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Sample records for brazil neuropsychological structural

  1. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

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    Bressan Rodrigo A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured

  2. Structural neuroimaging in neuropsychology: History and contemporary applications.

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    Bigler, Erin D

    2017-11-01

    Neuropsychology's origins began long before there were any in vivo methods to image the brain. That changed with the advent of computed tomography in the 1970s and magnetic resonance imaging in the early 1980s. Now computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely a part of neuropsychological investigations with an increasing number of sophisticated methods for image analysis. This review examines the history of neuroimaging utilization in neuropsychological investigations, highlighting the basic methods that go into image quantification and the various metrics that can be derived. Neuroimaging methods and limitations for identify what constitutes a lesion are discussed. Likewise, the influence of various demographic and developmental factors that influence quantification of brain structure are reviewed. Neuroimaging is an integral part of 21st Century neuropsychology. The importance of neuroimaging to advancing neuropsychology is emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Brain structural changes and neuropsychological impairments in male polydipsic schizophrenia

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    Nagashima Tomohisa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polydipsia frequently occurs in schizophrenia patients. The excessive water loading in polydipsia occasionally induces a hyponatremic state and leads to water intoxication. Whether polydipsia in schizophrenic patients correlates with neuropsychological impairments or structural brain changes is not clear and remains controversial. Methods Eight polydipsic schizophrenia patients, eight nonpolydipsic schizophrenia patients, and eight healthy controls were recruited. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and neuropsychological testing. Structural abnormalities were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM approach, and patients’ neuropsychological function was assessed using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese version (BACS-J. Results No significant differences were found between the two patient groups with respect to the clinical characteristics. Compared with healthy controls, polydipsic patients showed widespread brain volume reduction and neuropsychological impairment. Furthermore, the left insula was significantly reduced in polydipsic patients compared with nonpolydipsic patients. These nonpolydipsic patients performed intermediate to the other two groups in the neuropsychological function test. Conclusions It is possible that polydipsia or the secondary hyponatremia might induce left insula volume reduction. Furthermore, this structural brain change may indirectly induce more severe neuropsychological impairments in polydipsic patients. Thus, we suggest that insula abnormalities might contribute to the pathophysiology of polydipsic patients.

  4. Noninvasive biomarkers of manganese exposure and neuropsychological effects in environmentally exposed adults in Brazil.

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    Viana, Gustavo F de Sousa; de Carvalho, Chrissie F; Nunes, Lorena S; Rodrigues, Juliana L G; Ribeiro, Nathália S; de Almeida, Diego A; Ferreira, Junia R Dutra; Abreu, Neander; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2014-12-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element to humans, in excess can cause neurotoxic damage. So far, Mn exposure assessment has no ideal biomarker. This study aims to investigate the association between Mn exposure, using noninvasive biomarkers, and neuropsychological effects in environmentally exposed adults. The residents of two communities near to a ferromanganese refinery in Bahia, Brazil were evaluated. Volunteers aged 15-55 of both sexes provided scalp hair, axillary hair, fingernail and saliva specimens for Mn determination by electrothermal absorption spectrometry. Several neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate cognitive, attention, memory, motor and executive functions. Significant correlations were observed between Mn in hair (MnH, median 8.95 μg/g), axillary hair (MnAxH,18.49 μg/g) and fingernail (MnFN, 6.91 μg/g) with the performances in several neuropsychological tests. No association was observed between manganese levels in saliva (MnSal, 4.2 μg/L) and any neuropsychological function. Multiple regression analysis detected an inverse association between Log MnH and IQ (β=-4.76 [CI 95% -9.17 to -0.36]) and between Log MnFN and visual working memory (β=-3.33 [CI 95% -6.15 to -0.52]). Direct association was observed between Log MnFN and time of completion in the cognitive flexibility task (β=56.29 [CI 95% 2.41-110.18]). The Mn biomonitoring using noninvasive biomarkers was able to detect high exposure levels, which were associated with detrimental neuropsychological effects in adults exposed to industrial emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

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    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  6. Neuropsychological Construct Structure of a Brief Computerized Neuropsychological Battery: Windows Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool (WinSCAT)

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    2005-09-08

    American neuropsychology underwent a change (reflecting the changing Zeitgeist in American psychology) to a more atheoretical, empirical, actuarially-driven...neurology and psychoanalysis ) was developing a neuropsychological approach that was clinically- driven, theoretical, and based on individual case-study

  7. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil

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    Brito G.N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418. A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8, who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children

  8. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

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    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation: Historical Development and Current Perspectives

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    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan; Ana Paula Almeida de Pereira; Tatiana Izabele Jaworski de Sá Riechi

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aimed to briefly present a historical view of Neuropsychology and later, to propose research topics in Brazil. Neuropsychology history encompassed at least three major themes: the cardiac hypothesis versus the brain hypothesis, localizationism versus holism and functionalism versus cognitivism. These themes influenced research in neuropsychology and based current practice. Furthermore, two important aspects of neuropsychology are discussed: neuropsychological assessment in d...

  10. Eating disorder psychopathology, brain structure, neuropsychological correlates and risk mechanisms in very preterm young adults.

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    Micali, Nadia; Kothari, Radha; Nam, Kie Woo; Gioroukou, Elena; Walshe, Muriel; Allin, Matthew; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, neuropsychological function, structural brain correlates and risk mechanisms in a prospective cohort of very preterm (VPT) young adults. We assessed ED psychopathology and neuropsychological correlates in 143 cohort individuals born at psychopathology at age 21 years. Executive function did not correlate with ED symptomatology. VPT adults presenting with ED psychopathology had smaller grey matter volume at age 14/15 years in the left posterior cerebellum and smaller white matter volume in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, compared with VPT adults with no ED psychopathology. Caesarean delivery predicted engaging in compensatory behaviours, and severe eating difficulty at age 14 years predicted ED symptomatology in young adulthood. VPT individuals are at risk for ED symptomatology, with evidence of associated structural alterations in posterior brain regions. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the pathways that lead from perinatal/obstetric complications to ED and relevant neurobiological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley &Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. HIGHER ORDER FACTOR STRUCTURE OF THE WISC-IV IN A CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SAMPLE

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    Bodin, Doug; Pardini, Dustin A.; Burns, Thomas G.; Stevens, Abigail B.

    2010-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted examining the higher order factor structure of the WISC-IV scores for 344 children who participated in neuropsychological evaluations at a large children’s hospital. The WISC-IV factor structure mirrored that of the standardization sample. The second order general intelligence factor (g) accounted for the largest proportion of variance in the first-order latent factors and in the individual subtests, especially for the working memory index. The first-order processing speed factor exhibited the most unique variance beyond the influence of g. The results suggest that clinicians should not ignore the contribution of g when interpreting the first-order factors. PMID:19132580

  12. The added value of neuropsychologic tests and structural imaging for the etiologic diagnosis of dementia in italian expert centers.

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    Geroldi, Cristina; Canu, Elisa; Bruni, Amalia C; Dal Forno, Gloria; Ferri, Raffaele; Gabelli, Carlo; Perri, Roberta; Iapaolo, David; Scarpino, Osvaldo; Sinforiani, Elena; Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the added diagnostic value of neuropsychologic tests and structural neuroimaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance) in the routine clinical assessment of demented patients in Italian expert centers. Nine centers were involved, located across the whole country (3 in Northern, 3 in Central, and 3 in Southern Italy). Diagnostic pathways were tracked for 474 patients with an expert diagnosis of neurodegenerative or vascular dementia (age 76+/-8; 62% females; Mini-Mental State Examination 17.70+/-5.7). The contribution of neuropsychology and structural neuroimaging to diagnosis was estimated as "number needed to test" (NNT), denoting the number of patients who need to undergo such procedures to improve expert diagnosis of 1 unit. Expert physicians reached their diagnosis without resorting to structural imaging examinations and neuropsychologic tests in 93% of Alzheimer disease (AD) and 76% of non-AD dementias. The completion of the extended assessment led to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in both cases: the NNT was 15.3 (95% confidence interval: 10.4-29.1) and 4.1 (3.0 to 6.5) for AD and non-AD diagnoses. The added value of structural imaging and neuropsychologic testing in the routine clinical assessment of demented patients is substantial in both AD and non-AD cases.

  13. Neuropsychological syndromes in patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep electric stimulation of pallidar complex structures

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    Yu V Mikadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the results of neuropsychological examinations in 10 patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent deep electrical stimulation of pallidar complex structures. The general neuropsychological test battery that had been developed by A.R. Luria and allowed the qualitative classification of the cognitive impairment symptoms detectable on examination to be made was used to study cognitive functions. The patients were examined before and just after surgery and in the late period (following 1—2 years. The examinations have shown that the syndromes indicative of dysfunctions in the deep, parietal, and occipital and prefrontal regions of the left hemisphere and in the parietooccipital regions of the right hemisphere are stable components that determine the pattern of cognitive disorders and are preserved throughout all examinations.

  14. Identifying Lesions on Structural Brain Images-Validation of the Method and Application to Neuropsychological Patients

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    Stamatakis, E.A.; Tyler, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    The study of neuropsychological disorders has been greatly facilitated by the localization of brain lesions on MRI scans. Current popular approaches for the assessment of MRI brain scans mostly depend on the successful segmentation of the brain into grey and white matter. These methods cannot be used effectively with large lesions because lesions…

  15. Differences in neuropsychological and behavioral parameters and brain structure in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis: a sibling-paired study.

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    Azofra, Ana Sánchez; Kidambi, Trilokesh D; Jeremy, Rita J; Conrad, Peggy; Blanco, Amie; Myers, Megan; Barkovich, James; Terdiman, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary colon cancer syndrome caused by mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with both colonic and extra-colonic manifestations. Case reports have noted an association with FAP and intellectual disability and animal studies have shown that APC is implicated in neural development and function, but no studies have investigated neuropsychological, behavioral, or structural brain characteristics of patients with FAP. We undertook a pilot, sibling-pair study comparing three patients with FAP to their sex-matched siblings without FAP. Each sibling pair underwent neuropsychological testing by a blinded examiner, high resolution brain MRI scans, and the mother of each pair rated her children's adaptive life skills and behavioral and emotional characteristics. Given the small number of study participants in this pilot study, quantitative comparisons of results were made by subtracting the score of the non-FAP sibling from the FAP patient on the various neuropsychological tests and parent rating questionnaires to calculate a difference, which was then divided by the standard deviation for each individual test to determine the difference, corrected for the standard deviation. Diffusion numbers in multiple regions of the brain as assessed by MRI were calculated for each study participant. We found similarity between siblings in all three pairs on a wide range of neuropsychological measures (general intelligence, executive function, and basic academic skills) as tested by the psychologist as well as in descriptions of adaptive life skills as rated by mothers. However, mothers' ratings of behavioral and emotional characteristics of two of the three pairs showed differences between the siblings, specifically that the patients with FAP were found to have more behavioral and emotional problems compared to their siblings. No differences in brain structure were identified by MRI. We report the first study

  16. School Neuropsychology.

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    Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)

  17. Contributions of the Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) for the diagnosis of MCI in Brazil.

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    Memória, Cláudia M; Yassuda, Mônica S; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-05-07

    ABSTRACT Background: The Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen for Mild Cognitive Impairment (CANS-MCI) is a computer-based cognitive screening instrument that involves automated administration and scoring and immediate analyses of test sessions. The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CANS-MCI (CANS-MCI-BR) and to evaluate its reliability and validity for the diagnostic screening of MCI and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The test was administered to 97 older adults (mean age 73.41 ± 5.27 years) with at least four years of formal education (mean education 12.23 ± 4.48 years). Participants were classified into three diagnostic groups according to global cognitive status (normal controls, n = 41; MCI, n = 35; AD, n = 21) based on clinical data and formal neuropsychological assessments. Results: The results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77) in the total sample. Three-month test-retest reliability correlations were significant and robust (0.875; p CANS-MCI-BR maintains adequate psychometric characteristics that render it suitable to identify elderly adults with probable cognitive impairment to whom a more extensive evaluation by formal neuropsychological tests may be required.

  18. Structural and pharmacological profile of generic enoxaparins used in Brazil.

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    Lima, Marcelo A; de Farias, Eduardo H C; Gray, Angel; Sadeghi, Nasir; Gesteira, Tarsis F; Cavalheiro, Renan P; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Nader, Helena B

    2012-07-01

    Generic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) have been commonly used in Brazil, since 1999, but most of them are synthetic and small molecules. Recently, a large number of generic enoxaparins were introduced into the market raising concerns related to product-to-product interchangeability, efficiency, and drug counterfeiting. These drugs are produced from biological sources and their production involves complex procedures and purification processes. The present article evaluates several generic enoxaparins, structurally and pharmacologically, and compares them with the branded products. Structural analysis showed that the generic products are, indeed, quite similar to the branded products, however, this similarity cannot be extended to their pharmacological activities. The results showed that generic products must go through extensive structural, pharmacological, and clinical evaluation in order to assess their quality, efficacy and, ultimately, avoid drug counterfeiting before clinical use. Variation was also observed between the branded products, showing that such drugs must be at constant surveillance.

  19. Neuropsychology of subcortical dementias.

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    Savage, C R

    1997-12-01

    Subcortical dementias are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share primary pathology in subcortical structure and a characteristic pattern of neuropsychological impairment. This article describes the neurobiological and cognitive features of three prototypical subcortical dementias, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy, concentrating of traits shared by disorders. Clinical features are also discussed, especially those which differentiate subcortical dementias from cortical dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease. The cortical-subcortical nomenclature has been criticized over the years, but it continues to provide an effective means of classifying dementia profiles in clinically and theoretically useful ways.

  20. Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report

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    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: in Brazil, palliative care (PC is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. EXPERIENCE REPORT: the hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. CONCLUSION: this experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals.

  1. Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report.

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    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Rodrigues, Rayssa Fiterman; Lima, Sara Fiterman

    2014-01-01

    in Brazil, palliative care (PC) is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. the hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. this experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. [Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Rodrigues, Rayssa Fiterman; Lima, Sara Fiterman

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, palliative care (PC) is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. The hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. This experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

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    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  4. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  5. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

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    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence.

  6. Fronts and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System

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    Severov, Dimitri

    and Thermohaline Structure of the Brazil Current Confluence System (BCCS) are stud-ied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984"data, and two Sea surface temperature (SST) data bases: "Meteor satellite"(1989-1994) and "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000).The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, fronts, inter-frontal and frontal zones are analysed and classified: a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; b) the Inter-frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Sub-tropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteris-tics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the fronts of the BCCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. D. N. Severov (a) , V. Pshennikov (b) and A.V. Remeslo (c) a -Sección Oceanologé Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 ıa, a Montevideo, Uruguay. Tel. (598-2) 525-8618, Fax (598-2) 525-8617, mail: dima@fcien.edu.uy b -Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Igué 4225, 11400 Mon-a tevideo, Uruguay, mail: seva@fisica.edu.uy c -Atlantic Research Inst. For Fisheries Oceanology (Atlant

  7. International growth of neuropsychology.

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    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Population structure of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Borges Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the population genetic structure of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil. Pedigree information was collected from 175,231 animals born from 1967 to 2007. Probability of gene origin, inbreeding, average relatedness coefficient (AR, completeness pedigree, effective population size and generation interval were calculated. Generation interval was high due to the long period of time animals were used as reproducers. The bottleneck effect was evidenced as a result of intensive use of limited breeders over the last years. Low values were observed ​​in the effective number of founder animals (434 and ancestors (427 comparing with the number on the base (175,231 and reference populations (130,038. Generally, the variability explained by the founders and ancestors is considered low. The average coefficient of inbreeding (0.11% and AR (0.14% estimated for this population is considered low and can be partly explained by the increased population effective number in recent periods; however, it may be underestimated by shallow pedigree.

  9. [A pediatric neuropsychological evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska, Urszula; Kaciński, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric neuropsychology is currently one of the most expansive fields of psychology, developing between clinical neurology and other neurosciences. This work presents the main possibilities of a pediatric neuropsychological evaluation in known clinical situations and the status of the neuropsychological profession. The necessity of evaluating the level of cognitive functioning in children from high risk groups, children with somatic, behavioural, emotional or developmental disorders was reminded. Clinical examples are described, when a neuropsychological evaluation of the child reveals important information, becoming a valuable part of the medical diagnosing process. Diagnostic methods most commonly used for assessing the level of cognitive functioning are presented, baring in mind its division into specific cognitive domains: executive functions, learning and memory, attention, visuo-motor and verbal skills. Most popular of the international and domestic IQ tests are described, including suggestions about testing children with various degrees of intellectual disability. Among the methods are tests for assessing children in age groups from 0-18. The authors described a neuropsychological interpretation of the evaluation results, including tests, behavioural observation, interviews and other diagnostic methods. Some limitations of the neuropsychological assessment methods are also mentioned, such as questionable ecological validity. the knowledge of possibilities and the necessity of the neuropsychological evaluation in children should become much more common, especially in the medical environment. The status of the neuropsychologist in Poland need a precise legal regulation.

  10. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  11. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  12. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important soybean defoliator in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Palma; Kevin Maebe; Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes; Guy Smagghe

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857), an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variabil...

  13. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  14. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  15. Machado-Joseph disease op azorean ancestry in Brazil: the Catarina kindred neurological, neuroimaging, psychiatric and neuropsychological findings in the largest known family, the «Catarina» kindred

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    J. Radvany

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available At the moment 9 seemingly independent families with the clinical diagnosis of MJD are known in Brazil. The largest family tree of Azorean ancestry contatins 622 individuals in 9 generations. 236 were examined, 39 found to be affected by two examiners. Pheno-types I, II and III were expressed by 12, 23 and 4 patients with age of onset by phenotypea being 10-48, 14-54 and 30-55 respectively. Although clinically more severe, juvenile onset type I disease did not show as severe a ponto-mesencephialic atrophy on MRI as the father with type II disease of similar symptomatic duration. None of the 8 patients examined with MRI showed olivary atrophy or pallidal abnormalities. 12 affected and 23 at risk were evaluated with neuropsychological tests. Attention was normal in both groups. Verbal memory scores were below normal in the affected and there was greater decay with time than in the risk group. Both scored below normal in identifying silluettes and constructional praxis. Visual memory scores were well below normal for both, with many rotations but no omissions or confabulations. A peculiar pattern of multiplying internal details called «the fly-eye effect» was observed in 6 affected and 8 at risk. Defective color distinction when multiple colors presented close to each other, in face of proper naming of individual colors («color simultantagnosia», was looked for in 29 people. 4/10 affected and 4/19 at risk showed this phenomenon. Cognitive dysfunctions in this MJD family are prominent in the sphere of vision. Whether they constitute an early manifestation in those at risk and thus serve as a clinical identifier of the illnes is yet to be established. Depression was looked for in the history of the family with DSM III-R criteria and an atempt at quantification with the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale. There was no significant quantitative difference between affected and at risk. Once undeniably symptomatic however, the patients had no, or less

  16. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  17. Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards.

  18. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  19. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

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    Diniz Nilza Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1 and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Samples of 194 bee colonies were collected from ten localities between 30°-35° SL and 52°-59° WL. The mtDNA restriction patterns of these colonies were obtained through digestion of the mitochondrial genome by Eco RI, or by digestion by Bgl II and Xba I of the cytochrome B locus and the COI-COII intergenic region, respectively. The distribution limit of African bee colonies, i.e., those populations with only the African mtDNA haplotype and with a high proportion of African genes as shown by allozyme analysis, is located in northern Uruguay, with a hybridization zone located farther south in Uruguay. A gradual cline from north to south was observed, confirmed by mtDNA, racial admixture, and genetic distance analyses. No evidence of either gametic disequilibrium between nuclear markers or cytonuclear disequilibrium among the nuclear and mtDNA genotypes was detected, suggesting that the hybridization process has been completed.

  20. Age of A2 Horizon Charcoal and Forest Structure near Porto Trombetas, Pará , Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis; Oliver Henry Knowles

    2001-01-01

    To study the structure and composition of old-growth forest in the Saracá-Taquera National Forest near Porto Trombetas, Brazil, we established 36 0.25 ha plots and described the vegetation. We collected charcoal from the A2 soil horizon of each plot for radiocarbon dating. Although fires have been very rare in this forest during historic times, the...

  1. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  2. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Janine; Maebe, Kevin; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857), an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE) in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001). The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  3. Molecular variability and genetic structure of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, an important soybean defoliator in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Palma

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1857, an important defoliating pest species of soybean crops in Brazil. Population genetic variability and the genetic structure of C. includens populations were evaluated by using ISSR markers with samples from the major soybean producing regions in Brazil in the growing seasons 2011/2012. Seven different primers were applied for population characterization of the molecular variability and genetic structure of 8 soybean looper populations from 8 states of Brazil. The seven ISSR loci generated 247 bands in 246 individuals of C. includens sampled. The expected heterozygosity (HE in the populations varied between 0.093 and 0.106, while the overall HE was 0.099, indicating low genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that 98% of the variability was expressed among individuals within populations (FST = 0.021, p = 0.001. The low level of polymorphism over all populations, the high levels of gene flow, and the low genetic structure are indicatives of the exchange of genetic information between the different sampled regions. Population structuring suggests the presence of two major groups which do not correlate with their geographic sampling location in Brazil. These results may indicate recent recolonization of C. includens in Brazil or migration patterns following source-sink dynamics. Furthermore, the presence of two groups within C. includens suggests that a study on development of resistance or any other genetic-based trait needs to be evaluated on both groups, and pest management in soybean fields should be aware that differences may come to the control strategies they use.

  4. Toward a Two-Dimensional Model of Social Cognition in Clinical Neuropsychology: A Systematic Review of Factor Structure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepare, Aurore; Prouteau, Antoinette

    2017-11-27

    Social cognition has received growing interest in many conditions in recent years. However, this construct still suffers from a considerable lack of consensus, especially regarding the dimensions to be studied and the resulting methodology of clinical assessment. Our review aims to clarify the distinctiveness of the dimensions of social cognition. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements, a systematic review was conducted to explore the factor structure of social cognition in the adult general and clinical populations. The initial search provided 441 articles published between January 1982 and March 2017. Eleven studies were included, all conducted in psychiatric populations and/or healthy participants. Most studies were in favor of a two-factor solution. Four studies drew a distinction between low-level (e.g., facial emotion/prosody recognition) and high-level (e.g., theory of mind) information processing. Four others reported a distinction between affective (e.g., facial emotion/prosody recognition) and cognitive (e.g., false beliefs) information processing. Interestingly, attributional style was frequently reported as an additional separate factor of social cognition. Results of factor analyses add further support for the relevance of models differentiating level of information processing (low- vs. high-level) from nature of processed information (affective vs. cognitive). These results add to a significant body of empirical evidence from developmental, clinical research and neuroimaging studies. We argue the relevance of integrating low- versus high-level processing with affective and cognitive processing in a two-dimensional model of social cognition that would be useful for future research and clinical practice. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-14).

  5. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  6. Neuropsychology of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanović, Osman

    2010-06-01

    Neuropsychology includes both the psychiatric manifestations of neurological illness (primary brain-based disorders) and neurobiology of "idiopathic" psychiatric disorders. Neurological primary brain disorders provoke broad spectrum of brain pathophysiology that cause deficit sin human behaviour, and the magnitude of neurobehavioral-related problems is a world wide health concern. Speech disorders of aphasic type, unilateral neglect, anosognosia (deficit disorders), delirium and mood disorders (productive disorders) in urgent neurology, first of all in acute phase of stroke are more frequent disorders then it verified in routine exam, not only in the developed and large neurological departments. Aphasia is common consequence of left hemispheric lesion and most common neuropsychological consequence of stroke, with prevalence of one third of all stroke patients in acute phase although exist reports on greater frequency. Unilateral neglect is a disorder that mostly effects the patient after the lesion of the right hemisphere, mostly caused by a cerebrovascular insult (infarct or haemorrhage affecting a large area - up to two thirds of the right hemisphere), and in general the left-side neglect is the most widespread neuropsychological deficit after the lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere. Reports on the incidence of visual neglect vary and they range from 13 to 85%. Anosognosia is on the second place as neuropsychological syndrome of stroke in right hemisphere, characterized by the denial of the motor, visual or cognitive deficit. This syndrome, defined as denial of hemiparesis or hemianopsia, is a common disorder verified in 17-28% of all patents with acute brain stoke. There are different reports on frequency of delirium in acute stroke, from 24 to 48%, and it is more frequent in hemorrhagic then ischemic stoke. Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the more frequent consequences on the stroke, and the prevalence of PSD has ranged from 5 to 63% of patients in

  7. Fronts and thermohaline structure of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severov, Dmitri Nikolaevich; Pshennikov, Valentina; Remeslo, Alexsandr Vasilievich

    2012-05-01

    Fronts and thermohaline structure of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence System (BMCS) are studied from climatic data, "Marathon Exp. Leg.8, 1984" data, and Sea surface temperature (SST) data base "ds277-Reynolds" (1981-2000). The South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) is divided in two main types: tropical (TW) and subtropical water (ST). Water masses, Fronts, Inter-Frontal and Frontal Zones are analysed and classified: (a) the water masses: Tropical Low-Salinity Water, Tropical Surface Water, Tropical Tropospheric Water, Subtropical Low-Salinity Water, Subtropical Surface Water, Subtropical Tropospheric Water. T,S characteristics of intermediate, deep and bottom water defined by different authors are confirmed and completed; (b) the Inter-Frontal Zones: Tropical/Brazil Current Zone, Subtropical Zone and Subantarctic Zone; (c) the Frontal Zones: Subtropical, Subantarctic and Polar, and (d) the Fronts: Subtropical Front of the Brazil Current, Principal Subtropical Front, North Subtropical Front, Subtropical Surface Front, South Subtropical Front, Subantarctic Surface Front, Subantarctic Front and Polar Front. Several stable T-S relationships are found below the friction layer and at the Fronts. The maximum gradient of the oceanographic characteristics occurs at the Brazil Current Front, which can be any of the subtropical Fronts, depending on season. Minimum mean depth of the pycnocline coincides with the Fronts of the BMCS, indicating the paths of low-salinity shelf waters into the open ocean. In the work it is shown how to recover the horizontal and vertical thermohaline structure of waters from satellite data RSMAS SST.

  8. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton community in the Botafogo reservoir-Pernambuco-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lira, Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares; Bittencourt-Oliveira,Maria do Carmo; MOURA, Ariadne do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton in the Botafogo reservoir-PE-Brazil. Phytoplankton assemblages were identified from current literature and density was estimated using an inverted microscope. Concurrently to the sampling of biotic variables, measurements of abiotic parameters, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, were determined using field probes and transparency was determined with a Secchi disk. Total phosphorus ...

  9. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

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    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  10. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  12. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  13. [The twenty-first century as a neuropsychology era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Desgranges, B; Lambert, J; Belleville, S; Platel, H

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews how neuropsychology, in the French-speaking world, has evolved as a discipline focused on research, teaching and clinical work. The article targets the last 30 years as this corresponds to the time at which the Société de Neuropsychologie de Langue Française (French-Speaking Neuropsychological Society) was created. The review addresses how the cognitive neuropsychology approach and the advent of brain imaging have shaped the field of neuropsychology in recent years. It presents the status of the discipline in the main French-speaking countries (where neuropsychology is currently developed) including France, Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. It also analyzes a number of indicators that reflect the vitality of the discipline and its cohesion as a science and as a clinical domain. These indicators include the creation of specialized journals, organization of scientific meetings, accessibility to training programs in neuropsychology, development of discipline-oriented clinical programs, and the increase in scientific productivity. The Quebec academic environment is used as an illustration, whereby structured clinical doctoral training programs that meet national standards in neuropsychology were implemented to train clinical neuropsychologists. Finally, the authors emphasize the major role that the discipline is likely to play at different levels of society in the near future.

  14. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

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    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum.

  15. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Rodrigo I; Reis, Fábio A G V; Gramani, Marcelo F; Giordano, Lucilia C; Zaine, José Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  16. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO I. CERRI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  17. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  18. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. Neuropsychological Assessment: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological assessment tools are the staple of our field. The development of standardized metrics sensitive to brain-behavior relationships has shaped the neuropsychological questions we can ask, our understanding of discrete brain functions, and has informed the detection and treatment of neurological disorders. We identify key turning points and innovations in neuropsychological assessment over the past 40-50 years that highlight how the tools used in common practice today came to be. Also selected for emphasis are several exciting lines of research and novel approaches that are underway to further probe and characterize brain functions to enhance diagnostic and treatment outcomes. We provide a brief historical review of different clinical neuropsychological assessment approaches (Lurian, Flexible and Fixed Batteries, Boston Process Approach) and critical developments that have influenced their interpretation (normative standards, cultural considerations, longitudinal change, common metric batteries, and translational assessment constructs). Lastly, we discuss growing trends in assessment including technological advances, efforts to integrate neuropsychology across disciplines (e.g., primary care), and changes in neuropsychological assessment infrastructure. Neuropsychological assessment has undergone massive growth in the past several decades. Nonetheless, there remain many unanswered questions and future challenges to better support measurement tools and translate assessment findings into meaningful recommendations and treatments. As technology and our understanding of brain function advance, efforts to support infrastructure for both traditional and novel assessment approaches and integration of complementary brain assessment tools from other disciplines will be integral to inform brain health treatments and promote the growth of our field. (JINS, 2017, 23, 778-790).

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES IN PEDIATRICS: POSSIBILITIES AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Gogberashvili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to neuropsychology — the science that studies dysfunction, degree of formation of the higher mental functions, allows not only to describe symptoms of their disorders, but also to identify mechanisms, to develop adequate tactics of the patient treatment. The authors emphasize that in recent years the interest of psychologists, teachers, and pathopsychologists to this area due to the increasing number of children with difficulties in adaptation, underachieving in education. The character of neuropsychological examination of a child, which must be structurally dynamic is described. Refinement of the individual characteristics of the child, the necessary motivation formed by physician permits the effective correctional work. Key words: neuropsychology, the founders, the higher mental functions, neuropsychological investigation, correctional work, children. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 83–87.

  1. [Dyslexia: neuropsychological and neurolinguistic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, A

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the contribution of neuropsychological diagnostic methods and neurolinguistic diagnostic investigations. Through the analysis of errors, neurolinguistic examinations today make it possible to isolate in dyslexic populations at least three groups with clear-cut characteristics, requiring a distinct remedial approach. Neuropsychological investigations, and in particular their cross-matching with radiological neuro-imaging methods, serve to evidence the specificity of the cerebral organization of dyslexics.

  2. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  3. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest.

  4. Temporal genetic structure of major dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Barbara Alessandra Alves; de Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, high levels of Aedes aegypti infestation and several dengue outbreaks with fatal outcome cases have been reported in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. This situation made it important to understand the genetic structure and gene flow patterns among the populations of this vector in Manaus, vital pieces of information for their management and development of new control strategies. In this study, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the effect of seasonality on the genetic structure and gene flow patterns in Ae. aegypti populations from four urban neighborhoods of Manaus, collected during the two main rainy and dry seasons. All loci were polymorphic in the eight samples from the two seasons, with a total of 41 alleles. The genetic structure analyses of the samples from the rainy season revealed genetic homogeneity and extensive gene flow, a result consistent with the abundance of breeding sites for this vector. However, the samples from the dry season were significantly structured, due to a reduction of Ne in two (Praça 14 de Janeiro and Cidade Nova) of the four samples analyzed, and this was the primary factor influencing structure during the dry season. Genetic bottleneck analyses suggested that the Ae. aegypti populations from Manaus are being maintained continuously throughout the year, with seasonal reduction rather than severe bottleneck or extinction, corroborating previous reports. These findings are of extremely great importance for designing new dengue control strategies in Manaus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  6. [Neuropsychology and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Castelló, J; Campos-Soler, S

    The epileptic child has three times more risk of presenting cognitive disorders than other children with no neurological pathology, in accordance with three essential facts: 1. The effect exerted by the actual epilepsy. 2. Any associated previously-existing neuropsychosocial deficits. 3. The side effects of the antiepileptic drug (AED). A certain amount of deterioration is universally accepted, without defining the factors involved in its production, but which are multifactorial according to computer studies. From this point of view, we analyse the relation between neuropsychology and epilepsy in Paediatrics. The relation between epilepsy and behaviour must be seen as an exception and not the rule, unless there are coexisting personality disorders and/or mental deficiency. The cognitive effects of AED depend on the drug, the doses used and on the polypharmacy, and these effects may be both adverse and beneficial. The differences from one drug to another are questionable due to the methodology used in the different studies and it should be remembered that with suitable doses the side effects are generally moderate, and AED monitoring is useful in this case. We recommend the use of MEDDRA assessment to obtain a more reliable definition of side effects, which in turn will allow them to be better evaluated. Scaling time in the introduction of the drug is important, especially with some of the new AED. The mechanisms governing the production of the side effects vary, but both the classical and the new ones, which are well used owing to the greater knowledge we have of their mechanism of action, improve cognitive functioning by controlling the seizures. In infancy, idiopathic cognitive reactions are produced. In childhood, the main disorders are a diminished reaction and information processing time with alterations affecting memory, attention and language. Epilepsy is associated to a number of different, generally mild, cognitive problems. The age of onset of epilepsy

  7. Educational Inequality by Race in Brazil, 1982–2007: Structural Changes and Shifts in Racial Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Leticia J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite overwhelming improvements in educational levels and opportunity during the past three decades, educational disadvantages associated with race still persist in Brazil. Using the nationally representative Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra por Domicílio (PNAD) data from 1982 and 1987 to 2007, this study investigates educational inequalities between white, pardo (mixed-race), and black Brazilians over the 25-year period. Although the educational advantage of whites persisted during this period, I find that the significance of race as it relates to education changed. By 2007, those identified as blacks and pardos became more similar in their schooling levels, whereas in the past, blacks had greater disadvantages. I test two possible explanations for this shift: structural changes and shifts in racial classification. I find evidence for both. I discuss the findings in light of the recent race-based affirmative action policies being implemented in Brazilian universities. PMID:22259031

  8. Population structure and pathotype diversity of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae 25 years after its emergence in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Maciel, J.L.; Ceresini, P.; Castroagudin, V.L.; Zala, M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast

  9. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  10. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  11. Mangrove vegetation structure in Southeast Brazil from phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Francisca Rocha; Kampel, Milton; Cunha-Lignon, Marilia

    2016-07-01

    The potential use of phased array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) data for discriminating distinct physiographic mangrove types with different forest structure developments in a subtropical mangrove forest located in Cananéia on the Southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, is investigated. The basin and fringe physiographic types and the structural development of mangrove vegetation were identified with the application of the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test to the SAR backscatter values of 10 incoherent attributes. The best results to separate basin to fringe types were obtained using copolarized HH, cross-polarized HV, and the biomass index (BMI). Mangrove structural parameters were also estimated using multiple linear regressions. BMI and canopy structure index were used as explanatory variables for canopy height, mean height, and mean diameter at breast height regression models, with significant R2=0.69, 0.73, and 0.67, respectively. The current study indicates that SAR L-band images can be used as a tool to discriminate physiographic types and to characterize mangrove forests. The results are relevant considering the crescent availability of freely distributed SAR images that can be more utilized for analysis, monitoring, and conservation of the mangrove ecosystem.

  12. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  13. The cognitive neuropsychological understanding of persecutory delusions

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, R; McKay, R; Coltheart, M

    2008-01-01

    In considering the contribution of cognitive neuropsychology to the understanding of persecutory delusions, we shall proceed in this chapter as follows: First, we shall consider the contribution of the more conventional clinical neuropsychological approach to the study of delusions. After all, cognitive neuropsychology developed as a hybrid of clinical neuropsychology (the psychological study of brain-injured people) and cognitive psychology (the study of the mental information-processing pro...

