pre-BDI = 27.9 ± 20.2; post-BDI = 13.5 ± 9.7. Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients’ self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30 = 4.3, p < 0.001] indicated significant decreases for measures of immediate recognition memory (p < 0.005, long-term storage (p < 0.05, delayed prose passage recall (p < 0

  10. Neuropsychological factors related to college ice hockey concussions.

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    Pedersen, Heather A; Ferraro, F Richard; Himle, Michael; Schultz, Caitlin; Poolman, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed data from 74 male collegiate hockey players. Each athlete's season began with a baseline administration of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychology test battery. Fourteen athletes sustained a sport-related head injury and were readministered the test to assess the impact of the injury. A significant decrease in performance (compared to baseline) on immediate and delayed word recall and designs followed the first concussion. Following a second sport-related concussion, the 4 affected athletes showed significant decrease in visual motor speed. Performance improved on 2 response speed measures (Ps life concussions and head injury on late-life consequences, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and more immediate issues such as return-to-play decisions for athletes.

  11. The Marin Lab at the Dawn of Cognitive Neuropsychology.

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    Schwartz, Myrna F

    2015-09-01

    This essay discusses the intellectual developments in psychology, linguistics, and behavioral neurology that shaped Oscar Marin's approach to disorders of high cortical function. As Chief of Neurology at Baltimore City Hospitals in the 1970s, Dr Marin teamed with biopsychologist Eleanor Saffran and the author in seminal studies of acquired language disorders (aphasia) centering on core processes of syntax and semantics, and rejecting premature reductionism. The philosophical and methodological principles that motivated these studies are traced through the author's personal recollections and the published writings of the Marin lab. These principles came to be associated with the cognitive neuropsychology school of research and have important linkages to contemporary work in the neuroscience of aphasia and related cognitive disorders.

  12. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Carissa L; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function-which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry-could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence that self-reflection is (1) measurable with self-report scales and performance-based tests, (2) linked to the activity of a specific neural circuit, and (3) dimensionally related to mental health and various forms of psychopathology.

  13. Neuropsychological profile of parkin mutation carriers with and without Parkinson disease: the CORE-PD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccappolo, Elise; Alcalay, Roy N.; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming-X.; Rakitin, Brian; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D.; Comella, Cynthia L.; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A.; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K.; Tanner, Caroline M.; Mickel, Susan F.; Andrews, Howard F.; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien J.; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Siderowf, Andrew D.; Ross, Barbara M.; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N.; Marder, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Methods EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N=43) and without (N=52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. Results No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and non-carrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD non-carriers and carrier subgroups (i.e. heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Conclusions Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to non-carriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. PMID:21092386

  14. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  15. Neuropsychological correlates of a right unilateral lacunar thalamic infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werf, Y; Weerts, J; Jolles, J; Witter, M; Lindeboom, J; Scheltens, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To report on a patient with a lacunar infarction in the right intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. The role of the thalamic intralaminar nuclei in cognitive function is as yet insufficiently known. The patient described has shown signs of apathy and loss of initiative, in combination with cognitive deficits, which have persisted essentially unaltered up to the present day since an abrupt onset 17 years ago.
METHODS—High resolution MRI was performed to show the extent of the lesion; a combination of published and experimental neuropsychological techniques was administered to show the nature of the cognitive defects; Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was employed to obtain a measure of cortical perfusion.
RESULTS—Brain MRI disclosed an isolated lacunar infarction in the dorsal caudal intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus. Neuropsychological evaluation indicated problems with attention and concentration, executive disturbances, and memory deficits both in the visual and verbal domains. The memory deficits could not be attributed to problems in the early stages of information processing, and are hence regarded as resulting from a failure of retrieval rather than encoding or storage. Brain SPECT disclosed a hypoperfusion of the right frontal cortex.
CONCLUSION—The data indicate that the cognitive profile is the result of a dysfunction of executive functions. This is corroborated by the finding of decreased blood flow in the right frontal cortex, and by evidence from the neuroanatomical literature. Thus the dysexecutive symptoms are thought to be caused by disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the brainstem activating nuclei through the strategic localisation of the right thalamic infarction.

 PMID:9886448

  16. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

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    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  17. Neuropsychological differences between frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sellitto Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory impairment is the main clinical feature in Alzheimer disease (AD, whereas in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD behavioral and language disorders predominate. Objectives: To investigate possible differences between the neuropsychological performance in FTLD and AD. Methods: Fifty-six AD patients (mean age=72.98±7.43; mean schooling=9.62±4.68; 35 women and 21 men, 17 FTLD patients (mean age=67.64±7.93; mean schooling=12.12±4.77; 9 women and 8 men, and 60 controls (mean age=68.90±7.48; mean schooling=10.72±4.74; 42 women and 18 men were submitted to a Dementia Rating Scale (DRS and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation composed of tasks assessing attention, visuoperceptual abilities, constructive abilities, executive functions, memory and language. Results: DRS total score and subscales were not able to differentiate FTLD from AD patients. However, FTLD and AD patients showed statistically significant differences in performance in tests of verbal (Logical Memory, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and visual (Visual Reproduction, recall of the Rey Complex Figure episodic memory, verbal immediate memory (Logical Memory, attention with interference (Trail Making Test - Part B, verbal fluency (semantic and phonemic and concept formation (WCST. Conclusion: Contrary to expectations, only a few tasks executive function tasks (Trail Making Test - Part B, F.A.S. and WCST and two memory tests (verbal and visual episodic memory tests were able to differentiate between FTLD and AD patients.

  18. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masaya [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author).

  19. Neuropsychological and behavioural correlates of CSF biomarkers in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Maertens, Karen; Vloeberghs, Ellen; Aerts, Tony; Somers, Nore; Mariën, Peter; De Deyn, Peter P

    2006-03-01

    To improve clinical, neuropsychological and behavioural characterisation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers beta-amyloid((1-42)) protein (Abeta42), protein tau (tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181) across diagnostic dementia categories, a prospective study was set up. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=201), AD with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (AD+CVD) (n=33), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (n=27), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n=22) and healthy controls (n=148) were included. All patients underwent neuropsychological examination and behavioural assessment by means of a battery of behavioural assessment scales. CSF was obtained by lumbar puncture and levels of Abeta42, tau and P-tau181 were determined with commercially available ELISA kits. Negative correlations between CSF Abeta42 levels and aggressiveness (Spearman: r=-0.223; p=0.002) and positive correlations with age at inclusion (r=0.195; p=0.006), age at onset (r=0.205; p=0.003) and MMSE scores (r=0.198; p=0.005) were found in AD. In AD+CVD, CSF Abeta42 levels were correlated with MMSE (r=0.482; p=0.006), Hierarchic Dementia Scale (r=0.503; p=0.017) and Boston Naming Test (r=0.516; p=0.012) scores. In controls, age was positively correlated with CSF tau (r=0.465; pbiomarker levels were obtained in healthy controls compared to AD patients, indicating that AD-induced pathophysiological processes change age-dependent regulation of CSF biomarker levels.

  20. Neuropsychological profile in a large group of heart transplant candidates.

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    Daniela Mapelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. METHODS: 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. RESULTS: Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%. Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence.