  14. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  15. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  16. Structure and diversity of restingas along a flood gradient in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Silva Magnago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate changes in structure and species diversity with edaphic variables (soil type and flooding regime in a gradient of forest formations within the Brazilian restingas (coastal woodlands. The study was carried out in the Jacarenema Municipal Natural Park, in the city of Vila Velha, in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. We evaluated the structure of shrub and tree components by sampling 80 plots of 5 × 25 m each, equally distributed among four forest types (well-drained, transitional, floodplain and flooded. We included all individuals with a ≥ 3.2 cm diameter at breast height. From each plot, soil samples (for chemical and physical analysis were collected at a depth of 0-10 cm. We identified a significant fertility gradient (of soil nutrient availability and a strong influence of groundwater on each forest type. We also found significant differences among the forest types in terms of individual basal area and height, as well as density. Diversity increased along the environmental gradient, from flooded to well-drained forest. We conclude that variations in structure and diversity among the four forest types were correlated with the flooding regime, as well as with chemical and physical characteristics of the soil.

  17. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  18. Family structure and adolescent sexual behavior in a poor area of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Camila Alves; Rutherford, George; Borges, Genilva; Galano, Eliana; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman

    2008-02-01

    In Brazil, as elsewhere, behavior during adolescence can place young people at risk for serious medical and social problems, including sexually transmitted infections, unintended pregnancy, drugs, crime, and violence. Few studies internationally have examined the influence of family structure on risk behavior among low-income youths. This cross-sectional study included 296 young people in one of the poorest areas of São Paulo who were recruited through a vocational school and completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. We examined associations between family structure and various risk behaviors. Ages ranged from 13-24 years (82%, 15-18); 67% were of Afro-Brazilian ancestry, and 56% were female. Median family monthly income was about US$200. Less than half lived with both parents, and 14% lived with neither parent. Rates of many risk behaviors, including involvement in crime and violence, drug and alcohol use, and sexual risk, were lowest among those living with both parents, higher among those living with one parent, and highest among those living with neither parent. For example, 26% of females living with both parents, 37% with one parent, and 71% with neither parent were sexually active (p = .003). Family structure and a personal or parental history of drug or alcohol problems were significant independent predictors of sexual activity. The presence of both parents is an important protective factor for Brazilian youth vulnerable to multiple risks. Prevention programs should explore ways to support parents to be present and involved in the lives of their adolescent children.

  19. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  20. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology.

  1. Neuropsychological Counseling in Hospital Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Explores integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology in hospital setting. Sees example of such interchange occurring in rehabilitation unit or hospital where psychologist has responsibilities for helping patients, families, and staff to understand implications of central nervous system dysfunction and to adapt to changes. Discusses…

  2. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  3. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  4. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  5. Neuropsychological Definition of Learning: Strategies for Rewiring Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwegen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    For many years, most scientists believed that the physical structure of our brains, and by definition the people we had become, was set after the initial developmental period of early childhood and adolescence. New research in the area of neurology and neuropsychology is revealing that our brain is a much more open system than ever thought…

  6. Variations of Bacterial Community Structure and Composition in Mangrove Sediment at Different Depths in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas William Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical mangroves are considered one of the most productive ecosystems of the world, being characterized as nurseries and food sources for fish and other animals. Microorganisms play important roles in these environments, and the study of bacterial communities is of paramount importance for a better comprehension of mangrove dynamics. This study focused on the structure and composition of bacterial communities in mangrove sediments at different depths and points, located in Southeastern Brazil. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to determine the community structure, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize the community composition. Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP patterns revealed differences in bacterial community structure according to soil attributes and depth. The parameters K and depth presented significant correlation with general community structure. Most sequences were classified into the phylum Proteobacteria (88%, which presented differences according to the depth, where the classes Betaproteobacteria (21% and Deltaproteobacteria (16% were abundant at 10 cm and Epsilonproteobacteria (35% was abundant at 40 cm depth. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of the phyla Firmicutes (1.13% and 3.8%, for 10 cm and 40 cm respectively, Chloroflexi (2.8% and 0.75%, and Acidobacteria (2.75% and 0.57% according to the depth. Bacterial diversity measurements indicated higher diversity in shallow samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that mangrove holds a diverse bacterial community, which is shaped by the variations found in the ecosystem, such as sediment properties and depth.

  7. Effects of coastal upwelling on the structure of macrofaunal communities in SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Cintia O.; Bernardino, Angelo F.; de Moraes, Paula C.; Valdemarsen, Thomas; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2015-03-01

    The effects of coastal upwelling on the structure of macrofaunal communities were investigated in two shallow bays in SE Brazil. Water, sediment and fauna samples were collected at four time-points corresponding to austral summer, fall, winter and spring, respectively. Water column temperature and salinity profiles indicated that upwelling occurred in summer-spring (December and November), but not in fall-winter (April and August). The structure of macrofaunal communities differed consistently between these periods. The sediment content of labile organic matter did not vary as a function of upwelling and could not explain the changes in macrofaunal communities. Rather it appeared that macrofaunal community structure was determined by organic matter quality (i.e. phytoplankton composition), physical disturbance regimes and bottom-water temperature. Physical disturbance caused by S-SE winds, warm water temperatures (up to 26 °C) and resuspension-driven phytoflagellate blooms during non-upwelling were associated to higher density (2511-2525 ind m- 2) and dominance of small opportunistic species such as spionid, paraonid and capitellid polychaetes. In contrast, stable hydrodynamic conditions, diatom blooms and lower water temperatures (down to 18 °C) during upwelling resulted in lower density of macrofauna (796-1387 ind m- 2) and a shift in species composition to relatively large-sized magelonids and carnivorous polychaetes. Therefore, organic matter quality, physical disturbance regimes, and bottom-water temperature were the major factors regulating the life-cycles, composition and density of macrofaunal communities in these less productive subtropical upwelling systems.

  8. Williams syndrome: a neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G W; Roy, D L

    1988-03-01

    Seven children with Williams syndrome were seen for neuropsychological assessment. Their performances were compared with those obtained from a clinical control group matched for age, sex, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Standard Score. The results support the view that children with Williams syndrome suffer from a severe impairment in visual-motor integration. No child in the Experimental Group outperformed his/her matched control on either subtest assessing visual-motor integration skills, while no significant differences were noted between the groups on tests for simple motor skills (e.g., finger oscillation). Significant differences were also found on the subtests of the Wide Range Achievement Test. No significant differences between the groups were noted on tests for general language skills. The remedial educational, and neuropsychological implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Nocturnal hypoxia and neuropsychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D T; Webb, W B; Block, A J; Bauer, R M; Switzer, D A

    1986-06-01

    Hypoxia is a well known cause of brain dysfunction. Neuropsychological impairments have been observed in normal subjects experiencing hypoxia iatrogenically as well as in patients with chronic lung disease. Recent investigations have demonstrated significant nocturnal hypoxia in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing. In the present study, heavy-snoring males, a group known to experience frequent episodes of sleep-disordered breathing received neuropsychological testing and a night of continuous monitoring of respiratory parameters. Partial correlations, controlling for age, weight, and education, indicated reliable relationships between nocturnal hypoxia and measures of general intelligence, verbal and nonverbal memory, and expressive verbal fluency. It is proposed that heavy-snoring males may potentially serve as a population in which to model the neurobehavioral effects of hypoxia. Further research in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing may help clarify the extent of the possible cognitive deficits as well as point out possible ameliorative treatments.

  10. [Formula: see text]Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN): Guidelines for Practicum Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron P; Roper, Brad L; Slomine, Beth S; Morrison, Chris; Greher, Michael R; Janusz, Jennifer; Larson, Jennifer C; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Ready, Rebecca E; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Whiteside, Doug M; Willment, Kim; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Practical experience is central to the education and training of neuropsychologists, beginning in graduate school and extending through postdoctoral fellowship. However, historically, little attention has been given to the structure and requirements of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. A working group of senior-level neuropsychologists, as well as a current postdoctoral fellow, all from a diverse range of settings (The AACN Practicum Guidelines Workgroup), was formed to propose guidelines for practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. The Workgroup reviewed relevant literature and sought input from professional organizations involved in education and training in neuropsychology. The proposed guidelines provide a definition of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, detail entry and exit criteria across competencies relevant to practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, and discuss the relationship between doctoral training programs and practicum training sites. The proposed guidelines also provide a methodology for competency-based evaluation of clinical neuropsychology practicum trainees and outline characteristics and features that are integral to an effective training environment. Although the guidelines discussed below may not be implemented in their entirety across all clinical neuropsychology practicum training sites, they are consistent with the latest developments in competency-based education.

  11. Auditory based neuropsychology in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Knut

    2008-04-01

    In this article, an account is given on the author's experience with auditory based neuropsychology in a clinical, neurosurgical setting. The patients that were included in the studies are patients with traumatic or vascular brain lesions, patients undergoing brain surgery to alleviate symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or patients harbouring an intracranial arachnoid cyst affecting the temporal or the frontal lobe. The aims of these investigations were to collect information about the location of cognitive processes in the human brain, or to disclose dyscognition in patients with an arachnoid cyst. All the patients were tested with the DL technique. In addition, the cyst patients were subjected to a number of non-auditory, standard neuropsychological tests, such as Benton Visual Retention Test, Street Gestalt Test, Stroop Test and Trails Test A and B. The neuropsychological tests revealed that arachnoid cysts in general cause dyscognition that also includes auditory processes, and more importantly, that these cognition deficits normalise after surgical removal of the cyst. These observations constitute strong evidence in favour of surgical decompression.

  12. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    The accumulated body of scientific evidence regarding intellectual function, presence of learning disorders, and specific neuropsychological deficits in TS suggests that difficulties in these areas are present in a significant percentage of patients with TS. Despite the numerous methodological shortcomings of past neuropsychological studies of TS, relatively robust and consistent findings have emerged. The literature to date has suggested that intellectual ability is normally distributed in TS. Whether or not individuals with TS have significant discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities remains unclear. The prevalence of learning disabilities in TS has been reported to be similar to the base rates reported for the general population, although there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of LDs in children with TS may actually be lower and specific for difficulties in math and written language. Specific cognitive deficits in TS consist of visuomotor integration problems, impaired fine motor skill, and executive dysfunction. The presence of comorbid conditions, notably ADHD and OCD, appears to significantly increase the likelihood that an individual with TS will also have learning problems or some demonstrable cognitive impairment. The presence of a learning disability, specific academic deficiency, or cognitive deficit may pose a greater obstacle for persons with TS than the tic disorder itself. This is particularly salient for children with TS, who may be at a higher risk for poor school performance and academic failure. The psychosocial impact of these problems is also far-reaching. Given the recent emphasis on the early detection of academic and learning problems, it would seem prudent that children with TS who are suspected of having neuropsychological difficulties be evaluated as soon as possible. There are numerous educational interventions and accommodations available to children with LDs and/or specific academic weaknesses that can work

  13. Amphibian DNA shows marked genetic structure and tracks pleistocene climate change in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Bates, John M

    2007-12-01

    The glacial refugia paradigm has been broadly applied to patterns of species dynamics and population diversification. However, recent geological studies have demonstrated striking Pleistocene climate changes in currently semiarid northeastern Brazil at time intervals much more frequent than the climatic oscillations associated with glacial and interglacial periods. These geomorphic data documented recurrent pulses of wet regimes in the past 210,000 years that correlate with climate anomalies affecting multiple continents. While analyzing DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2) and one nuclear marker (cellular-myelocytomatosis proto-oncogene) in the forest-associated frogs Proceratophrys boiei and Ischnocnema gr. ramagii, we found evidence of biological responses consistent with these pluvial maxima events. Sampled areas included old, naturally isolated forest enclaves within the semiarid Caatinga, as well as recent man-made fragments of humid coastal Atlantic forest. Results show that mtDNA lineages in enclave populations are monophyletic or nearly so, whereas nonenclave populations are polyphyletic and more diverse. The studied taxa show evidence of demographic expansions at times that match phases of pluvial maxima inferred from geological data. Divergence times between several populations fall within comparatively drier intervals suggested by geomorphology. Mitochondrial and nuclear data show local populations to be genetically structured, with some high levels of differentiation that suggest the need of further taxonomic work.

  14. STRUCTURE OF A SHRUB-TREE IN A FRAGMENT OF CAATINGA IN CEARÁ STATE, BRAZIL

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    Braulio Gomes de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northeast of Brazil is the largest part of its territory occupied by scrub which is characterized by being a xerophytic vegetation considered by experts the biome most sensitive to human interference and global climate change. This study aimed to characterize the floristic composition and structure in a remnant of savanna located in Reserva de Particular de Patrimonio Natural (RPPN in the Farm Trussú in Iguatu Ceará. 45 plots were established and sampled 10x20 cm all living and dead individuals with a stem diameter at the ground level > 3 cm and total height of > 1 m. The estimated density was 5,602 individuals ha-1 representing 52 species, 41 genera and 23 families. The studied area featuring a variety of woody component similar to that found in other areas of savanna, with Shannon diversity index of 2.19 nats/ind and equitability 0.50. The species Croton sonderianus, Combretum leprosum, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Mimosa tenuiflora had greater importance value index. The study area is well preserved and recovery process.

  15. Size structure and fertility in an Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae) population in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P M; Santos, F A M; Martins, F R

    2007-11-01

    Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered perennial herbaceous plant, endemic to Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This study was conducted in the Jambreiro Forest (19 degrees 58' -59'S and 43 degrees 52' -55' W, 800-1100 m altitude). In an attempt to describe the population size structure and its association with individual fertility, fifteen 1 x 1 m contiguous plots were set. We tagged, counted, and measured a total of 260 individuals in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Young individuals with leaf lamina lengths or = 10 cm in length did not reproduce was 2.69%. The highest survival probability of the large-sized individuals confirmed the strong correlation between size and survival. The data indicated that size is important for the fertility of E. fulva, and it may be one of the relevant aspects to be considered for analyses of survival probability. The intraspecific competition, which was indicated by negative correlation between fruit production per size unit and density, can affect fertility, as larger plants had higher fruit production.

  16. Size structure and fertility in an Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae population in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PM. Andrade

    Full Text Available Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered perennial herbaceous plant, endemic to Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This study was conducted in the Jambreiro Forest (19° 58' -59'S and 43° 52' -55' W, 800-1100 m altitude. In an attempt to describe the population size structure and its association with individual fertility, fifteen 1 x 1 m contiguous plots were set. We tagged, counted, and measured a total of 260 individuals in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Young individuals with leaf lamina lengths 10 cm in length did not reproduce was 2.69%. The highest survival probability of the large-sized individuals confirmed the strong correlation between size and survival. The data indicated that size is important for the fertility of E. fulva, and it may be one of the relevant aspects to be considered for analyses of survival probability. The intraspecific competition, which was indicated by negative correlation between fruit production per size unit and density, can affect fertility, as larger plants had higher fruit production.

  17. The Serra da Cangalha impact structure, Brazil: Geological, stratigraphic and petrographic aspects of a recently confirmed impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marcos Alberto Rodrigues; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Góes, Ana Maria; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.

    2013-08-01

    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with an apparent diameter of 13.7 km located in essentially undisturbed sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin in northeastern Brazil. The stratigraphy of the crater region includes, from bottom to top, the Longá, Poti, Piauí and Pedra de Fogo formations of Devonian to Late Permian age. The age of the impact event is constrained to structure comprises a ˜5.8 km wide central uplift involving the Piauí, Poti and Longá formations and a prominent ˜3 km wide collar of Poti Formation rocks. We divided Serra da Cangalha into four distinctive structural domains (i-iv), from the innermost zone outward. (i) The central domain, with an inner collar ˜1.5 km radius from the center, yielded all the samples with microscopic shock features identified so far. These include planar deformation features (PDF), feather features (FF), and planar fractures (PF) in quartz grains found in polymict breccias and shatter cones from the central depression. Furthermore, significant cementation with iron oxide is observed in the rocks of Serra da Cangalha, especially in the Poti Formation and in the polymict breccias, conferring to them a peculiar red color. Macroscopic deformation involves faulted, folded and subvertical strata within a ˜2.9 km radius from the center. (ii) The annular basin domain has limited outcrops; its most prominent features are two concentric annular ridges formed by chert breccias and fossilized wood-bearing folded strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation. (iii) The crater rim and (iv) external domains comprise undisturbed strata of the Pedra de Fogo and Piauí formations with well-preserved sedimentary structures. Whilst the existing literature on Serra da Cangalha has focused on the structure morphology, general geology and some shock features, we present here a detailed description of the stratigraphy and the geology of each formation in the interior and around Serra da Cangalha, as well as further detailed

  18. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  19. The legacy of Luria and school neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio Manga; Francisco Ramos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the history of neuropsychology applied towork with children. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the school centres, a specialty some have called “school neuropsycology”. Since the term was initially introduced (Hynd & Obrzut, 1981), considerable advances have arisen regarding the field and professional identityof this specialty. Luria’work continues to have a strong international influence. Luria has served for neuropsychological unde...

  20. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology...

  1. Pregnancy complications and neuropsychological outcomes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Gwendolyn; Baron, Ida Sue

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy complications elevate risk of associated adverse medical, socioenvironmental, and behavioral outcomes in children. These are likely to have a substantial impact on neuropsychological functioning and mental health across the child's lifespan. Thus, an understanding of the complex relationships between pregnancy complications and neuropsychological outcomes is critical for both practitioners and researchers. This review summarizes prevalent pregnancy complications and the associated psychological and neuropsychological findings, highlighting methodological challenges that have restricted investigations of these outcomes and identifying opportune areas for future study.

  2. Frontotemporal dementia: clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Nieto, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Describe the relationships between the clinical, neuropsychological, and imaging findings from a group of patients diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The clinical histories, cognitive tests, and structural and perfusion brain images of 21 patients of the Psychiatric Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia, were reviewed. The average age was 59.8 years; the average time for the evolution of disease symptoms was 2.7 years; the most common variant was the behavioral variant; the most common alteration shown through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was frontotemporal atrophy, while the most common alteration shown through single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was frontotemporal hypoperfusion. The most significant result was the normal performance of 61.9% of patients in praxis exams, which was associated with alterations in temporoparietal perfusion in the SPECT images (p Test (CLOX) served as screening tests.

  3. Psychological states and neuropsychological performances in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, L E; Pollina, D A; Scheffer, S R; Krupp, L B

    1999-01-01

    The neuropsychiatric sequelae of chronic Lyme disease remains unclear. This study sought to characterize the psychological status of a group of participants who met criteria for post-Lyme syndrome (PLS). These measures were then used to examine the influence of psychological status on neuropsychological performances. Thirty PLS participants completed a structured psychiatric interview, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Lyme Symptom Checklist, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. As a group, the PLS participants did not appear to have an elevated incidence of psychiatric disorders, and psychiatric history was not useful for understanding neuropsychological performances or symptom reports. The mood of the PLS participants was characterized by lowered levels of positive affect (PA) and typical levels of negative affect. This combination can be distinguished from depression and is consistent with previous findings of affect patterns in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome. PA was also linked to both total symptom severity and severity of cognitive complaints, but not to duration of illness, neurological manifestations at initial diagnosis, or treatment history. Relative to published normative data, neuropsychological performances were not in the impaired range on any measure. Neither psychological status nor symptom report were useful for understanding any aspect of cognitive functioning. It is concluded that decreased PA is the most useful marker of psychological functioning in PLS.

  4. Population genetic structure of Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis from the southwestern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

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    Juliana Ywasaki Lima

    Full Text Available Sotalia guianensis is a small dolphin that is vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Along the Brazilian Atlantic coast, this species is threatened with extinction. A prioritized action plan for conservation strategies relies on increased knowledge of the population. The scarcity of studies about genetic diversity and assessments of population structure for this animal have precluded effective action in the region. Here, we assessed, for the first time, the genetic differentiation at 14 microsatellite loci in 90 S. guianensis specimens stranded on the southeastern Atlantic coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We estimated population parameters and structure, measured the significance of global gametic disequilibrium and the intensity of non-random multiallelic interallelic associations and constructed a provisional synteny map using Bos taurus, the closest terrestrial mammal with a reference genome available. All microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with at least three and a maximum of ten alleles each. Allele frequencies ranged from 0.01 to 0.97. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.701. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.103. Three loci were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium even when missing genotypes were inferred. Although 77 of the 91 possible two-locus associations were in global gametic equilibrium, we unveiled 13 statistically significant, sign-based, non-random multiallelic interallelic associations in 10 two-locus combinations with either coupling (D' values ranging from 0.782 to 0.353 or repulsion (D' values -0.517 to -1.000 forces. Most of the interallelic associations did not involve the major alleles. Thus, for either physically or non-physically linked loci, measuring the intensity of non-random interallelic associations is important for defining the evolutionary forces at equilibrium. We uncovered a small degree of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.010; P-value = 0.463 with a hierarchical clustering into one

  5. Population genetic structure of Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) from the southwestern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ywasaki Lima, Juliana; Machado, Filipe Brum; Farro, Ana Paula Cazerta; Barbosa, Lupércio de Araújo; da Silveira, Leonardo Serafim; Medina-Acosta, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Sotalia guianensis is a small dolphin that is vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Along the Brazilian Atlantic coast, this species is threatened with extinction. A prioritized action plan for conservation strategies relies on increased knowledge of the population. The scarcity of studies about genetic diversity and assessments of population structure for this animal have precluded effective action in the region. Here, we assessed, for the first time, the genetic differentiation at 14 microsatellite loci in 90 S. guianensis specimens stranded on the southeastern Atlantic coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We estimated population parameters and structure, measured the significance of global gametic disequilibrium and the intensity of non-random multiallelic interallelic associations and constructed a provisional synteny map using Bos taurus, the closest terrestrial mammal with a reference genome available. All microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with at least three and a maximum of ten alleles each. Allele frequencies ranged from 0.01 to 0.97. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.701. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.103. Three loci were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium even when missing genotypes were inferred. Although 77 of the 91 possible two-locus associations were in global gametic equilibrium, we unveiled 13 statistically significant, sign-based, non-random multiallelic interallelic associations in 10 two-locus combinations with either coupling (D' values ranging from 0.782 to 0.353) or repulsion (D' values -0.517 to -1.000) forces. Most of the interallelic associations did not involve the major alleles. Thus, for either physically or non-physically linked loci, measuring the intensity of non-random interallelic associations is important for defining the evolutionary forces at equilibrium. We uncovered a small degree of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.010; P-value = 0.463) with a hierarchical clustering into one segment

  6. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  7. Structure and integrity of fish assemblages in streams associated to conservation units in Central Brazil

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    Thiago Belisário d'Araújo Couto

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the spatial and seasonal distribution of the fish assemblage and evaluate the integrity of streams in a sustainable use area that includes integral protection conservation units in Distrito Federal, Central Brazil (Cerrado biome. For the study, 12 stretches of 8 streams were sampled in 2008 (dry season and 2009 (wet season. For that evaluation was estimated the Physical Habitat Index (PHI, vegetation cover (VC, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and conductivity. We recorded 22 species, about eight undescribed species, by a total of 2,327 individuals. The most representative families in number of species were Characidae (31.8%, Loricariidae (31.8%, and Crenuchidae (13.6%. Knodus moenkhausii was the most abundant species with 1,476 individuals, added to Astyanax sp., Phalloceros harpagos, and Hasemania sp. they represent over 95% of the total abundance. The species Astyanax sp. (occurring in 79.2% of the stretches and K. moenkhausii (50.0% were considered constant in both seasons. The longitudinal gradient (River Continuum exerts a strong influence on the studied assemblage. According to CCA, the variables that structure the fish assemblage are based on aspects related to water volume and habitat complexity. No seasonal variation in richness, diversity, abundance, and mass were detected. A cluster analysis suggests a separation of species composition between the stretches of higher and lower orders, which was not observed for seasonality. The streams were considered well preserved (mean PHI 82.9±7.5%, but in some stretches were observed anthropogenic influence, detected in the water quality and, mainly, on the riparian vegetation integrity. The exotic species Poecilia reticulata was sampled in the two stretches considered most affected by anthropogenic activities by PHI, conductivity, and VC.

  8. Deep Structure and Subsidence of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Coelho, D. L. O.; Julià, J.

    2016-12-01

    Cratonic basins are typically underlain by thick lithosphere and slowly subside over hundreds of millions of years. Their stratigraphy consist of unconformity-bounded sequences of continental and shallow marine sedimentary rocks. The origin and evolution of these basins remain enigmatic. Here, we address this problem by carrying out an integrative study of the Parnaíba cratonic basin in NE Brazil. We analyse a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile crossing the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 9 broadband and 10 short-period, 3 component seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 wells distributed throughout the basin. Our aim is to constrain subsidence histories in the context of crustal structure and basin architecture. Combined interpretation of the deep seismic profile and 1D velocity models calculated by joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves locates the Moho at 39 km beneath the city of Teresina on the basin's eastern region. At the eastern edge of the basin, the Moho lies at 37 km beneath Precambrian basement. In the centre of the basin, the Moho lies at 37 km. Beneath Teresina, an increase in S wave velocity at 30 km coincides with mid-crustal reflections on the deep seismic profile. This feature is interpreted as the top of a high-velocity body within the crust. Ancillary seismic profiles show that the stratigraphy is divisible into packages of undisturbed reflections separated by bright, rugged reflections that resemble buried paleolandscapes. Correlation of seismic profiles with well logs shows that these surfaces are basin-wide erosional unconformities that are observable in outcrop. Backstripped and water-loaded subsidence curves show exponential decrease in subsidence over the last 400 Ma. This background subsidence is punctuated by departures from the long-term trend at times when unconformities occur, which we interpret as mild regional uplift events.

  9. The Genetic Structure of Leishmania infantum Populations in Brazil and Its Possible Association with the Transmission Cycle of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; dos Santos, Barbara Neves; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Ramos, Tereza Pompilio Bastos; Porrozzi, Renato; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, Mediterranean basin and West and Central Asia. Although the geographic structure of L. infantum populations from the Old World have been described, few studies have addressed the population structure of this parasite in the Neotropical region. We employed 14 microsatellites to analyze the population structure of the L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs from most of the Brazilian states endemic for VL and from Paraguay. The results indicate a low genetic diversity, high inbreeding estimates and a depletion of heterozygotes, which together indicate a predominantly clonal breeding system, but signs of sexual events are also present. Three populations were identified from the clustering analysis, and they were well supported by F statistics inferences and partially corroborated by distance-based. POP1 (111 strains) was observed in all but one endemic area. POP2 (31 strains) is also well-dispersed, but it was the predominant population in Mato Grosso (MT). POP3 (31 strains) was less dispersed, and it was observed primarily in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS). Strains originated from an outbreak of canine VL in Southern Brazil were grouped in POP1 with those from Paraguay, which corroborates the hypothesis of dispersal from Northeastern Argentina and Paraguay. The distribution of VL in MS seems to follow the west-east construction of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline from Corumbá municipality. This may have resulted in a strong association of POP3 and Lutzomyia cruzi, which is the main VL vector in Corumbá, and a dispersion of this population in this region that was shaped by human interference. This vector also occurs in MT and may influence the structure of POP2. This paper presents significant advances in the understanding of the population structure of L. infantum in Brazil and its association with eco-epidemiological aspects of VL. PMID:22606248

  10. Rhodolith bed structure along a depth gradient on the northern coast of bahia state, brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo G. Bahia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the structure of a rhodolith bed along a depth gradient of 5 to 25 m in the shelf in front of Salvador City, a region of northeastern Brazil. The dimensions, morphology and coralline algae composition of the rhodoliths were analyzed, as well as the vitality, density, and associated flora of the bed at three depths: 5, 15 and 25 m. Samples were obtained by SCUBA divers in summer 2007. Five rhodolith-forming taxa were identified: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens, and Lithophyllum sp. The encrusting growth form and the spherical shape were predominant at all depths. Rhodolith dimensions and vitality decreased and the density increased from the shallow to the deepest zones. Fifty-six macroalgal species were found as rhodolith-associated flora. The shallower depth presented higher values for macroalgal biomass and number of species. These results associated with other recent rhodolith bed descriptions indicate that the pattern of Brazilian rhodolith bed structure along depth gradients may be related to a combination of the extent and slope of the continental shelf.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de um banco de rodolitos ao longo de um gradiente de profundidade na plataforma em frente à cidade de Salvador, nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas as dimensões, a forma e composição das algas calcárias dos rodolitos, bem como a vitalidade, densidade e flora associada ao banco, em três profundidades: 5, 15 e 25 m. As amostras foram obtidas por meio de mergulho autônomo no verão de 2007. Cinco espécies de algas calcárias formadoras de rodolito foram identificadas: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens e Lithophyllum sp. A forma de crescimento incrustante e a forma esférica foram predominantes em todas as profundidades. Houve uma redução da dimensão e

  11. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning the identification of some of the neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a neuropsychological investigation of a ...

  12. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  13. History of neuropsychology through epilepsy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W

    2010-06-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions.

  14. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton community in the Botafogo reservoir-Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares de Lira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton in the Botafogo reservoir-PE-Brazil. Phytoplankton assemblages were identified from current literature and density was estimated using an inverted microscope. Concurrently to the sampling of biotic variables, measurements of abiotic parameters, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, were determined using field probes and transparency was determined with a Secchi disk. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were determined in laboratory. A total of 24 taxa were identified. Chlorophyta presented the greatest number of species. Species diversity in the reservoir was low throughout the study period. Principal component analysis revealed that Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. and Peridinium gatunense were directly correlated with oxygen, turbidity and total nitrogen; Planktosphaeria gelatinosa, P. gatunense and Euglena sp. were directed correlated with total nitrogen; rainfall explained the occurrence of Monoraphidium arcuatum and Chlorella vulgaris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a estrutura e dinâmica do fitoplâncton no reservatório de Botafogo-PE-Brasil. A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi identificada com literatura atualizada e a densidade estimada usando microscópio invertido. Concomitantemente as coletas das variáveis bióticas, foram medidos alguns parâmetros abióticos como temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e pH usando sondas de campo e transparência com disco de Secchi. Concentrações de fósforo total e nitrogênio total foram determinados em laboratório. Vinte e quatro táxons foram identificados tendo Chlorophyta apresentado maior número de espécie. A diversidade de espécie no reservatório foi baixa durante todo o período de estudo. A análise de componentes principais mostrou que Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. e

  15. The fine structure of the endogenous stages of Isospora hemidactyli carini, 1936 in the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia from North Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure is described of the meronts, microgamonts and young oocyst stages of Isospora hemidactyli of the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia from Belém, PA, north Brazil. The endogenous stages all develop in the nucleus of the gut epithelial cells. The nucleus remains intact up to the latest stages of the parasite's development, but degenerates by the time the oocyst appears. Merogonic division appears to be asynchronous, and some of the differentiated merozoites contained more than one nucleus. Microgamonts conform in structure with those of other eimeriids. Some of the type 2 wall-forming bodies disintegrate into smaller globules and ground substance of lower density.

  16. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  17. Neuropsychological Basis of Self Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a connection between the face recognition, the social relationship and the development of self. There must be a reason that people recognize faces through an important and complex module like the language functions. People know each other, recognize their friends and enemies and make friends through their faces. These show its fundamental role in the world. Like the integrity builds by collective self in inner world, integrity is established through face outside worlds. Researches and comments about the center of self in the brain are made based on neurological disorders like prosopagnosia. Especially some investigations about the evoked potentials will provide us a scientific basic for this subject. This paper addresses the relationship between facial recognition and self-development in terms of neuropsychological aspects. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 255-264

  18. The Technology Crisis in Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin B; Barr, William B

    2017-08-01

    Neuropsychology has fallen reliant on outdated and labor intensive methods of data collection that are slow, highly inefficient, and expensive, and provide relatively data-poor estimates of human behavior despite rapid technological advance in most other fields of medicine. Here we present a brief historical overview of current testing practices in an effort to frame the current crisis, followed by an overview of different settings in which technology can and should be integrated. Potential benefits of laboratory based assessments, remote assessments, as well as passive and high-frequency data collection tools rooted in technology are discussed, along with several relevant examples and how these technologies might be deployed. Broader issues of data security and privacy are discussed, as well as additional considerations to be addressed within each setting. Some of the historical barriers to adoption of technology are also presented, along with a brief discussion of the remaining uncertainties. While by no means intended as a comprehensive review or prescriptive roadmap, our goal is to show that there are a tremendous number of advantages to technologically driven data collection methods, and that technology should be embraced by the field. Our predictions are that the comprehensive assessments of the future will likely entail a combination of lab-based assessments, remote assessments, and passive data capture, and leading the development of these efforts will cement the role of neuropsychology at the forefront of cognitive and behavioral science. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Population structure of Rudgea parquioides (Rubiaceae, a shade-tolerant shrub species, in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C.G. Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The expectations that shade-tolerant forest species show 1 a population structure composed by a high amount of small individuals, and 2 biomass allocation for diameter higher than for height growth, were tested for Rudgea parquioides, a typical shrub in Southern Brazil. We described the size structure (height and stem diameter and allometrical relations of a R. parquioides population by counting and measuring all the individuals in a 725m² area in the municipality of Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. A total of 916 individuals (12,634 ind.ha-1 were recorded in the area. The firstexpectation was supported, since distribution by height and diameter classes showed a predominance of small individuals (skewness coefficients > 1. On the other hand, the regression between height and stem base diameter showed slope β Foram testadas duas hipóteses relativas a espécies florestaistolerantes à sombra em uma população de Rudgea parquioides, um arbusto característico do sul do Brasil: 1 espécies tolerantes à sombra possuem uma estrutura populacional composta por um grande número de indivíduos pequenos e 2 a alocação de biomassa para o crescimento em diâmetro é maior que para o crescimento em altura. Foram descritas as estruturas de tamanho (altura e diâmetro do tronco e relações alométricas através da contagem e medição de todos os indivíduos de R. parquioides em uma área de 725m² no município de Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. Um total de 916 indivíduos(12.634 ind.ha-1 foi medido nesta área. A primeira hipótese foi aceita, uma vez que a distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou um predomínio de indivíduos pequenos (coeficiente de assimetria > 1. Por outro lado, a regressão entre altura e diâmetro na base do caule mostrou inclinação β < 1, o que indica que o crescimento em altura é maior que em diâmetro, não suportando a segunda hipótese. Esses resultados mostram que as estratégias de crescimento em esp

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor...... analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional...... and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results...

  1. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI: A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie R. de Vent

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI, datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity and range of these data surpasses that of traditional normative data, thereby enabling more accurate neuropsychological assessment. Because of the unique structure of the database, it facilitates normative comparison methods that were not feasible before, in particular those in which entire profiles of scores are evaluated. In this article, we describe the steps that were necessary to combine the separate datasets into a single database. These steps involve matching variables from multiple datasets, removing outlying values, determining the influence of demographic variables, and finding appropriate transformations to normality. Also, a brief description of the current contents of the ANDI database is given.

  2. [The rapid development of child neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Jambaqué, I

    2008-05-01

    The past few years have seen important progress and new developments in the field of child neuropsychology. Children can exhibit acquired or learning disorders, but in all cases such deficits take place in a developmental trajectory that requires taking into account cerebral maturation and plasticity processes. Child neuropsychology finds its specificity in the perspective of developmental neuropsychology and has close connections with health and education. This article focuses on two pathologies - childhood epilepsies and developmental dyslexia - that highlight the recent progress in this specialty and its perspectives.

  3. Deep Structure and Subsidence History of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicky; Coelho, Diogo; Julià, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Cratonic sedimentary basins constitute some of the largest sedimentary basins on Earth. They are typically underlain by thick (i.e. 200 km) lithosphere and are characterized by slow, punctuated subsidence that occurs over hundreds of millions of years. Their stratigraphic records mainly consist of sequences of continental and shallow marine sedimentary rocks bounded by basin-wide erosional unconformities. Despite the importance of these basins, their origin and evolution remain poorly understood, mainly due to scarcity of well-constrained geological and geophysical data. In order to address this problem, an integrative study of the Parnaíba Cratonic basin in NE Brazil has been carried out within the framework of a multidisciplinary investigation. Here, we combine the analysis of a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile that crosses the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 12 broadband and 10 short-period, 3 component seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 wells distributed across the basin. Our main goal is to constrain the basin's subsidence history in the context of its deep crustal structure and sedimentary architecture. Joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group dispersion measurements has been used to calculate 1D shear wave velocity models for crust and upper mantle beneath each seismic station. Combined interpretation of these velocity profiles and the deep seismic reflection profile has been carried out. Our results suggest Moho depths of approximately 35 km and 38 km beneath Precambrian basement east and west of the Parnaíba basin, respectively. In contrast, the Moho occurs at approximately 39 km beneath the city of Teresina, located on the eastern region of the basin, and at depths between 40 km and 42 km beneath the central and western areas of the basin. These results are combined to construct a sub-surface model underneath Parnaíba, and gravity modeling is used to test its validity. Average

  4. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  5. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  6. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention con...

  7. Applications of Technology in Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsey, Carolyn M.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments include at least one measure that is administered, scored, or interpreted by computers or other technologies. Despite supportive findings for these technology-based assessments, there is resistance in the field of neuropsychology to adopt additional measures that incorporate technology components. This literature review addresses the research findings of technology-based neuropsychological assessments, including computer-, and virtual reality-based measures of cognitive and functional abilities. We evaluate the strengths and limitations of each approach, and examine the utility of technology-based assessments to obtain supplemental cognitive and behavioral information that may be otherwise undetected by traditional paper and pencil measures. We argue that the potential of technology use in neuropsychological assessment has not yet been realized, and continued adoption of new technologies could result in more comprehensive assessment of cognitive dysfunction and in turn, better informed diagnosis and treatments. Recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:24041037

  8. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  9. Solution structure, copper binding and backbone dynamics of recombinant Ber e 1-the major allergen from Brazil nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Louise; Tengel, Tobias; Zdunek, Janusz; Björn, Erik; Schleucher, Jürgen; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Larsson, Göran

    2012-01-01

    The 2S albumin Ber e 1 is the major allergen in Brazil nuts. Previous findings indicated that the protein alone does not cause an allergenic response in mice, but the addition of components from a Brazil nut lipid fraction were required. Structural details of Ber e 1 may contribute to the understanding of the allergenic properties of the protein and its potential interaction partners. The solution structure of recombinant Ber e 1 was solved using NMR spectroscopy and measurements of the protein back bone dynamics at a residue-specific level were extracted using (15)N-spin relaxation. A hydrophobic cavity was identified in the structure of Ber e 1. Using the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement property of Cu(2+) in conjunction with NMR, it was shown that Ber e 1 is able to specifically interact with the divalent copper ion and the binding site was modeled into the structure. The IgE binding region as well as the copper binding site show increased dynamics on both fast ps-ns timescale as well as slower µs-ms timescale. The overall fold of Ber e 1 is similar to other 2S albumins, but the hydrophobic cavity resembles that of a homologous non-specific lipid transfer protein. Ber e 1 is the first 2S albumin shown to interact with Cu(2+) ions. This Cu(2+) binding has minimal effect on the electrostatic potential on the surface of the protein, but the charge distribution within the hydrophobic cavity is significantly altered. As the hydrophobic cavity is likely to be involved in a putative lipid interaction the Cu(2+) can in turn affect the interaction that is essential to provoke an allergenic response.

  10. Solution Structure, Copper Binding and Backbone Dynamics of Recombinant Ber e 1–The Major Allergen from Brazil Nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Louise; Tengel, Tobias; Zdunek, Janusz; Björn, Erik; Schleucher, Jürgen; Alcocer, Marcos J. C.; Larsson, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Background The 2S albumin Ber e 1 is the major allergen in Brazil nuts. Previous findings indicated that the protein alone does not cause an allergenic response in mice, but the addition of components from a Brazil nut lipid fraction were required. Structural details of Ber e 1 may contribute to the understanding of the allergenic properties of the protein and its potential interaction partners. Methodology/Principal Findings The solution structure of recombinant Ber e 1 was solved using NMR spectroscopy and measurements of the protein back bone dynamics at a residue-specific level were extracted using 15N-spin relaxation. A hydrophobic cavity was identified in the structure of Ber e 1. Using the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement property of Cu2+ in conjunction with NMR, it was shown that Ber e 1 is able to specifically interact with the divalent copper ion and the binding site was modeled into the structure. The IgE binding region as well as the copper binding site show increased dynamics on both fast ps-ns timescale as well as slower µs-ms timescale. Conclusions/Significance The overall fold of Ber e 1 is similar to other 2S albumins, but the hydrophobic cavity resembles that of a homologous non-specific lipid transfer protein. Ber e 1 is the first 2S albumin shown to interact with Cu2+ ions. This Cu2+ binding has minimal effect on the electrostatic potential on the surface of the protein, but the charge distribution within the hydrophobic cavity is significantly altered. As the hydrophobic cavity is likely to be involved in a putative lipid interaction the Cu2+ can in turn affect the interaction that is essential to provoke an allergenic response. PMID:23056307

  11. Temperament and character correlates of neuropsychological performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cassimjee, Nafisa; Murphy, Raegan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the association between temperament and character dimensions, on the one hand,and computerised neuropsychological test performance, on the other hand. Temperament and character dimensions were operationalised as scores on the subscales of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), a 240-item measure that is based on the psychobiological theory of personality. Neuropsychological outcomes were measured on six computerised tests of executive functioning and abstract reasoning ...

  12. [Labor market structure and access to private health insurance in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Flavia; Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Maia, Ana Carolina

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to describe health insurance coverage among different types of workers in Brazil. Health insurance coverage and labor market insertion are used to define homogeneous groups of workers. The Grade of Membership method is used to build a typology of workers. The database was the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD) for 1998 and 2003, including a health survey. Five worker profiles were defined. The key variables were: health insurance coverage, schooling, and work status. The main findings show a positive association between health insurance coverage, income from work, and trade union membership.

  13. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  14. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  15. Italian neuropsychology in the second half of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallar, Giuseppe; Boller, François; Grossi, Dario; Gainotti, Guido

    2015-03-01

    Since the early 1960s, human neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior interrelations, mainly based on the analysis of their pathological variations, brought about by brain damage, has had a remarkable systematical development in Italy. All this started in Milan, with the neurologist Ennio de Renzi, and his collaborators (Luigi Vignolo, then Anna Basso, Pietro Faglioni, Hans Spinnler, François Boller, and, more autonomously, Edoardo Bisiach), in the Clinic of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Scientists of the "Milan group" investigated several neuropsychological deficits caused by focal hemispheric lesions in large series of left- and right-brain-damaged patients, and control participants, comparable for cultural and demographic variables. Standardized tests and advanced statistical methods were used, which also applied to the diagnosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. Subsequently, neuropsychology developed in Italy extensively, reaching high international reputation. Leading neuropsychologists have been the neurologists Guido Gainotti (Rome), and Franco Denes (Padua), the physicians and psychologists Luigi Pizzamiglio (Rome), and Carlo Umiltà (Parma, with fruitful interactions with the neurophysiologists Giovanni Berlucchi, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Carlo Marzi, from the school of Giuseppe Moruzzi in Pisa) A second scientific generation of neuropsychologists has then developed in the 1970s, trained by the abovementioned scientists, further boosting and spreading high-level basic and applied research (diagnosis and rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits of patients with brain damage or dysfunction throughout the life span, from childhood to the elderly). Available techniques include structural and functional imaging (CT, PET, SPET, MRI and fMRI Scans, DTI), electrophysiological recording (EEG, ERPs), non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS, tES), and their combined use.

  16. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae in an Estuary in Southern Brazil

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    Felipe Freitas-Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas.

  17. Genomic signatures of paleodrainages in a freshwater fish along the southeastern coast of Brazil: genetic structure reflects past riverine properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, A T; Malabarba, L R; Knowles, L L

    2017-10-01

    Past shifts in connectivity in riverine environments (for example, sea-level changes) and the properties of current drainages can act as drivers of genetic structure and demographic processes in riverine population of fishes. However, it is unclear whether the same river properties that structure variation on recent timescales will also leave similar genomic signatures that reflect paleodrainage properties. By characterizing genetic structure in a freshwater fish species (Hollandichthys multifasciatus) from a system of basins along the Atlantic coast of Brazil we test for the effects of paleodrainages caused by sea-level changes during the Pleistocene. Given that the paleodrainage properties differ along the Brazilian coast, we also evaluate whether estimated genetic diversity within paleodrainages can be explained by past riverine properties (i.e., area and number of rivers in a paleodrainage). Our results demonstrate that genetic structure between populations is not just highly concordant with paleodrainages, but that differences in the genetic diversity among paleodrainages correspond to the joint effect of differences in the area encompassed by, and the number of rivers, within a paleodrainage. Our findings extend the influence of current riverine properties on genetic diversity to those associated with past paleodrainage properties. We discuss how these findings may explain the inconsistent support for paleodrainages in structuring divergence from different global regions and the importance of taking into account past conditions for understanding the high species diversity of freshwater fish that we currently observe in the world, and especially in the Neotropics.

  18. TREE STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF AN AREA OF MIXED RAIN FOREST IN CAMPO BELO DO SUL, SC, BRAZIL

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    Silvio Formento

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the arboreal structure of a Mixed Rain Forest was assessed in the period 1992-2003. The area belongs to the “Florestal Gateados company”, located in Campo Belo do Su county, in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. The surwey was carried out in 16 sample units of 10 x 60 m (600 m², where all individuals with DAP > 10 cm Were registered, measured and identified. After the analysis, it could be concluded that: Lithraea brasiliensis was the most representative specie in the structure of the forest in both analised periods, and this was related to the high values of density, dominance, frequency, besides the distribution in all forest layers. The most important species, which increased their participation in the composition and structure were, Ocotea pulchella, Matayba elaeagnoides, Clethra scabra, Clethra uleana, Sebastiana commersoniana and Araucaria angustifolia; The species which decreased in their importância in the forest structure were, Myrsine coriacea Nectandra grandiflora Capsicodendron dinissi, Ilex theezans,Ilex dumosa and Xylosma ciliatifolium. The distribuition of the trees in the forest layers changed from increasing distribution in 1992 to uniformity in 2003, enhancing the increases in density of trees of the lower layer; the forest is in a successional process, indicated particularly by the dinamycs of the structure of the lower forest layers.

  19. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil

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    R. R. Hilário

    Full Text Available Abstract Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  20. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

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    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  1. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  2. Neuropsychological findings in hyperthyroid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudiarto, Fenny L; Muliadi, L; Moeljanto, D; Hartono, B

    2006-01-01

    to evaluate attention, concentration, memory changes and executive function inpatients with hyperthyroidism compared with normal thyroid function patients. a cross sectional study was conducted in 21 patients (14F, 7M) with symptoms of sweating, sleep disturbance, fine tremor, headache, palpitation, nervousness, forgetfulness and diarrhea. Neurological examination found that 2 patients had proximal paresis and periodic paralysis. Their thyroid functions (FT4 and TSHS) were done, 13 patients were hyperthyroid, 2 patients were subclinical hyperthyroid and 6 patients were euthyroid. Neuropsychological tests such as: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Vigilance Complex Task (VCT), Digit Forward and Backward Repetition (DFR, DBR) were performed in all of those patients. The mean age of sample was 47,3 +/- 8,45 years old and all of them had minimal 6 years education background, no history of cerebro vascular disease, brain injury or tumour or infection, epilepsy, cerebral degeneration, and taking neuroleptics or antidepressants. using the Kendall correlation coefficients showed that FT4 had negative correlation with VCT, CPT, DFR, DBR and positive correlation with TMT A (time) and TMT B (time and error). Study T-test showed that high level of thyroid function had significant difference in TMT A (time), TMT B (time), DBR, DFR, VCT, CPT. Fischer exact gave statistically significant in VCT and fine tremor in hyperthyroid patients (RR VCT 5.60, 95% CI 0.93-33.68, RR fine tremor 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.88). hyperthyroid patients had significant decrease on attention, concentration, verbal memory and executive function (working memory) compared with euthyroid patients.

  3. Community structure of helminth parasites of the "Cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Viviane Gularte Tavares; Amato, Suzana B; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-03-01

    Sixty specimens of the "cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Spix 1824) (Bufonidae), were collected in Campo Belo do Sul, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between May 2009 and January 2011, and were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nine species of adult helminths were found: Catadiscus cohni, Rudolphitrema rudolphii, Cylindrotaenia sp., Rhabdias fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., Cosmocerca rara, Cosmocerca brasiliensis, Aplectana elenae, and Oxyascaris sp., in addition to an unidentified adult nematode species. Females of cosmocercid nematodes, proteocephalan plerocercoid, and acanthocephalan cystacanth were found but not identified for lack absolute of taxonomic characters. The sex of the anurans had no influence on prevalence, abundance, and richness of helminth species. Length and body mass of hosts did not influence the prevalence and richness of helminths, while the abundance of R. fuelleborni was significantly correlated with both parameters.

  4. Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes.

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    Teresinha Palha

    Full Text Available In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives.

  5. Disclosing the genetic structure of Brazil through analysis of male lineages with highly discriminating haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palha, Teresinha; Gusmão, Leonor; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Elzemar; Guerreiro, João Farias; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Andrea; Santos, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    In a large variety of genetic studies, probabilistic inferences are made based on information available in population databases. The accuracy of the estimates based on population samples are highly dependent on the number of chromosomes being analyzed as well as the correct representation of the reference population. For frequency calculations the size of a database is especially critical for haploid markers, and for countries with complex admixture histories it is important to assess possible substructure effects that can influence the coverage of the database. Aiming to establish a representative Brazilian population database for haplotypes based on 23 Y chromosome STRs, more than 2,500 Y chromosomes belonging to Brazilian, European and African populations were analyzed. No matter the differences in the colonization history of the five geopolitical regions that currently exist in Brazil, for the Y chromosome haplotypes of the 23 studied Y-STRs, a lack of genetic heterogeneity was found, together with a predominance of European male lineages in all regions of the country. Therefore, if we do not consider the diverse Native American or Afro-descendent isolates, which are spread through the country, a single Y chromosome haplotype frequency database will adequately represent the urban populations in Brazil. In comparison to the most commonly studied group of 17 Y-STRs, the 23 markers included in this work allowed a high discrimination capacity between haplotypes from non-related individuals within a population and also increased the capacity to discriminate between paternal relatives. Nevertheless, the expected haplotype mutation rate is still not enough to distinguish the Y chromosome profiles of paternally related individuals. Indeed, even for rapidly mutating Y-STRs, a very large number of markers will be necessary to differentiate male lineages from paternal relatives.

  6. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

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    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  7. Cerebellar agenesis: clinical, neuropsychological and MR findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmann, D; Dimitrova, A; Hein-Kropp, C; Wilhelm, H; Dörfler, A

    2003-10-01

    Cases of cerebellar agenesis are rare. The degree of motor impairment is a matter of discussion. It has been claimed that normal motor function can be observed. Detailed descriptions of neurological findings, however, are lacking. Neuropsychological testing in cerebellar agenesis is of additional interest based on recent findings of impaired non-motor functions in cerebellar disease. The case of an elderly woman with cerebellar agenesis is presented. 3D-MR imaging was used to confirm the diagnosis. Neurological and neuropsychological examination was performed including video documentation (see the authors' own website). To assess deficits of motor learning eyeblink conditioning was investigated. Neurological examination revealed mild to moderate signs of cerebellar dysarthria, upper and lower limb ataxia and ataxia of stance and gait. Motor learning was affected as shown by inability to acquire conditioned eyeblink responses. In addition, neuropsychological testing disclosed mild to moderate deficits in IQ, planning behavior, visuospatial abilities, memory and attention. Cerebellar ataxia, although clearly present, was less than one would expect in almost complete absence of the cerebellum. Neuropsychological deficits, on the other hand, appeared to be more marked than one would expect in cerebellar disease. No conclusion, however, could be drawn whether impaired cognitive development and neuropsychological test performance were directly related to lack of cerebellar function, or caused by impaired motor development and performance.

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  10. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  11. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

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    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  12. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of eastern Amazonian Brazil.

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    Conn, Jan E; Vineis, Joseph H; Bollback, Jonathan P; Onyabe, David Y; Wilkerson, Richard C; Póvoa, Marinete M

    2006-05-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the primary malaria vector in Latin America, and is especially important in Amazonian Brazil. Historically, control efforts have been focused on indoor house spraying using a variety of insecticides, but since the mid-1990s there has been a shift to patient treatment and focal insecticide fogging. Anopheles darlingi was believed to have been significantly reduced in a gold-mining community, Peixoto de Azevedo (in Mato Grosso State), in the early 1990s by insecticide use during a severe malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An. darlingi including evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, we analyzed eight microsatellite loci of 256 individuals from seven locations in Brazil: three in Amapa State, three in Para State, and one in Mato Grosso State. Allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number alleles/locus and H(E) were 13.5 and 0.834, respectively) and did not differ significantly between locations. Significant heterozygote deficits were associated with linkage disequilibrium, most likely due to either the Wahlund effect or selection. We found no evidence for a population bottleneck in Peixoto, possibly because the reduction was not extreme enough to be detected. Overall estimates of long-term N(e) varied from 92.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model to infinity under the heterozygote excess model. Fixation indices and analysis of molecular variance demonstrated significant differentiation between locations north and south of the Amazon River, suggesting a degree of genetic isolation between them, attributed to isolation by distance.

  13. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  14. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  15. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  16. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  17. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  18. Group structure of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tardin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans present a group structure of great complexity and display a wide behavioral plasticity. Many efforts have been made to understand the group structures of the various species, however, this type of information is still lacking for some species. Therefore, our objectives were to 1 characterize the structure of the Sotalia guianensis groups in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 2 investigate how both behavior and season influence the group structure of this population. This species is considered "data deficient" by the IUCN. We conducted 28 boat trips using group focal procedures, and a total of 1,314 groups were observed. Of these groups, 1,268 (94.4% contained calves, the largest percentage ever reported for the species. Groups with calves were larger than those without them, suggesting a strategy to protect these individuals with underdeveloped physiology. The mean group sizes reached 17.6 ± 18.3 individuals. Within these groups, we observed that both behavior (H = 112.5, d.f. = 2, P < 0.05 and season (number of simulations: 10,000; sample size of fall-winter = 544; sample size of spring-summer = 684; P < 0.05, demonstrated a statistically significant influence. The most common degree of cohesion was mixed, and cohesion also varied with behavior (χ2 = 10.1, P < 0.05 and season (χ2 = 31.0, P < 0.05. This paper contributes towards understanding the highly variable nature of S. guianensis group dynamics. These data may be important in understanding the structure of groups in a site that is being increasingly impacted by different human activities. Moreover, this area contains the largest aggregation ever observed for this species and may therefore represent an important source of genetic diversity for the species as a whole.

  19. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  20. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are...

  1. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  2. Urbanization effects on the composition and structure of macrophytes communities in a lotic ecosystem of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. C. C. Xavier

    Full Text Available Abstract Population growth in urban areas changes freshwater ecosystems, and this can have consequences for macrophyte communities as can be seen in the municipalities that border the Capibaribe River, Pernambuco, Brazil. This study reports the effects of urbanization on the composition and structure of macrophyte communities in areas along that river. The following urbanized and non-urbanized sampling sites were chosen: Sites 1 and 2 (municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Sites 3 and 4 (municipality of Toritama, and Sites 5 and 6 (metropolitan region of Recife. These sites were visited every two months from January to July 2013 to observe seasonal variation (wet and dry seasons. Thirty-one species were identified. Generally, the non-urbanized sites had a higher number of species. Multivariate analyses indicated significant overall differences between urbanized and non-urbanized areas (R = 0.044; p < 0.001 and between seasons (R = 0.018; p < 0.019. Owing to the large variation in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics between urbanized and non-urbanized areas, we found that urbanization significantly influenced the floristic composition and structure of macrophyte communities.

  3. Coral community structure and sedimentation at different distances from the coast of the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Segal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation has previously been considered an important source of impact in coral reefs. We compared 3 sites on the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil, regarding sedimentation rates, carbonate sediment composition, coral cover, and colony size for the commonest local coral species (Mussismilia braziliensis, Siderastrea stellata, and Favia gravida. The sites are located at different distances from the mainland: Pedra de Leste (14 km, Pontas Sul (26 km, and Parcel dos Abrolhos (58 km. Sedimentation was higher in winter (p A sedimentação tem sido considerada uma importante fonte de impacto nos recifes de coral. Uma comparação entre as taxas de sedimentação, teor de carbonatos nos sedimentos, cobertura coralínea e tamanho de colônias de corais para as espécies mais comuns (Mussismilia braziliensis, Siderastrea stellata, e Favia gravida foi realizada em 3 locais no Banco dos Abrolhos. Os locais representam um gradiente de distância da costa: Pedra de Leste (14 km, Pontas Sul (26 km e Parcel dos Abrolhos (58 km. A sedimentação foi maior no inverno (p <0,05, mas não foi observada diferença entre os locais. O tipo de sedimento diferiu entre locais (P <0,05, sendo que Parcel dos Abrolhos apresentou 90% de carbonatos, Pontas Sul 65% e Pedra de Leste 50%. A cobertura coralínea foi maior no local mais afastado de terra (p <0,01, onde a cobertura de zoantídeos foi menor. Diferenças de tamanho de colônias foram encontradas apenas para M. braziliensis, com menores colônias em Pedra de Leste (p <0,05. A distribuição dos sedimentos terrígenos e a turbidez devem ser os principais fatores controladores do desenvolvimento dos recifes de Abrolhos.

  4. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Population structure and juvenile habitat use of dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vinicius Condini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of population dynamics including the identification of reproductive areas and their contribution to the maintenance of fish stocks is essential for population conservation. Dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, is a broadly distributed fish species, usually found in marine rocky bottoms. It is currently listed as “endangered” by the IUCN Red List. The available information on its population in southern Brazil suggests that the neritic habitat of Carpinteiro Bank - CB is the main growth and spawning ground in the region. We investigated if the dusky groupers caught in the rocky-jetties of Rio Grande city (a littoral artificial habitat with no spawning activity originated from the CB. We sampled 28 individuals from the littoral rocky-jetties aged between 2 and 12 years, and 44 individuals from the neritic CB aged between 2 and 40 years. Individuals from both areas had their otolith sections analyzed with LA-ICPMS (core-to-edge profiles for 86Sr:43Ca, 138Ba:43Ca ratios. The otolith core (natal origin and edge (time shortly before capture from individuals of the same age class showed no difference between the two sites. Individual profiles of 138Ba:43Ca ratios of fish from the littoral zone indicated, for the first time, that some juveniles of dusky grouper enter the Patos lagoon and remain within the estuarine environment between the first and second years of life. This interpretation of otolith chemical data is supported by the marked differences in salinity between the littoral and estuarine sites in these studies areas, and by the marked differences in otolith 138Ba:43Ca of other fish species analyzed along the salinity gradient in the Patos Lagoon estuary. The identification of differential juvenile habitat use patterns is crucial for the establishment and implementation of management and conservation strategies to safeguard this endangered species.

  6. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparecida Ribeiro, Andreza; Quintao Lima, Diana; Anderson Duarte, Helio; Murad, Enver [ICEx, UFMG, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio Cesar, E-mail: mcpqui@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Tadeu de Freitas Suita, Marcos [UFOP, Departamento de Geologia (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil); Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaqua copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  7. Evaluating strategies for honey value chains in Brazil using a value chain structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana de Figueiredo Junior, Hugo; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Amaral Filho, do Jair; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Development organizations have used value chain analysis in defining interventions for the honey business in major exporting countries like Brazil. Yet, the impact of interventions has been unclear. This paper aims at evaluating strategies of three honey value chain streams in Brazil, selected

  8. Solution structure, copper binding and backbone dynamics of recombinant Ber e 1-the major allergen from Brazil nut

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rundqvist, Louise; Tengel, Tobias; Zdunek, Janusz; Björn, Erik; Schleucher, Jürgen; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Larsson, Göran

    2012-01-01

    The 2S albumin Ber e 1 is the major allergen in Brazil nuts. Previous findings indicated that the protein alone does not cause an allergenic response in mice, but the addition of components from a Brazil nut lipid fraction were required...

  9. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  10. Neuropsychology, Fact or Mythology, Educational Help or Hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, William H.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale is presented for the use of neuropsychological knowledge in the better understanding and treatment of the learning disabled child by the school psychologist. Neuropsychological classifications of brain function and behavior are discussed in order to help psychologists recognize those cases appropriate for neuropsychological assessment.…

  11. Neuropsychology of the prodrome to psychosis in the NAPLS consortium: relationship to family history and conversion to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J; Giuliano, Anthony J; Meyer, Eric C; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Christensen, Bruce K; Hawkins, Keith; Heaton, Robert; Keefe, Richard S E; Heinssen, Robert; Cornblatt, Barbara A

    2010-06-01

    Early detection and prospective evaluation of clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals who may develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders is critical for predicting psychosis onset and for testing preventive interventions. To elucidate the neuropsychology of the CHR syndrome, to determine the association of neuropsychological function with conversion to psychosis and family history of psychosis, and to examine whether baseline neuropsychological functioning predicts subsequent psychosis. Longitudinal study with 2(1/2) years of follow-up. Eight centers participating in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Three hundred four prospectively identified CHR individuals meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes criteria, 52 non-CHR persons with a family history of psychosis in first- or second-degree relatives (family high-risk group), and 193 normal controls with neither a family history of psychosis nor a CHR syndrome, all of whom underwent baseline neuropsychological evaluations. A neurocognitive composite score, 8 individual neuropsychological measures, an IQ estimate, and high-risk status. Global ("composite") neuropsychological functioning was comparably impaired in the CHR and family high-risk groups compared with controls, but profiles differed significantly between groups. Neuropsychological functioning in the CHR group was significantly lower in persons who progressed to psychosis than in those who did not and was worst in the subgroup with a family history of psychosis. Tests of processing speed and verbal learning and memory were most sensitive in discriminating CHR individuals from controls, although reductions were less severe than in established schizophrenia. Neuropsychological functioning did not contribute uniquely to the prediction of psychosis beyond clinical criteria, but worse verbal memory predicted more rapid conversion. These findings document that CHR individuals have significant neuropsychological difficulties

  12. Neuropsychological comparisons of cocaine versus methamphetamine users: a research synthesis and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew G; Hauson, Alexander O; Wollman, Scott C; Allen, Kenneth E; Connors, Eric J; Stern, Mark J; Kimmel, Christine L; Stephan, Rick A; Sarkissians, Sharis; Barlet, Brianna D; Grant, Igor

    2017-08-21

    Previous meta-analytical research examining cocaine and methamphetamine separately suggests potentially different neuropsychological profiles associated with each drug. In addition, neuroimaging studies point to distinct structural changes that might underlie differences in neuropsychological functioning. This meta-analysis compared the effect sizes identified in cocaine versus methamphetamine studies across 15 neuropsychological domains. Investigators searched and coded the literature examining the neuropsychological deficits associated with a history of either cocaine or methamphetamine use. A total of 54 cocaine and 41 methamphetamine studies were selected, yielding sample sizes of 1,718 and 1,297, respectively. Moderator analyses were conducted to compare the two drugs across each cognitive domain. Data revealed significant differences between the two drugs. Specifically, studies of cocaine showed significantly larger effect-size estimates (i.e., poorer performance) in verbal working memory when compared to methamphetamine. Further, when compared to cocaine, methamphetamine studies demonstrated significantly larger effect sizes in delayed contextual verbal memory and delayed visual memory. Overall, cocaine and methamphetamine users share similar neuropsychological profiles. However, cocaine appears to be more associated with working memory impairments, which are typically frontally mediated, while methamphetamine appears to be more associated with memory impairments that are linked with temporal and parietal lobe dysfunction.

  13. [Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with absence seizures with valproic acid treatment: neuropsychological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Guzon, P A; Cancho-Candela, R

    2012-07-16

    To analyze the neuropsychological profile of children with absence seizures treated with valproate. Sample of 34 children from 7 to 12 years with absence seizures treated with valproate (median dose: 30 mg/kg/day) and 28 controls. We get the neuropsychological profile by applying the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Luria-DNI Battery. Children with absence seizures manifest verbal IQ significantly lower (p grammar. This is a serious deterioration profile in the areas of logical memory, short-term memory, arithmetic, numerical structure, reading, writing, naming, and articulation. Children with absence seizures have a significant memory deficit. Memory profile measured with the Luria-DNI Battery and the WISC-R appears generally deteriorated when compared with the control group (p < 0.001) although there is a paradoxical preservation of shape memory. The short-term auditory and visual memory and logical memory are particularly affected. In the epileptic group, the attentional profile (estimated by the 'third factor of the WISC-R') is generally deteriorated when compared with the control group. We consider in children with this diagnosis and treatment, the neuropsychological profile described to strengthen deficient neuropsychological and psychoeducational areas. Above, we claim the need, in the consultations of neuropediatrics, the neuropsychlogists to ensure the systematic analysis of neuropsychological and cognitive difficulties both at the time of the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy.

  14. Specifying the neuropsychology of affective disorders: clinical, demographic and neurobiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Sinnamon, Grant; Baune, Bernhard T

    2011-12-01

    Neuropsychological research in patients with affective disorders shows heterogeneous results with regard to the severity and profile of cognitive impairments. In this paper we hypothesize that the investigation of clinical (subtypes, comorbidity, traumatization, personality, severity, diurnal swings, course, duration, age of onset, biased processing, rumination, motivation, experience of failure, sleep, suicidal tendencies, computer attitudes), demographic (age, education, gender) and neurobiological factors (structural and functional brain changes, glucocorticoids, medication, ECT) that are related to cognitive performance has specified the understanding of severity and profile of neuropsychological impairments. We reviewed the literature pertaining to clinical, demographic and neurobiological factors following Pubmed and PsychInfo databases using different combinations of general key-terms including "Affective Disorder," "Depression," "Mania," "Neuropsychological," "Neurobiological," "Moderator," and "Review" as well as more specific demographic, clinical and neurobiological search terms. Findings from the literature show that the consideration of these factors has improved knowledge about the severity of neuropsychological impairments in patients with affective disorders whereas the neuropsychological profile is still poorly understood. Despite limited understanding, however, the existent results provide promising suggestions for the development of treatment programs.

  15. Changes in neuropsychological functioning over 10 years following adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karen L; Cummins, Kevin; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, Anderson, Ramo, Cummins, and Brown (2010) described six distinct patterns of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use during the decade following adolescents' treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (A/SUD). This time period represents a phase of significant neurodevelopment, and the influence of substance use on the brain is a concern. In the present study, we examined patterns of neuropsychological function over these 10 years in relation to the AOD trajectories identified for youth as they transition into their twenties. Participants were part of a longitudinal research project following adolescents with and without A/SUD who received neuropsychological examinations at baseline and up to 7 times thereafter spanning 10 years (N = 213; 46% female at baseline). Neuropsychological trajectories were significantly related to substance involvement patterns over time on measures of verbal learning and memory (ps = .011 to verbal attention/working memory (p = .020), with heavier use patterns generally followed by poorer cognition. Heavy use of alcohol alone was independently associated with poorer verbal memory over time. Furthermore, substance withdrawal symptoms during each follow-up time point were related to poorer verbal learning and memory scores (ps abuse/dependence diagnostic criteria were not related to neuropsychological performance levels. These findings suggest that AOD use during adolescence and young adulthood may primarily influence performance that relies on later maturing brain structures, although further research is needed. Higher levels of AOD withdrawal symptoms may signify greater neuropsychological impairment, reflecting potential neurotoxic effects of AOD use.

  16. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  17. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a ... ment revolved around disturbed spatial synthesis and orienta- tion in relation to visual perception, activity, logical- .... Impairment in immediate sensory trace recall. Intellectual functions. Difficulty in understanding ...

  18. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  19. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...

  20. Use of the Rorschach test in neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rorschach test is widely used as a part of the assessment in clinical psychology in the world. It is also often used as a part of neuropsychological assessment in our unit at Division of Neurology in Ljubljana. We are presenting a review of clinically relevant information for the use of the Rorschach test in clinical practice with an emphasis on neuropsychology. The Rorschach test was considered a controversial instrument in the past. We are presenting a summary of research on its utility and psychometric characteristics. The number of studies in the field of neuropsychological application of the Rorschach test is limited. We describe theoretical models of cognitive processes involved in the process of solving the Rorschach test as a problem solving test apart from projection processes. The test however still lacks a theoretical basis formed on the brain behavior relations that is needed for every neuropsychological test. Nevertheless we noticed a recent growing interest in the published literature for finding neurological correlates of the response process in this test. Our research with patients with multiple sclerosis performed is described. We state implications for further research.

  1. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  2. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  3. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are located in the...