  1. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

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    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  2. Neuropsychological effects of self-reported deployment-related mild TBI and current PTSD in OIF/OEF veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Edmundson, Maryanne; Graue, Lili O; Roach, Abbey; High, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Current combat veterans are exposed to many incidents that may result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While there is literature on the neuropsychological consequences of PTSD only (PTSD-o) and mTBI alone (mTBI-o), less has been done to explore their combined (mTBI+PTSD) effect. The goal of this study was to determine whether Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans with mTBI+PTSD have poorer cognitive and psychological outcomes than veterans with PTSD-o, mTBI-o, or combat exposure-only. The final sample included 20 OIF/OEF veterans with histories of self-reported deployment mTBI (mTBI-o), 19 with current PTSD (PTSD-o), 21 with PTSD and self-reported mTBI (mTBI+PTSD), and 21 combat controls (CC) (no PTSD and no reported mTBI). Groups were formed using structured interviews for mTBI and PTSD. All participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, including neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning tests. Results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in performance in the mTBI+PTSD and PTSD-o groups relative to mTBI-o and CC. Consistent with previous PTSD literature, significant differences were found on executive (switching) tasks, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. Effect sizes tended to be large in both groups with PTSD. Thus, PTSD seems to be an important variable affecting neuropsychological profiles in the post-deployment time period. Consistent with literature on civilian mTBI, the current study did not find evidence that combat-related mTBI in and of itself contributes to objective cognitive impairment in the late stage of injury.

  3. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  4. Composition, structure and floristic diversity in dense rain forest in the Eastern Amazon, Amapá, Brazil

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    Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytosociology and floristic composition of tree species in the eastern Amazon, at the Iratapuru River Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS, State of Amapá. Fouteen quarters with dimensions of 100 m x 100 m were randomly inventoried, and 50 sub-plots of 10 m x 20 m were established. In each sub-plot all living individuals were sampled, being taken from the height data and DAP (breast height diameter for tree species ≥ 10 cm. A total of 5,233 individuals belonging to 33 families and 184 species were registered. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (32, Lauraceae (17, Sapotaceae (12, Moraceae (10, Lecythidaceae (8 and Annonaceae (8. The six most abundant families (18.18% of total families in the present study were responsible for more than half (57.92% of the total number of species. The floristic structure of the area studied was diverse, with species of varied interests, including: medicinal, timber and oil-producing.

  5. The Term Structure of Interest Rates and its Impact on the Liability Adequacy Test for Insurance Companies in Brazil

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    Antonio Aurelio Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian regulation for applying the Liability Adequacy Test (LAT to technical provisions in insurance companies requires that the current estimate is discounted by a term structure of interest rates (hereafter TSIR. This article aims to analyze the LAT results, derived from the use of various models to build the TSIR: the cubic spline interpolation technique, Svensson's model (adopted by the regulator and Vasicek's model. In order to achieve the objective proposed, the exchange rates of BM&FBOVESPA trading days were used to model the ETTJ and, consequently, to discount the cash flow of the insurance company. The results indicate that: (i LAT is sensitive to the choice of the model used to build the TSIR; (ii this sensitivity increases with cash flow longevity; (iii the adoption of an ultimate forward rate (UFR for the Brazilian insurance market should be evaluated by the regulator, in order to stabilize the trajectory of the yield curve at longer maturities. The technical provision is among the main solvency items of insurance companies and the LAT result is a significant indicator of the quality of this provision, as this evaluates its sufficiency or insufficiency. Thus, this article bridges a gap in the Brazilian actuarial literature, introducing the main methodologies available for modeling the yield curve and a practical application to analyze the impact of its choice on LAT.

  6. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF PALMS (ARECACEAE IN A FOREST FRAGMENT OF LOWLAND DENSE HUMID FOREST IN SOUTH BRAZIL

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    Laura Cappelatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Dense Humid Forest is reduced to less than 5% of its original cover. However, it still has the highest richness of palms in this state, which constitute an important and economically relevant group. Environmental and demographic aspects of plant populations in forest fragments are of great importance for their management and conservation. We conducted a study on the spatial distribution and age structure of five palm species in a forest fragment at the municipality of Três Cachoeiras, in the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul. We delimited 25 10×10 m plots and counted the number of individuals in the stages of seedling, juvenile and adult for each palm species. Aggregation Indices were calculated with software SADIEShell. We performed variation partitioning analyses among species distribution and environmental variables canopy openness and soil moisture. A total of 1,443 plants were counted and the most abundant species was Euterpe edulis. The average density was of 57.72 ind. 100 m-2. Three species showed a pattern of “inverse J”, which indicated that they have a potential for regenerating in that palm community. The predominant spatial pattern was aggregated (Ia>1 and canopy openness did not influence species abundances. Only the distribution of Bactris setosa and Geonoma gamiova, both understory species, was explained by soil moisture, suggesting that other abiotic or biotic factors may be influencing the spatial arrangement of the canopy species.

  7. Energy Structures as Determinants of Response to Climate Change. Case Studies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Javier; Bergesen, Helge Ole [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This report analyses whether a `low carbon emissions` alternative exists for the expansion and modernization of the energy sector in less developed countries (LDCs). The authors are convinced that energy development and hence carbon emissions in LDCs will be strongly driven by the energy structures and policies that are already in place. Options for future carbon emissions must be assessed based on analyses of the underlying pattern of economic and political interests that shape the energy sector that produces the emissions. The countries studied account for more than 1/3 of the total emissions outside OECD. In all these countries the energy sector was organized decades ago to promote industrialization and welfare with little environmental concern. The energy utilities are under financed for their tasks, having excessive personnel, cumbersome administration and budgets in deficit. Increased supply capacity has been given priority over energy efficiency and the projected increase of CO{sub 2} emission is enormous. Strong urbanization has caused major health problems. Vehicle transportation and power generation are major sources of air pollution. Most countries with emerging economies have comprehensive environmental rules for the energy sector, but standards seldom go beyond well-established practices. The development of regulations that promote a sustainable energy industry must take place in stages. First, raise the efficiency standard of the traditional energy industries and make new owners of energy companies take environmental responsibility. Then revise the regulatory framework to promote the development of sustainable energy at the municipal level. 81 refs., 15 figs., 63 tabs.

  8. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBTIDAL MACROALGAL ASSEMBLAGES AT THE TAMOIOS ECOLOGICAL STATION, A THREATENED CONSERVATION UNIT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Victor de Souza Koutsoukos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of subtidal rocky bottom communities at Tamoios Ecological Station (TES, situated in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, as well as in other Brazilian marine protected areas, is insufficiently characterized. The present study describes the macroalgal assemblages of shallow subtidal rocky bottoms on two islands of the TES-Imboassica (IM and Búzios Pequena (BPadopting species and genera as observational units. Two sites were surveyed on each island in summer 2011. Random 30x30 cm quadrats (n=3 were scraped to collect all macroalgae except crustose species. The subtidal assemblages, in which 58 macroalgal species occurred, were characterized by the high frequency and percent cover of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh (56.8±8.4%. The sites differed significantly in total number of species and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (PERMANOVA, p5% were Sargassum, Laurencia, Wrangelia, Canistrocarpus, Asparagopsis, Hypnea, Ceratodictyon, Gayliella, Spyridia and Chondria.Dissimilarities within and between the islands, as shown by nMDS of the cover data, suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in monitoring the rocky bottom communities of Ilha Grande Bay.

  9. Population structure and reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira, 2000 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in the rio Ibicuí, Brazil

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    Éverton Luís Zardo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze population structure (spatial distribution, seasonal distribution and distribution by length classes, sex ratio and length-weight relationship and aspects of the reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus. Fish were sampled bimonthly using gillnets and trammel nets in lentic and lotic environments in the rio Ibicuí, between the years 2000 and 2001. Were collected 410 specimens: 230 females, 164 males and 16 specimens whose sex could not be determined. A greater number of specimens were collected in October/November and December/January and in lentic environments. The greater length classes had a higher amount of females (p < 0.05 and the sex ratio in all sampling periods was 1.38 females per male. Both males and females showed positive allometric growth (b = 3.299 and b =3.487, respectively. The highest values for gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonadal condition factor (K were observed from August/September and peaked in October/November, just like the highest frequencies of females at maturity stage C (mature, which is indicative that the breeding season occurs at this time.