  4. Hydrology and phytoplankton community structure at Itamaracá-Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luise Koening

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Quali-quantitative studies and hydrologic parameters were carried out in the profiles 6 (Orange and 7 (Catuama during the Victor Hensen cruise, in accordance with the bilateral scientific cooperation agreement Brazil/Germany. Hydrologically a zone of thermic and saline stability characterizes the superficial layer. The nutrient concentrations were generally low on the surface and higher at levels surpassing 100m in depth. 102 taxa were identified including diatoms (49, dinoflagellates (49, bluegreen algae (3, and euglenophyceae (1. The diversity and evenness were high, surpassing the environmental equilibrium. The clustering of samples showed evidence of 2 main groups, one encompassing the stations 32 and 38, characterized predominantly by Oscillatoria erythraeum, and another encompassing the remaining stations, characterized by dinoflagellates and diatoms. The clustering of species involved 4 groups, the biggest being oceanic marine species (49 species and coastal and eurihaline marine species (31 species. The phytoplankton density varied from 50,000 cell.l-1 to 590,000 cell.l-1, characterizing an oligotrophic environment.Estudos hidrológicos e fitoplanctônicos foram realizados em dois perfis perpendiculares à costa, em frente à Ilha de Itamaracá-PE (perfis Orange e Catuama, durante a Expedição do Navio de Pesquisas Victor Hensen, dentro do acordo de cooperação bilateral celebrado entre o Departamento de Oceanografia da UFPE e o Centro de Ecologia Marinha Tropical (ZMT-Bremen-Alemanha. A camada superficial está caracterizada por uma zona de estabilidade térmica e salina. As concentrações de nutrientes foram geralmente mais baixas na superfície e mais elevadas em profundidades acima de 100m. Foram identificados 102 táxons, incluindo 49 diatomáceas, 49 dinoflagelados, 3 cianofíceas e 1 euglenofícea. A diversidade específica e equitabilidade foram elevadas, indicando um equilíbrio ambiental. A associação das amostras

  5. Structure of the phytoplankton in a water supply system in the State of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytoplankton community composition at limnetic environment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Samplings were carried out from April/2001 to March/2002. Samples to analyses the biotic variables were taken using a recipient with a large overture, at the subsurface and with a Van Dorn bottle at the bottom. The rainfall data were recorded and the water transparency was used to calculate the light attenuation coefficient, photic zone and the determination of trophic state index. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were determined in a typical dry and rainy month. Equitability, also the, similarity and diversity indexes and the densities and correlation of total densities among depths were calculated. Forty-five taxa were identified in Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp and Bacillariophyta (7spp, while flagellates were quantified in groups without identification. Cyanophyta presented highest diversity at both the depths and Planktothrix agardhii was the highest density species. Significant differences were not observed between subsurface and bottom densities. Results showed that the reservoir was eutrophicated and presented high densities of Cyanophyta.O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo da comunidade fitoplanctônica em ambiente limnético de Pernambuco, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas de abril/2001 a março/2002. As amostras para análises abióticas foram coletadas na superfície da água e destinadas às análises bióticas foram coletadas na subsuperfície e no fundo, sendo fixadas com solução de lugol e quantificadas usando microscópio invertido. Equitatividade, índices de similaridade e diversidade foram calculados, bem como correlação entre as profundidades. 45 táxons foram identificados, pertencentes as Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp e Bacillariophyta (7spp. Os flagelados foram apenas quantificados, mas não foram identificados. Cyanophyta apresentou a mais alta

  6. Editorial perspective: Laying the foundations for next generation models of ADHD neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Coghill, David

    2014-11-01

    The JCPP has just published a virtual issue focusing specifically on the journal's contribution to progress in the field of ADHD neuropsychology over last 30 years and its role in establishing the foundations of next generation ADHD neuropsychology models. The virtual issue is structured around six themes. Here we provide a précis of the issue summarizing these themes and illustrating each with a reference to an influential paper published over the last 5 years. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropsychological Profile of Lifetime Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Allison R; Peltz, Carrie; Kenney, Kimbra; Kramer, Joel H; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older Veterans. Participants were 169 older Veterans [mean age=79.1 years (range, 51-97 years), 89% male, 92% Caucasian], 88 with lifetime TBI and 81 without TBI, living in Veterans' retirement homes in independent residence. TBI history was ascertained with the Ohio State TBI Identification Method structured interview. Cognition was assessed with neuropsychological tests: Raw scores were converted to Z-scores compared to age-corrected normative data and combined into five domain composite Z-scores (attention/working memory, learning/memory, language, processing speed, executive functioning). We investigated the association between TBI and performance in each cognitive domain in linear mixed effects models, with and without adjustment for demographics, medical comorbidities, and psychiatric variables. Compared to those without TBI, older Veterans with TBI had greater deficits in processing speed (estimate=-.52; p=.01; f 2=.08 in fully adjusted model) and executive functioning (estimate=-.41; p=.02; f 2=.06 in fully adjusted model) but performed similarly in the attention/working memory, learning/memory, and language domains (all p>.05). TBI-associated deficits were most prominent among individuals with multiple mild TBIs and those with any moderate-to-severe TBI, but were not clearly present among those with single mild TBI. The neuropsychological profile of lifetime TBI in older Veterans is characterized by slowed processing speed and executive dysfunction, especially among those with greater injury burden. This pattern may reflect long-standing deficits or a TBI-associated cognitive decline process distinct from Alzheimer's disease. (JINS, 2017, 23, 56-64).

  9. A study of structural lineaments in Pantanal (Brazil) using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranhos Filho, Antonio C; Nummer, Alexis R; Albrez, Edilce A; Ribeiro, Alisson A; Machado, Rômulo

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the structural lineaments of the Pantanal extracted visually from satellite images (CBERS-2B satellite, Wide Field Imager sensor, a free image available in INTERNET) and a comparison with the structural lineaments of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks surrounding the Cenozoic Pantanal Basin. Using a free software for satellite image analysis, the photointerpretation showed that the NS, NE and NW directions observed on the Pantanal satellite images are the same recorded in the older rocks surrounding the basin, suggesting reactivation of these basement structural directions during the Quaternary. So the Pantanal Basin has an active tectonics and its evolution seems to be linked to changes that occurred during the Andean subduction.

  10. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  11. Relationship of temporal lobe volumes to neuropsychological test performance in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain

  12. [The theory of multiple intelligences: a suitable neurocognitive context for the neuropsychological hypotheses on the factors and mechanisms of superiority].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Fitzgerald, O; Quevedo-Caicedo, J

    The aim of this article is to relate two theories regarding the structure of the human mind. We suggest that the theory of multiple intelligences, a neurocognitive theory of the psychologist Howard Garnerd provides a suitable context for theoretical understanding and validation of the hypothesis of the pathology of superiority, a neuropsychological hypothesis formulated by the neuropsychologists Norman Geschwind and Albert Galaburda. Similarly, we show that, apart from being a context, the first theory enriches the second. We review the essential elements of both theories together with the arguments for them so that the reader may judge for himself. Similarly we review the factors determining intelligence; the association between neuropathology and intellectual dysfunction, general and specific, and the new directions in the understanding of human cognition. We propose to consider the first theory as a fertile ambit and broad methodological framework for investigation in neuropsychology. This simultaneously shows the relevance of including neuropsychological investigation in broader cognitive and neuropsychological theories and models.

  13. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  14. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E

    2010-08-01

    In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  15. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

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    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  16. Tree community structure in a seasonally dry tropical forest remnant, Brazil

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    Deborah Mattos Guimarães Apgaua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs investigate phytogeographic patterns and floristic connections of this disjunct biome. However, little is known about the structural characteristics of SDTFs. We aimed to describe the structure of a SDTF in an ecotonal area between the Cerrado and Caatinga domains. In total, 79 tree species were recorded, and high values of Shannon diversity index (3.6 nats/individual and equability (0.83 were observed. The diameter distribution for the species with higher cover values and for the entire community did not exhibit a reverse-J shaped distribution, which indicates the occurrence of different growth strategies and ecological adaptations to water stress. The results did not indicate the formation of floristic groups, as the high soil fertility in the study area results in a homogeneous environment. The structural characteristics of the study area associated with the soil composition highlight its importance for conservation and emphasize the need for community structure studies in SDTFs.

  17. Population structure of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, (Gmelin, 1791 in the semi-arid estuarine region of northeastern Brazil

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    AML Rodrigues

    Full Text Available For several decades, the bivalve mollusk Anomalocardia brasiliana has been extracted in estuarine areas in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. However, information on both dynamics and abundance of their populations are missing. In this context, the present study, therefore, investigated several aspects of the population structure of A. brasiliana on beaches near the estuary of the Apodi River in Northeast Brazil. The aims were to determine the population density of A. brasiliana during different times of the year, to estimate population parameters, and to relate species density and distribution to the abiotic characteristics of the region. Sampling was performed from March/2007 and May/2008, we collected samples of sediments and mollusks along 180 m transects in the intertidal area on the beaches Barra and Pernambuquinho, Grossos - RN. At each sampling site, samples of sediments and mollusks were collected in the intertidal area along 180 m transects. The highest and lowest average densities on Pernambuquinho beach were 1148 (April/2007, and 100 individuals.m–2 (May/ 2008, respectively. On Barra beach, the highest and lowest densities were 1813 (April/2007 and 951 individuals.m–2, (November/2007, respectively. The densities of A. brasiliana on both beaches were significantly different only in the months of January, April and May/ 2008. Length of the individuals ranged from 1 to 28 mm, with most individuals measuring between 22 and 24 mm. Length growth rate parameters for A. brasiliana were L∞ = 28.68 mm and k = 0.61 year–1 on Barra beach, and L∞ = 29.87 mm and k = 0.48 year–1 on Pernambuquinho beach. The growth rate curves for A. brasiliana suggest the presence of three well defined cohorts, thus pointing to a continuous reproduction cycle with peak recruitment between October/2007 and March/2008. A. brasiliana density decreased predominantly during the heavy rains of 2008, probably due to an accumulation of sediments and

  18. Ownership and Control Structures, Corporate Governance and Income Smoothing in Brazil

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    Damiana Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between the ownership and control structure, level of corporate governance and origin of capital (foreign or domestic of Brazilian companies on their propensity to smooth income. Using a sample of nonancialrms with shares traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa at the end of 2007, we performed covariance analysis based on data from the preceding ten years, where the dependent variable was the index proposed by Eckel, an empirical proxy for smoothing. The results indicate that the more concentrated the shareholding and control structures of Brazilianrms are, both according to overall capital and voting capital, the more intensely they tend to smooth earnings to favor the interests of the majority shareholder. The results also show that this effect is less pronounced forrms with enhanced corporate governance levels and those with foreign capital.

  19. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

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    Sascha Naomi McKeon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structure of An. triannulatus and An. goeldii revealed distinct demographic histories in a largely overlapping geographic range. Cytochrome oxidase I sequence parsimony networks found geographic clustering for both species; however nuclear marker networks depicted An. triannulatus with a more complex history of fragmentation, secondary contact and recent divergence. Evidence of Pleistocene expansions suggests both species are more likely to be genetically structured by geographic and ecological barriers than demography. We hypothesise that niche partitioning is a driving force for diversity, particularly in An. triannulatus.

  20. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

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    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  1. Vertical structure of an assemblage of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil

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    Fernando Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy. Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50, "less frequent" (25 < C < 50 and "occasional" (C < 25. We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810, Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.

  2. Distributed deformation structures in shallow water carbonates subsiding through a simple stress field (Jandaira Formation, NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Bisdom, Kevin; Bezerra, Hilario; Reijmer, John; Cazarin, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Despite the scarcity of major deformation structures such as folds and faults, the flat-lying, post-rift shallow water carbonates of the Jandaira Formation (Potiguar Basin, NE Brazil) display well-organized fracture systems distributed of tens of km2. Structures observed in the outcropping carbonates are sub-vertical, generally N-S trending mode I and hybrid veins and barren fractures, sub-vertical roughly E-W trending stylolites and sub-horizontal stylolites. These features developed during subsidence in a simple and constant stress field characterized by, beside gravity, a significant horizontal stress probably of tectonic origin. The corresponding depth curves have different origin and slopes and, therefore, cross each other resulting in position of the principal stresses which change with depth. As a result, the type and amount of fractures affecting subsiding rocks change despite the fact that the far-field stresses remain constant. Following early diagenesis and porosity elimination in the first 100-200m depth, Jandaira carbonates experienced wholesale fracturing at depths of 400-800m resulting in a network of NNW-NE trending fractures partly organized in conjugate sets with a low interfault angle and a sub-vertical intersection, and sub-vertical stylolites roughly perpendicular to the fractures. Intense fluid circulation was activated as a consequence through the carbonates. With increasing subsidence, sub-horizontal stylolites formed providing calcite which precipitated in the open fractures transforming them in veins. The Jandaira formation lost thereby the permeability it had reached during the previous stage. Because of the lack of major deformation, the outcrops of the Jandaira Formation is an excellent analog for carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East, South Atlantic and elsewhere.

  3. Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott A; Cimino, Cynthia R; Stricker, Nikki H; Heffelfinger, Amy K; Gess, Jennifer L; Osborn, Katie E; Roper, Brad L

    2017-07-01

    Historically, the clinical neuropsychology training community has not clearly or consistently defined education or training opportunities. The lack of consistency has limited students' and trainees' ability to accurately assess and compare the intensity of neuropsychology-specific training provided by programs. To address these issues and produce greater 'truth in advertising' across programs, CNS, with SCN's Education Advisory Committee (EAC), ADECN, AITCN, and APPCN constructed a specialty-specific taxonomy, namely, the Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. The taxonomy provides consensus in the description of training offered by doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral programs, as well as at the post-licensure stage. Although the CNS approved the taxonomy in February 2015, many programs have not adopted its language. Increased awareness of the taxonomy and the reasons behind its development and structure, as well as its potential benefits, are warranted. In 2016, a working group of clinical neuropsychologists from the EAC and APPCN, all authors of this manuscript, was created and tasked with disseminating information about the taxonomy. Group members held regular conference calls, leading to the generation of this manuscript. This manuscript is the primary byproduct of the working group. Its purpose is to (1) outline the history behind the development of the taxonomy, (2) detail its structure and utility, (3) address the expected impact of its adoption, and (4) call for its adoption across training programs. This manuscript outlines the development and structure of the clinical neuropsychology taxonomy and addresses the need for its adoption across training programs.

  4. Neuropsychological differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Rohling, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is reviewed from the perspective of meta-analyses of neuropsychological outcome, showing full recovery from a single, uncomplicated mTBI by 90 days post-trauma. Persons with history of complicated mTBI characterized by day-of-injury computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and those who have suffered prior mTBIs may or may not show evidence of complete recovery similar to that experienced by persons suffering a single, uncomplicated mTBI. Persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is considered as a somatoform presentation, influenced by the non-specificity of PCS symptoms which commonly occur in non-TBI samples and co-vary as a function of general life stress, and psychological factors including symptom expectation, depression and anxiety. A model is presented for forensic evaluation of the individual mTBI case, which involves open-ended interview, followed by structured interview, record review, and detailed neuropsychological testing. Differential diagnosis includes consideration of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, symptom expectation, diagnosis threat, developmental disorders, and malingering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madre, M; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Ortiz-Gil, J; Murru, A; Torrent, C; Bramon, E; Perez, V; Orth, M; Brambilla, P; Vieta, E; Amann, B L

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological basis and nosological status of schizoaffective disorder remains elusive and controversial. This study provides a systematic review of neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in the disorder. A comprehensive literature search was conducted via PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Web of Knowledge (from 1949 to 31st March 2015) using the keyword 'schizoaffective disorder' and any of the following terms: 'neuropsychology', 'cognition', 'structural neuroimaging', 'functional neuroimaging', 'multimodal', 'DTI' and 'VBM'. Only studies that explicitly examined a well defined sample, or subsample, of patients with schizoaffective disorder were included. Twenty-two of 43 neuropsychological and 19 of 51 neuroimaging articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. We found a general trend towards schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder being related to worse cognitive performance than bipolar disorder. Grey matter volume loss in schizoaffective disorder is also more comparable to schizophrenia than to bipolar disorder which seems consistent across further neuroimaging techniques. Neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities in schizoaffective disorder resemble more schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. This is suggestive for schizoaffective disorder being a subtype of schizophrenia or being part of the continuum spectrum model of psychosis, with schizoaffective disorder being more skewed towards schizophrenia than bipolar disorder. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA evidences reflect an incipient population structure in Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, Epinephelidae in Brazil

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    Júnio S. Damasceno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic goliath grouper is a critically endangered species that inhabits estuarine and reef environments and is threatened primarily by fishing activities and habitat destruction. Despite the urgent need for protection, its genetic conservation status remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene flow among the populations of the species along the coast of Brazil based on the control region of the mitochondrial DNA. The results indicate low haplotype diversity (0.40-0.86 and very low nucleotide diversity (0.1-0.5%. They also show that the genetic diversity of the species varies considerably along the coast and that this finding may be especially important for the identification of priority areas for its conservation. The population analyses indicate a low but significant degree of genetic structuring (ΦST =0.111, probably due to the occurrence of rare haplotypes at some locations, although the genetic differentiation between sites was not correlated with geographic distance (r=0.0501; p=0.7719, and the shared haplotypes indicate that gene flow occurs among all locations along the Brazilian coast. The results of the pairwise FST indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation between locations. The incipient population structuring detected in the present study is not related systematically to the geological or physical features of the Brazilian coast. The complex interaction of fluctuations in sea level, marine currents, and the reproductive characteristics of the species hampers the identification of the specific role of each of these processes in the gene flow dynamics of the population units of the Atlantic goliath grouper. The low overall levels of genetic diversity, the pairwise FST values and the significant population structuring among groups (ΦCT identified in the present study all reinforce the critically endangered status of the species and are inconsistent with the presence of a single, panmictic

  7. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

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    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  8. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  9. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with myocardial infarction

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    Sherin P. Antony

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial Infarction (MI, commonly known as a Heart Attack, remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients, who had MI, have cognitive impairment affecting attention, problem solving, memory, visuospatial, executive function and even dementia. Since cognition and emotion are integral part of the disease, there are no focused studies addressing this issue in the Indian context. Hence the present study. The objective of the study was to determine the neuropsychological deficits in patients with MI and with MI after cardiac bypass surgery. The sample consisted of 30 patients, 15 MI and 15 MI after CABG. All patients were assessed on. a battery of Neuropsychological tests and Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, The findings revealed impairment in mental speed, sustained attention, Animal Fluency Test, Phonemic Fluency Test, verbal and visual working memory, planning, response inhibition, verbal and visual learning and memory. On comparison with MI patients CABG patients showed significant deficits in Planning.

  10. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

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    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  11. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Working memory dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a neuropsychological and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Akiko; Nakatani, Eriko; Nabeyama, Maiko; Sanematsu, Hirokuni; Yoshiura, Takashi; Togao, Osamu; Tomita, Mayumi; Masuda, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Kazuko; Kuroki, Toshihide; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2009-05-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies indicate that OCD subtypes such as checking rituals might be associated with a working memory deficit. On the other hand, functional neuroimaging studies found functional abnormalities of the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in OCD. Combined with functional imaging method, we applied neuropsychological batteries to demonstrate a working memory deficit in OCD by comparison with normal controls. In addition, working memory and brain activation were further examined with symptom-based analysis. Forty patients with OCD and 25 normal controls were examined using neuropsychological tests including the WAIS-R, WCST, WMS-R, and R-OCFT and functional MRI (fMRI) during the N-back task including 0- and 2-back task. On fMRI, the brain regions activated during the performance and the differences in the activation between patients and controls were identified. Additional analyses of severity and subtypes were conducted by using Y-BOCS severity score, symptom-checklist and Leckman's four-factor model, respectively. On the neuropsychological tests, the OCD patients had significantly lower scores on the delayed recall section of the WMS-R and the immediate recall section of the R-OCFT compared to the controls. On fMRI, the patients showed greater activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left superior temporal gyrus (STG), left insula, and cuneus during two-back task compared to the controls. Right orbitofrontal cortex activity showed a significant positive correlation with Y-BOCS scores in OCD. Furthermore, patients with obsessions/checking rituals (n=10) showed severer memory deficits and decreased activity in the postcentral gyrus than patients with cleanliness/washing rituals (n=14). In conclusion, we found neuropsychological dysfunction and brain abnormalities in OCD. Furthermore, our results suggested that symptom severity and symptom subtype such as obsessions/checking might affect neuropsychological

  13. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

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    Sherin Elsheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ on these abilities. Design: Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1 and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6. Results: Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01, Narrative Memory (p<0.001 and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05 and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01. Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  14. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Pruša

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychologic...

  15. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the f...

  16. Diversity and Structure of the Gama Gallery Forest in Central Brazil in 2009

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    Roberto Tramontina Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and structure of the tree community of the Gama gallery forest, in the Federal District, in 2009. A total of 151 permanent plots of 10×20 m were allocated continually along ten lines perpendicular to the watercourse. All individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH equal or greater than 10 cm were tagged and measured. In total, 114 species in 52 families and 96 genera were identified. The density was 643 ind.ha-1, the basal area was 31.52 m2.ha-1 and 13 species were frequently at least in 25% of the plots. The Shannon index was 3.91 nats.ind-1 and the Pielou index was 82%, expressing the good conservation condition and the high diversity of the vegetation. The diameter distribution curve showed an "inverted J" pattern.

  17. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  18. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  19. Behavior, neuropsychology and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    Cognitive neuroscientists in the late 20th century began the task of identifying the part(s) of the brain concerned with normal behavior as manifest in the psychological capacities as affective powers, reasoning, behaving purposively and the pursuit of goals, following introduction of the 'functional magnetic resonance imaging' (fMRI) method for identifying brain activity. For this research program to be successful two questions require satisfactory answers. First, as the fMRI method can currently only be used on stationary subjects, to what extent can neuropsychological tests applicable to such stationary subjects be correlated with normal behavior. Second, to what extent can correlations between the various neuropsychological tests on the one hand, and sites of brain activity determined with fMRI on the other, be regarded as established. The extent to which these questions have yet received satisfactory answers is reviewed, and suggestions made both for improving correlations of neuropsychological tests with behavior as well as with the results of fMRI-based observations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Traumatic brain injury neuropsychology in Cali, Colombia

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    Quijano María Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: comparative analysis between control group and patients with TBI to determine whetherthere neuropsychological differences at 6 months of evolution, to guide timely interventioncommensurate with the needs of this population. Materials and methods: a total of 79 patientswith a history of TBI with a minimum of 6 months of evolution and 79 control subjects were evaluated.Both groups with a mean age of 34 and without previous neurological or psychiatric disorders and an average schooling of 11 years for the control group and 9 years for the TBI group.The Glasgow Coma Scale in the TBI group was classified as moderate with 11 points. The BriefNeuropsychological Evaluation in Spanish Neuropsi was applied to both groups. Results: significantdifferences (p≤0.05 in the tasks of orientation, attention, memory, language, reading andwriting were found. Conclusions: TBI generates significant neuropsychological changes, even sixmonths after discharge from the health service. It suggests that patients with head injury requiretreatment after overcoming the initial stage.

  1. The neuropsychological function of children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Kimberley; Tofts, Louise; Benson, Suzanne; Porter, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    The current observational study had three specific objectives: (i) to document any neuropsychological impairment in a sample of children with achondroplasia; (ii) to explore individual variability; and (iii) to determine the functional impact of any impairments. Fourteen children aged between 6 and 15 years with a medically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia (FGFR 3 mutation positive) underwent a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological evaluation. On average, while generally still within normal limits, significantly lower scores compared to standardized means were identified on: Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, working memory, arithmetic, attention, executive functioning and aspects of day-to-day emotional, social, and behavioral functioning. Clinically significant levels of impairment at a group level were identified on measures of: arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning. There was variability among the group and for most measures scores ranged from impaired to within normal limits. A high percentage of children were impaired on measures of: verbal IQ, attention and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest a need for individual neuropsychological evaluation and monitoring of children with achondroplasia and suggest verbal IQ, arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning are particularly common areas of impairment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Clinical applicability and cutoff values for an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for older adults with low formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education.

  3. [The Influence of the Functional State of Brain Regulatory Structures on the Programming, Selective Regulation and Control of Cognitive Activity in Children. Report I: Neuropsychological and EEG Analysis of Age-Related Changes in Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 9-12 Years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, A; Machinskaya, R I; Lomakin, D I

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in brain regulatory functions in children aged from 9 to 12 years with typical development were studied by means of neuropsychological and EEG analysis. The participants of the study were 107 children without learning difficulties and behavior deviations; they were devided into three groups (9-10, 10-11 and 11-12 years). The neuropsychological tests revealed nonlinear age-related changes in different executive brain functions. The group of 10-11-year-old children showed better results in programming, in- hibition of impulsive reactions and in the perception of socially relevant information than the group of 9-10- year-old children. At the same time, these children had more difficulties with selective activity regulation as compared with the younger group. The difficulties were mainly caused by switching from one element of the program to another and by retention of learned sequence of actions. These children also showed a lower level of motivation for task performance. The children aged 11-12 years had less difficulties with selective activity regulation; however, impulsive behavior was more frequent; these children also had a higher level of task performance motivation than in children aged 10-11 years. The analysis of resting state EEG revealed age-related differences in deviated EEG patterns associated with non-optimal functioning of fronto-thalamic system and hypothalamic structures. The incidence of these two types of EEG patterns was significantly higher in children aged 10-11 years as compared with children aged 9-10 years. The EEG of the groups of 10-11 and 11-12-years-old children did not show any significant differences.

  4. Structural adaptations of two sympatric epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae) to a cloudy forest environment in rocky outcrops of Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana Silvia Franco Pinheiro; Filho, José Pires de Lemos; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    The survival of plants in epiphytic environments depends on vegetative adaptations capable to defraud different stresses. Based on the structural diversity of the Orchidaceae, the current study has the objective of relating the anatomical structure of Dichaea cogniauxiana and Epidendrum secundum with the distinct environments where they live. It was expected that, despite structural similarities as strategies for resource acquisition, some peculiar variations related to the distinct light microenvironments (inside or in the edge of the nebular forest, near to "campo rupestre" area) might be found. Leaves and roots of both species were collected in a nebular forest located at a "campo rupestre" area at Serra da Piedade, Brazil), in January and February 2005. D. cogniauxiana is adhered to trunks, in sites with high atmospheric humidity and shaded, while E. secundum is located at the edge of the nebular forest, in more luminous sites. The leaves of E. secundum had thicker cuticle and higher number of stomata per area than those of D. cogniauxiana, characteristics coherent with their distinct pattern of exhibition to sun light. The suprastomatic chambers formed by the thicker cuticle may function as a barrier of resistance to water evaporation. The succulence of the leaves of E. secundum propitiates organic acids storage at night, and the storage of starch may be involved in PEP-carboxylase metabolism, both propitiating CAM mechanism. Roots with larger number of cell layers of the velamen, and specialized thick walled cortical cells (both in E. secundum) help water absorption and indicate better adaptation to an environment with intense solar radiation and a probable higher water deficit. The remarkable cell wall thickening of E. secundum exodermis can confer more efficient protection against the excess of transpiration at the border of the nebular forest. On the other hand, besides D. cogniauxiana be epiphyte, it is in a low position - in a shaded environment and with

  5. Structural adaptations of two sympatric epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae to a cloudy forest environment in rocky outcrops of Southeast Brazil

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    Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of plants in epiphytic environments depends on vegetative adaptations capable to defraud different stresses. Based on the structural diversity of the Orchidaceae, the current study has the objective of relating the anatomical structure of Dichaea cogniauxiana and Epidendrum secundum with the distinct environments where they live. It was expected that, despite structural similarities as strategies for resource acquisition, some peculiar variations related to the distinct light microenvironments (inside or in the edge of the nebular forest, near to “campo rupestre” area might be found. Leaves and roots of both species were collected in a nebular forest located at a “campo rupestre” area at Serra da Piedade, Brazil, in January and February 2005. D. cogniauxiana is adhered to trunks, in sites with high atmospheric humidity and shaded, while E. secundum is located at the edge of the nebular forest, in more luminous sites. The leaves of E. secundum had thicker cuticle and higher number of stomata per area than those of D. cogniauxiana, characteristics coherent with their distinct pattern of exhibition to sun light. The suprastomatic chambers formed by the thicker cuticle may function as a barrier of resistance to water evaporation. The succulence of the leaves of E. secundum propitiates organic acids storage at night, and the storage of starch may be involved in PEP-carboxylase metabolism, both propitiating CAM mechanism. Roots with larger number of cell layers of the velamen, and specialized thick walled cortical cells (both in E. secundum help water absorption and indicate better adaptation to an environment with intense solar radiation and a probable higher water deficit. The remarkable cell wall thickening of E. secundum exodermis can confer more efficient protection against the excess of transpiration at the border of the nebular forest. On the other hand, besides D. cogniauxiana be epiphyte, it is in a low position - in a

  6. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  7. [Evaluation of the organizational structure of HIV/AIDS outpatient care in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Regina; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistella; Basso, Cáritas Relva; Castanheira, Elen Rose Lodeiro; Alves, Maria Teresa Soares de Britto e; Buchalla, Cássia Maria; Donini, Angela Aparecida

    2006-02-01

    In the context of universal access to antiretroviral treatment, the results of the Brazilian AIDS Program will depend on the quality of the care provided. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the healthcare provided by outpatient services for the treatment of AIDS patients. The present study was carried out in seven Brazilian States between 2001 and 2002. We evaluated the quality of the care provided to AIDS patients from the standpoint of resource availability and care process organization. A questionnaire comprising 112 structured questions addressing these aspects was sent to 336 services. Response rate was 95.8% (322). Greater adequacy is seen for indicators of resource availability than for those of work organization. The supply of antiretroviral medication is sufficient in 95.5% of services. CD4 and viral load tests are available at adequate amounts in 59 and 41% of services, respectively. In 90.4% of services there is at least one non-medical professional (psychologist, nurse, or social worker). As to work organization, 80% scheduled the date but not the time of medical appointments; 40.4% scheduled more than 10 appointments per period; 17% did not have exclusive managers; and 68.6% did not hold systematic staff meetings. The results indicate that, in addition to ensuring the more homogeneous distribution of resources, the program must invest in the training and dissemination of care management skills, as confirmed by the results of care process organization.

  8. Dynamic and Functional Approach to Human Memory in the Brain: A Clinical Neuropsychological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Yannick; Hainselin, Mathieu; Cerrotti, Fabien; Quaglino, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The way how cognition is conceived and represented in brain functioning will directly impact clinical investigations of people with cognitive difficulties. This is particularly evident in the field of clinical neuropsychology where methodologies and tools are justified on a fundamental level by the theoretical foundations adopted. The present article outlined how the dominant influences of structural and anatomo-clinical theories of memory have led to a particular conception of clinical investigations. We propose to reconsider these dominant methods in favor of a more dynamic and functional representation of memory that would be clinically more appropriate. More precisely, we argued that relying exclusively on a particular memory conception (i.e., structural) may not be sufficient considering the range of real-life variables affecting a patient's memory. By extracting clinically meaningful information in more functional and dynamic memory conceptions, we also aim at underlining the potentials advantages of such theories in facilitating personalized assessments and follow up of patients in clinical neuropsychology. We suggest that a dynamic, functional, and integrative conception of memory would be more coherent with the trend in clinical neuropsychology to promote a more collaborative interaction between the clinician and the patient. Finally, considering the absence of empirical studies on the possible benefits of implementing such recent memory concepts in clinical practice, we encourage researchers and clinicians to test in the field of clinical neuropsychology, the usefulness and explanatory power of more dynamic and functional representation of memory in order to objectively demonstrate its validity outside the research loop.

  9. A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with "traditional" neuropsychological testing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Need, Anna C; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Chiba-Falek, Ornit; Attix, Deborah K

    2013-01-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is frequently used in research protocols and increasingly in clinical practice. Despite the frequency of its use, important aspects of its measurement validity have yet to be established in healthy adults. Two hundred and fifty-five individuals completed the CANTAB and traditional neuropsychological tests commonly used in clinical practice, including selected subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Animal Naming, Trail Making Tests A and B, the Stroop test, and the Green Story Recall test. Results showed that CANTAB subtests were modestly correlated with traditional subtests. Correlations between CANTAB subtests and traditional subtests were less consistent when age and education were controlled for. In conclusion, the CANTAB shows modest associations with traditional neuropsychological test measures.

  10. Population structure of the gomphothere Stegomastodon waringi (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae from the Pleistocene of Brazil

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    Dimila Mothé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary fossil record of Águas de Araxá (Q AA is represented mainly by an accumulation of skeletal elements of several sizes, which are assigned to a population of Stegomastodon waringi. We analyzed 97 molars according to the ear stages of Sipson and Paula-Couto (1957, and developed a orphoetric ear index. The population structure (proportion of immature, subadult, adult, mature adult and senile adult individuals was identified, and these five age classes were compared to those of extant elephant populations and defined with social implications. The analysis made possible to establish that the population is largely composed of adults: 14.89% are immature individuals, 23.04% subadults, 27.65% adults, 17.21% mature adults and another 17.21% senile adults. Based on population structure, we do not discard the possibility that the fossil population was stable or in recovery, and/or was experiencing a high-predation period on younger individuals. The number of individuals composing the past population studied here could suggest that the occupied environment was open due to comparisons to populations of extant elephants. We consider this population as an aggregation of family units, which suggests a time of low environmental humidity. Based on literature and our findings, their extinction appears to be regional and probably related to a catastrophic event.O registro fossilífero do Quaternário de Águas de Araxá (QAA é representado principalmente pelo acúmulo de restos dentários e de esqueleto de diversos tamanhos, atribuídos a uma população pretérita do mastodonte Stegomastodon waringi. Foram analisados 97 molares de acordo com os estágios de desgaste propostos por Simpson e Paula-Couto 1957, e desenvolveu-se um índice morfométrico de desgaste. A estrutura populacional (proporção entre indivíduos imaturos, subadultos, adultos, adultos maduros e adultos senis foi identificada e comparada com populações de elefantes atuais. Foi

  11. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae under external stress in Southern Brazil

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    Alexander C Vibrans

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the Floristic and Forest inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000km². In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest inventory (IFN-BR, the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m² plots (20x50m each, located on a 10x10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH≥10cm are measured and collected (fertile and sterile, if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height>1.50m; DBH<10cm is registered in 100m² in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32 320km² of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state’s high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26º00’-28º30’ S and 49º13’-51º23’ W. Mean density (DBH≥10cm is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha, mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62, Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H’ varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m²/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m²/ ha, the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1371-1387. Epub

  12. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  13. Acquired brain injury: combining social psychological and neuropsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Stephen; Fortune, Donal G; Gallagher, Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper reviews an emerging literature which attempts to bring together an important area of social psychology and neuropsychology. The paper presents a rationale for the integration of the social identity and clinical neuropsychological approaches in the study of acquired brain injury (ABI). The paper begins by reviewing the social and neuropsychological perspectives of ABI. Subsequently, theoretical and empirical studies that demonstrate the social influences on neuropsychology and the inherently social nature of mind are considered. Neuropsychological understandings of social identities and their potential relationships to the variability in ABIs are also discussed. The values of these understandings to ABI rehabilitation are then examined. The paper concludes by suggesting an agenda for future research that integrates the social identity and neuropsychological paradigms so that psychology might grow in its store of applicable knowledge to enhance support and rehabilitation for those with ABI.

  14. Past, present, and future of neuropsychology in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Ferreres, Aldo; Morlett-Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To describe the history, current situation, and future challenges of Argentinian neuropsychology. A brief historical description highlighting the most representative authors and publications is made. In addition, a survey was administered to a sample of 135 neuropsychologists practicing neuropsychology in Argentina. The survey explored the current neuropsychological practices among the respondents. Results show that most Argentinian neuropsychologists are: psychologists, women, and work in the clinical field in the country's major cities. Besides, the practice of neuropsychology is mostly unregulated with few training opportunities. Argentinian neuropsychology emerged from neurology in the early twentieth century and slowly progressed until the 1960s when the first organized research groups were created. Since then, a substantial and steady progress followed. However, more training opportunities and a better regulation of the discipline are needed. No similar studies have been conducted in the past, thus becoming one of the first to describe the development of neuropsychology in Argentina.

  15. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae under external stress in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Vibrans

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the Floristic and Forest inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000km². In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest inventory (IFN-BR, the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m² plots (20x50m each, located on a 10x10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH≥10cm are measured and collected (fertile and sterile, if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height>1.50m; DBHEste estudio es parte del inventario Florístico Forestal de Santa Catarina, realizado para evaluar los recursos forestales, la composición de especies y la estructura de remanentes de bosque, y proporciona información para actualizar la conservación de los bosques y políticas de uso de la tierra en el estado brasileño de Santa Catarina (95 000km². El inventario se aplica al muestreo sistemático, de 440 conglomerados en cuatro parcelas de 1 000m² cada una, situados en una red de 10x10km. Dentro de las parcelas, todos los individuos leñosos (DAP≥10cm fueron medidos. El estrato de regeneración (altura>1.50m, DAP<10cm se registra en 100m² en cada conglomerado. Este estudio realiza un análisis de 92 conglomerados medidos en 2008 dentro de un área de 32 320km² de bosques ombrófilos mixtos con Araucaria angustifolia ubicados en el altiplano del estado. La densidad media (DAP≥10cm es de 578 individuos/ha (desde 85/ha hasta 1 310/ha, la media de la riqueza de especies en los remanentes es de 35 (8-62, la diversidad (H’ de Shannon y Wiener varía entre 1.05 y 3.48. A pesar de la alta diversidad total de especies (364 Magnoliophyta, cinco Coniferophyta y un

  16. Notes For Supporting An Epistemological Neuropsychology: Contributions From Three Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera Valencia, Mauricio; Cognitive psychology research group, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Calderón Delgado, Liliana; Psychology, health and society research group, Faculty of Psychology, Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia

    2013-01-01

    A review of the epistemological basis of neuropsychology is done in order to clarify its foundations and its dual status as a discipline rooted in biology and psychology. This work is justified from two fundamental issues that are faced by neuropsychology: from an external perspective based on the upswing of certain disciplines, which by definition seem to have similar subjects of study to neuropsychology; however, given the complexity of the study of the relationship between the behavior and...