  10. Structure of the littoral fish assemblage in an impounded tributary: the effects of macrophytes presence (subtropical region, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Silva, S; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of macrophytes presence in the structure of littoral fish assemblages in the littoral zone, monthly samples were collected from September, 2006 to August, 2007 in an impounded tributary of the Itá Reservoir, the Fragosos River, located in the Upper Uruguay River Basin. Fish were collected using a beach seine and sampling was conducted in the littoral zone inside a macrophyte stand and in an area with no macrophytes. A total of 5,191 fish were captured during the study period. Fish assemblage attributes (fish abundance, species richness, and diversity) varied significantly between sampling months and areas. The abundance of Astyanax cf. bimaculatus, Astyanax fasciatus, Geophagus brasiliensis, and Gymnotus carapo also varied significantly between sampling months and areas. Detrended Correspondence Analysis showed a clear spatial segregation at the first axis and a slight temporal segregation at the second axis. These results were confirmed by Multiple Response Permutation Procedure analysis. Apparently, the presence of the aquatic macrophytes is not the only factor influencing the distribution of littoral fish assemblages in the Fragosos River. Littoral fish seem to be taking advantage of low- to medium-sized macrophyte stands, but few species used maximum-sized stands.

  11. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

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    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  12. Response to Bodin and Grote regarding postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron; Bilder, Robert M; O'Connor, Margaret; Brandt, Jason; Weintraub, Sandra; Bauer, Russell M

    2016-07-01

    Bodin and Grote convey their opinion that the field of clinical neuropsychology would be best served by a match system for recruitment into postdoctoral training. We critically review their arguments and offer an alternative point of view. Our view considers the current state of the match system in neuropsychology, incorporates comparisons with other disciplines that rely on a match system, and addresses the role of postdoctoral training and the specialization that takes shape at this level. We make recommendations aimed at promoting greater unity among postdoctoral training programs with the goal of focusing leadership efforts on advancing our shared mission of providing the highest quality training in clinical neuropsychology.

  13. Cognitive and neuropsychological characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children receiving stimulant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, M G; Bowers, T G

    1993-12-01

    10 children receiving stimulant medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder were compared to normal children on cognitive and neuropsychological dimensions in a pilot study. When compared with 10 normal children the ADHD children showed significant differences on cognitive measures, including the Wechsler Developmental Index, the Bender Visual-motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Revised Visual Retention Test. Elevated levels of polyspike EEG activity were also noted for these children. Analysis suggested that ADHD children receiving stimulant medications may have persisting neuropsychological difficulty. Further research on the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD seems warranted.

  14. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  15. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  16. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

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    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  17. Complex complementizers and the structural relation with weak T. New (morpho)syntactic data from a Pomeranian language island in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I discuss three properties of Brazilian Pomeranian, a Germanic language spoken in Espirito Santo, Brazil by descendents who emigrated in the 19th century. These three aspects of the verbal system are: 1. The relation between complex complementizers, a two-infinitive system, and split i

  18. Case illustration of a boy with nonverbal learning disorder and Asperger's features: neuropsychological and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalof, Jed

    2006-08-01

    I present a case study of a latency-age boy referred for assessment of a nonverbal learning disability/disorder (NLD) who also had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS). I review NLD terminology, presumed brain-behavior relationship, neuropsychological profile, and diagnosis/classification issues. I discuss the challenge of differentiating NLD from AS in relation to the client's pattern of visual-spatial, communication, social-emotional, and behavioral NLD correlates. I integrate neuropsychological and personality assessment data with interviews, observations, prior testing, and input from teacher and therapist in formulating a diagnostic impression. I discuss Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and neuropsychological consultations in relation to subtle language and interpersonal features of the client's communication style. I provide parent feedback at 18 and 24 months posttesting. I discuss implications relative to a model of school neuropsychological assessment that includes the Rorschach test.

  19. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; Barron, Daniel; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug "ecstasy," or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA-). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35-365] days of abstinence. There were no significant group differences in neuropsychological performance, with the exception of the motor speed/dexterity domain in which 43% of MDMA+ were impaired compared with 5% of MDMA- participants (p = .004). Motor impairment differences were not explained by use of other substances and were unrelated to length of abstinence or lifetime number of MDMA doses. Findings provide limited evidence for neuropsychological differences between MDMA+ and MDMA- participants with the exception of motor impairments observed in the MDMA+ group. However, replication of this finding in a larger sample is warranted.

  20. Education Quality, Reading Recognition, and Racial Differences in the Neuropsychological Outcome from Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Noah D.; Hanks, Robin A.; Tompkins, Season C.

    2013-01-01

    Ethnically diverse examinees tend to perform lower on neuropsychological tests. The practice of adjusting normative comparisons for the education level and/or race to prevent overpathologizing low scores is problematic. Education quality, as measured by reading recognition, appears to be a more accurate benchmark for premorbid functioning in certain populations. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that a measure of reading recognition, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), would account for racial differences in neuropsychological performance after TBI. Fifty participants (72% African American, 28% Caucasian) with moderate to severe TBI underwent neuropsychological testing at 1-year post-injury. Reading recognition accounted for all the same variance in neuropsychological performance as race and education (together), as well as considerable additional variance. Estimation of premorbid functioning in African Americans with TBI could be refined by considering reading recognition. PMID:23858087

  1. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in major depressive disorder: A clinical trial to evaluate neuropsychological deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel Herrera-Guzmán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Various clinical aspects of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD are related to the neuropsychological impairments characteristic of this illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between certain clinical variables of MDD - in particular the presence of comorbid anxiety disorders - and the neuropsychological performance of patients with MDD selected for a clinical trial. Methods: Using cluster analyses, we generated two groups of patients: one group with Major Depressive Disorder and a Comorbid Anxiety Disorder (MDDAD, and the other with Pure Major Depressive Disorder (PMDD. Both groups were assessed clinically and neuropsychologically before and after 24 weeks of pharmacological treatment. Neuropsychological performance prior to treatment was comparable in the two groups. Results: After treatment, both groups showed cognitive improvement in attention tasks, memory, and executive functions Conclusions: The PMDD group obtained greater neurocognitive benefits from the antidepressive treatment than the MDDAD group.

  2. Education quality, reading recognition, and racial differences in the neuropsychological outcome from traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Noah D; Hanks, Robin A; Tompkins, Season C

    2013-08-01

    Ethnically diverse examinees tend to perform lower on neuropsychological tests. The practice of adjusting normative comparisons for the education level and/or race to prevent overpathologizing low scores is problematic. Education quality, as measured by reading recognition, appears to be a more accurate benchmark for premorbid functioning in certain populations. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that a measure of reading recognition, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), would account for racial differences in neuropsychological performance after TBI. Fifty participants (72% African American, 28% Caucasian) with moderate to severe TBI underwent neuropsychological testing at 1-year post-injury. Reading recognition accounted for all the same variance in neuropsychological performance as race and education (together), as well as considerable additional variance. Estimation of premorbid functioning in African Americans with TBI could be refined by considering reading recognition.

  3. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  4. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  5. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, J.C.; Onnink, A.M.H.; Klein, M.; Dammers, J.; Harneit, A.; Schulten, T.; Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Kan, C.C.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.; Franke, B.; Hoogman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsycholog

  6. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  7. The use of psychometrists in clinical neuropsychology: history, current status, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Erickson, Tom; Puente, Antonio E; Pliskin, Neil; Rock, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the National Academy of Neuropsychology and other professional neuropsychological organizations have published a number of articles and position papers regarding the use, education, and training of psychometrists ("technicians"). Although these documents provide guidelines for the suggested qualifications and training procedures of psychometrists, none make any mention of the need for a standardized credentialing process, which is commonly required of technicians in similar fields, especially in medical settings. Given the recent changes in current procedural Terminology codes used to bill for neuropsychological services and the interpretation of legislation disallowing the use of psychometrists in New York, the need for a standard credential for psychometrists is apparent. This article will review the history and current use of psychometrists in clinical neuropsychology and highlight the need and rationale for the credentialing of psychometrists.

  8. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  9. Neuropsychological rehabilitation and quality of life: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Guàrdia-Olmos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation procedures on the quality of life in non-Spanish-speaking individuals with some cognitive deficit. Sixteen studies published during the 2001–2012 period which yielded relevant information regarding the sample sizes used, the types of statistical contrasts, the evaluation instruments or pathologies among others, were analyzed. We carried out study following the usual estimation procedures, based on the definition of the effect size and the scrutiny of their relationship with relevant variables (e.g., sample sizes, type of population, or methodological variables (e.g., type of research or sampling design. The data analysis shows a statistically significant effect (r+ = .38; p < .001 in all the variables associated with the characteristics of the intervention (duration, type of intervention, gender, year of publication and, more importantly, quality of life and neuropsychological outcomes. As a general conclusion, we were able to determine that Quality of Life (QoL can improve, under certain conditions, through neuropsychological rehabilitation, but this change is not permanent. El propósito de este estudio fue generar un meta-análisis sobre los efectos de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica en la dimensión Calidad de Vida en muestras de no hispano-hablantes, con algún déficit cognitivo. Se analizaron dieciséis estudios publicados durante el período 2001 - 2012, que mostraron información relevante con respecto a los tamaños de muestra utilizados, los tipos de contrastes estadísticos, los instrumentos de evaluación o diagnóstico, entre otros. Se realizó el estudio siguiendo los procedimientos de estimación habituales, sobre la base de la definición del tamaño del efecto y el análisis de su relación con las variables relevantes (tamaños de muestra, tipo de población, etc., o variables metodológicas (tipo de investigaci

  10. A comparative profile analysis of neuropsychological function in men and women with schizotypal personality disorder☆

    OpenAIRE

    Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive profiles of men and women with clinically defined schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). We examined the neuropsychological profile of SPD in 26 right-handed females and 31 right-handed males who met DSM-IV criteria for SPD, and matched comparison subjects. Cognitive performance was assessed on measures of abstraction, verbal and spatial intelligence, learning and memory, language, attention, and motor skills. Neuropsychological profiles...

  11. Side‐of‐onset of Parkinson's disease in relation to neuropsychological measures

    OpenAIRE

    Modestino, Edward J.; Amenechi, Chioma; Reinhofer, AnnaMarie; O'Toole, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side‐of‐onset (left‐onset: LOPD; right‐onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain, 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e.g., Verreyt et al., Neuropsychology Review, 21, 2011, 405). Methods Thirty ROPD and 14 LOPD c...

  12. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  13. Association between neuropsychological factors, cognitive processes and reading levels in children of different socioeconomic status Callao

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Gabriel, Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This research sought to contribute to the knowledge of the possible association between neuropsychological factors, cognitive processes and reading processes in children from two socioeconomic levels in Callao, Peru. We used a descriptive correlational design examining 60 children from private and public schools from medium/high socio-economic level (B) and low (E), with the child neuropsychological test Solovieva Quintanar, the WISC-IV (Wechsler intelligence test ) and reading Achievement Te...

  14. Depressive Symptom Clusters and Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Alzheimer's and Cognitively Normal Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hall; Sid E O'Bryant; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls) from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item...

  15. Neuropsychology and brain morphology in Klinefelter syndrome - the impact of genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Skakkebæk; Bojesen, A; Kristensen, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity and cognitive disabilities, although the neuropsychological phenotype shows great variability. Androgen receptor polymorphism (CAG repeat length), skewed X-chromosome inactivation and parent-of-origin of the extra......-inactivation, CAG repeat length and parent-of-origin have no impact on the neuropsychological phenotype in KS (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (Clinical trial NCT00999310))....

  16. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz

    2005-01-01

    was recorded. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 (90%) of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. After adjustment for confounders, breastfeeding was associated with only marginally better neuropsychological performance on most tests. These associations were robust even after adjustment...... published studies though not associated with a deficit in neuropsychological performance at age 7. Although the advantage may be less, Faroese women can still safely breastfeed their children....

  17. An assessment of the Brazil Current baroclinic structure and variability near 22° S in Distinct Ocean Forecasting and Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mateus O.; Cirano, Mauro; Mata, Mauricio M.; Goes, Marlos; Goni, Gustavo; Baringer, Molly

    2016-07-01

    The Brazil Current (BC) is the Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, the dominant dynamic feature in the South Atlantic Ocean. The importance of this current lies in that it is the main conduit of subtropical waters to higher latitudes in the South Atlantic Ocean. This study assesses the structure and variability of the BC across the nominal latitude of 22° S using data from the high-density eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) AX97 transect and from three numerical ocean models with data assimilation. This XBT transect was implemented in 2004 and represents one of the longer-term monitoring systems of the BC in existence. The goal of this work is to enhance the understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of the ocean dynamics in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean by using a suite of hydrographic observations and numerical model outputs. In the present work, 37 XBT transect realizations using data collected between 2004 and 2012 are used. Daily outputs covering the same time period are evaluated from Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (HYCOM-NCODA) with a 1/12° horizontal resolution, and GLORYS2V3 and FOAM, both with a 1/4° horizontal resolution. These Ocean Forecasting and Analysis Systems (OFAS) are able to capture the mean observed features in the 22° S region, showing a BC core confined to the west of 39° W and an Intermediate Western Boundary Current between the depths of 200 and 800 m. However, the OFAS tend to overestimate the mean BC baroclinic volume transport across the AX97 reference transect and underestimate its variability. The OFAS show that the coastal region between the coastline and the western edge of the AX97 transect plays an important role in the mean BC total transport, contributing to up to 23 % of its value, and further that this transport is not sampled by the XBT observations with its current sampling strategy. In order to understand the variability of the

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of some neuropsychological markers of Alzheimer dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, G; Marra, C; Villa, G; Parlato, V; Chiarotti, F

    1998-09-01

    A standardized neuropsychological test battery was administered to 167 patients with different forms of mild-to-moderate dementia: probable Alzheimer dementia (AD: n = 49), multi-infarct dementia (n = 43), idiopathic Parkinson disease with dementia (n = 35), depressive pseudodementia (n = 26), and progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 14). Results obtained were used (a) to analyze the profiles of cognitive impairment shown by the different dementia groups; (b) to assess the incidence of some neuropsychological patterns that we hypothesized to be more characteristic of AD, in the various groups; and hence (c) to evaluate the reliability of these patterns as diagnostic markers of AD. Four of the patterns investigated were derived from a verbal learning task (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning test): (1) absence of the primacy effect; (2) tendency to produce intrusion errors during free recall of a word list; (3) absolute decay of memory trace; and (4) tendency to produce false alarms during delayed recognition of the same word list. Two additional patterns were derived from visual-spatial tasks (copying drawings and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices): (5) occurrence of the closing-in phenomenon in copying drawings; and (6) tendency to choose globalistic or odd responses in Raven's matrices. Though all the six patterns were somewhat useful for identifying AD patients, no pattern met the criteria of being both highly sensitive and highly specific, which should characterize an ideal marker. In fact, intrusions and false alarms were observed in many AD patients, but also in patients affected by other forms of dementia. The absence of the primacy effect, the closing-in phenomenon, and the absolute decay of memory trace were more specific, but could be observed in only one-third of AD patients. We also computed the number of positive patterns shown by each patient and assumed the presence of two or more patterns as a global index suggestive of a dementia of the Alzheimer

  19. Lessons from cognitive neuropsychology for cognitive science: a reply to Patterson and Plaut (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, Max

    2010-01-01

    A recent article in this journal (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has told us very little over the past 30 or 40 years about "how the brain accomplishes its cognitive business." This may well be true, but it is not important, because the principal aim of cognitive neuropsychology is not to learn about the brain. Its principal aim is instead to learn about the mind, that is, to elucidate the functional architecture of cognition. I show that this is so (a) via extensive quotations from leading figures in this field and (b) by analysis of the subject matter of articles in the leading journal in the field, Cognitive Neuropsychology. Recent reviews of the past 25 years of work in this field (Coltheart & Caramazza, 2006) have concluded that cognitive neuropsychology has told us much about the functional architecture of cognition in a variety of cognitive domains. Patterson and Plaut (2009) did not consider this aim of cognitive neuropsychology. Therefore, their conclusions that cognitive neuropsychology has not been successful, and that this is because the particular methods it uses are flawed, are not justified.