  17. Women and advancement in neuropsychology: real-life lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Martin, Eileen M

    2010-04-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender.

  18. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  19. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  20. Current state of professional Neuropsychological practice in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paola Fonseca-Aguilar; Laiene Olabarrieta Landa; Diego Rivera; Adriana Aguayo Arelis; Xóchitl Angélica Ortiz Jiménez; Brenda Viridiana Rabago Barajas; Yaneth Rodriguez Agudelo; Enrique Álvarez; Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the profession of neuropsychology in Mexico, including the background, professional training, current work situation, evaluation...

  1. Communication is key: the utility of a revised neuropsychological report format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T; von Thomsen, Christian; Elam, Megan; Murphy, Christel; Gerstle, Melissa; Austin, Cynthia A; Beebe, Dean W

    2017-12-15

    The neuropsychological report is a critical tool for communicating evaluation results to multiple audiences who have varying knowledge about neuropsychology and often have limited ability to review long, complex reports. Considerable time is spent writing these reports and challenges persist related to readability, length/complexity, and billable clinical time (which may be capped by third-party payors or families' ability to pay). This quality improvement effort systematically evaluated the redesign of pediatric neuropsychological reports in an outpatient clinic serving primarily medical populations. Revised reports were shorter, with improved readability, structure, and effectiveness in communicating results and recommendations. Improved clinical efficiency was also observed. We suggest that adaptation to efficient, readable, and effective reports is possible within the practice of neuropsychology. Findings encourage replication in other settings. Through collaboration with key stakeholders, providers can identify their populations' and audience's unique needs and set report targets accordingly. To encourage that practice, we summarize our general process, provide a set of guidelines that can be adapted across multiple settings, and include an appended sample report.

  2. Neuropsychological profile of children with kidney transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavisto, Anu; Korkman, Marit; Holmberg, Christer; Jalanko, Hannu; Qvist, Erik

    2012-06-01

    Varying results on the cognitive outcome of children who have undergone kidney transplantation (KTx) have raised concern for specific neurocognitive difficulties. Fifty children with KTx were assessed at a mean age of 11.1 (SD 3.2; range 6.3-16.4), on average 6.9 (SD 3.6; range 1.0-14.1) years post-operatively. A standardized test of intelligence [Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III)] and neuropsychological tests from NEPSY-II were administered. The neuropsychological profile of KTx children was compared to that of a control group matched for gender, age and maternal education. The KTx children had a lower intelligence quotient (83.9) than the test norms (100.0, P < 0.001). On neuropsychological assessment, the KTx group scored generally lower than the control group did (P < 0.001). The difference was evident in both the verbal and visuospatial domains, on a sub-test of complex auditory attention, verbal working memory and facial affect recognition. When children with neurological co-morbidity were excluded, the remaining group still scored lower than the controls did on Comprehension of Instructions (P = 0.06), Design Copying (P = 0.007) and Affect Recognition (P = 0.018). A better cognitive outcome was mainly associated with the absence of neurological co-morbidity, younger age, shorter disease duration and sustained kidney function. Children with congenital nephrosis had a similar outcome to those with other diagnoses. KTx children exhibit a pattern of effects in their cognitive outcome in which both the visuospatial and language domains are affected, but visual memory and simple auditory attention remain intact. Patients without neurological co-morbidity exhibit impairment in receptive language, visuospatial functions and in recognizing emotional states.

  3. Reversible denaturation of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) and implication of structural destabilization on digestion by pepsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Gaspari, M.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Knol, E.F.; Hefle, S.L.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2005-01-01

    The high resistance of Brazil nut 2S albumin, previously identified as an allergen, against proteolysis by pepsin was examined in this work. Although the denaturation temperature of this protein exceeds the 110 °C at neutral pH, at low pH a fully reversible thermal denaturation was observed at ∼82

  4. 2015 American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) student affairs committee survey of neuropsychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M; Butts, Alissa M; Hahn-Ketter, Amanda E; Osborn, Katie; Towns, Stephanie J; Barisa, Mark; Santos, Octavio A; Smith, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Surveys of practicing neuropsychologists have been conducted for years; however, there have been no comprehensive surveys of neuropsychology trainees, which may result in important issues being overlooked by the profession. This survey assessed trainees' experiences in areas such as student debt, professional development, and training satisfaction. Survey items were written by a task force of the AACN Student Affairs Committee (SAC), and neuropsychology trainees were recruited via neuropsychology-focused listservs. In total, 344 trainees completed the survey (75% female) and included participants from every region of the US and Canada. Based on the survey questions, nearly half of all trainees (47%) indicated financial factors were the greatest limitation in their training. Student debt had a bimodal distribution; 32.7% had minimal debt, but 45% had debt >$100,000. In contrast, expected starting salaries were modest, but consistent with findings ($80-100,000). While almost all trainees intended to pursue board certification (97% through ABPP), many were 'not at all' or only 'somewhat' familiar with the process. Results indicated additional critical concerns beyond those related to debt and lack of familiarity with board certification procedures. The results will inform SAC conference programming and the profession on the current 'state of the trainees' in neuropsychology.

  5. Learning disabilities: the need for neuropsychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Cheryl H; Ruff, Ronald M; Iverson, Grant L; Barth, Jeffrey T; Broshek, Donna K; Bush, Shane S; Koffler, Sandra P; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2008-03-01

    A learning disability (LD) is a neurobiological disorder that presents as a serious difficulty with reading, arithmetic, and/or written expression that is unexpected, given the individual's intellectual ability. A learning disability is not an emotional disorder nor is it caused by an emotional disorder. If inadequately or improperly evaluated, a learning disability has the potential to impact an individual's functioning adversely and produce functional impairment in multiple life domains. When a learning disability is suspected, an evaluation of neuropsychological abilities is necessary to determine the source of the difficulty as well as the areas of neurocognitive strength that can serve as a foundation for compensatory strategies and treatment options.

  6. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are expressed as computational models and for addressing questions about neuroanatomy. It is concluded that case series methods usefully complement single-subject techniques. PMID:21714756

  7. Floating-Harbor syndrome. A neuropsychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davalos, I P; Figuera, L E; Bobadilla, L; Martinez-Martinez, R; Matute, E; Partida, M G; Bañuelos, L A; Ramirez-Dueñas, M L

    1996-01-01

    We describe a six year old Mexican girl whose clinical picture (short stature with delayed bone age, language difficulties and triangular face with prominent nose) was compatible with the diagnosis of Floating-Harbor Syndrome (FHS). A neuropsychological evaluation disclosed a mild mental retardation, a constructive apraxia, a comprehensive and expressive language impairment. The analysis of the present case and sixteen patients previously described establishes that the FHS is mainly characterized by proportionate short stature with significantly delayed bone age, delayed expressive language and peculiar face.

  8. Measurement in cross-cultural neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning.

  9. The protein structure determines the sensitizing capacity of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) in a rat food allergy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bilsen, Jolanda Hm; Knippels, Léon Mj; Penninks, André H; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem F; De Jongh, Harmen Hj; Koppelman, Stef J

    2013-11-04

    : It is not exactly known why certain food proteins are more likely to sensitize. One of the characteristics of most food allergens is that they are stable to the acidic and proteolytic conditions in the digestive tract. This property is thought to be a risk factor in allergic sensitization. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the protein structure of 2S albumin (Ber e1), a major allergen from Brazil nut, on the sensitizing capacity in vivo using an oral Brown Norway rat food allergy model. Disulphide bridges of 2S albumin were reduced and alkylated resulting in loss of protein structure and an increased pepsin digestibility in vitro. Both native 2S albumin and reduced/alkylated 2S albumin were administered by daily gavage dosing (0.1 and 1 mg) to Brown Norway rats for 42 days. Intraperitoneal administration was used as a positive control. Sera were analysed by ELISA and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Oral exposure to native or reduced/alkylated 2S albumin resulted in specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses whereas only native 2S albumin induced specific IgE in this model, which was confirmed by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. This study has shown that the disruption of the protein structure of Brazil nut 2S albumin decreased the sensitizing potential in a Brown Norway rat food allergy model, whereas the immunogenicity of 2S albumin remained preserved. This observation may open possibilities for developing immunotherapy for Brazil nut allergy.

  10. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sallun Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  11. Gravity Anomalies, Seismic Structure and Subsidence History of the Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Watts, A. B.; Daly, M.

    2016-12-01

    Cratonic basins are characterized by their sub-circular shape, long-lived (>150 Myr) subsidence, shallow marine/terrestrial sediments that young towards the centre of the basin and thick seismic lithosphere. Despite the recognition of >20 basins world-wide, the paucity of geological and geophysical data over these basins means their origin remains enigmatic. In order to address this problem, we have undertaken an integrated analysis of the Parnaíba cratonic basin, NE Brazil using a 1400 km long seismic reflection profile recorded to 20 s TWTT, field observations, well logs, gravity data acquired at 1 km intervals and five wide-angle reflection/refraction receiver gathers recorded at offsets up to 100 km. We find a depth to pre-Paleozoic basement and Moho of 3.5 and 41 - 43 km respectively beneath the basin centre. A prominent mid-crustal reflection (MCR) can be tracked laterally for 300 km at depths between 17 - 25 km. A low-fold wide-angle receiver gather stack shows that the crust below the MCR is characterized by a 4 s TWTT package of reflections. Forward gravity modelling suggests that the MCR represents the upper surface of a high-density (+175 kg m-3) lower crustal body, likely of magmatic origin. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data from wells in the centre of the basin show an exponentially decreasing subsidence. We show that process-oriented gravity and flexure modelling suggest that the basin cannot be due to extension as this does not account for the observed gravity anomaly and predicts too shallow a Moho ( 34 km). Equally, extensive rift structures are not observed on the deep seismic profile. Therefore, other processes must be invoked to explain the basin subsidence. Process-oriented gravity modelling shows that a dense body in the lower crust, that has loaded and flexed the crust downwards, together with sediment loading, provides a satisfactory fit to the regional gravity anomaly. This model is consistent with wide-angle seismic data, which

  12. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI): A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vent, Nathalie R.; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI), datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity, and range of these data

  13. Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI) : A Normative Database Created from Control Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vent, N.R.; Agelink van Rentergem, J.A.; Schmand, B.A.; Murre, J.M.J.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the Advanced Neuropsychological Diagnostics Infrastructure (ANDI), datasets of several research groups are combined into a single database, containing scores on neuropsychological tests from healthy participants. For most popular neuropsychological tests the quantity, and range of these data

  14. Complexity, Fragmentation, Structural Unemployment and Labor Law Crisis: How to Diagnose and Overcome Inequalities and Think a Fair Brazil, from a New Society of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele Bandeira de Moraes Dangelo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It aims to demonstrate the decline of traditional protective system, centered on the child labor. Ongoing metamorphoses triggers clandestine of labor relations and structural unemployment. A reconfiguration of labor law follows two main axes: the Solidarity Economy and Income Guaranteed Universal. The developmental economic theory part and to the theory of degrowth, and in this direction, it reaches the three principles of labor law. Finally, the other protective design involving new social actors in the new world of work. A proposal focused on a model of society and work that envisions a fairer Brazil.

  15. Neuropsychological correlates of sustained attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E Y; Lam, L C; Chen, R Y; Nguyen, D G; Chan, C K; Wilkins, A J

    1997-04-11

    We employed a simple and relatively undemanding task of monotone counting for the assessment of sustained attention in schizophrenic patients. The monotone counting task has been validated neuropsychologically and is particularly sensitive to right prefrontal lesions. We compared the performance of schizophrenic patients with age- and education-matched controls. We then explored the extent to which a range of commonly employed neuropsychological tasks in schizophrenia research are related to attentional impairment as measured in this way. Monotone counting performance was found to be correlated with digit span (WAIS-R-HK), information (WAIS-R-HK), comprehension (WAIS-R-HK), logical memory (immediate recall) (Weschler Memory Scale, WMS), and visual reproduction (WMS). Multiple regression analysis also identified visual reproduction, digit span and comprehension as significant predictors of attention performance. In contrast, logical memory (delay recall) (WMS), similarity (WAIS-R-HK), semantic fluency, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (perseverative errors) were not correlated with attention. In addition, no significant correlation between sustained attention and symptoms was found. These findings are discussed in the context of a weakly modular cognitive system where attentional impairment may contribute selectively to a range of other cognitive deficits.

  16. Neuropsychological changes related to unilateral lenticulostriate infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, O; Rousseaux, M; Pruvo, J P; Cabaret, M; Leys, D

    1994-01-01

    According to previous studies, focal capsulostriatal lesions may produce aphasia, hemineglect, gestural apraxia, frontal lobe dysfunction, and memory impairment. A few reports of capsulostriate infarcts secondary to involvement of lenticulostriate arteries have confirmed that aphasia and hemineglect may occur whereas gestural apraxia, anosognosia and frontal-lobe symptoms are rare. Most studies used CT scan assessment and did not exclude possible associated lesions. Neuropsychological changes in 11 patients with lenticulostriate infarcts diagnosed by CT scan were prospectively investigated. MRI in five of the 11 patients showed an associated cortical lesion not seen on CT scan. Patients with pure lenticulostriate infarcts on MRI may exhibit aphasia of mild severity whereas Broca's aphasia, hemineglect, gestural apraxia, and anosognosia were only seen in the subgroup with associated cortical lesions. Aphasia in patients with pure lenticulostriate infarcts was characterised by prominent expressive and lexicosemantic task impairments. The results strongly suggest that cortical involvement is critical to the extent and severity of neuropsychological changes in patients with lenticulostriate infarcts. Images PMID:8164000

  17. Cognitive world: Neuropsychology of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica

    2018-01-01

    It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions. Four neuropsychology cases are presented to illustrate this point: (a) prosopagnosia associated with spatial agnosia; (b) Gerstmann's syndrome; (c) dysexecutive syndrome due to a head injury; and, (d) patient with Capgras' syndrome associated with a left temporal cyst. It is further emphasized that non-brain damaged people present an enormous-but usually overlooked-dispersion in different cognitive domains, resulting in specific and idiosyncratic patterns of cognitive abilities. It is concluded that the concept of "cognitive world" in neuropsychology can parallel the concept of "perceptual world" introduced by von Uexküll in biology, which assumes that different animal species live in idiosyncratic perceptual worlds, available and knowable by the differences in their sensory system abilities. That is, different individuals live in idiosyncratic cognitive worlds, owing to their differences in cognitive abilities.

  18. Personality and Neuropsychological Profiles in Friedreich Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Sabrina; Rotgé, Jean-Yves; Francisque, Hélène; Gargiulo, Marcela; Czernecki, Virginie; Justo, Damian; Lahlou-Laforet, Khadija; Hahn, Valérie; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pelissolo, Antoine; Fossati, Philippe; Durr, Alexandra

    2017-10-30

    Friedreich ataxia, an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, is the most frequent inherited ataxia. Many studies have attempted to identify cognitive and affective changes associated with the disease, but conflicting results have been obtained, depending on the tests used and because many of the samples studied were very small. We investigated personality and neuropsychological characteristics in a cohort of 47 patients with genetically confirmed disease. The neuropsychological battery assessed multiple cognition domains: processing speed, attention, working memory, executive functions, verbal memory, vocabulary, visual reasoning, emotional recognition, and social cognition. Personality was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. We found deficits of sustained attention, processing speed, semantic capacities, and verbal fluency only partly attributable to motor deficit or depressed mood. Visual reasoning, memory, and learning were preserved. Emotional processes and social cognition were unimpaired. We also detected a change in automatic processes, such as reading. Personality traits were characterized by high persistence and low self-transcendence. The mild cognitive impairment observed may be a developmental rather than degenerative problem, due to early cerebellum dysfunction, with the impairment of cognitive and emotional processing. Disease manifestations at crucial times for personality development may also have an important impact on personality traits.

  19. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  20. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  1. Neuropsychological investigation of motor impairments in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Tyler C; Trontel, Haley G; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B; Travers, Brittany; Green, Ryan R; Cariello, Annahir N; Cooperrider, Jason; Nielsen, Jared; Alexander, Andrew; Anderson, Jeffrey; Fletcher, P Thomas; Lange, Nicholas; Zielinski, Brandon; Lainhart, Janet

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear how standardized neuropsychological measures of motor function relate to brain volumes of motor regions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all-male sample composed of 59 ASD and 30 controls (ages 5-33 years) completed three measures of motor function: strength of grip (SOG), finger tapping test (FTT), and grooved pegboard test (GPT). Likewise, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging with region of interest (ROI) volumes obtained to include the following regions: motor cortex (precentral gyrus), somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus), thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and caudal middle frontal gyrus. These traditional neuropsychological measures of motor function are assumed to differ in motor complexity, with GPT requiring the most followed by FTT and SOG. Performance by ASD participants on the GPT and FTT differed significantly from that of controls, with the largest effect size differences observed on the more complex GPT task. Differences on the SOG task between the two groups were nonsignificant. Since more complex motor tasks tap more complex networks, poorer GPT performance by those with ASD may reflect less efficient motor networks. There was no gross pathology observed in classic motor areas of the brain in ASD, as ROI volumes did not differ, but FTT was negatively related to motor cortex volume in ASD. The results suggest a hierarchical motor disruption in ASD, with difficulties evident only in more complex tasks as well as a potential anomalous size-function relation in motor cortex in ASD.

  2. [Child neuropsychology in the next millennium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C

    1999-02-01

    The progress made in recent decades in neuropsychology has meant a major advance in the recognition of sub-types of various disorders of nervous development. Recognition of symptomatology by means of a fragmental study of the components of all the different systems for obtaining information brings to light new therapeutic options. The different neuropsychological tests are used to study not only the final development of a particular ability but also how this has been achieved. Study of the type of mistakes made by each child permits recognition of the neuro-cognitive profile used. Cognitive rehabilitation of different processes presenting in infancy and adolescence offers the possibility of acquiring an alternative system of learning to minimize or substitute for deficiency. This is possible in cases affecting secondary or tertiary processing areas. The recognition of alternative routines, used to overcome specific disorders of nervous system development, makes one reflect on the way in which information is acquired, processed and produced by the brain and the possibility of generating auxiliary strategies for processing, even in healthy brains, so that perhaps options will be available in the case of future lesions (aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, etc.).

  3. Comparative neuropsychology of cortical and subcortical dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M; Oscar-Berman, M

    1986-11-01

    The terms "cortical" and "subcortical" dementia are controversial; however, the clinical distinction between them is real. For example, although Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (prototypical of cortical and subcortical dementia, respectively) share clinical features, they differ in the presence of aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia in Alzheimer's disease but not in Parkinson's dementia. We review our studies aimed at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the differences between these neurological disorders. Experimental paradigms adopted from animal models were used to study the functional anatomy and neuropsychological characteristics of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The tasks administered include delayed alternation (DA) and delayed response (DR), which are sensitive to frontal system damage, and tactile discrimination learning (TOL) and reversal (TRL) paradigms sensitive to parietal system damage. Alzheimer's patients were significantly impaired on all tasks whereas Parkinsonians with dementia were impaired only on DR and TRL. Consideration of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological mechanisms involved in DA, DR, TOL, and TRL appears to have sharpened the distinction between Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementia. Dementia in Alzheimer's disease may involve dorsolateral frontal, orbitofrontal and parietal systems. In contrast, dementia in Parkinson's disease may involve prominent dorsolateral frontal system damage.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological tests for dementia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neuropsychological tests can successfully distinguish between healthy elderly persons and those with clinically significant cognitive impairment. Objectives. A battery of neuropsychological tests was evaluated for their discrimination validity of cognitive impairment in a group of elderly persons in Durban, South ...

  5. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  6. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  8. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities

  9. Neuropsychological functioning in methadone maintenance patients with HIV

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    Enrique Vázquez-Justo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has improved survival rates of HIV patients, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND still exist in a highly prevalent group of persons with this disease. In this study we seek to evaluate the influence of drug use in the neuropsychological performance of seropositive drug users. We carried out an extensive neuropsychological evaluation and compared the performance of seropositive drug users (n = 90 with that of a control group of seronegative drug users (n = 48. The results reveal that methadone maintenance programmes can make the seropositive subject neuropsychologically vulnerable. Likewise, we found that giving up drugs have a protective effect in the presence of neuropsychological alterations associated with HIV. These findings lead us to suggest that seropositivity is not sufficient to explain the neuropsychological alterations of seropositive drug users, noting that these alterations are multifactorial.

  10. New data on the structure of the Vitoria-Trindade seamount chain (western Brazil basin, South Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Peyve, A. A.; Turko, N. N.

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, during cruise 24 of the R/V Akademik Vavilov, much of our research work was focused on the central segment (Jaseur and Davis seamounts, Dogaressa Bank) of the Vitoria-Trindade seamount chain (west of the Brazil basin) extending along 20.5° S. Work was conducted to survey the upper part of the sedimentary cover and to perform subbottom profiling. The samples dredged on the seamount slopes are represented by volcanites and Fe-Mn crusts.

  11. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT IN DEFECTOLOGY

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    Svetomir Bojanin

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Every problem of defectology, based on the developmental difficulties of the senses, intelligence, motor and early socialization, is performed in the area of the developmental nervous structures and neuromuscular links. The scientific defectology , today, can not exist without neuropsychological studies of perception, movement, function of intelligence and feelings.The time when determined functions develop, and the appropriate time for stimulation of those functions, for improvement of the development of perception, intelligence, movements and feelings, that means socialization. At the same time, disorders in the development are treated effectually if the structure and function of determined segments of the person are agreed and matured.Accepting the attitudes of Pijaze, that the nervous structures are dividing the capabilities and incapabilities at a given age, and that the social environment stimulates or irritates the development of those structures and functions, in this paper we give the arguments for this attitudes and methods of early diagnostics and treatment in the childhood and youth.

  12. Long-Term Neuropsychological Profiles and Their Role as Mediators of Adaptive Functioning after Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari

    2017-01-15

    The objectives of the study were to characterize long-term neuropsychological outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained during early childhood, and determine whether identified neuropsychological impairments mediated the effect of TBI on long-term adaptive functioning. Participants included 16 children with severe TBI, 42 children with moderate TBI, and 72 children with orthopedic injuries (OI) sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. Children completed neuropsychological tests and caregivers completed a structured interview of child adaptive functioning at 6.9 (±1.10) years post-injury. Profile analysis and multiple mediator modeling were employed. Children with severe TBI demonstrated poorer fluid reasoning and inhibitory control than both children with moderate TBI and OI, as well as slower processing speed than the OI group. Both fluid reasoning and processing speed were significant independent mediators of the effect of severe TBI on adaptive functioning. No neuropsychological measure significantly mediated the effect of moderate TBI on adaptive functioning. Children sustaining early severe TBI demonstrate persisting neuropsychological impairments into adolescence and young adulthood. The impact of severe TBI on children's long-term adaptive functioning is mediated in part by its effects on fluid reasoning and processing speed.

  13. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdorp, Eduard J; Kessels, Roy P C; Claassen, Jurgen A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test performance concurrently in relation to IADL in this population. As a result, it remains largely unknown whether these factors independently predict functional outcome. The current systematic review intended to address this lack of information by reviewing the literature on older adults, incorporating studies that examined e.g., normal aging, but also stroke or dementia patients. A comprehensive search of databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and reference lists was performed, focusing on papers in the English language that examined the combined effect of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical factors on IADL in samples of adults with an average age above 50. In total, 58 potential articles were identified; 20 were included in the review. The results show that especially neuropsychological variables (primarily memory and executive functions) independently predict IADL. Although some unique predictive value of brain morphological changes, such as hippocampal atrophy, was found, support for the importance of white matter changes was limited. However, the results of the studies reviewed are diverse, and appear to be at least partially determined by the variables included. For example, studies were less likely to find an independent effect of cognition if they solely employed a cognitive screening instrument. This indicates that a structured examination of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of IADL in different patient populations is warranted.

  14. Small time scale plankton structure variations at the entrance of a tropical eutrophic bay (Guanabara Bay, Brazil

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    Mariana Guenther

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the plankton compartments at the entrance of Guanabara Bay (SE Brazil were assessed during a short-term temporal survey to estimate their trophic correlations. Size-fractioned phytoplankton (picoplankton: 20µm biomass and photosynthetic efficiency, composition and abundance of the auto-and heterotrophic nano-and microplankton, and mesozooplankton were evaluated at a fixed station for 3 consecutive days at 3-h intervals, in the surface and bottom (20m layers. The variability of almost all plankton compartments in the surface layer was directly dependent on temperature, indicating the great influence of the circulation at the entrance of the bay on plankton structure. In the surface layer, the mesozooplankton seems to be sustained by both autotrophic nano-and picoplankton, this last being channeled through the microzooplankton. Near the bottom, both auto-and heterotrophic microplankton are probably supporting the mesozooplankton biomass. Our findings thus suggest that the entrance of Guanabara bay presents a multivorous food web, i.e., a combination of both grazing and microbial trophic pathways.A dinâmica dos vários compartimentos do plâncton foi avaliada durante uma série de curta duração na entrada da baía de Guanabara (SE do Brasil, com o objetivo de estimar suas correlações tróficas. A biomassa e eficiência fotossíntética das três frações do fitoplâncton (picoplâncton: 20µm, juntamente com a composição e abundância do nano-e microplâncton auto-e heterótrofos e do mesozooplâncton, foram determinadas em uma estação fixa durante 3 dias consecutivos, a intervalos de 3h, nas camadas de superfície e de fundo (20m. A variabilidade de quase todos os compartimentos do plâncton na superfície foi diretamente relacionada à temperatura, indicando forte influência da circulação da entrada da baía na estrutura planctônica. Na camada superficial, o mesozooplâncton parece ser alimentado pelo nano-e picopl

  15. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  16. Labor structural changes in the regional economy of the Southwestern region of the Parana State in Brazil in beginning of 21st century

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    Jandir Ferrera de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the structural changes in the economy of Southwest Region of Parana State in Brazil. To measure changes in production structure, with respect to the occupation of labor was used indicators of regional analysis. This is a Parana Southwest Region of recent settlement, whose agricultural frontier has run out in the 1970s. It is also considered one of the poorest regions of Parana State and suffered the impact of agriculture modernization, but still retains strong duality in rural development. There are in the Southwest of Parana State two cities more developed than the other: Francisco Beltrao and Pato Branco, but this development is not as expressive as in the cities of the Western Region of Parana State, which has in Toledo, Cascavel and Foz do Iguacu cities, a development much more than the other municipalities.

  17. [Neuropsychological findings in a case of porencephaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarín, M M; Arasanz, C; Oms, B; Olivella, J; Junqué, C

    At the present time porencephalia refers to the presence of deep, unilateral or bilateral cavities or excavations, frequently communicating with the subarachnoid space or lateral ventricles, which occur following brain destruction during the end of the foetal or beginning of the new-born period. The clinical features are various forms of cerebral paralysis (spastic hemiparesia, diplegia and tetraplegia), mental retardation and epileptic crises. To date there are few studies giving detailed analysis of the cognitive functions of affected persons. We studied the mental and cognitive state of an adult woman with massive porencephalic dilatation of the left lateral ventricle. The patient had a normal verbal intelligence quotient. Cortical function, including language, praxis and gnosis were maintained. She had alterations of memory, particularly verbal, and of frontal function. The deficits observed were not lateralized for neocortical functions, but were lateralized for memory. The neuropsychological pattern partly corresponded to subcortical deterioration due to the lesions of the white matter and basal ganglio.

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

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    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  19. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  20. Neuropsychological performance in patients with subcortical stroke

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    Silviane Pinheiro Campos de Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI is characterized by cognitive compromise predominantly of executive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To assess cognitive functions in VCI, focusing on executive functions, to observe functional losses in relation to activities of daily living (ADLs and to detect early symptoms prior to the onset of dementia. METHODS: We evaluated healthy subjects matched for gender, education and age to patients with diagnosis of subcortical vascular disease who had a stroke classified into three groups: 1 vascular lesions and no impairment; 2 vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND; 3 vascular dementia (VaD. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The performance on neuropsychological tests differed among groups, worsening with increased impairment level. The probable VaD group demonstrated impaired performance in memory, processing speed and verbal production, while the VCIND group showed attention deficits. CONCLUSION: Impairment in executive functions and difficulties in ADLs allow us to differentiate levels of impairment in groups of subcortical vascular disease.

  1. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

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    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  2. [The links between neuropsychology and neurophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarska-Weryńska, Urszula; Biedroń, Agnieszka; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish current scope of knowledge regarding associations between neurophysiological functioning, neuropsychology and psychoterapy. A systematic review was performed including 93 publications from Science Server, which contains the collections of Elsevier, Springer Journals, SCI-Ex/ICM, MEDLINE/PubMed, and SCOPUS. The works have been selected basing on following key words: 'neuropsychology, neurocognitive correlates, electrodermal response, event related potential, EEG, pupillography, electromiography' out of papers published between 2004-2015. Present reports on the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology can be divided into two areas: experimental research and research of the practical use of conditioning techniques and biofeedback in the treatment of somatic disease. Among the experimental research the following have been distinguished: research based on the startle reflex, physiological reaction to novelty, stress, type/amount of cognitive load and physiological correlates of emotion; research on the neurophysiological correlates of mental disorders, mostly mood and anxiety disorders, and neurocognitive correlates: of memory, attention, learning and intelligence. Among papers regarding the use of neurophysiological methods in psychology two types are the most frequent: on the mechanisms of biofeedback, related mainly to neuro- feedback, which is a quickly expanding method of various attention and mental disorders'treatment, and also research of the use of conditioning techniques in the treatment of mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety. A special place among all the above is taken by the research on electrophysiological correlates of psychotherapy, aiming to differentiate between the efficacy of various psychotherapeutic schools (the largest amount of publications regard the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy) in patients of different age groups and different diagnosis.

  3. Molecular neuropsychology: creation of test-specific blood biomarker algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryant, Sid E; Xiao, Guanghua; Barber, Robert; Cullum, C Munro; Weiner, Myron; Hall, James; Edwards, Melissa; Grammas, Paula; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Doody, Rachelle; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Prior work on the link between blood-based biomarkers and cognitive status has largely been based on dichotomous classifications rather than detailed neuropsychological functioning. The current project was designed to create serum-based biomarker algorithms that predict neuropsychological test performance. A battery of neuropsychological measures was administered. Random forest analyses were utilized to create neuropsychological test-specific biomarker risk scores in a training set that were entered into linear regression models predicting the respective test scores in the test set. Serum multiplex biomarker data were analyzed on 108 proteins from 395 participants (197 Alzheimer patients and 198 controls) from the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. The biomarker risk scores were significant predictors (p neuropsychological tests. With the exception of premorbid intellectual status (6.6%), the biomarker risk scores alone accounted for a minimum of 12.9% of the variance in neuropsychological scores. Biomarker algorithms (biomarker risk scores and demographics) accounted for substantially more variance in scores. Review of the variable importance plots indicated differential patterns of biomarker significance for each test, suggesting the possibility of domain-specific biomarker algorithms. Our findings provide proof of concept for a novel area of scientific discovery, which we term 'molecular neuropsychology'. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  5. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear

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    Nolan M. Dehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain.A geometria das zonas de cisalhamento no CinturãoParaíba do Sul no Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, delineia uma estrutura-em-leque com direção NE. Estaszonas de cisalhamento mergulham para SE no flanco norte, e para NW no flanco sul da estrutura. Esta geometria tem sido interpretada de duas formas: (a implantação de um regime transpressivo ou (b dobramento tardio de superfícies de empurrão originalmente sub-horizontais. A lineação de estiramento mineral mostra caimento para ENE-ESE, no flanco norte, e para NNE-NE, no flanco sul, onde ocorre a Zona

  6. Core competencies in clinical neuropsychology training across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Hokkanen, Laura; Ponsford, Jennie; van Zandvoort, Martine; Watts, Ann; Evans, Jonathan; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2017-12-07

    This work aimed to review main competency requirements from training models in countries with well-established specialties in clinical neuropsychology and to extract core competencies that likely will apply to clinical neuropsychologists regardless of regional and cultural context. We reviewed standards for post-graduate training in clinical neuropsychology from countries in Europe, Australia, and North America based on existing literature, presentations at international conferences, and from description of the training models from national psychological or neuropsychological associations. Despite differences, the reviewed models share similar core competencies considered necessary for a specialty in clinical neuropsychology: (1) In-depth knowledge of general psychology including clinical psychology (post-graduate level), ethical, and legal standards. (2) Expert knowledge about clinically relevant brain-behavioral relationships. (3) Comprehensive knowledge about, and skills in, related clinical disciplines. (4) In-depth knowledge about and skills in neuropsychological assessment, including decision-making and diagnostic competency according to current classification of diseases. (5) Competencies in the area of diversity and culture in relation to clinical neuropsychology. (6) Communication competency of neuropsychological findings and test results to relevant and diverse audiences. (7) Knowledge about and skills in psychological and neuropsychological intervention, including treatment and rehabilitation. All the models have undergone years of development in accordance with requirements of national health care systems in different parts of the world. Despite differences, the common core competency requirements across different regions of the world suggest generalizability of these competencies. We hope this summary can be useful as countries with less established neuropsychology training programs develop their models.

  7. Implementing guidelines: Proposed definitions of neuropsychology services in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T; Powell, Stephanie K; Jacobson, Lisa A; Gragert, Marsha N; Janzen, Laura A; Paltin, Iris; Rey-Casserly, Celiane M; Wilkening, Greta N

    2017-08-01

    Several organizations have published guidelines for the neuropsychological care of survivors of childhood cancer. However, there is limited consensus in how these guidelines are applied. The model of neuropsychology service delivery is further complicated by the variable terminology used to describe recommended services. In an important first step to translate published guidelines into clinical practice, this paper proposes definitions for specific neuropsychological processes and services, with the goal of facilitating consistency across sites to foster future clinical program development and to clarify clinical practice guidelines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  9. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological testing for neuronal connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianhui; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Ekholm, Sven; Kavcic, Voyko

    2004-04-01

    We have used MR DTI to identify relevant brain structures involved in visuospatial processing, in an attempt to link perceptual and attentional impairments to WM changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Correlation of DTI measured parameters with results of several neuropsychological tests will be reported here. Several issues related to quantitation of DTI parameters in ROI analysis are addressed. In spite of only a small number of subjects were studied so far, we found not only that AD patients showed significant decrease of white matter (WM) integrity in corpus callosum (CC), most prominent at the posterior portion, but also found significant correlations between the DTI parameters and scores from several neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary results suggest that DTI help to improve the overall accuracy rate in distinguishing between early AD onset and age-related functional decline, and potentially may improve efficiency in differentiating between different types of dementia.

  10. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  11. Dynamic and Functional Approach to Human Memory in the Brain: A Clinical Neuropsychological Perspective

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    Yannick Gounden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The way how cognition is conceived and represented in brain functioning will directly impact clinical investigations of people with cognitive difficulties. This is particularly evident in the field of clinical neuropsychology where methodologies and tools are justified on a fundamental level by the theoretical foundations adopted. The present article outlined how the dominant influences of structural and anatomo-clinical theories of memory have led to a particular conception of clinical investigations. We propose to reconsider these dominant methods in favor of a more dynamic and functional representation of memory that would be clinically more appropriate. More precisely, we argued that relying exclusively on a particular memory conception (i.e., structural may not be sufficient considering the range of real-life variables affecting a patient’s memory. By extracting clinically meaningful information in more functional and dynamic memory conceptions, we also aim at underlining the potentials advantages of such theories in facilitating personalized assessments and follow up of patients in clinical neuropsychology. We suggest that a dynamic, functional, and integrative conception of memory would be more coherent with the trend in clinical neuropsychology to promote a more collaborative interaction between the clinician and the patient. Finally, considering the absence of empirical studies on the possible benefits of implementing such recent memory concepts in clinical practice, we encourage researchers and clinicians to test in the field of clinical neuropsychology, the usefulness and explanatory power of more dynamic and functional representation of memory in order to objectively demonstrate its validity outside the research loop.

  12. Guidelines for the structure and function of an interdisciplinary team for persons with brain injury. Joint Committee on Interprofessional Relations between Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report provides guidelines for the structure and function of interdisciplinary teams assembled for the delivery of clinical services to individuals with brain injury. Specifically, the report addresses issues concerning team membership, skills required of the team coordinator, and the processes that facilitate the attainment of team goals. These general suggestions are designed to give rehabilitation professionals and health care administrators some guiding principles for interdisciplinary teams involved in the clinical management of individuals with brain injury.

  13. Neuropsychological deficits in chronic schizophrenics. Relationship with symptoms and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, F B; Ringel, N B; Boronow, J J

    1991-12-01

    Thirty-nine hospitalized chronic schizophrenics were administered the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) and the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised when they were clinically stable. Test variables were related to Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale ratings and two behavioral measures of ward functioning, points and activities. Spearman correlations of test variables with the symptom and behavioral measures were entered into a series of median polish analyses. There was an overall significant relationship between the two sets of variables. Neuropsychological test variables that were most highly correlated with symptom/behavioral measures were LNNB Left Frontal, Memory, and Intellectual Processes scales. The positive symptoms of thought disorder and hallucinations were most consistently related to neuropsychological variables. In contrast with other findings in the literature, negative symptoms were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological performance.

  14. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  15. Genetics and neuropsychology: A merger whose time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S; Panizzon, Matthew S; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been 2 rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsychology. This relationship should not be unidirectional. Here we note ways in which an understanding of genetics and epigenetics can inform neuropsychology. On the other hand, given the complexity of cognitive phenotypes, neuropsychology can also play a valuable role in informing and refining genetic studies. Greater integration of the 2 should advance both fields. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Neuropsychological-EEG Activation in Genetic Generalized Epilepsy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, evaluated the effects of neuropsychological activation (NPA tasks on epileptiform discharges (ED in adolescents with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE and in comparison with hyperventilation and photic stimulation.

  17. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

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    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  18. Clinical applicability and cutoff values for an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for older adults with low formal education.

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    Jonas Jardim de Paula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. METHODS AND RESULTS: A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. CONCLUSION: The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education.

  19. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

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    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  20. Factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women from São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil: an approach using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Valente, Camila Maia; Ribeiro, João Victor Fonseca; Almeida, Laysa Andrade; Costa, Ludmilla Emilia Martins; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2017-01-23

    The factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women were analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 1,446 pregnant women from a prenatal cohort who were interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in São Luís, Brazil. In the initial model, socioeconomic status occupied the most distal position, determining sociodemographic factors, social support and the behavioral factors that ultimately determined physical violence, which was investigated as a latent variable. Structural equation modeling was used in the analysis. Pregnant women who were from more disadvantaged backgrounds (p = 0.027), did not reside with intimate partners (p = 0.005), had low social support (p violence. Low social support was the primary mediator of the effect of socioeconomic status on physical violence. The effect of marital status was mainly mediated by a high number of lifetime intimate partners.

  1. A.R. Luria and the history of Russian neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, J M

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes Russian contributions to neuropsychology from the eighteenth up to the twenty-first century. Various approaches to the problem of the organization and localization of mental functions in the Pre-Lurian and Luria's periods are discussed. Comparisons with European and North American contributions and with contributions from subsequent Russian literature (post-Lurian period) are presented to demonstrate their interconnections in shaping the course of Russian neuropsychology and the main tendencies in its development.

  2. Clinical neuropsychology in Israel: history, training, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hoofien, Dan

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2-3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  3. A neuropsychological perspective on measuring sign language learning and comprehension

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    Rainer Spiegel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a tentative neuropsychological explanation on sign-language comprehension. A spatial probability interface is applied to study levels of comprehension with regard to British Sign Language (BSL sequences. The results of this study not only support the validity of the spatial probability interface as a means of expressing learning and comprehension, but also refer to gender differences. These differences are discussed in the light of present neuropsychological theory.

  4. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Comesaña; Marcela González

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD) patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psy...

  5. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Michael W Weiner; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  6. Neuropsychological Differences Related to Age in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiro Nagahama; Tomoko Okina; Norio Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: To examine the influence of age on neuropsychological performances in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Methods: We examined memory, executive, and visuo-constructional performances in 202 DLB patients and 236 AD patients. We divided the subjects into three age groups (65–74, 75–84, and 85–95 years old), and evaluated the differences in neuropsychological performances. Results: Recent memory in the DLB group was significantly better than tha...

  7. The structure of the natural gas industry in Brazil; A estrutura da industria de gas natural no Barsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Cristiane R.; Fontes, Cristiane M.; Andrade, Marcelo C.; Goncalves, Raquel G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The opening of the Brazilian economy and the end of the state-owned oil company PETROBRAS monopoly made possible for national and international companies to become concessionaires of the rights and obligations regarding the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas. The increasing of the oil reserves and production, together with the technological development and the more restricted environmental legislation, resulted in a gradual increased participation of the natural gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply. Around 3% for many years, the participation of gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply has increased to 7.5% in 2002, as mentioned in the 2003 Brazil Energy Balance (BEN). The 2003 production was more than 100 millions boe, and the import was more than 37 millions boe according to the National Oil Agency (ANP). We present in this article a summary of today's situation, and the consumer market full development limitations. (author)

  8. Seasonal variability of the composition and structure of parasite communities of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae off Brazil

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    Soares I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of seasonal variation of metazoan parasite community of Pagrus pagrus was conducted between January and December 2012. Two hundred forty specimens of Pagrus pagrus were collected in four seasons (autumn and winter in dry season and spring and summer in rainy season from off the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Twenty one species of metazoan parasites were found, with larvae of Hysterothylacium sp. being the dominant species. The highest values of prevalence and abundance was during the rainy season with peak prevalence of monogeneans and nematodes, period of action of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW and reproductive activity of the host, suggesting that the sasonal variation in the parasites community was influenced for these phenomena.

  9. Demographic structure of a threatened palm (Euterpe edulis Mart. in a fragmented landscape of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Melina Oliveira Melito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the northern limits of the range of the palm species Euterpe edulis there is an endemic ecotype, known as the "Bahia" ecotype, which is distinguished by its reddish crownshaft and low seed production. Unfortunately, little is known about its demographic characteristics. Therefore, we contrasted the density of E. edulis populations in the Una region, in the southern part of the Bahia state, Brazil, with that of other populations of the species in southern and southeastern Brazil. In addition, within the Una region, we compared a long-protected forest fragment (F1 with three recently protected fragments (F2, F3, and F4, in terms of demographic parameters and plant size, in order to determine what influence, if any, time since protection has on E. edulis populations. Population densities within the Una region were higher than in regions where E. edulis populations are stressed by harvesting or intense seed predation but much lower than in regions with well protected populations. Among the Una fragments, density was highest in F1 and lowest in F2. The proportion of individuals at the various developmental stages differed among the fragments (χ²=25.219, df=12, p=0.014. Diameter at ground level, height, and number of leaves correlated positively among themselves and negatively with population density. For all developmental stages, F1 surpassed the other fragments in terms of densities and plant sizes. It is likely that the newly protected populations suffer the lingering effects of previous harvesting, which are reflected in their demography and in the size of their individual members. The viability of this low-density endemic ecotype must be established in order to assess the conservation status of the species on a regional scale.

  10. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

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    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  11. Patient satisfaction with a hospital-based neuropsychology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Amie; Millar, Elisa; Dorstyn, Diana

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to develop and pilot a measure of patient satisfaction that encompasses themes, activities, settings and interactions specific to the neuropsychological assessment process. Methods A focus group of out-patients (n=15) was surveyed to identify the factors commonly associated with a satisfactory neuropsychological experience. Responses informed a purposely designed 14-item patient satisfaction scale (α=0.88) that was completed by 66 hospital out-patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Results Satisfaction with the neuropsychological assessment process was generally reported, with the testing phase (85%) rated significantly more favourably than the pre-assessment (79%) and feedback (70%) phases. Commentaries provided by 32 respondents identified interpersonal facilitators to a satisfactory neuropsychological assessment experience, but also dissatisfaction with physical aspects of the testing environment in addition to service availability. Conclusions The patient satisfaction scale can be used as a quality assurance tool to evaluate neuropsychological service delivery. Large-scale research is needed to confirm the scale's psychometric properties. Further research may also include a broader perspective on the consumers' experience of neuropsychological services.

  12. [Neuropsychological profiles associated with the children's oral language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Guzón, P A; Conde-Guzón, M J; Bartolomé-Albistegui, M T; Quirós-Expósito, P

    Oral language disorders constitute a group of syndromes with a high prevalence among the childhood population. They form a heterogeneous group that ranges from simple problems in articulating a phoneme (dyslalias) to severe disorders affecting communication, such as children's dysarthrias and aphasias. In this paper our objective is to review the neuropsychological profiles of children who manifest different oral language disorders. Due to the wide range of clinical pictures and causations covered by children's oral language disorders, very few systematic reviews have been conducted to obtain an overall view of the neuropsychological profiles of these children. Although the linguistic signs and symptoms of these disorders are well understood, the associated neuropsychological signs and symptoms have not been studied. In some cases, these neuropsychological signs cause greater learning problems in children than the actual language problems themselves. Childhood language disorders are associated with different neuropsychological problems. The most commonly associated neuropsychological deficits are problems involving memory, attention, executive functions, motor dysfunctions, temporal perception, tactile recognition, body scheme, spatial orientation and difficulties in visual discrimination. Mnemonic disorders (essentially in short-term and working auditory memory) are usually a common denominator in the different clinical pictures that make up language disorders. The mnemonic impairment associated to dyslalias deserves special attention as this disorder is sometimes similar to that seen in language problems deriving from clinical pictures with important neurological alterations.

  13. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN IN CONDITIONS OF ORPHANAGE

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    A.V. Pavlikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of orphanage, neuropsychological development is estimated of children aged from 3 months old up to 3 years 4 months old, without central nervous system damage and without major development defects, examined, correspondingly, in 2001 (n = 87 and in 2007 (n = 59. The estimation was performed with the use of two computer methods. The analysis of neuropsychological development estimation results by ?Profile of development? program and ?GNOM? program gave comparable results: neuropsychological development pathology group accounted for 85% and 86% correspondingly, moreover, violations are notified in all spheres of neuropsychological development without gender or age differences. However, ?Profile of development? program provides deviations in specific activity of a child in the form of a diagram, thus enabling to monitor all spheres of neuropsychological development in detail. This gives a pediatrician an opportunity to coordinate medical, psychological and pedagogic activities aimed at rehabilitation of children in conditions of deprivation.Key words: children, neuropsychological development, computer program, deprivation.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:26-28

  14. Beyond functional architecture in cognitive neuropsychology: a reply to Coltheart (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, David C; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-01-01

    We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact on cognitive science due to a nearly exclusive reliance on (a) single-case studies, (b) dissociations in cognitive performance, and (c) shallow, box-and-arrow theorizing, and we advocated adopting a case-series methodology, considering associations as well as dissociations, and employing explicit computational modeling in studying "how the brain does its cognitive business." In reply, Coltheart (2010) claims that our concern is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture," without regard to how this is implemented in the brain. In this response, we do not dispute his characterization of cognitive neuropsychology as it has typically been practiced over the last 40 years, but we suggest that our understanding of brain structure and function has advanced to the point where studying the mind without regard to the brain is unwise and perpetuates the field's isolation. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Obsessive compulsive disorder networks: positron emission tomography and neuropsychology provide new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation has shed new light on the central role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. We explored this structure from a functional perspective, synchronizing neuroimaging and cognitive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This case-control cross-sectional study compared 15 OCD patients without comorbidities and not currently on serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy with 15 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education level on resting-state (18FDG-PET scans and a neuropsychological battery assessing executive functions. We looked for correlations between metabolic modifications and impaired neuropsychological scores. Modifications in glucose metabolism were found in frontal regions (orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral cortices, the cingulate gyrus, insula and parietal gyrus. Neuropsychological differences between patients and controls, which were subtle, were correlated with the metabolism of the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. CONCLUSION: As expected, we confirmed previous reports of a PFC dysfunction in OCD patients, and established a correlation with cognitive deficits. Other regions outside the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsoparietal cortex and the insula, also appeared to be implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, providing fresh insights on the complexity of OCD syndromes.

  16. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  17. Morphologic and neuropsychological patterns in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease

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    Chapuis, Pierre; Banciu, Eldda [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); Sauvee, Mathilde; Serra, Amelie; Moreaud, Olivier [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neurology, Grenoble (France); Medici, Maud [CIT803, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre [CIT803, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Krainik, Alexandre [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); INSERM U 836, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    We conducted a retrospective study to identify morphological subgroups of patients referred for AD or aMCI and to seek for differences across neuropsychological performances. One hundred forty-five patients (mean age = 76.01, 88 women and 57 men) referred for AD, either at the stage of dementia or aMCI, were examined using structural MRI. Five observers reviewed blindly twice all examinations. We rated microangiopathy, hippocampal, parietal atrophies, including a gradient of fronto-parietal atrophy (GFPA). A multiple component analysis (MCA) followed by a hierarchical ascending classification was conducted to identify morphologically distinct subgroups. Among these, 76 patients completed all the neuropsychological tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were further conducted on these data across morphological subgroups. The institutional review board approved the research protocol. Inter- and intra-raters' agreements were excellent and very good for microangiopathy and hippocampal atrophy ratings. They were higher for GFPA than for the parietal atrophy scale. MCA without priors identified three groups: group 1 was characterized by no/discrete microangiopathy, severe hippocampal, and predominant parietal atrophy; group 2 had significant microangiopathy, severe hippocampal atrophy, and no predominant parietal atrophy; group 3 had a mild hippocampal atrophy and parietal atrophies. In group 1, working memory profile was less impaired than in group 2 (p = 0.01). Neuropsychological performances of group 3 were higher in most domains. Combined characterization of microangiopathy, hippocampal, parietal, and GFPA allows identifying morphological subgroups among patients referred for AD and at risk. These groups have some neuropsychological differences, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms or co-existing conditions. (orig.)

  18. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B.; Gravitz, Zoe R.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among participants is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory, (2) executive functions, (3) emotion and psychosocial skills, (4) visuospatial cognition, and (5) psychomotor abilities. The brain systems that are most vulnerable to alcoholism are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576

  19. Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

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    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  1. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  2. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa S L Santos

    Full Text Available Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  3. Terrestrial impact structures as geoheritage: an assessment method of their scientific value and its application to Brazil

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    JOANA P. SÁNCHEZ

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Terrestrial impact structures are geological and geomorphological features with particular importance to understand the history and evolution of the planet. Impact structures are scattered around the world but in many countries these features are under threat, essentially due to anthropic factors. Impact structures with higher scientific value should be considered as geological heritage and, consequently, be subjected to geoconservation strategies. In order to select the most important impact structures to be properly conserved and managed, this paper proposes a quantitative assessment method of the scientific value of these structures. The eight Brazilian impact structures were used to test this method that has the potential to be applied to any geological context in any country. The structures known as Araguainha Dome-MT and Serra da Cangalha-TO reached a higher scientific value, which justifies the need to develop geoconservation strategies and a proper management.

  4. Neuropsychological performance in patients with myasthenia gravis

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    María Bárbara Eizaguirre

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular transmission. Controversial findings had been reported about cognitive impairment in this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive pattern of patients with myasthenia gravis. There were enrolled 24 patients with myasthenia gravis, anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies (ACRA positive, and 24 healthy controls. Patients: age 43.9 ± 14.8, years of education 10.9 ± 3.3. Controls: age 44.5 ± 15.4, years of education 11.5 ± 3.3. The following areas were evaluated: verbal memory: (long-term storage, retrieval, delayed recall of the Selective Remained Test; attention: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT 2 and 3 seconds; executive functions: analogies and numbers-letters sequence. Also, it was administered the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II. About 33.3% of patients obtained abnormal performance in two or more cognitive tests. 37.5% showed deterioration in attention; 33.3% in verbal memory; 29.2% in executive functions. Significant differences between patients and healthy controls were found in long-term storage (p = 0.001; retrieval (p = 0.007; delayed recall (p = 0.000; PASAT 3 (p = 0.009; PASAT 2 (p = 0.009 and analogies (p = 0.003. Evidence of depression was found: mild in 4.2% of patients; moderate in 25% and severe in 29.2%. Neuropsychological performance declines in patients with myasthenia gravis: attention was more affected than other cognitive areas

  5. Savant Syndrome: Clinical and Neuropsychological Features

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    Ibrahim Durukan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Savant syndrome defines the people who have severe developmental and mental disabilities but also have extraordinary mental skills which are missing in many people. Although general mental capacity is under average mental level, savant has excessive knowledge about one or more domains. It is accepted that as many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Males outnumber females by an approximate 6 : 1 ratio in savant syndrome. Savant skills are limited to five general categories. These are music, art, calender calculating, mathematics and mechanical or spatial skills. Savant skills can also be divided into three as savants who have splinter skills, talented savants and prodigious savants. A remarkable memory welds to the special abilities determined in savant syndrome. Savant syndrome can be congenital or it can be acquired. Most often savant skills emerge in childhood, superimposed on some underlying developmental disability present at birth. However, acquired savant skills can also appear, when none were previously present, in neurotypical individuals following brain injury or disease later in infancy, childhood or adult life. Savant skills don’t depend on only rote memory. It is approved that an enhanced or spared ability to represent and manipulate highly organised domain-specific information. Various theoretic models were defined to explain the neuropsychological profile in savant syndrome. Interest in savants has a long history, stretching back to the early 18th century; nevertheless, the savant syndrome remains as much a mystery now as it did when it was first described. Given that many questions about the existence and nature of savant talent remain unanswered, it seems likely that research efforts will continue unabated.

  6. [Working memory: neuropsychological and neurobiological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska, Alina; Wiłkość, Monika; Tomaszewska, Marta; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Working memory denotes an ability to remember information for a short-time and to manipulate it. The memory allows including correct information depending on the situation, to keep the information on present activities for a while and enables changing the reaction according to new criteria. The relation between working memory and efficiency of complex cognitive processes and also with the control of emotional processes, plasticity of behaviour and consciousness was demonstrated. Working memory is connected with the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain. Recently, it has been shown, that working memory disturbances play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of psychiatric disturbances such as schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Working memory disturbances are also shown in a proportion of healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. Working memory disturbances are presently regarded as a cognitive endophenotypic marker of vulnerability to these illnesses. In recent years, an association between working memory abilities and activity of different neurotransmitters, especially with the dopaminergic system in the brain, has been shown. Molecular genetic studies show an association between working memory abilities and polymorphism of the dopaminergic system genes in schizophrenia and polymorphism of BDNF gene in bipolar affective disorders. So far not much data about the genetics of working memory in healthy subjects has been gathered. Currently in Poland such research is carried on in the Clinical Neuropsychology Unit Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz in cooperation with the Department of Adult Psychiatry and Laboratory of Psychiatric Genetics University of Medical Sciences in Poznań.

  7. Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Marco Antonio Borba-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p1 Ecological studies have suggested that different groups of polypore species, acting as parasites and/or saprophytes, degrade different types of woody substrates. These functional groups have different decay capabilities and hence different roles in ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the community (species composition and their functionality inferred on the basis of substrate preference of wood-decaying polypores in the Atlantic Forest of Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The polypore specimens and data on the substrates were sampled in two plots (100×50 m. Among 152 specimens collected, 58 species were identified. Three main dominant groups were identified. The first group comprised three dominant species, the second group five subordinate species and the third 50 rare species. The species were ordered using cluster correspondence analysis based on relative frequency of the species in the different types of substrates and the mean size of the substrate where basidiomes were found. Five functional groups were recognized: two of them were formed by Phylloporia species (P. spathulata on living roots in the ground and P. chrysita on living trunk; and three others consisted of different species of different genera, each of them characterized by the presence of one dominant, few subordinate and several rare species.

  8. Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Borba-Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies have suggested that different groups of polypore species, acting as parasites and/or saprophytes, degrade different types of woody substrates. These functional groups have different decay capabilities and hence different roles in ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the community (species composition and their functionality inferred on the basis of substrate preference of wood-decaying polypores in the Atlantic Forest of Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The polypore specimens and data on the substrates were sampled in two plots (100×50 m. Among 152 specimens collected, 58 species were identified. Three main dominant groups were identified. The first group comprised three dominant species, the second group five subordinate species and the third 50 rare species. The species were ordered using cluster correspondence analysis based on relative frequency of the species in the different types of substrates and the mean size of the substrate where basidiomes were found. Five functional groups were recognized: two of them were formed by Phylloporia species (P. spathulata on living roots in the ground and P. chrysita on living trunk; and three others consisted of different species of different genera, each of them characterized by the presence of one dominant, few subordinate and several rare species.

  9. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil

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    FELIPE C. NETTESHEIM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  10. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Felipe C; Damasceno, Elaine R; Sylvestre, Lana S

    2014-03-01

    A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  11. Challenges for the Professional Education of the Clinical Neuropsychologist in Brazil

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    Ana Paula Almeida de Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Neuropsychology is a fairly recent field of work in Brazil, however, there is a growing demand for professionals within this specialty. Though the Federal Council of Psychology has already delineated this field as a possible specialty after professional graduate training, the requirements for such training are still unclear. The present article seeks to build this field’s framework by pointing out the competencies attitudes and behaviors of the Clinical Neurospychologists and by investigating historical aspects and the training requirements established by other countries which are more advanced in the debate. Finally, the major challenges for providing training in clinical neuropsychology are pointed out

  12. The n-back test and the attentional network task as measures of child neuropsychological development in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forns, Joan; Esnaola, Mikel; López-Vicente, Mónica; Suades-González, Elisabet; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Julvez, Jordi; Grellier, James; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    Computerized neuropsychological tests offered several advantages for large epidemiological studies to assess child neuropsychological development. We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and criterion validity of 2 computerized tests (n-back and attentional network task [ANT]) used to assess the working memory and attention function, respectively. As part of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, we evaluated the neuropsychological development of 2,904 children between 7 to 9 years of age. The main outcomes of the n-back test were d' scores and hit reaction time (RT) (HRT). The outcomes measured for ANT were incorrect responses, omissions, alerting, orienting, and conflict. We also collected data of child's sex, age, school achievement, ADHD symptomatology, behavioral problems, and maternal education. We observed that the d' scores and HRT showed acceptable internal consistency, reasonable factorial structure, as well as good criterion validity and statistical dependencies. Regarding the ANT, incorrect responses, omissions, and conflict score had acceptable criterion validity although the internal consistency of the ANT was low. We strongly recommend the use of these tests in environmental epidemiological studies as valid, objective, and easy-to-apply measures of child neuropsychological development.

  13. [Neuropsychological profile of internationally adopted children in Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón-Póo, L; Boix, C; López-Sala, A; Colomé, R; Fumadó, V; Sans, A

    2012-01-01

    During the last years, International adoption has increased significantly in our country over the last few years. China, Russia, Colombia and Ethiopia represent 77% of international adoptions in Spain. Cognitive and behavioural aspects are very important for an adequate social, family and school integration of these children. To describe the neuropsychological profiles of a group of internationally adopted children in Catalonia from China, Russia, Colombia and Ethiopia. Neuropsychological examination of 49 children from international adoption (6 of Chinese origin, 24 from Russia, 13 from Colombia and 6 of Ethiopian origin). The group of Chinese origin obtained average scores of all functions evaluated. The Russian origin group was below the average for, selective attention, phonetic verbal fluency, control of impulsivity, mechanics and reading comprehension, and spelling. Scores on the impulse control in the Colombian origin group were below average. The group of Ethiopian origin obtained average scores in all functions evaluated except for spelling difficulties. Children adopted from Russia have greater neuropsychological difficulties than the others. Most pre-adoption history is unknown; therefore we are unable to determine the origin of these difficulties. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the institutional environment could be influencing factors in neuropsychological delay. Inclusion of neuropsychological assessment in health protocols for these children is recommended if they develop suggestive signs of cognitive and/or behavioral impairment. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-11-01

    Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies. Initial progress in neuropsychological application of functional neuroimaging has been hampered by costs and the exposure to ionizing radiation. With rapid evolution of functional methods-in particular functional MRI (fMRI)-neuroimaging has profoundly transformed our knowledge of the brain. Its current applications span the spectrum of normative development to clinical applications. The field is moving toward applying sophisticated statistical approaches that will help elucidate distinct neural activation networks associated with specific behavioral domains. The impact of functional neuroimaging on clinical neuropsychology is more circumscribed, but the prospects remain enticing. The theoretical insights and empirical findings of functional neuroimaging have been led by many neuropsychologists and have transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience. Thus far they have had limited effects on the clinical practices of neuropsychologists. Perhaps it is time to add training in functional neuroimaging to the clinical neuropsychologist's toolkit and from there to the clinic or bedside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Oculomotor and neuropsychological effects of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia

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    Kristian S. Hill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement has become an important target for drug therapies in schizophrenia. Treatment development in this area requires assessment approaches that are sensitive to procognitive effects of antipsychotic and adjunctive treatments. Ideally, new treatments will have translational characteristics for parallel human and animal research. Previous studies of antipsychotic effects on cognition have relied primarily on paper-and-pencil neuropsychological testing. No study has directly compared neurophysiological biomarkers and neuropsychological testing as strategies for assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatment early in the course of schizophrenia. Anti psychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia were tested before treatment with risperidone and again 6 weeks later. Matched healthy participants were tested over a similar time period. Test-retest reliability, effect sizes of within-subject change, and multivariate/univariate analysis of variance were used to compare 3 neurophysiological tests (visually guided saccade, memory-guided saccade, and antisaccade with neuropsychological tests covering 4 cognitive domains (executive function, attention, memory, and manual motor function. While both measurement approaches showed robust neurocognitive impairments in patients prior to risperidone treatment, oculomotor biomarkers were more sensitive to treatment-related effects on neurocognitive function than traditional neuropsychological measures. Further, unlike the pattern of modest generalized cognitive improvement suggested by neuropsychological measures, the oculomotor findings revealed a mixed pattern of beneficial and adverse treatment related effects. These findings warrant further investigation regarding the utility of neurophysiological biomarkers for assessing cognitive outcomes of antipsychotic treatment in clinical trials and in early-phase drug development.

  16. Neuropsychological characteristics and personality traits in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Kelsie T; Shaw, Martha; Graeber, Margarita A; Hovick, Lauren; Meyer, Vanessa J; Moser, David J; Bayless, John; Watson, David; Black, Donald W

    2008-04-01

    Pathological gambling disorder (PG) has been associated with fronto-temporal dysfunction and maladaptive personality traits, such as impulsivity and novelty seeking. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive variance of neuropsychological and personality characteristics in PG. Persons with PG (n=25) and a comparison group (n=34) were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Subjects with PG had evidence of fronto-temporal dysfunction as assessed by the Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Letter-Number Sequencing, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination Animal Naming Test. Subjects with PG also had impaired decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task. PG subjects had elevated levels of impulsivity, novelty seeking, and harm avoidance, and lower levels of self-directedness and cooperativeness. Logistic regression analyses indicated that neuropsychological variables did not add significant incremental variance over personality traits in predicting PG (Block chi-square=5.19, P=.074), while personality variables added significant incremental variance over neuropsychological traits in predicting PG (Block chi-square=25.13, P<.001). These results suggest that personality traits are better predictors than neuropsychological characteristics of whether someone has PG.

  17. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

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    Katarina Habe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music: (1 the analysis of normal and abnormal psychological and physiological functions to determine the principles and modes by which the human brain processes, codifies, stores, and produces music, and (2 a description of the clinical deficits in music perception or performance resulting from localized or diffuse damage to the nervous system. Main topics that occupy neuropsychology of music are neuropsychological models of musical processing, functional imaging of musical perception and cognition, and the use of music as a therapeutic and clinical tool. Although some important studies have already been conducted since the year 2003, in Slovenia we faced a "formal" turning point in acknowledging the importance of the connection between music, mind and brain with the Sinapsa's Week of the brain 2009 under the title Brain and music.

  18. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  19. Fluid escape structures as possible indicators of past gas hydrate dissociation during the deposition of the Barremian sediments in the Recôncavo Basin, NE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Menezes Freire

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Empty elliptical vesicles are observed in outcrops of Barremian very fine clayey sandstone to siltstone lacustrine slurry deposits of the Pitanga Member (Maracangalha Formation, exposed in the Maré Island, Southern Recôncavo Basin, Brazil. These sedimentary features have been traditionally interpreted as water escape structures triggered by the diapirism of the underlying shales of the Candeias Formation. This work proposes that vesicles were generated during massive gas hydrate dissociation as a result of tectonic activity in a paleolake system. Tectonic uplift would have triggered both the reduction of the confining pressure as well as an increase in lake bottom temperature, resulting in the instability of gas hydrate and causing intense release of both methane - or carbon dioxide (CO2 - and water. On one hand, this proposal has a strong impact on paleoenvironmental interpretations, giving support to the current hypothesis that rocks related to the Pitanga Member would have been deposited under water columns deep enough for gas hydrate formation and subsequent dissociation. On the other hand, it provides new insights on the genesis of fluid escape structures in sedimentary rocks, both lacustrine and marine, providing a paleobathymetric indicator.

  20. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferraz Luiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti, native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50 than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 727-741. Epub 2011 June 01.

  1. Relationships between structure of the tree component and environmental variables in a subtropical seasonal forest in the upper Uruguay River valley, Brazil

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    Máida Ariane de Mélo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze relationships among the structure of the tree component, edaphic variables and canopy discontinuity along a toposequence in a seasonal upland (hillside forest in southern Brazil. Soil and vegetation were sampled in 25 plots of 20 × 20 m each. We described the vegetation in terms of structure, richness and diversity, as well as by species distribution patterns. We evaluated canopy continuity, determined sloping and calculated spatial coordinates. We applied partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA to determine whether species distribution correlated with environmental and spatial variables. We identified 1201 individuals belonging to 76 species within 30 families. The species with highest density and frequency were Gymnanthes concolor Spreng., Calyptranthes tricona D.Legrand, Eugenia moraviana O.Berg and Trichilia claussenii DC. The pCCAs indicated significant correlations with environmental and spatial variables. Sand content, boron content and soil density collectively explained 36.17% of the species matrix variation (total inertia, whereas the spatial variables x, y and xy² collectively explained 14.27%. The interaction between environmental and spatial variables explained nearly 4.5%. However, 45.05% remained unexplained, attributed to stochastic variation or unmeasured variables. Terrain morphology and canopy discontinuity had no apparent influence on richness, and changes in species distribution were correlated with sloping, which affects soil features and determines the directional distribution of some species.

  2. Population structure of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 (Crustacea: Penaeoidea in the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodrigo H. Castro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The population structure of the penaeidean shrimp Xyphopenaeus kroyeri was studied in Ubatuba Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The period and site of juvenile recruitment were monitored using a monthly sampling design with eight fixed areas (transects from September 1995 to August 1996. The population structure was assessed using size frequency distributions (based on carapace length for each month and sampling area. Females were significantly larger than males, suggesting a differential growth between sexes. The very low occurrence of large adults in the Bay can be related to offshore migration for reproduction. Recruitment occurred throughout the year, with a peak during the summer, when the highest recruitment rates were obtained along inshore transects. The present investigation revealed valuable information on the biology of the species mainly in the study region, which is considered a nursery ground for juveniles of X. kroyeri. The species showed an important variation from the typical life cycle that it is assumed to hold over its entire range and X. kroyeri should be classified as having a life cycle different from that proposed previously in the literature, i.e. the juveniles prefer inshore areas instead of estuaries. Some suggestions for the seabob fishery management are proposed as an alternative for minimising the impact during the harvest period and adjusting the protection schedule.

  3. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Olívia Penatti Pinese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with environmental parameters were also discussed and presented through multivariate statistics. Methods Twelve samples were taken at water surface, at 15-day intervals in 2006. It was observed a total richness of 75 species, including 12 genera, 29 species and one sub-species as new records for Minas Gerais State. Results Rotifers were the predominant group and Lecanidae was the most diverse family. Among cladocerans, Chydoridae showed the greatest richness and Bosminidae the highest abundance. Few adult copepods were sampled in this study, but nauplii were very frequent. Cyclopidae was the most common family among copepods and there was no record of Calanoida. Conclusions The difference in composition among the studied lakes was remarkable. The lake with macrophytes showed the greatest richness but the lowest density, and the opposite situation occurred in the other lake. This can be explained by the fact that aquatic macrophytes, as primary producers, exert a bottom-up effect on zooplankton community, sustaining a high local diversity in contrast with a low numeric abundance of these microorganisms. Therefore, this pattern may have been created by the surround heterogeneity and, at the same time, by the reduction of available minerals of the system caused by macrophyte matter fixation. Many studies on zooplankton need to be developed in palm swamp communities in order to better comprehend the biological diversity and the energy balance in different habitats for

  4. The use of neuropsychological tests across Europe: the need for a consensus in the use of assessment tools for dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruta, C.; Guerreiro, M.; de Mendonca, A.; Hort, J.; Scheltens, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The centres dedicated to dementia throughout Europe use different neuropsychological tests in clinical practice. The European Federation of Neurological Societies task force on neuropsychological tests produced this survey on neuropsychological tests currently being used in

  5. Improved Neuropsychological and Neurological Functioning Across Three Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Resource-Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5199, the International Neurological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K.; Jiang, H.; Kumwenda, J.; Supparatpinyo, K.; Evans, S.; Campbell, T. B.; Price, R.; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N.; La Rosa, A.; Santos, B.; Silva, M. T.; Montano, S.; Kanyama, C.; Faesen, S.; Murphy, R.; Hall, C.; Marra, C. M.; Marcus, C.; Berzins, B.; Allen, R.; Housseinipour, M.; Amod, F.; Sanne, I.; Hakim, J.; Walawander, A.; Nair, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5199 compared the neurological and neuropsychological (NP) effects of 3 antiretroviral regimens in participants infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in resource-limited settings. Methods. Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. Results. The median weeks on study was 168 (Q1 = 96, Q3 = 192) for the 860 participants. NP test scores improved (P  .10). Significant country effects were noted on all NP tests and neurological outcomes (P < .01). Conclusions. The study detected no significant differences in neuropsychological and neurological outcomes between randomized ART regimens. Significant improvement occurred in neurocognitive and neurological functioning over time after initiation of ARTs. The etiology of these improvements is likely multifactorial, reflecting reduced central nervous system HIV infection, better general health, and practice effects. This study suggests that treatment with either of the World Health Organization –recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited settings will improve neuropsychological functioning and reduce neurological dysfunction. Clinical trials registration.  NCT00096824. PMID:22661489

  6. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....