  20. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia: Validity evidence and norms for adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA is a battery of tests that assesses six music processing components: scale, contour, interval, rhythm, metric, and music memory. The present study sought to verify the psychometric characteristics of the MBEA in a sample of 150 adolescents aged 14-18 years in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to develop specific norms for this population. We used statistical procedures that explored the dimensional structure of the MBEA and its items, evaluating their adequacy from empirical data, verifying their reliability, and providing evidence of validity. The results for the difficult levels for each test indicated a trend toward higher scores, corroborating previous studies. From the analysis of the criterion groups, almost all of the items were considered discriminatory. The global score of the MBEA was shown to be valid and reliable (r K-R20=0.896 for assessing the musical ability of normal teenagers. Based on the analysis of the items, we proposed a short version of the MBEA. Further studies with larger samples and amusic individuals are necessary to provide evidence of the validity of the MBEA in the Brazilian milieu. The present study brings to the Brazilian context a tool for diagnosing deficits in musical skills and will serve as a basis for comparisons with single case studies and studies of populations with specific neuropsychological syndromes.

  1. Neuropsychological evidence for the functional role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Wei, Tao; Ellmore, Timothy M; Hamilton, A Cris; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2013-04-01

    Understanding a word requires mapping sounds to a word-form and then identifying its correct meaning, which in some cases necessitates the recruitment of cognitive control processes to direct the activation of semantic knowledge in a task appropriate manner (i.e., semantic control). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies identify a fronto-temporal network important for word comprehension. However, little is known about the connectional architecture subserving controlled retrieval and selection of semantic knowledge during word comprehension. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in aphasic individuals with varying degrees of word comprehension deficits to examine the role of three white matter pathways within this network: the uncinate fasciculus (UF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). Neuroimaging data from a group of age-matched controls were also collected in order to establish that the patient group had decreased structural and functional connectivity profiles. We obtained behavioral data from aphasic participants on two measures of single word comprehension that involve semantic control, and assessed pathway functional significance by correlating patients' performance with indices of pathway structural integrity and the functional connectivity profiles of regions they connect. Both the structural integrity of the UF and the functional connectivity strength of regions it connects predicted patients' performance. This result suggests the semantic control impairment in word comprehension resulted from poor neural communication between regions the UF connects. Inspections of other subcortical and cortical structures revealed no relationship with patients' performance. We conclude that the UF mediates semantic control during word comprehension by connecting regions specialized for cognitive control with those storing word meanings. These

  2. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure.

  3. The implications of brain connectivity in the neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximo, Jose O; Cadena, Elyse J; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has been associated with atypical brain functioning. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) studies examining neural networks in autism have seen an exponential rise over the last decade. Such investigations have led to the characterization of autism as a distributed neural systems disorder. Studies have found widespread cortical underconnectivity, local overconnectivity, and mixed results suggesting disrupted brain connectivity as a potential neural signature of autism. In this review, we summarize the findings of previous fcMRI studies in autism with a detailed examination of their methodology, in order to better understand its potential and to delineate the pitfalls. We also address how a multimodal neuroimaging approach (incorporating different measures of brain connectivity) may help characterize the complex neurobiology of autism at a global level. Finally, we also address the potential of neuroimaging-based markers in assisting neuropsychological assessment of autism. The quest for a neural marker for autism is still ongoing, yet new findings suggest that aberrant brain connectivity may be a promising candidate.

  4. Misconceptions on neuropsychological rehabilitation and traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García- Molina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries, their recovery and outcome; misconceptions that have their origin in a lack of information influenced by the image that the media show of the brain damage. Development. Based on clinical experience, the authors of this essay sets out his personal view on some of the most frequent misconceptions in the field of neuropsychological rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury: 1 All deficits are evident; 2 The recovery depends mainly on the involvement of the patient: more effort, more rapid recovery; 3 Two years after traumatic brain injury there is no possibility of improvement and recovery; and 4 The “miracle” of recovery will occur when is found the appropriate professional or treatment. These and other beliefs may influence directly or indirectly on the recovery process and the expectations placed on it by the families and patients. Conclusions. Provide accurate, clear and honest information, at the right time, helps patients and their families to better understand the deficits, the course of recovery and to adapt to the new reality resulting from a traumatic brain injury.

  5. Neurological implications and neuropsychological considerations on folk music and dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Vittorio A; Riva, Michele A

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of folk music and traditional dance have been poorly investigated by historical and scientific literature. Some of these performances could be indeed the manifestation of latent pathological conditions or the expression of liberation rituals. This chapter aimed at analyzing the relationships between traditional dance, folk music, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Since ancient times, dance has been used in the individual or collective as treatment of some diseases, including epilepsy and movement disorders (dyskinesia, chorea, etc.). Dionysia in Ancient Greece, St. Vitus dance in the Middle Age, tarantism and other traditional dances of southern Italy and of non-Western countries might be credited as curative rituals of these neurological and psychiatric conditions. During the nineteenth century, dance was also used for the treatment of psychiatric patients; the relationship between dance and insanity could also be reflected in classical ballets and music of that period. Nowadays, neuropsychiatric manifestations could also be evidenced in modern dances (mass fainting at rock concerts, flash mobs); some ballroom dances are commonly used for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Interdisciplinary research on these subjects (ethnomusicology and cultural anthropology, clinical neurology and dynamic psychology, neuroradiology and neurophysiology, and socioneurology and neuromusicology) should be increased.

  6. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  7. Neuropsychological alterations in hepatitis C infection: The role of inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Senzolo; Sami Schiff; Cristina Maria D'Aloiso; Chiara Crivellin; Evangelos Cholongitas; Patrizia Burra; Sara Montagnese

    2011-01-01

    About 50% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection complain of neuropsychiatric symptoms, "brain fog", weakness, fatigue, and exhibit some degree of quality of life impairment, irrespective of the severity of liver disease. Since the first observation of HCV-related cognitive deficits, 10 studies have been published that have evaluated neuropsychiatric performance in patients with HCV infection and different degrees of hepatic impairment.Unfortunately, these have often included patients with cirrhosis, patients who had acquired the infection through previous intravenous drug misuse, who had a history of relatively recent treatment with interferon, or were on psychoactive medication.In addition, different neuropsychological batteries and tests that explored different cognitive domains were used, which makes the results of the studies difficult to compare.Finally, limited information is available on the pathogenesis of HCV-related cognitive impairment.Cerebral and/or systemic inflammation may be important players but their potential role has not been substantiated by experimental data.The present review outlines the available evidence of the presence of cognitive impairment in patients with HCV infection, with a focus on the potential relationship with cerebral and/or systemic inflammation.