  7. Graduate admissions in clinical neuropsychology: the importance of undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W

    2013-11-01

    Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.

  8. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  9. [Neuropsychological issues in child psychology and child psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepach, Anja C; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects are of relevance to a variety of psychological concerns, especially in assessments. But is this trend represented in journals which do not explicitly refer to neuropsychologists? To investigate this question, publications in 2008 and 2009 editions of representative German journals on child psychology and psychiatry were bibliometrically analyzed. Main topics of neuropsychological publications were attention disorders and diagnostic issues. Neuropsychological findings support the development of assessment instruments and interventions and help improve the basic understanding of disorders and treatment limitations. For example, reduced attention or memory resources are possible hindrances for individual progress in cognitive behavioral intervention. An intensified dialogue of the disciplines is essential for developing advanced guidelines for diagnostics and therapy.

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion.

  11. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveyeva E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure, are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions and temporary storage (working memory, activating and neurodynamic components of activity, separate operational characteristics, and motivational impairments of patients with ADHD. The possibility of disclosing some clinical variants of the ADHD syndrome, differing in mechanisms, is also discussed in the article.

  12. Neuropsychological Predictors of Trauma Centrality in OIF/OEF Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland P. Hart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether reduced performance on two neuropsychological tasks, cognitive flexibility and working memory, were associated with higher levels of trauma centrality. A growing body of research has shown that trauma centrality, the extent to which a person believes a potentially traumatic event has become central to their self-identity and life story, is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Furthermore, PTSD is often associated with alterations in neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between neuropsychological processes and trauma centrality, however, has yet to be explored. OEF/OIF combat veterans (N = 41 completed the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, the Centrality of Event Scale (CES, and on-line measures of cognitive flexibility and working memory assessed via WebNeuro. Bivariate Pearson correlations showed that CES scores were positively correlated with PDS and BDI scores, and negatively correlated with cognitive flexibility and working memory. Linear regressions revealed that working memory significantly predicted CES when controlling for depression and PTSD severity while cognitive flexibility approached significance when controlling for these same variables. This study employed a cross-sectional design, precluding causality. The small sample size, entirely male sample, and use of an online neuropsychological assessment warrant follow-up research. Although numerous studies have found an association between CES and PTSD, this is the first to suggest that neuropsychological processes underlie the construct of trauma centrality. Given the importance of maladaptive cognitive processes underlying the pathogenesis of PTSD, these data suggest that future studies aimed at examining the link between neuropsychological processes and maladaptive cognitive processes, such as trauma centrality, may help to characterize and treat PTSD.

  13. Neuropsychological functioning, age, and medication adherence in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raust, Aurélie; Etain, Bruno; Guillot, Romain; Job, Sophie; Loftus, Joséphine; Médecin, Isabelle; Bougerol, Thierry; Polosan, Mircea; Fredembach, Benjamin; Gard, Sébastien; M’Bailara, Katia; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Roux, Paul; Homassel, Anne-Sophie; Carminati, Mathilde; Matos, Lucile; Olié, Emilie; Bellivier, Frank; Courtet, Philippe; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Belzeaux, Raoul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Poor adherence to medication is frequent in bipolar disorder (BD) and has been associated with several factors. To date, the relationship between low adherence and neuropsychological functioning in BD is still unclear. As age and neuropsychological functioning might have opposing influences on adherence, our aim was to investigate this link with a particular focus on the effect of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we included 353 patients divided into two age-groups (16–46; 47–71) from a French cohort diagnosed with BD (type I, II, NOS) and strictly euthymic. All patients had a standardized clinical and neuropsychological assessment and were categorized as high (n = 186) or low (n = 167) adherent based on their score from the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Clinical information was collected based on a standardized interview and clinical validated scales. Neuropsychological performances were evaluated with an established standardized neuropsychological battery for bipolar disorder patients. After univariate analysis, neuropsychological and clinical predictors of low adherence were included in two age-specific stepwise multiple logistic regressions. Results A smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.846, p = 0.012), a shorter illness duration (OR = 0.937, p = 0.003) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.082, p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of low adherence in the younger patients. In the older patients, low adherence was also predicted by a smaller number of hospitalizations (OR = 0.727, p = 0.008) and higher adverse effects (OR = 1.124, p = 0.005). Interestingly poor inhibition performance was also a significant predictor of low adherence in older patients (OR = 0.924, p = 0.030). Conclusions We found an age-specific relationship between cognitive functioning and adherence in patients with BD. Poor inhibition performances predicted low adherence in older patients only. Our results highlight the need to provide age

  14. Neuropsychologic deficits in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsett, S F; Kneppers, K; Coppes, M J; Egeler, R M

    1999-11-01

    Manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in children range from only a rash, to bony lesions accompanied by pain, to major organ disease. When the central nervous system (CNS) is affected, the LCH patient may exhibit signs and symptoms of hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction (most often resulting in diabetes insipidus or other endocrinopathies) or more global neurologic and neuropsychologic sequelae. Surprisingly, researchers have only recently begun to examine the neuropsychologic manifestations of the disease, but early findings suggest that they may, in fact, be significant in a small percentage of children with LCH. We evaluated two CNS-positive patients with LCH and long-term intermittent treatments, using extensive neuropsychologic assessments, including intellectual functioning, memory, visual-motor functioning, attention and concentration, sensory and motor performance, and gross academic achievement. Objective measures of behavior were obtained through parental report. Neuroradiologic imaging was obtained concurrently with the neuropsychologic evaluations. The neuropsychologic assessments indicated significant deficits in a number of the measured areas of functioning. Global cognitive deficiencies in full-scale IQ were identified, as were deficits in memory, attention/concentration, and perceptual-organizational capabilities. Similarities were noted in the patterns of deficits obtained with both patients, despite differences in the pathophysiology of their disease. Behavioral functioning in both children had suffered, presumably in relation to the neuropsychologic deficits. There were radiologic findings of gross cerebellar white matter damage in one patient, in addition to focal (e.g., hypothalamic) lesions in the other. LCH has an adverse impact on cognitive functions in some children with evidence of CNS involvement, and further study into the etiology, incidence, and means of remedial intervention is needed. Copyright 1999 Wiley

  15. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Iannone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of children aged 6—12 years, 86 twins and 86 singletons, submitted to paediatric, neurological, psychological, and ophthalmological examinations. Inclusion criteria were twin pregnancy and gestational age 27—36 weeks for index group; same gestational age, but single pregnancy, for the comparison group. All children underwent paediatric and neuropsychiatric examinations, cognitive assessment, and psychological evaluation by standardized tests for screening of learning specific disorders and language difficulties, and finally, ophthalmological examination. In order to study their role in predicting neuropsychological outcome, we examined some perinatal prognostic factors by statistical analysis. Unfavourable neuropsychological outcome was observed in 55/172 (32% children, with different prevalence in the two groups, 42/172 (24% in twins and 13/172 (8% in singletons. Statistical analysis performed for examined prognostic factors showed significant differences in neuropsychological outcome with regard only to gestational age < 32 weeks, low birth weight, intraventricular haemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. The incidence of neuropsychological diseases in the two groups showed significant difference about language and learning difficulties. Our data suggest that preterm twins represent a particular high-risk category of premature babies, mostly regarding the risk of so-called “minimal brain dysfunction”, so a careful follow-up is recommended.

  16. History of neuropsychological study of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webbe, Frank M; Zimmer, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Although the medical literature has a long history of description and comment on concussion, the occurrence of concussion within the context of sports other than boxing was not judged to be problematic until the 1980s. Neuropsychological assessment played a critical and integral role in identifying the cognitive sequelae of concussion and mapping out the short- and long-term vagaries in recovery. This paper captures that history and expands upon current applications of neuropsychological assessment in the diagnosis and management of sport-related concussion.

  17. Neuropsychological characteristics of learning disabled/gifted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, D E; Dunham, M D; Dean, R S; Kundert, D K

    1995-11-01

    The neuropsychological characteristics of 68 learning-disabled/gifted children (LD/Gifted) were studied using the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery for Children (HRNB-C). The proportion of LD/Gifted children identified as impaired was low compared to previous research that has examined the proportion of school-identified learning-disabled students who scored within the impaired range on the HRNB-C. Consistent with previous research, the results of this study indicated that LD/Gifted children were also more likely to demonstrate impairment on the Tactual Performance Test-Memory, Tactual Performance Test-Localization, and Trails B-Errors components of the HRNB-C.

  18. Hydrothermal alteration in basalts from Vargeão impact structure, south Brazil, and implications for recognition of impact-induced hydrothermalism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Elder; Nédélec, Anne; Baratoux, David; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Fabre, Sébastien; Berger, Gilles

    2015-05-01

    The 12-km-wide Vargeão impact structure was formed 123 Myr ago in the Paraná basaltic province (southern Brazil). At this time the province region had a dry climate, although a large brackish aquifer had been formed in the underlying sandstones. It is therefore one of the best terrestrial analogs for studying impact-related products on a dry martian surface environment with preserved ice-rich ground. The basalts within the impact structure display cm-sized breccia veins filled with lithic clasts, glassy remnants, newly formed Fe-oxyhydroxides and secondary phases, such as calcite, phyllosilicates and, subordinately quartz and zeolite. The textural and mineralogical study of these phases demonstrate their hydrothermal origin. Although the very center of the structure has experienced the highest pressures and temperatures, the most developed hydrothermal changes are recognized in an inner collar surrounding the central depression. This inner collar is also the location of major modifications of the rock magnetic properties. These magnetic signatures are related to the distribution of impact-related faults and to the formation of new iron oxides. Geochemical modeling indicate that hydrothermal phases formation required low water/rock ratios. Our observations therefore suggest that hydrothermal alteration took place following the perturbation of the aquifer by the impact, but evidence for hydrothermal circulation is limited in comparison with other impact-related hydrothermal systems. This situation may be explained by the presence of the aquifer below the heat source, such a setting being exceptional for the Earth, but common on Mars. However, the spectroscopic signatures in visible/near infrared images suggest that this kind of impact-related hydrothermal alteration may be still indentified in large impact craters on Mars by orbital instruments. These results does not exclude the possibility that more developed alteration took place in breccias that are today

  19. Age-related changes of adaptive and neuropsychological features in persons with Down Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghezzo, Alessandro; Salvioli, Stefano; Solimando, Maria Caterina; Palmieri, Alice; Chiostergi, Chiara; Scurti, Maria; Lomartire, Laura; Bedetti, Federica; Cocchi, Guido; Follo, Daniela; Pipitone, Emanuela; Rovatti, Paolo; Zamberletti, Jessica; Gomiero, Tiziano; Castellani, Gastone; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    ...), from a neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and psychomotor point of view in order to evaluate in a cross-sectional study the age-related adaptive and neuropsychological features, and to possibly...

  20. When self-report diverges from performance: The usage of BIS-11 along with neuropsychological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, A.G.; Sergeant, J.A.; Correa, H.; Mattos, P.; Malloy-Diniz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity has been fractionated into multiple independent, but correlated, components. Personality and neuropsychological studies have consistently shown its multidimensional nature. Each theoretical approach uses different techniques such as self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological tests

  1. Increasing culturally competent neuropsychological services for ethnic minority populations: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Mindt, Monica; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals.

  2. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  3. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for acl injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, A.; Meijer, M.; Cortes, N.; Gokeler, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OBJECTIVE: Assess differences between male and female athletes in jump-landing technique in relation to their neuropsychological capabilities. DESIGN:

  4. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, W.L.J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined. Design. Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive

  5. Reliability and validity of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status in community-dwelling elderly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Yan; Wu, Wenyuan; Wang, Jiaqi; Feng, Wei; Wu, Xiangwei; Li, Chunbo

    2011-01-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a widely used screening instrument in neuropsychological assessment and is a brief, individually administered measure...

  6. The population structure of two sympatric hermit-crab species on a subtidal rocky shore of an island in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL J.M. LIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this investigation was to characterize the population structure and shell occupancy of two sympatric hermit-crab species, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae. The study was undertaken at Couves Island on the southeastern coast of Brazil, from March 2010 through February 2011, on subtidal rocky bottoms. Specimens were collected by SCUBA diving sessions. A total of 195 individuals of P. brevidactylus and 132 of P. tortugae were examined. Both populations showed unimodal size-frequency distributions, which were non-normal for P. brevidactylus and normal for P. tortugae. The median size of P. brevidactylus was significantly smaller than P. tortugae; in both species, males were significantly larger than females. For both, juveniles and ovigerous females were recorded in all size classes and in almost the entire sampling period. No significant departures from the 1:1 sex ratio were detected, although some size classes were skewed. Overlaps in shell occupation were recorded. Pagurus brevidactylus and P. tortugae showed similar population features; they reached sexual maturity at small sizes, and the nearly year-round presence of young and ovigerous females suggests continuous reproduction. These inter-specific interactions involving resource partitioning suggest a regulatory process that is probably part of the equilibrium strategy of these populations.

  7. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. Steud. IN TWO FRAGMENTS AT DIFFERENT REGENERATION STAGES IN THE CAATINGA, IN SERGIPE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília da Cruz Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to analyze the vertical and diameter structure and the spatial distribution pattern of Bauhinia cheilantha in two Caatinga fragments in Sergipe, Brazil, at different regeneration stages. Thirty plots were demarcated in area I (Canindé de São Francisco and Poço Redondo, which has vegetation regeneration, and 25 plots in area II (Porto da Folha with preserved vegetation, both having 400 m2. All B. cheilanthaindividuals had their height and circumference (circumference at breast height > 6 cm measured. Possible differences in height and diameter at breast height were tested in the two populations by using Student’s T-test. The distribution pattern of species was calculated through Payandeh’s index. We sampled 154 B. cheilantha individuals, equivalent to 33.3% of the plots in area I and in 1,027 individuals in area II, totaling 100% frequency. Height and the diameter of the two populations were statistically different, where AI achieved all values lower than AII. The spatial distribution pattern of B. cheilantha found in both areas was aggregate, with values of 11.85 and 9.00, respectively. Thus, it became clear that the population in AII is at a more advanced successional status than AI, due to its longer conservation time.

  8. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  9. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  10. [Neuropsychological impairment in the early Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykov, L; Rigaud, A-S; Cesaro, P; Boller, F

    2007-01-01

    This analysis is centered on the study of cognitive disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mainly for major neuro-psychological functions. We insist on the heterogeneity of the clinical picture peculiarly in the early stages of the illness, even if the deficits of episodic memory and of attentional/executive capacities are the first to deteriorate, preceding impairment in perceptual and language function and potentially having a substantial impact on the patient's capacity to cope independently. An episodic memory deficit is the hallmark of AD, but it must be stressed that this deficit may take different forms and its origin may be traced back to different cognitive mechanisms. One of the most striking aspects of episodic memory impairment in AD is the rapidity of forgetfulness on which screening and diagnostic tests of AD are based. There is some evidence that the episodic memory deficit in AD is one of learning (encoding and storage) of information rather than to a deficit of retrieval. Furthermore, episodic memory performance in AD depends on the integrity of semantic memory abilities, so giving support to a hierarchical model of organization of human memory. Finally, recent results show that an impairment of conscious recollection is responsible for the poor performance of AD patients in recognition memory. Executive deficits appear predominantly in tasks requiring cognitive flexibility and self-monitoring. With the progression of the disease, additional deficits are observed in the verbal concept formation abilities. These findings might be also very useful in the differential diagnosis between AD and the other cortical and subcortical dementias, as well as in the differentiation between AD and fronto-temporal dementia. We consider that studying early stages of the illness is necessary to delineate the diagnostic signs, to validate the new therapeutic experiments, to predict stages of decline. Recent research suggested that onset of AD is commonly preceded by

  11. Structure of Poduromorpha (Collembola communities in "restinga" environments in Brazil Estrutura de comunidades de Poduromorpha (Collembola em áreas de restinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Henriques Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the richness and diversity of the Poduromorpha fauna in two biotopes in Restinga de Maricá, RJ, Brazil, to identify the characteristic species of each biotope and to determine the relationships between the community structure and the abiotic environmental parameters. Representatives of the Poduromorpha (Collembola order were studied under an ecological viewpoint in halophyte-psammophyte vegetation and foredune zone in preserved areas of Restinga de Maricá, a sand dune environment in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The foredune zone showed the highest diversity, richness and equitability of springtail species. Differences in the fundamental, accessory and accidental species in each environment were encountered. Paraxenylla piloua was found to be an indicator species of the halophyte-psammophyte vegetation, while Friesea reducta, Pseudachorutes difficilis and Xenylla maritima were indicators of the foredune zone. The canonical correspondence analysis indicated pH, organic matter content and soil humidity as the most important factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of the species.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a riqueza e a diversidade da fauna de Poduromorpha em dois biótopos na Restinga de Maricá, RJ, identificar as espécies características de cada biótopo e determinar as relações da estrutura da comunidade com parâmetros ambientais abióticos. Representantes da ordem Poduromorpha (Collembola foram estudados do ponto de vista ecológico nos ambientes de vegetação halófila-psamófila reptante e de primeiro cordão arenoso em áreas preservadas da Restinga de Maricá, localizada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os maiores valores de diversidade, riqueza e equitabilidade de espécies de colêmbolos foram observados no ambiente de primeiro cordão arenoso. Foram encontradas diferenças nas espécies fundamentais, acessórias e acidentais nos ambientes

  12. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes in children and adolescents after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart); C.M.P. Buysse (Corinne); M.J. Madderom (Marlous); F.K. Aarsen (Femke); J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen); D. Tibboel (Dick); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Research into neuropsychological functioning of survivors of cardiac arrest (CA) in childhood is scarce. We sought to assess long-term neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents surviving CA. Methods: Neuropsychological follow-up study involving all consecutive

  13. Headwater Capture Evidenced by Paleo-Rivers Reconstruction and Population Genetic Structure of the Armored Catfish (Pareiorhaphis garbei in the Serra do Mar Mountains of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Q. Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a ‘near threatened’ armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 were obtained from five sampling sites in four coastal drainages: Macaé (KAE, São João (SJO, Guapi-Macacu [sub-basins Guapiaçu (GAC and Guapimirim (GMI], and Santo Aleixo (SAL. Pronounced genetic structure was found, involving 10 haplotypes for cytB and 6 for coi, with no haplotypes shared between localities. Coalescent-based delineation methods as well as distance-based methods revealed genetic clusters corresponding to each sample site. Paleo-drainage reconstructions showed two putative paleo-rivers: an eastern one connecting KAE and SJO; and a western one merging in the Guanabara Bay (GAC, GMI, and SAL. A disagreement was uncovered between the inferred past riverine connections and current population genetic structure. Although KAE and SJO belong to the same paleo-river, the latter is more closely related to specimens from the Guanabara paleo-river. This discordance between paleo-drainage connections and phylogenetic structure may indicate an ancient stream-capture event in headwaters of this region. Furthermore, all analyses showed high divergence between KAE and the other lineages, suggesting at least one cryptic species in the latter, and that the nominal species should be restricted to the Macaé river basin, its type

  14. Murder and psychosis: Neuropsychological profiles of homicide offenders with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, John; Brook, Michael; Hanlon, Robert E

    2017-04-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction, a core feature of schizophrenia, is thought to contribute to the impulsive violent aggression manifested by some individuals with schizophrenia, but not enough is known about how homicidal individuals with schizophrenia perform on neuropsychological measures. The primary aim of our study was to describe the neuropsychological profiles of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Supplementary analyses compared the criminal, psychiatric and neuropsychological features of schizophrenic homicide offenders with and without God/Satan/demon-themed psychotic symptoms. Twenty-five men and women diagnosed with schizophrenia who had killed another person - 21 convicted of first-degree murder and 4 found not guilty by reason of insanity - completed neuropsychological testing during forensic evaluations. The sample was characterised by extensive neurocognitive impairments, involving executive dysfunction (60%), memory dysfunction (68%) and attentional dysfunction (50%), although those with God/Satan/demon-themed psychotic symptoms performed better than those with nonreligious psychotic content. Our findings indicate that impaired cognition may play an important role in the commission of homicide by individuals with schizophrenia. A subgroup with God/Satan/demon delusions seem sufficiently less impaired that they might be able to engage in metacognitive treatment approaches, aimed at changing their relationship to their psychotic symptoms, thus reducing the perception of power and omnipotence of hallucinated voices and increasing their safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Leposavić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with mood changes. The aim of this study is the establishing of differences between neuropsychological profiles of depression and dementia. The sample included three groups: the first group represented the patients with endogenous depression, the second – the patients with dementia, and the third one – healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery. Two patient groups were tested during the stage of remission/adequate mood. Abilities most susceptible to depression are: attention, executive functions and memory. Cognitive flexibility and general cognitive ability are preserved in depressive patients. Depressive patients express cognitive disorders of moderate degree during the remission stage. Impairment pattern in the group of depressive patients does not indicate intellectual degradation of the dementia type. Neuropsychological deficiencies of the patients with endogenous depression suggest frontal limbic dysfunction. Еxcesses in cognitive functioning of demented patients are more serious and massive in comparison with cognitive difficulties in depressive patients.

  16. The relevance of developmental-psychobiological metatheory to developmental neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, G

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews 4 aspects of developmental-psychobiological metatheory that are of particular relevance to developmental conceptions of neuropsychology: probabilistic epigenesis, the various roles of experience in affecting the development of the nervous system, and the developmental principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, the latter being especially pertinent to the understanding of compensatory phenomena observed in studies of early brain damage.

  17. Absence of neuropsychological sequelae following cerebral malaria in Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntendam, A. H.; Jaffar, S.; Bleichrodt, N.; van Hensbroek, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral malaria causes major neurological sequelae in a proportion of survivors and may lead to neuropsychological sequelae in children who seem to have made a good recovery. If this is the case, cerebral malaria could have a dramatic impact on the development of thousands of African children. The

  18. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  20. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  1. Sleep and neuropsychological functioning in school aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Simone Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigated the relationship between sleep disturbance and neuropsychological functioning in healthy, typically developing children and children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Three research questions were examined in this thesis. The first examined whether sleep disturbance is associated with specific deficits in executive functions or an overall deficit in executive functioning. The second research question examined the relationship between sleep disturbance and behaviour problems....

  2. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. Methods and Materials: 324 adult participants were recruited from urban and rural areas in Zambia. They had an age range of 19-65 and education range of 5 – 19 years of schooling.

  3. Neuropsychological Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…

  4. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    intelligence such as 'nzelu' include being cautious and thoughtful, which often results in slower, more deliberate test-taking. In the context of traditional. African values, interpreting slow test taking as a symptom of cognitive impairment could lead to misinterpretation of neuropsychological test performance relative to Western ...

  5. Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Soleimani, Maryam; Carroll, Alan; Hodlevskyy, Oleksander

    2009-11-01

    We examined whether children with Tourette syndrome (TS) displayed a unique pattern of neuropsychological deficits on the CANTAB relative to control children. We also looked at whether children with TS and other comorbidities had more neuropsychological impairments than those with uncomplicated TS and how age was related to the profile of neuropsychological deficits in TS. Participants included 38 children with TS (aged 7 to 13 years) and 38 control children (aged 6 to 12 years). All children were administered 8 subtests from the CANTAB and parents and teachers completed the BRIEF rating scale on children in the TS group. Children with TS displayed deficits relative to control children on measures of visual memory, executive functioning, and attention from the CANTAB. Among the TS group, age was negatively correlated with performance on measures of executive functioning, speed of response and working memory. Identifying the pattern of neuropsychological deficits in children with TS on the CANTAB is important for highlighting areas of deficit that can be targeted for intervention and teaching strategies. With further research, the CANTAB may prove to be a useful resource in the assessment and treatment of children with TS.

  6. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  7. Integrating Neuropsychology and School Psychology: Potential and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Paul B.; Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    The neurological basis of learning disabilities (LD), and other handicapping conditions commonly found in school-age children, makes the integration of neuropsychology and school psychology plausible. However, there has been longstanding debate over the required level of education, training, supervision, and credentialing needed for the practice…

  8. Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment : cases and questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, AH; ten Duis, HJ; Minderhoud, JM; Sipma, M

    Objective-To objectify neuropsychological impairments in survivors of lightning stroke with lasting complaints about poor concentration and inability to divide their attention. Design-A series of six cases of lightning stroke were studied. All patients had lost consciousness and reported amnesia of

  9. Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Academic Sequelae in Children with Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T.; Madan-Swain, Avi

    1993-01-01

    This research review finds that children with leukemia exhibit deficits in cognitive and neuropsychological functioning following either central nervous system irradiation or intrathecal chemotherapy. Implications of increased life expectancies for school reentry and the need for special education services are addressed. (DB)

  10. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  11. Neuropsychological Subtyping of Learning-Disabled Children: History, Methods, Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, John L.; Rourke, Byron P.

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychological approach to studying learning disabilities (LD) has produced two extreme positions: the view of LD as (1) homogeneous and unitary and (2) as a pattern of unique and idiosyncratic characteristics. Resulting classification approaches for determining subtypes of the population have important implications for assessment and…

  12. Neuropsychological Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wuang, Y. P.; Lin, Y. H.; Wu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the neuropsychological correlates of adaptive functioning in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined whether specific cognitive deficits and demographic variables predicted everyday functioning in adults with ID. Method: People with ID (n = 101; ages 19-41 years; mean education = 11…

  13. Neuropsychologic outcomes in children with neonatal herpes encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Mona-Lisa; Adolfsson, Ingrid; Lewensohn-Fuchs, Ilona; Forsgren, Marianne; Mosskin, Mikael; Malm, Gunilla

    2008-06-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with involvement of the central nervous system is a serious disease with high morbidity, even with acyclovir therapy. The disability includes cerebral palsy and different aspects of cognitive dysfunction which are of utmost importance for the child's future habilitation. We conducted a descriptive cohort study to define neuropsychologic outcomes and determine the relationship between neonatal neuroimaging and neuropsychologic outcomes. Among 267,690 children born in the Stockholm area over 12 years (1989-2000), 14 were diagnosed with neonatal herpes including central nervous system involvement. Nine children were neuropsychologically evaluated. Neonatal herpes virus infection had an even greater impact on cognitive function, speech ability, and attention deficit than anticipated. Relapse leading to deterioration was demonstrated in one child. Social skills were influenced to a lesser degree. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of the children were not well-correlated with extent of cerebral damage as visualized by computed tomography at 7-28 days after onset of signs. Neuropsychologic assessment is essential in the habilitation of the child, and a prerequisite for the evaluation of new treatments and for the assessment of deterioration of cerebral function related to relapses.

  14. Rebuttal to the Critical Commentary on Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.

    1981-01-01

    A defense of the articles published in the September 1981 issue of "School Psychology Review" is provided. Concerns raised regarding the integration and application of neuropsychological knowledge in the school environment are addressed. Readers are urged to reevaluate their concepts regarding the learning problem child. (Author/AL)

  15. Wearing-off in Parkinson’s disease: neuropsychological differences between on and off periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caillava-Santos F

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabiane Caillava-Santos,1,2 Regina Margis,2 Carlos Roberto de Mello Rieder2–4 1Psychology Department, Universidade da Região da Campanha, Bagé, RS, Brazil; 2Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina, Ciências Médicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Movement Disorders Center, Division of Neurology, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 4Movement Disorder Clinic, Division of Neurology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilBackground: Levodopa-associated motor fluctuations are common complications observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. Although nonmotor fluctuations are a significant cause of morbidity, they frequently are not properly identified. Few studies have characterized the nonmotor emotional fluctuations and their relation to motor fluctuations.Aims: The objective of the present study is to analyze the occurrence of fluctuations in anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as in cognitive function (memory, language, executive function, and attention, and their relation to motor fluctuations in PD patients presenting wearing-off phenomenon.Methods: Twenty-four patients were assessed during the wearing on-off periods. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used to assess anxiety and depression, respectively, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Stroop Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, Weschler Memory Scale - digits (WMS and Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA for assessing executive functions, verbal memory, attention and work memory and verbal fluency, respectively.Results: Patients presented higher depression and anxiety scores in the wearing-off period (P<0.05. Differences were also found in the semantic verbal fluency (P=0.017 and executive function (P=0.008 tests performance.Conclusions: Nonmotor

  16. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  17. Fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil Determinant factors of capital structure for the largest companies active in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estrutura de capital é um tema ainda controverso em teoria de finanças. Desde a discussão entre a teoria tradicional, que defende a existência de uma estrutura de capital ótima que leva à maximização do valor da empresa, e a proposta por Modigliani e Miller (1958, que considera que o valor da empresa não é afetado pela forma como ela é financiada, diversos estudos empíricos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de identificar os fatores que explicam a forma como as empresas se financiam. Esta pesquisa analisa a estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil, investigando a relação entre o nível de endividamento e os fatores apontados pela teoria como seu determinante. O estudo é baseado em dados contábeis extraídos das demonstrações financeiras de empresas de capital aberto e de empresas de capital fechado. A técnica estatística utilizada no estudo é a regressão linear múltipla. Os resultados indicam que os fatores risco, tamanho, composição dos ativos e crescimento são determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas, enquanto que o fator rentabilidade não é determinante. Os resultados, também, mostram que o nível de endividamento da empresa não é afetado pelo fato de ela ser de capital aberto ou de capital fechado.Capital structure is still a still controversial issue in finance theory. Since the discussion between traditional theory, which asserts the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the firm’s value, and Modigliani and Miller’s theory (1958, which considers that the value of a firm is unaffected by how it is financed, many empirical studies have been carried out to identify the factors that explain how a firm finances itself. This research analyses the capital structure of the largest firms in Brazil and investigates the relationship between the leverage ratio and the factors indicated by theory as determinant. The study is based on accounting data extracted from

  18. Sex ratio and size structure of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    R. N. Vicentini

    Full Text Available Sex ratio and size structure constitute basic information in assessing reproductive potential and estimating stock size in fish populations. One hundred fifty-one individuals of Micropogonias furnieri caught by experimental otter trawls, in three zones (inner, central, and outer of Sepetiba Bay between October 1998 and September 1999 were examined. Males outnumbered females (1.3:1.0 in all zones but no significant differences were detected. Only in the outer zone (5.0:1.0 were male/female rates significantly different according to the chi-square test. No temporal differences were observed in sex ratio. Fish size ranged from 81 to 244 mm total length (TL with significant differences in 155 to 185 mm TL size classes, where males predominated, and a slightly higher number of females were observed for the smaller size class (TL = 95-150 mm. Size distribution varied according to the zone, with juveniles predominating in the inner and adults in the outer zone. Spatial difference in size structure observed in this study indicates that the inner bay is a rearing ground during the first life-cycle period, and movement toward the sea occurs as fish increase in size.

  19. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

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    Francisca eSá

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological difference between two types of AD using the conventional dividing line of 65 years.Methods: We evaluated the results obtained in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery – Battery of Lisbon for the Assessment of Dementia (BLAD, at a Dementia clinic in the University Hospital of Coimbra and a Memory Clinic. Consecutive patients with a clinical probable diagnosis of mild to moderate AD, using standard criteria (DSMIV and NINCDS-ADRDA, were selected. Statistical analysis was performed using Qui-square and U-Mann-Whitney, for categorical and non-categorical variables.Results: The sample included 280 patients: 109 with early-onset AD and 171 with a late-onset form. Groups were comparable in gender, education, severity of disease and MMSE. In BLAD, the early onset group had lower scores in Naming (p=0,025, Right-Left Orientation (p=0,029 and Praxis (p=0,001, and better performances in Orientation (p=0,001 and Visual Memory (p=0,022. After application of Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons only Praxis and Orientation could differentiate the two groups.Discussion: The results are suggestive of dissociated profiles between early and late-onset AD. Younger patients have a major impairment in Praxis and a tendency for a great impairment in neocortical temporal functions. Late-onset form had a tendency for worse performances in Visual Memory and Orientation, suggesting a more localized disease to the limbic

  20. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  1. Short-term neuropsychological recovery in clients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Marsha E; Voelbel, Gerald T; Buckman, Jennifer F; Labouvie, Erich W; Barry, Danielle

    2005-03-01

    Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in clients who enter treatment programs for substance abuse. The potential for early recovery of cognitive abilities is suggested by previous research; however, the extent of improvement and risk factors that may help predict individual differences in rates of recovery remain unclear. This study is a 6-week follow-up and retest of an original sample of 197 men and women who had received a broad neuropsychological assessment at addiction treatment entry. The aim was to examine the potential clinical significance of changes in cognitive functioning and the extent to which differential recovery was predictable from client background information. Fifteen neuropsychological tests were readministered to 169 of 197 clients 6 weeks after treatment entry. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate separately the practice effects and recovery in four cognitive domains: executive function, memory, information processing speed, and verbal ability. Client background information included age, sex, education, substance use and consequences, psychopathology, medical problems, familial alcoholism history, and childhood behavior problems. A four-factor model of latent neuropsychological ability that was previously identified at treatment entry was replicated at follow-up. Statistically significant increases in the means of the four latent abilities were found. Memory showed a medium effect size improvement. Executive function, verbal ability, and information processing speed, however, showed only small effect size improvements, suggesting limited clinical significance. Substance use between treatment entry and follow-up, antisocial personality disorder, negative use consequences, less education, and medical problems were modestly predictive of less recovery. Cognitive recovery in the first 6 weeks of treatment is possible, but, with the possible exception of memory, improvement may be minor in terms of clinical relevance.

  2. A neuropsychological study of the postpolio syndrome: support for depression without neuropsychological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, K M; Crowe, S F

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to examine cognitive functioning in postpolio syndrome (PPS) after controlling for the effects of depression and illness behavior. Few studies have investigated the possible cognitive sequelae of PPS, despite widespread documented subjective complaints of "mental fatigue." A total of 23 PPS sufferers, 20 polio survivors without PPS, and 22 matched controls were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory-II; the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire; a chronic fatigue syndrome symptom checklist; and several measures of memory, attention, and concentration, including the Brown-Petersen Task, Stroop Test, Austin Maze, California Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Symbol-Digit Modalities Test. In those participants with a medically confirmed diagnosis of PPS, there was a significantly higher level of depressive and hypochondriacal symptomatology as compared with the other two groups. Nevertheless, no significant differences existed between the three groups on neuropsychological measures. These results indicate that the attention and memory difficulties reported by PPS sufferers may be linked to the physical or psychological manifestations of the illness rather than to objective decrements in cognitive performance.

  3. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  4. Fish fauna structure and composition in an isolated lake in the Middle Araguaia River floodplain, Mato Grosso – Brazil

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    Cesar Enrique de Melo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies dealing with fish fauna in floodplain lakes of the Araguaia River basin are limited, and have mostly focused on lakes that are directly connected to the main river and are heavily influenced by the flood pulse. Isolated lakes are relatively uncommon in this region and have received little attention in regards to their fish fauna. This work aims to discuss the structure, diversity and richness of the fish community of an isolated lake in the floodplain of the Middle Araguaia River, MT. Samples were made through two consecutive seasonal cycles, and yielded a total of 1312 fishes, distributed in 57 species, 19 families and six orders. The studied fish community presented high values of diversity. The results of this study suggest that the high water transparency in conjunction with the isolation of the lake acts as a primary factor, while the stability of the other abiotic variables acts as a secondary factor.