  8. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  9. DSM Nosology Changes in Neuropsychological Diagnoses through the Years: A Look at ADHD and Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlew, Anne R.; Zartman, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of modern neuropsychology as a field and the concomitant changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Themes in neuropsychology through the years will be highlighted alongside discussion of how neuropsychologists and neuropsychological research have influenced and have been influenced by the DSM. The DSM 5 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mild neurocognitive disorder will be used as examples to reflect the evolution of the disorders in relation to neuropsychology and the DSM. In particular, recent criticism and research regarding the nosology of both disorders and future directions will be presented in the context of neuropsychology and DSM. Finally, influence regarding changes to the DSM 5 on neuropsychology in clinical decision making, test selection, and diagnosis will be discussed. PMID:28036066

  10. Estrutura populacional de capivaras na Estação Ecológica do Taim, Brasil, RS Capybaras population structure in the Taim Ecological Station, Brazil, RS

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    Felipe Maia Garcias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Uma população de capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris foi monitorada na região limítrofe entre a Estação Ecológica do Taim e áreas de cultivo de arroz no extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O objetivo foi caracterizar a estrutura populacional, a densidade e os períodos reprodutivos da capivara na Estação Ecológica do Taim, RS, e em seu entorno. De agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2005, foram realizados 25 censos de contagem direta, em um transecto de 4.000 metros de comprimento, às margens da Lagoa Mangueira. Foi obtida a abundância de animais segundo seu sexo e classe etária. A abundância foi de 608,6±27,9 indivíduos e a densidade média foi de 5,1±0,2ind. ha-1. Houve variação no número de animais do primeiro para o segundo ano de amostragem, sendo significativamente maior no último. Foram identificados, em média, 22,0±0,8 grupos na área, constituídos predominantemente de fêmeas adultas (47,5%, seguidas de juvenis (24,8%, filhotes (17% e machos adultos (7,7%. A abundância de animais variou segundo a distribuição espacial, sendo maior no interior da Estação Ecológica do Taim (9,5ind. ha-1. Houve flutuações sazonais no recrutamento da população, tendo suas maiores densidades de filhotes no outono.A capybara population (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris was monitored in a borderline region between Taim Ecological Station and southernmost areas of rice cultivation located in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure, density, and reproductive periods of this population. A total of 25 censuses, obtained through direct count technique, were performed from August 2003 to August 2005. The samplings were performed in a 4000-meter length transect on the margins of Mangueira lagoon. The abundance was obtained considering the sex and age class of the animals. The abundance registered was of 608.6±27.9 individuals, and the average density was 5.1±0.2ind. ha-1. A

  11. Dissociating prefrontal circuitry in intelligence and memory: neuropsychological correlates of magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Paul G; Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Bouix, Sylvain; Hosokawa, Taiga; Saito, Yukiko; Newell, Dominick T; Kubicki, Marek

    2015-12-01

    We examined intelligence and memory in 25 healthy participants who had both prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of gray matter volumes of medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), along with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of posterior and anterior mOFC-rACC white matter microstructure, as assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed distinct relationships between these basic structural brain parameters and higher cognition, highlighted by a highly significant correlation of left rACC gray matter volume with memory, and to a lesser extent, though still statistically significant, correlation of left posterior mOFC-rACC FA with intelligence. Regression analyses showed that left posterior mOFC-rACC connections and left rACC gray matter volume each contributed to intelligence, with left posterior mOFC-rACC FA uniquely accounting for between 20.43 and 24.99% of the variance in intelligence, in comparison to 13.54 to 17.98% uniquely explained by left rACC gray matter volume. For memory, only left rACC gray matter volume explained neuropsychological performance, uniquely accounting for a remarkably high portion of individual variation, ranging from 73.61 to 79.21%. These results pointed to differential contributions of white mater microstructure connections and gray matter volumes to individual differences in intelligence and memory, respectively.

  12. Neuroanatomical correlates of Klinefelter syndrome studied in relation to the neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebæk, Anne; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Bojesen, Anders; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Fedder, Jens; Laurberg, Peter; Hertz, Jens Michael; Ostergaard, John Rosendahl; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging in Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) (KS), a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome, may contribute to understanding the relationship between gene expression, brain structure, and subsequent cognitive disabilities and psychiatric disorders. We conducted the largest to date voxel-based morphometry study of 65 KS subjects and 65 controls matched for age and education and correlated these data to neuropsychological test scores. The KS patients had significantly smaller total brain volume (TBV), total gray matter volume (GMV) and total white matter volume (WMV) compared to controls, whereas no volumetric difference in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was found. There were no differences in TBV, GMV, WMV or CSF between testosterone treated KS (T-KS) and untreated KS (U-KS) patients. Compared to controls, KS patients had significantly decreased GMV bilaterally in insula, putamen, caudate, hippocampus, amygdala, temporal pole and frontal inferior orbita. Additionally, the right parahippocampal region and cerebellar volumes were reduced in KS patients. KS patients had significantly larger volumes in right postcentral gyrus, precuneus and parietal regions. Multivariate classification analysis discriminated KS patients from controls with 96.9% (p < 0.001) accuracy. Regression analyses, however, revealed no significant association between GMV differences and cognitive and psychological factors within the KS patients and controls or the groups combined. These results show that although gene dosage effect of having and extra X-chromosome may lead to large scale alterations of brain morphometry and extended cognitive disabilities no simple correspondence links these measures.

  13. Factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Hispanics (NeSBHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontón, M O; Gonzalez, J J; Hernandez, I; Herrera, L; Higareda, I

    2000-01-01

    The Neuropsychological Screening Battery for Hispanics (NeSBHIS; Pontón et al., 1996) was developed to provide clinicians and researchers with appropriate tests and norms to assess the Latino population. However, the construct validity of the NeSBHIS is unclear, and its clinical utility is untested. This study provides data on the construct validity of this battery via factor analytic methodology. Five factors were identified: (a) a language factor, which included the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Pontón-Satz Boston Naming Test, and the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA; Wechsler, Green, & Martinez, 1968) Digit Span; (b) a verbal learning factor, which included all the World Health Organization--University of California, Los Angeles Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores (Trials V, VII, and VIII); (c) an attentional-mental control factor, which included the EIWA Digit Symbol, Color Trails 1 and 2, and the EIWA Block Design; (d) a visuospatial factor, made up of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test Copy and Memory and the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices total score; and (e) a psychomotor factor, the Pin Test. This was a stable factor structure, suggesting that the NeSBHIS has a robust construct validity.

  14. The mind of the mnemonists: an MEG and neuropsychological study of autistic memory savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M; Braun, Christoph; Löw, Andreas; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-12-20

    About 10% of autistic individuals exhibit some form of islets of abilities in the face of serious intellectual or mental disability ("savant syndrome"). The aim of this study was to investigate brain mechanisms in a sample of autistic subjects with outstanding memory. We investigated seven mnemonist savants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and seven matched controls with 151-channel whole-head magnetencephalography in a continuous old-new paradigm. They were presented with 300 pseudowords and 300 shapes and had to indicate by button press, whether the presented stimulus had been shown before. Unexpectedly, mnemonist savants did not perform better than controls, but were outperformed in the recognition of pseudowords. Accordingly, event-related magnetic fields elicited by pseudowords showed widespread old-new effects in controls, but not in savants. A source analysis of its early components revealed right occipital activation in savants, but left parietal activation in controls. This might be related to a visual processing style in mnemonist savants that proved to be inefficient in this task. During the possibly familiarity-based recognition of shapes, there were earlier and more widespread bilateral old-new effects in mnemonist savants, what might reflect their experience with figural material. In a neuropsychological test battery, mnemonist savants performed comparably to autistic people without special memory skills. However, a different factor structure of these tests pointed to a different organization of memory in mnemonist savants compared to controls that is characterized by its relative independence of general intelligence.

  15. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn E; Simone, Christa M; Ng, Nicole F; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings.

  16. Long-term neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, and life outcome in hippocampal amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Magnotta, Vincent; Capizzano, Aristides A; Cassell, Martin D.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Focal bilateral hippocampal damage typically causes severe and selective amnesia for new declarative information (facts and events), a cognitive deficit that greatly impacts the ability to live a normal, fully-independent life. We describe the case of 1846, a 48-year-old woman with profound hippocampal amnesia following status epilepticus and an associated anoxic episode at age 30. 1846 has undergone extensive neuropsychological testing on many occasions over the 18 years since her injury, and we present data indicating that her memory impairment has remained severe and stable during that time. New, high-resolution structural MRI studies of 1846's brain reveal substantial bilateral hippocampal atrophy resembling that of other well-known amnesic patients. In spite of severe amnesia, 1846 lives a full and mostly independent adult life, facilitated by an extensive social support network of family and friends. Her case provides an example of a rare and unlikely positive outcome in the face of severe memory problems. PMID:22401298

  17. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except...... infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent changes in brain functions....

  18. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

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    Sasoh, Masayuki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-08-01

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for {delta}WAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO{sub 2} (r=0.52), for {delta}WAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO{sub 2} and elevated OEF. (author)

  19. Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach.

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    Pluzhnikov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders. The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm, employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1 While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2 Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders. The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients. Statistically significant differences (p <0,005 in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed. Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The

  20. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

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    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  1. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

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    YANG Ming-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic undergoing general anesthesia (GA in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigated during telephone follow-ups, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 was adopted to evaluate the life quality of patients. Results Almost 73 pairs of patients fulfilled the survey of AC and GA group respectively. There were 21 patients and 28 patients with postoperative neurological deficits, and 12 patients and 8 patients with psychological disorders in AC and GA group respectively. Thirty patients of AC group had the recollection of being awake during the surgery. There were 9 patients in CA group having long-term ( > 6 months neurological deficits, which was less than the number of GA group (18 patients, P = 0.038. According to the assessment in short-term, medium-term and long-term postoperative neurological deficits, there was no significant difference in the quality-of-life scores between the two groups (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion Awake craniotomy can be the main method for removing the lesions located in or close to functional areas with lower incidence of long?term postoperative neurological deficits, and it has no significant impact on the psychological status and the quality of life postoperatively.

  2. Neuropsychologic function of children with severe hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J J; Rapin, I; Wilson, B C; Van Denburg, F V

    1975-12-01

    A neuropsychologic and medical study was carried out on a selected sample of 34 hearing-impaired children aged seven to 10 years at the onset of the study. In 16 children the cause of the hearing loss was thought to be exogenous. Eight of these had evidence for organic brain dysfunction. Nine children were thought to have genetic etiologies, and in nine no cause could be determined (sporadic hearing loss). Medical examination revealed several unsuspected abnormalities, particularly visual ones. Motor and visual motor deficits were frequent among hearing-impaired children with brain damage. The Performance Scale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, as well as the Paper Folding item of the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude appeared sensitive to the presence of brain damage. The mean score for the WISC Performance Scale fell within the average range for hearing children, supporting previous findings of cognitive competence of the deaf. In this sample, Hiskey-Nebraska scores tended to be lower than WISC scores. Reasons for this discrepancy were suggested and did not appear to be accounted for by brain damage. Deficits in items requiring visual memory, sequencing, and categorization were relatively prevalent but showed no etiologic predilection. They were thought to be related to the consequence of hearing loss rather than to brain damage. Difficulty with stereognosis highlighted the problem of deciding why a hearing-impaired child might fail a particular task. This difficulty suggested that failure might not indicate a deficit in the function the task was designed to measure, but rather, reliance on an inefficient strategy for success.

  3. Brief Report: CANTAB Performance and Brain Structure in Pediatric Patients with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zotter, Sibylle; Pixner, Silvia; Starke, Marc; Haberlandt, Edda; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Egger, Karl; Schocke, Michael; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Marksteiner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    By merging neuropsychological (CANTAB/Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and structural brain imaging data (voxel-based-morphometry) the present study sought to identify the neurocognitive correlates of executive functions in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to healthy controls. Results disclosed subtle group…

  4. Supervision in neuropsychological assessment: a survey of training, practices, and perspectives of supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Laura A Schwent; Pedersen, Heather A; Roper, Brad L; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Within the psychology supervision literature, most theoretical models and practices pertain to general clinical or counseling psychology. Supervision specific to clinical neuropsychology has garnered little attention. This survey study explores supervision training, practices, and perspectives of neuropsychology supervisors. Practicing neuropsychologists were invited to participate in an online survey via listservs and email lists. Of 451 respondents, 382 provided supervision to students, interns, and/or fellows in settings such as VA medical centers (37%), university medical centers (35%), and private practice (15%). Most supervisors (84%) reported supervision was discussed in graduate school "minimally" or "not at all." Although 67% completed informal didactics or received continuing education in supervision, only 27% reported receiving training specific to neuropsychology supervision. Notably, only 39% were satisfied with their training in providing supervision and 77% indicated they would likely participate in training in providing supervision, if available at professional conferences. Results indicate that clinical neuropsychology as a specialty has paid scant attention to developing supervision models and explicit training in supervision skills. We recommend that the specialty develop models of supervision for neuropsychological practice, supervision standards and competencies, training methods in provision of supervision, and benchmark measures for supervision competencies.

  5. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

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    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  6. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

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    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  7. The provision of neuropsychological services in rural/regional settings: professional and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Lloyd, Susan

    2009-07-01

    Despite rapid growth of the discipline of clinical neuropsychology during recent times, there is limited information regarding the identification and management of professional and ethical issues associated with the practice of neuropsychology within rural settings. The aim of this article is to outline the characteristics unique to practicing neuropsychology in rural communities and to describe the potential professional and ethical dilemmas that might arise. Issues are illustrated using examples from neuropsychological practice in a rural/regional setting in Victoria, Australia. Relative to urban regions, there is an inequality in the distribution of psychologists, including neuropsychologists, in rural areas. The unique characteristics of rural and regional communities that impact on neuropsychological practice are: 1) limited resources in expertise, technology, and community services, 2) greater travel distances and costs, 3) professional isolation, and 4) beliefs about psychological services. These characteristics lower the threshold for particular ethical issues. The ethical issues that require anticipation and careful management include: 1) professional competence, 2) multiple relationships, and 3) confidentiality. Through increased awareness and management of rural-specific professional and ethical issues, rural neuropsychologists can experience their work as rewarding and enjoyable. Specific guidelines for identifying, managing, and resolving ethically and professionally challenging situations that may arise during rural practice are provided.

  8. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (M(age) = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed.

  9. Visualization technology in neuropsychological research: A case study on corporal imaginary

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    Heidi Figueroa Sarriera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychology, as a discipline, adopts a dualistic imaginary of the body: as a porous yet closed boundary. Therefore, accessing the "truth" of the subject requires all sorts of techniques and tools. The psychological discourse often considers these devices in exteriority of the subject. As a counterpoint, I propose that the artifacts are a constituent part of the corporal imaginary. The argument compares the Skinner Air Crib and Gesell’s Laboratory, two inventions of the mid-twentieth century, and a XXI century neuropsychological research about the location of the self. In the first two cases, the body is constructed as a porous barrier that participates within hygienic parameters, both operating and optimizing individual performance and military metaphors that has shaped social policy practices. The discussion of the neuropsychological research, as a case study, does not intend to question the results of the research from the neuropsychological field. It points towards those understandings and assumptions that reveal the connection of the neuropsychological discourse with its cultural context. Special attention is paid to gender construction, ways of mediating scientific knowledge, the hybridity between the neuropsychological reductionism of the scientific framing and the entertainment industry; as well as to the new forms of identity formation and the complementarity of the visuals and performance in the contemporary scene. 

  10. Rasmussen's encephalitis: the relevance of neuropsychological assessment in patient's treatment and follow up

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    Guimarães Catarina Abraão

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is characterized by refractory epilepsy, neurological deterioration and progressive atrophy of one cerebral hemisphere. The objective of this study is to describe the importance of neuropsychological evaluation in the treatment decision and follow-up of patients with Rasmussen´s encephalitis. Neuropsychological assessment was performed in two steps. Firstly, the clinical history was obtained and the Vineland adaptative behavior scale (VABS was applied. After this first step, the patients with social maturity level equal or higher than the inferior limit underwent a battery of neuropsychological assessment. We evaluated three patients before any specific treatment was started, and six months after the intervention (surgery or plasmapheresis. Patient 1 underwent left hemispherectomy and had global improvement on second neuropsychological assessment. This suggests that the decision of performing surgery was adequate. Patients 2 and 3 underwent plasmapheresis. They did not present cognitive decline between both evaluations which suggest that our decision of postponing surgery was adequate as well. We conclude that neuropsychological assessment is important when evaluating patients with Rasmussen´s encephalitis. That is especially true for patients in whom disease progression is slow, and surgery timing has to be carefully planned.

  11. Detection of brain damage: neuropsychological assessment in a Spanish speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Quintanar, L; Ardila, A

    1989-12-01

    We developed a neuropsychological battery for assessment of cognitive processes that was standardized in 150 neurologically intact subjects from different socioeducational levels in Mexico City (Ostrosky et al., 1985, 1986). The present study was designed to explore the capacity of this neuropsychological battery to discriminate a brain-injured population from a normal one. Thirty-four patients attending the neurological service of two hospitals institutions in Mexico City were studied. The reasons for going to the hospital included both neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. The group was divided into two subgroups: twenty-four patients who showed brain damage confirmed by brain scans, and ten patients with a normal brain scan. A control group of 19 normal subjects was also studied and paired with the other groups by sex, age and sociocultural level. The results show that the neuropsychological battery was able to recognize 83.3% of the patients with scanographically confirmed brain damage: the total percentage of successful diagnosis was 88.2% and there were no false positives. These results indicate that neuropsychological assessment is a powerful diagnostic procedure that also evaluates the patient's cognitive-behavioral activity and can help to predict the possibilities for rehabilitation and return to work.

  12. Cognitive heterogeneity in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic analysis of neuropsychological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Jeanette C; Onnink, A Marten H; Klein, Marieke; Dammers, Janneke; Harneit, Anais; Schulten, Theresa; van Hulzen, Kimm J E; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Hoogman, Martine

    2015-11-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with impaired functioning in multiple cognitive domains: executive functioning (EF), reward and timing. Similar impairments have been described for adults with persistent ADHD, but an extensive investigation of neuropsychological functioning in a large sample of adult patients is currently lacking. We systematically examined neuropsychological performance on tasks measuring EF, delay discounting, time estimation and response variability using univariate ANCOVA's comparing patients with persistent ADHD (N=133, 42% male, mean age 36) and healthy adults (N=132, 40% male, mean age 36). In addition, we tested which combination of variables provided the highest accuracy in predicting ADHD diagnosis. We also estimated for each individual the severity of neuropsychological dysfunctioning. Lastly, we investigated potential effects of stimulant medication and a history of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) on performance. Compared to healthy adults, patients with ADHD showed impaired EF, were more impulsive, and more variable in responding. However, effect sizes were small to moderate (range: 0.05-0.70) and 11% of patients did not show neuropsychological dysfunctioning. The best fitting model predicting ADHD included measures from distinct cognitive domains (82.1% specificity, 64.9% sensitivity). Furthermore, patients receiving stimulant medication or with a history of MDD were not distinctively impaired. To conclude, while adults with ADHD as a group are impaired on several cognitive domains, the results confirm that adult ADHD is neuropsychologically heterogeneous. This provides a starting point to investigate individual differences in terms of impaired cognitive pathways.

  13. The STROBE statement and neuropsychology: lighting the way toward evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Bowden, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Reporting appropriate research detail across clinical disciplines is often inconsistent or incomplete. Insufficient report detail reduces confidence in findings, makes study replication more difficult, and decreases the precision of data available for critical review including meta-analysis. In response to these concerns, cooperative attempts across multiple specialties have developed explicit research reporting standards to guide publication detail. These recommendations have been widely adopted by high impact medical journals, but have not yet been widely embraced by neuropsychology. The STROBE Statement (STrengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) is particularly relevant to neuropsychology since clinical research is often based on non-funded studies of patient samples. In this paper we describe the STROBE Statement and demonstrate how STROBE criteria, applied to reporting of neuropsychological findings, will maintain neuropsychology's position as a leader in quantifying brain-behavior relationships. We also provide specific recommendations for data reporting and disclosure of perceived conflicts of interest that will further enhance reporting transparency for possible perceived sources of bias. In an era in which evidence-based practice assumes an increasingly prominent role, improved reporting standards will promote better patient care, assist in developing quality practice guidelines, and ensure that neuropsychology remains a vigorous discipline in the clinical neurosciences that consciously aspires to high methodological rigor.

  14. Comparison of neuropsychological performance between students from public and private Brazilian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations.

  15. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  16. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  17. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.

  18. Associations between Benzodiazepine Use and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, Edward; Østbye, Truls

    2015-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed for anxiety, although use of this class of medications has been associated with dependency and cognitive changes. This article describes the study in which we investigated the relationship between the class of benzodiazepine available for use and associated performance on neuropsychological tests in a community sample of 1,754 older Canadians from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Benzodiazepines were classified as short-, intermediate-, and long-acting. Associations were calculated between each class of benzodiazepine and eight neuropsychological measures, using multiple regression analysis and controlling for demographic variables. Results showed different effects of the co-variates across the three drug classes, and short half-life benzodiazepines were not associated with any neuropsychological measure. Intermediate half-life and long half-life benzodiazepine use were each associated with two measures. Increased focus on specific domains of cognitive function is needed to improve our understanding of how benzodiazepine use influences cognition.

  19. Neuropsychological relationships in paranoid schizophrenia with and without delusional misidentification syndromes. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, L; Typaldou, M; Mourtzouchou, P; Oulis, P; Koutsaftis, C; Dokianaki, F; Michalopoulou, P G; Havaki-Kontaxaki, M; Christodoulou, C

    2008-08-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes (DMSs) and schizophrenia are strongly associated, since the former occur predominantly in the context of paranoid schizophrenia. However, the possible underlying neuropsychological relationships between DMSs and paranoid schizophrenia have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether DMSs in paranoid schizophrenia are associated with a distinct neuropsychological substrate indicative of differential bilateral frontal and right hemisphere dysfunction. We compared two matched groups of paranoid schizophrenic patients with (N=22) and without (N=22) DMS(s) on a battery of neuropsychological tests assessing mainly frontal and right hemisphere functions. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups. Our findings are indicative of a bilateral frontal and right hemisphere dysfunction of equal severity in both DMS and non-DMS patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

  20. When self-report diverges from performance: the usage of BIS-11 along with neuropsychological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomide Vasconcelos, Alina; Sergeant, Joseph; Corrêa, Humberto; Mattos, Paulo; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2014-08-15

    Impulsivity has been fractionated into multiple independent, but correlated, components. Personality and neuropsychological studies have consistently shown its multidimensional nature. Each theoretical approach uses different techniques such as self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tests to assess impulsivity, respectively. Our main objective was to investigate if there is evidence of convergent validity for impulsivity as assessed by both types of measures. We administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale 11 and two neuropsychological tests (Iowa Gambling Task and Continuous Performance Task) to 266 participants to measure inhibition control and non-planning impulsivity dimensions. Results from an exploratory factorial analysis and group comparison indicated there was little evidence of convergent validity between the two types of measures. These findings are discussed in terms of impulsivity as a multi-factorial construct as well as the specific instruments used for assessment. Implications for psychological theory and impulsivity assessment were also proposed.