  5. Naturally fragmented and isolated distribution in subtropical grassland patches affects genetic diversity and structure at different spatial scales: The case ofTibouchina hatschbachii, an endemic shrub from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Fabiano R; Sujii, Patricia S; Silva-Pereira, Viviane; Goldenberg, Renato

    2017-12-01

    The genetic structure of organisms results from the interactions between life history traits and the ecological and demographic characteristics of the landscape that shape the intra- and interpopulation genetic variation in space and time. In this study, we used a species restricted to islands of grassland vegetation in southern Brazil to investigate the effects of its naturally fragmented distribution on diversity and genetic structure patterns. Diversity and intra- and interpopulational genetic structure were analyzed using polymorphisms of eight nuclear microsatellite markers in 205 individuals of T. hatschbachii and Bayesian and multivariate methods. At the intrapopulation level, populations presented low genetic diversity and strong spatial genetic structure, indicating a greater spatial autocorrelation until ∼50-500 m. At the interpopulation level, genetic variation partitioned into two geographically structured genetic clusters. Gene flow through pollen was more efficient than gene flow by seeds. Genetic structure was influenced locally by seed and pollen dispersal dynamics and regionally by fragmentation of the grassland landscape. This study highlights the importance of geological barriers, and potentially a role for genetic drift, in influencing diversification of species in subtropical grasslands of southern Brazil. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

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    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  7. Estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio: testes no Brasil Capital structure, dividends and interests on equity: tests in Brazil

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    Mariano Seikitsi Futema

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de capital e os dividendos são dois dos temas mais estudados em finanças corporativas. Em 2002, Fama e French estudaram esses dois temas simultaneamente dentro do contexto das teorias de tradeoff estática e pecking order. A análise conjunta significa reconhecer que o dividendo afeta a estrutura de capital e vice-versa, o que gera um problema de endogeneidade. Estendendo o estudo de Fama e French e adaptando a análise para a realidade brasileira com a inclusão de mais uma variável dependente, os juros sobre o capital próprio, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações conjuntas da estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio das empresas brasileiras para o período de 1995 a 2004. Em linhas gerais, os resultados confirmam boa parte das previsões das teorias, embora a distribuição de lucros no Brasil ainda seja muito baixa, comparada com a americana. A lucratividade demonstrou ser a variável explicativa de maior peso e influência tanto para a distribuição de lucros como para a alavancagem.Capital structure and dividends have been frequently studied in corporate finance. In 2002, Fama and French simultaneously analyzed these two subjects in the context of tradeoff and pecking order theories. The simultaneous analysis means acknowledging that dividend influences capital structure and vice versa, leading to an endogeneity problem. Extending and adapting Fama and French's study to the Brazilian environment and including yet another dependent variable, i.e. interest on equity, this article aims to analyze the relationship among capital structure, dividends and interest on equity in the context of Brazilian companies. The analysis comprises the period from 1995 to 2004. Results corroborate many of the predictions of tradeoff and pecking order theories, despite the fact that dividend payout in Brazil is low when compared to the United States. Profitability was the most significant variable in

  8. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

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    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  9. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil

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    KRB Leite

    Full Text Available Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae, Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  10. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF PALMS (ARECACEAE IN A FOREST FRAGMENT OF LOWLAND DENSE HUMID FOREST IN SOUTH BRAZIL

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    Laura Cappelatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Dense Humid Forest is reduced to less than 5% of its original cover. However, it still has the highest richness of palms in this state, which constitute an important and economically relevant group. Environmental and demographic aspects of plant populations in forest fragments are of great importance for their management and conservation. We conducted a study on the spatial distribution and age structure of five palm species in a forest fragment at the municipality of Três Cachoeiras, in the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul. We delimited 25 10×10 m plots and counted the number of individuals in the stages of seedling, juvenile and adult for each palm species. Aggregation Indices were calculated with software SADIEShell. We performed variation partitioning analyses among species distribution and environmental variables canopy openness and soil moisture. A total of 1,443 plants were counted and the most abundant species was Euterpe edulis. The average density was of 57.72 ind. 100 m-2. Three species showed a pattern of “inverse J”, which indicated that they have a potential for regenerating in that palm community. The predominant spatial pattern was aggregated (Ia>1 and canopy openness did not influence species abundances. Only the distribution of Bactris setosa and Geonoma gamiova, both understory species, was explained by soil moisture, suggesting that other abiotic or biotic factors may be influencing the spatial arrangement of the canopy species.

  11. The Term Structure of Interest Rates and its Impact on the Liability Adequacy Test for Insurance Companies in Brazil

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    Antonio Aurelio Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian regulation for applying the Liability Adequacy Test (LAT to technical provisions in insurance companies requires that the current estimate is discounted by a term structure of interest rates (hereafter TSIR. This article aims to analyze the LAT results, derived from the use of various models to build the TSIR: the cubic spline interpolation technique, Svensson's model (adopted by the regulator and Vasicek's model. In order to achieve the objective proposed, the exchange rates of BM&FBOVESPA trading days were used to model the ETTJ and, consequently, to discount the cash flow of the insurance company. The results indicate that: (i LAT is sensitive to the choice of the model used to build the TSIR; (ii this sensitivity increases with cash flow longevity; (iii the adoption of an ultimate forward rate (UFR for the Brazilian insurance market should be evaluated by the regulator, in order to stabilize the trajectory of the yield curve at longer maturities. The technical provision is among the main solvency items of insurance companies and the LAT result is a significant indicator of the quality of this provision, as this evaluates its sufficiency or insufficiency. Thus, this article bridges a gap in the Brazilian actuarial literature, introducing the main methodologies available for modeling the yield curve and a practical application to analyze the impact of its choice on LAT.

  12. Energy Structures as Determinants of Response to Climate Change. Case Studies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Javier; Bergesen, Helge Ole [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This report analyses whether a `low carbon emissions` alternative exists for the expansion and modernization of the energy sector in less developed countries (LDCs). The authors are convinced that energy development and hence carbon emissions in LDCs will be strongly driven by the energy structures and policies that are already in place. Options for future carbon emissions must be assessed based on analyses of the underlying pattern of economic and political interests that shape the energy sector that produces the emissions. The countries studied account for more than 1/3 of the total emissions outside OECD. In all these countries the energy sector was organized decades ago to promote industrialization and welfare with little environmental concern. The energy utilities are under financed for their tasks, having excessive personnel, cumbersome administration and budgets in deficit. Increased supply capacity has been given priority over energy efficiency and the projected increase of CO{sub 2} emission is enormous. Strong urbanization has caused major health problems. Vehicle transportation and power generation are major sources of air pollution. Most countries with emerging economies have comprehensive environmental rules for the energy sector, but standards seldom go beyond well-established practices. The development of regulations that promote a sustainable energy industry must take place in stages. First, raise the efficiency standard of the traditional energy industries and make new owners of energy companies take environmental responsibility. Then revise the regulatory framework to promote the development of sustainable energy at the municipal level. 81 refs., 15 figs., 63 tabs.

  13. Population structure and reproduction of Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae in Ubatuba-Enseada Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Carolina Ferreira Haluch

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and reproductive aspects of the southern kingfish Menticirrhus americanus in Santa Catarina northern coast were investigated. Trawl nets were used for the monthly surveys between October (2003 and September (2004. A total of 425 individuals between 4.2 and 31.8cm (mean 12.7 ± 5.7 were analyzed, and the majority of the individuals (4.2 to12.5cm was captured mainly in summer, autumn and winter, while larger individuals were captured in spring. Females of all size classes were predominant during summer and winter, and weight/length relationship showed significant differences between sexes and a positive alometric growth for the species. The size at first maturity (L50 was estimated in 16.7cm for females and 15.4cm for males. The reproductive period occurred in warm seasons, and M. americanus showed multiple spawning. The hepatossomatic index demonstrated a similar seasonal pattern as the gonadosomatic index, and was a good indicator of the spawning. The condition factor wasn’t a good indicator of the spawning period, but it was related with the recovery process and gonad maturation. Characteristics of the population dynamic showed that M. americanus utilizes the study area for reproduction and recruitment.

  14. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

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    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion: Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to consider smoking status in alcoholism studies and vice versa. Keywords: MRI, morphometry, neuropsychology, tobacco, alcohol

  15. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  16. Leading Educational Change Using a Neuropsychological Response-to-Intervention Approach: Linking Our Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsken, Deborah; Stoeckel, Amanda; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology may be described as the study of brain-behavior relationships (National Academy of Neuropsychology [NAN], 2001). Clinical neuropsychology represents the application of knowledge of the intricacies of these relationships to individual cases. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the public schools,…

  17. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  18. The parametric, psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical properties of self and world evaluation.

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    Alan N Simmons

    Full Text Available As an individual moves from adolescence to adulthood, they need to form a new sense of self as their environment changes from a limited to a more expansive structure. During this critical stage in development the last dramatic steps of neural development occur and numerous psychiatric conditions begin to manifest. Currently, there is no measure that aids in the quantification of how the individual is adapting to, and conceptualizing their role in, these new structures. To fill this gap we created the Self and World Evaluation Expressions Test(SWEET.Sixty-five young adults (20.6 years-old, 36 with a history of drug use, completed the SWEET. A factor analysis was performed on the SWEET and the resultant factors were correlated with psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical battery that included both T1-wieghted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans.WE DERIVED FOUR FACTORS: Self, Social-Emotional, Financial-Intellectual, and Spirituality. While showing limited relationships to psychological and neuropsychological measures, both white matter integrity and gray matter density showed significant relationships with SWEET factors.These findings suggest that while individual responses may not be indicative of psychological or cognitive processes they may relate to changes in brain structure. Several of these structures, such as the negative correlation of the affective impact of world with the dorsal anterior corpus callosum white matter integrity have been observed in psychiatric conditions (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder. Further longitudinal research using the SWEET may help understand the impact of dramatic shifts in self/world conceptualization and potentially link these shifts to underlying changes in brain structure.

  19. Mapping the neuropsychological profile of temporal lobe epilepsy using cognitive network topology and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, Tanja S; Bonilha, Leonardo; Eskandari, Ramin; Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Lin, Jack J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2016-10-01

    Normal cognitive function is defined by harmonious interaction among multiple neuropsychological domains. Epilepsy has a disruptive effect on cognition, but how diverse cognitive abilities differentially interact with one another compared with healthy controls (HC) is unclear. This study used graph theory to analyze the community structure of cognitive networks in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with that in HC. Neuropsychological assessment was performed in 100 patients with TLE and 82 HC. For each group, an adjacency matrix was constructed representing pair-wise correlation coefficients between raw scores obtained in each possible test combination. For each cognitive network, each node corresponded to a cognitive test; each link corresponded to the correlation coefficient between tests. Global network structure, community structure, and node-wise graph theory properties were qualitatively assessed. The community structure in patients with TLE was composed of fewer, larger, more mixed modules, characterizing three main modules representing close relationships between the following: 1) aspects of executive function (EF), verbal and visual memory, 2) speed and fluency, and 3) speed, EF, perception, language, intelligence, and nonverbal memory. Conversely, controls exhibited a relative division between cognitive functions, segregating into more numerous, smaller modules consisting of the following: 1) verbal memory, 2) language, perception, and intelligence, 3) speed and fluency, and 4) visual memory and EF. Overall node-wise clustering coefficient and efficiency were increased in TLE. Adults with TLE demonstrate a less clear and poorly structured segregation between multiple cognitive domains. This panorama suggests a higher degree of interdependency across multiple cognitive domains in TLE, possibly indicating compensatory mechanisms to overcome functional impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychological assessment and cerebral vascular disease: the new standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, O; Leclercq, C; Bugnicourt, J-M; Roussel, M; Moroni, C; Quaglino, V; Beaunieux, H; Taillia, H; Nédélec-Ciceri, C; Bonnin, C; Thomas-Anterion, C; Varvat, J; Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Assal, F

    2013-10-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) includes vascular dementia (VaD), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) and mixed dementia. In clinical practice, VCI concerns patients referred for clinical stroke or cognitive complaint. To improve the characterization of VCI and to refine its diagnostic criteria, an international group has elaborated a new standardized evaluation battery of clinical, cognitive, behavioral and neuroradiological data which now constitutes the reference battery. The adaption of the battery for French-speaking subjects is reported as well as preliminary results of the on-going validation study of the GRECOG-VASC group [Clinical Trial NCT01339195]. The diagnostic accuracy of various screening tests is reviewed and showed an overall sub-optimal sensitivity (dementia. In addition to the well known NINDS-AIREN criteria of VaD, criteria of VCI have been recently proposed which are based on the demonstration of a cognitive disorder by neuropsychological testing and either history of clinical stroke or presence of vascular lesion by neuroimaging suggestive of a link between cognitive impairment and vascular disease. A memory deficit is no longer required for the diagnosis of VaD as it is based on the cognitive decline concerning two or more domains that affect activities of daily living. Both VaMCI and VaD are classified as probable or possible. These new criteria have yet to be validated. Considerable uncertainties remain regarding the determinant of VCI, and especially the lesion amount inducing VCI and VaD. The interaction between lesion amount and its location is currently re-examined using recent techniques for the analysis of MRI data. The high frequency of associated Alzheimer pathology is now assessable in vivo using amyloid imaging. The first studies showed that about a third of patients with VaD due to small vessel disease or with poststroke dementia have amyloid PET imaging suggestive of AD. These new techniques will examine the

  1. Demersal fish assemblages off São Sebastião, southeastern Brazil: structure and environmental conditioning factors (summer 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeti Y. Muto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The demersal fish community of the Channel and shelf of São Sebastião (SP, on the southeastern Brazilian coast, was investigated during the summer of 1994. The sampling was carried out usinga bottom otter trawl at 26 stations located between 8 m and 65 m in depth. Ninety-three species of 40 families were identified in the area. Sciaenids were the most prominent in number of species, abundance, and weight. Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus, Paralonchurus, brasiliensis, and Cynoscion jamaicensis dominated in the catches. Cluster analysis showed three major groups of species and three groups of sites. The first group was composed of species found in the Channel and shallower areas of the inner shelf, the second of species associated with the inner shelf «50 m depth, and the third group of species fTom the outer shelf (> 50 m depth. Environrnental variables considered in Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA explained 51 % of the variation in the species data. Bottom water temperature was the most important variable selected by CCA, accounting for 21% of the explainable variance. The results revealed that structure of the ichthyofauna was associated with water mass distribution. During the period studied, the area was occupied by the warm Coastal Water (CW, but cold South Atlantic Central Water (SACW was detected over the bottom or the outer shelf, influencing the distribution and abundance ofthe main species.A comunidade de peixes demersais do canal e plataforma de São Sebastião (SP, costa sudeste do Brasil, foi investigada no verão de 1994. A amostragem foi realizada com rede de arrasto de fundo, em 26 estações localizadas entre 8 t' 65 m de profundidade. Foram identificadas 93 espécies pertencentes a 40 famílias. Os cienídeos foram os mais representativos em número de espécies, abundância e peso, sendo Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus, Paralonchurus brasiliensis e Cynoscion jamaicensis as espécies dominantes. A análise de agrupamento

  2. Neuropsychological effects of the CSMD1 genome-wide associated schizophrenia risk variant rs10503253.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, G

    2013-03-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10503253, located within the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene on 8p23.2, was recently identified as genome-wide significant for schizophrenia (SZ), but is of unknown function. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of this CSMD1 variant in vivo in patients and healthy participants using behavioral and imaging measures of brain structure and function. We compared carriers and non-carriers of the risk \\'A\\' allele on measures of neuropsychological performance typically impaired in SZ (general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory and attentional control) in independent samples of Irish patients (n = 387) and controls (n = 171) and German patients (205) and controls (n = 533). Across these groups, the risk \\'A\\' allele at CSMD1 was associated with deleterious effects across a number of neurocognitive phenotypes. Specifically, the risk allele was associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological measures of general cognitive ability and memory function but not attentional control. These effects, while significant, were subtle, and varied between samples. Consistent with previous evidence suggesting that CSMD1 may be involved in brain mechanisms related to memory and learning, these data appear to reflect the deleterious effects of the identified \\'A\\' risk allele on neurocognitive function, possibly as part of the mechanism by which CSMD1 is associated with SZ risk.

  3. The enigma of Gerstmann's syndrome revisited: a telling tale of the vicissitudes of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Pinel, Philippe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Kleinschmidt, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    Eighty years ago, the Austrian neurologist Josef Gerstmann observed in a few patients a concomitant impairment in discriminating their own fingers, writing by hand, distinguishing left from right and performing calculations. He claimed that this tetrad of symptoms constituted a syndromal entity, assigned it to a lesion of the dominant parietal lobe and suggested that it was due to damage of a common functional denominator. Ever since, these claims have been debated and an astute synopsis and sceptical discussion was presented 40 years ago by MacDonald Critchley in this journal. Nonetheless, Gerstmann's syndrome has continued to intrigue both clinical neurologists and researchers in neuropsychology, and more frequently than not is described in textbooks as an example of parietal lobe damage. In this review, we revisit the chequered history of this syndrome, which can be seen as a case study of the dialectic evolution of concepts in neuropsychology. In light of several modern era findings of pure cases we conclude that it is legitimate to label the conjunction of symptoms first described by Gerstmann as a 'syndrome', but that it is very unlikely that damage to the same population of cortical neurons should account for all of the four symptoms. Instead, we propose that a pure form of Gerstmann's syndrome might arise from disconnection, via a lesion, to separate but co-localized fibre tracts in the subcortical parietal white matter, a hypothesis for which we have recently provided evidence using combined imaging of functional and structural organization in the healthy brain.

  4. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  5. Subtyping children's reading disabilities using a comprehensive neuropsychological measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Kimberly J; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2009-01-01

    This study examined subtypes of children with reading disabilities using the NEPSY (series of Neuropsychological tests authored by Marit Korkman, Ursula Kirk and Sally Kemp). Multiple methods of cluster analysis were performed with 80 elementary school-age children identified as reading disabled. Students completed the NEPSY Language Domain and the NEPSY Memory and Learning Domain. Three clusters emerged which were interpreted as: (1) a No Language or Memory Deficit Subtype, (2) a Global Language and Memory Deficit Subtype, and (3) a Global Memory Deficit Subtype. This study suggested that memory-related processes, not exclusively phonologically related processes, might contribute to reading difficulties. This investigation supported the utility of a neuropsychological approach to subtyping children's reading disabilities.

  6. The neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates of slowly progressive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Aresi, Anna; Reati, Fabiola; Riva, Alice; Gobbo, Clara; Bizzi, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 64-year-old woman affected by slowly progressive visual agnosia is reported aiming to describe specific cognitive-brain relationships. Longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessment, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET) were used. Sequential neuropsychological evaluations performed during a period of 9 years since disease onset showed the appearance of apperceptive and associative visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and prosopoagnosia, but excluded dementia. MRI showed moderate diffuse cortical atrophy, with predominant atrophy in the left posterior cortical areas (temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital cortical gyri). 18FDG-PET showed marked bilateral posterior cortical hypometabolism; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed severe focal N-acetyl-aspartate depletion in the left temporoparietal and lateral occipital cortical areas. In conclusion, selective metabolic alterations and neuronal loss in the left temporoparietooccipital cortex may determine progressive visual agnosia in the absence of dementia.

  7. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: clinical case of depression and working incapacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to mental health in relation to court matters have increasingly required the participation of the psychologist. We present the use of forensic neuropsychological assessment in a case of retirement reversal. Incapacity was attested due to disability resulting from depression of a 35-year-old attorney, and the case was forwarded from the courts to the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Unit at the USP Clinical Hospital. A clinical interview and application of cognitive tests was conducted. Despite the depression, significant cognitive losses that would prevent return to his professional assignments were not detected. The neuropsychological assessment has been shown to be an important tool in the forensic context, as it assists with diagnostic value for clarification of functional aspects in the various psychopathological areas in terms of disabilities or potentialities.

  8. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Taub, Anita; Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2008-01-01

    Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (Precovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years. PMID:29213549

  9. Neuropsychological functioning following cardiac transplant in Danon disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David; Meredith, Katherine

    2017-06-08

    To present a unique case involving a 31-year-old male with Danon disease (diagnosed at 14) who received cardiac transplant and subsequent cardiac re-transplant. Brief report/case study. Serial neuropsychological assessment across a 23-year span along with a review of school records and prior psychoeducational assessment. A consistent pattern of higher level cognitive impairment from childhood through adulthood was found. This pattern is interpreted in light of the sparse literature regarding cognitive and adaptive functioning related to Danon disease. The noteworthy aspects of this case include the preservation of some academic abilities and an unexpected level of functional independence given cognitive concerns. This case study further explores the nature of the deficits related to Danon disease and highlights the benefits of neuropsychological evaluation to guide functional interventions and maximize level of independence across the life span.

  10. Brain evolution and human neuropsychology: the inferential brain hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. (JINS, 2012, 18, 394-401).

  11. [Capgras syndrome: a proposal of neuropsychological battery for assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillers Rodríguez, Rosalía; Madoz-Gúrpide, Agustín; Tirapu Ustárroz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is the most prevalent of the delusional misidentification syndromes. It appears in both psychiatric illness and organic brain damage. Cognitive and neuropsychiatric models (lateralization and disconnection) have been proposed to explain the syndrome. From a neuropsychological point of view Capgras syndrome seems to be due to damage of bifrontal and right limbic and temporal regions. Memory, feeling of familiarity, monitoring of self and reality would be altered. All of these cause a failure to adequately integrate the information about emotions and facial recognition. Relative preservation of the left frontal lobe may be necessary for the development of delusional response. There does not seem to be a differential pattern as regards the aetiology, but there is a common underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism. Based on theoretic models, and clinics features, we propose a neuropsychological battery to assess the Capgras syndrome, that should be sensitive to the main expected deficits. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience.

  13. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the theoretical perspectives from which we approach human neuropsychology could lead to novel hypotheses and testable predictions. In the spirit of these objectives, we present here a new theoretical proposal, the Inferential Brain Hypothesis, whereby the human brain is thought to be characterized by a shift from perceptual processing to inferential computation, particularly within the social realm. This shift is believed to be a driving force for the evolution of the large human cortex. PMID:22459075

  14. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  15. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...... performance is discussed. It is suggested that the decreased performance should be attributed to an increased level of situational anxiety, and an engagement in disorder-related, cognitively costly activities rather than trait-like cognitive dysfunctions. Future experimental studies are needed to explore...

  16. Relationship of prospective memory to neuropsychological function and antiretroviral adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo, Christopher; Black, Anne C; Beauvais, John; Dieckhaus, Kevin; Rosen, Marc I

    2009-09-01

    Prospective memory is defined as the ability to "remember to remember" something at a future time despite intervening distractions and may be particularly important in remembering to take prescribed medication among people infected with HIV. Ninety-seven HIV-positive participants in a clinical trial had their adherence measured by electronic pillcaps and were administered neuropsychological screening tests and the memory for intentions screening test (MIST). Factor analysis of the MIST and other neuropsychological measures identified four factors. Two were derived from MIST subscales and accounted for approximately 50% of the variance in cognitive functioning. Only one factor was significantly correlated with adherence, and this was a MIST factor. In this preliminary study, the MIST assessed a memory function that (a) could be distinguished from traditional retrospective recall and executive functioning and (b) was correlated with antiretroviral adherence.

  17. Slowly progressive aphemia: a neuropsychological, conventional, and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallassi, R; Sambati, L; Poda, R; Oppi, F; Stanzani Maserati, M; Cevolani, D; Agati, R; Lodi, R

    2011-12-01

    Slowly progressive aphemia (SPA) is a rare focal degenerative disorder characterized by severe dysarthria, frequent orofacial apraxia, dysprosody, phonetic and phonemic errors without global cognitive deterioration for many years. This condition is caused by a degeneration of anterior frontal lobe regions, mainly of the left frontal operculum. We report a case of SPA with a course of 8 years, evaluated by repeated neuropsychological, conventional, and functional MRI examinations. In our case, neuropsychological examinations showed a progressive impairment of speech articulation including dysprosody, phonetic and phonemic errors, and slight writing errors. No global cognitive deterioration was detected and the patient is still completely autonomous. Morphological and functional investigations showed, respectively, a progressive atrophy and progressive impairment of the left frontal region, confirming the role of the opercular region in determining this rare syndrome. During verbal task generation as the cortical activation of this region gradually decreased, the language articulation worsened.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Neuropsychological and Behavioral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Sarah N.; Crocker, Nicole; Nguyen, Tanya T.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can cause alterations to the developing brain. The resulting neurobehavioral deficits seen following this exposure are wide-ranging and potentially devastating and, therefore, are of significant concern to individuals, families, communities, and society. These effects occur on a continuum, and qualitatively similar neuropsychological and behavioral features are seen across the spectrum of effect. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has been used to emphasize the continuous nature of the outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) representing one point on the spectrum. This paper will provide a comprehensive review of the neuropsychological and behavioral effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, including a discussion of the emerging neurobehavioral profile. Supporting studies of lower levels of exposure, brain-behavior associations, and animal model systems will be included when appropriate. PMID:21503685

  19. Neuropsychological functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kristin W; Neylan, Thomas C; Metzler, Thomas J; Lenoci, Maryanne; Rothlind, Johannes; Henn-Haase, Clare; Choucroun, Gerard; Weiner, Michael W; Marmar, Charles R

    2006-11-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+ and PTSD-, respectively) and with and without a history of alcohol abuse (ETOH+ and ETOH-, respectively): n for PTSD+/ETOH- = 30, n for PTSD+/ETOH- = 37, n for PTSD-/ETOH+ = 30, and n for PTSD-/ETOH- = 31. Results showed that PTSD, when alcohol, educational level, vocabulary, and depression are controlled for, was associated with decreased verbal memory, attention, and processing speed performance. Alcohol abuse history was associated with decreased visual memory performance. By controlling for alcohol and depression, the authors can more conclusively demonstrate that verbal memory and attention differences are associated with PTSD.

  20. Motor assessment in pediatric neuropsychology: relationships to executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Executive function often refers to control behaviors such as "initiating," "sustaining," "inhibiting," and "switching." These mechanisms contribute to regulation of thinking and emotion but can be observed most clearly in the motor system. Neuropsychology has been influenced by "top-down" models of cognitive control that emerged from information-processing theories of cognition. In fact, neural models provide evidence that control processes are highly interactive within the cortico-striatal-cerebellar circuits. Cognition unfolds in response to motor-driven adaptation, and evidence exists for similar firing of brain cells and circuits during "imagined action" as in actual motor behavior. The motor system develops early and yet is not routinely assessed in neuropsychological evaluation of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This article reviews some of the approaches to motor assessment that have sensitivity to neurodevelopmental disorders, and advocates for inclusion of motor assessment, particularly in evaluating control processes independent of culture, language, and other confounders.

  1. The neuropsychology of attention: revisiting the "Mirsky model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Leonard F; Joyce, Arthur W; Wurglitz, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Mirsky and colleagues proposed a multiple-component model of attention. It was proposed that attention was characterized by several distinct elements that were organized into a system. A putative neuroanatomical substrate of this model of attention was proposed. This functional anatomy was primarily based upon inferences derived from brain lesion studies. Mirsky and colleagues developed a systematic clinical evaluation of this model by applying a group of neuropsychological tests. Since the introduction of what has been commonly referred to as the "Mirsky model," significant advances have been made in our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. This article applies current neuroscientific principles to "update" our understanding of attention and the "Mirsky model." We also demonstrate how the interpretation of neuropsychological tests can be modified according to principles of large-scale brain systems and patterns of brain network functional connectivity.

  2. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale - Excited Component (BPRS-EC) and neuropsychological dysfunction predict aggression, suicidality, and involuntary treatment in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Schöttle, Daniel; Lambert, Martin; Hottenrott, Birgit; Agorastos, Agorastos; Naber, Dieter; Schroeder, Katrin

    2012-02-01

    Aggression, suicidality and involuntary treatment constitute severe clinical problems in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Although there are studies on prevalence and clinical predictors of these conditions, little is known on the influence of psychopathology and neuropsychological dysfunction. 152 FEP inpatients were prospectively assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and a neuropsychological examination covering the domains 'processing speed', 'concentration and attention', 'executive function', 'working memory', 'verbal memory', 'verbal comprehension', 'logical reasoning', 'global cognition', and 'general intelligence'. Clinical data were collected retrospectively in a structured file audit trial. Patients were aged 24.5±4.9years, and 112 (74%) were male. At admission, 13 (9%) patients presented with severe aggression, and 28 (18%) with severe suicidality. 31 patients (20%) received involuntary treatment. In multivariate analyses, aggression was predicted by BPRS-Excited Component (BPRS-EC; p=.001), suicidality was predicted by BPRS-EC (p=.013) and general intelligence (p=.016), and predictors for involuntary treatment were BPRS-EC (p=.001) and neuropsychological dysfunction in the domain 'concentration and attention' (p=.016). Psychopathology and neuropsychological functioning independently predict dangerous behavior in FEP patients. Some correlations with neuropsychology (e.g., of aggression with concentration/attention) are absent in multivariate analyses and may thus constitute a proxy of psychopathological features. In addition to clinical data, BPRS-EC can be used as a predictor of dangerous behavior. Patients with severe aggression and suicidality show different patterns of neuropsychological dysfunction, indicating that suicidality should not be conceptualized as subtype of aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [The neuropsychology of nigrostriatal dopaminergic transmission in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallesch, C

    2011-12-01

    Through cortico-subcortico-cortical loop systems, the dopaminergic modulation influences not only motor, but also other executive functions. Neuropsychological findings in Parkinson's disease are reviewed and physiologically interpreted. The theory of a "supervisory attentional system" according to Norman and Shallice (1986) seems to be an adequate model of the interaction of cortex and basal ganglia in executive function and control. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Leposavić; Ljubica Leposavić; Predrag Gavrilović

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with ...

  5. Complementary neuropsychological assessment with computer in congenital hemiparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Marilisa M. Guerreiro; Garcia, Maria Lúcia G.; Ferraz, Glória Maria B.; Piovesana, Ana Maria S. G.; MARIA VALERIANA L. DE MOURA-RIBEIRO

    1993-01-01

    We present the neuropsychological assessment with computer aid of six cerebral palsy children. Three children had right hemiparesis and three, left hemiparesis. The tomographic examination showed parietal cavities (porencephalic cyst in 4 children, ischemic injury in 1 case and subarachnoid cyst in 1 case). We have proposed to assess the visuo-spatial function since we suspected the children could have disturbance of this function. We did not detect this disturbance. On the other hand, the ch...

  6. Syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solovieva Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropsychology is a science with its own specific concepts, terms, and methods of analysis of disturbances in psychological development. One of the essential concepts of neuropsychological methodology, according to A.R. Luria, is that of a neuropsychological syndrome, which takes into account both the functional organization of the brain and the behavioral system. However, this concept isn’t mentioned in the majority of his publications, and thus is not well known by neuropsychologists. There is no clear understanding of this concept within the works of modern neuropsychologists. This omission has a strong influence on the way analysis and interpretation of developmental difficulties is carried out today. Objective. The objective of this study is to present an example of the successful application of qualitative syndromic analysis to the case of a Mexican preschool child with developmental problems and learning disabilities. Design. The clinical analysis was applied to the case of a 6 year old girl with learning disabilities, whose difficulties had been attributed primarily to a low level of general brain activation. Results. The authors assert that the advantages of A.R. Luria’s syndromic approach to clinical cases of difficulties in development and learning disabilities, are that it opens up the potential for finding the general causes on different levels: neuronal maturation, brain mechanisms, activity and personality. Conclusion. The authors conclude that the topic of syndromic analysis in child neuropsychology requires further scientific discussion. The necessity for revising levels of analysis of clinical cases should be taken in account.

  7. The use of neuropsychological tests to assess intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansler, David A; Varvaris, Mark; Schretlen, David J

    We sought to derive a 'neuropsychological intelligence quotient' (NIQ) to replace IQ testing in some routine assessments. We administered neuropsychological testing and a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to a community sample of 394 adults aged 18-96 years. We regressed Wechsler Full Scale IQs (W-FSIQ) on 23 neuropsychological scores and derived an NIQ from 9 measures that explained significant variance in W-FSIQ. We then compared subgroups of 284 healthy and 108 unhealthy participants in NIQ and W-FSIQ to assess criterion validity, correlated NIQ and W-FSIQ scores with education level and independence for activities of daily living to assess convergent validity, and compared validity coefficients for the NIQ with those of 'hold' and 'no-hold' indices. By design, NIQ and W-FSIQ scores correlated highly (r = .84), and both were higher in healthy participants. The difference was larger for NIQ, which accounted for more variability in activities of daily living. The NIQ and 'no-hold' index were better predicted by health status and less predicted by educational status than the 'hold' index. We constructed an NIQ that correlates highly with Wechsler FSIQ. Tests required to obtain NIQ are commonly used and can be administered in about 45 min. Validity properties of NIQ and W-FSIQ are similar. The NIQ bore greater resemblance to a 'no-hold' than 'hold' index. One can obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of current Full Scale IQ without formal intelligence testing from a brief neuropsychological battery.

  8. Genetics and Neuropsychology: A Merger Whose Time Has Come

    OpenAIRE

    Kremen, William S.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been two rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsych...

  9. Neuropsychological functioning in college students with and without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Lisa L; Oster, Danielle R; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; DuPaul, George J; Anastopoulos, Arthur D

    2017-02-01

    Increasing numbers of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are attending college; however, little empirical information is available concerning the functional impairment experienced by these students. Although preliminary studies suggest that college students with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of psychosocial and academic difficulties compared to their peers without the disorder, findings regarding neuropsychological functioning have been inconsistent with some studies reporting that college students with ADHD perform more poorly on various cognitive and neuropsychological tasks while others report no differences compared to their peers without ADHD. The purposes of the present study, the Trajectories Related to ADHD in College project, a longitudinal study following the 4-year outcomes of college students with and without ADHD, were to (a) examine the performance of 436 first-year college students with and without ADHD (51.6% female) on measures of executive function (EF) and intelligence and (b) investigate the association of self-reported use of stimulant medication and neuropsychological performance in students with ADHD. Participant data from their first year of involvement in the study were analyzed. Participants with ADHD performed more poorly on task-based and self-report EF measures relative to the comparison group. In contrast, no significant group differences were found with respect to intellectual performance. Within the ADHD group, use of prescription stimulant medication was associated with improved performance on some, but not all, neuropsychological tasks. Additional analyses also revealed significant group differences in EF based on clinical diagnostic status. College students with ADHD demonstrated poorer EF than their peers without ADHD and psychostimulant medication was associated with improved EF performance. No group differences were found with respect to intellectual functioning, Lastly, having one or

  10. Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Björn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms are predicted by particular cognitive and/or motivational dysfunctions and whether these associations are mediated by the presence of ADHD symptoms....

  11. Clinical Applications of Neuropsychological Tests in the Diving Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    neuropsychology remain in the areas of description and diagnosis of brain damage-related impairment of function, planning of a rehabilitation program and...and is designed to determine the presence of both receptive and expressive language problems and related abilities such as anomia, acalculia ...contribution to diagnosis, prognosis, or recovery/ rehabilitation planning. If possible, follow-up testing will be attempted as a means of documenting recovery

  12. Relationship of Prospective Memory to Neuropsychological Function and Antiretroviral Adherence

    OpenAIRE

    Contardo, Christopher; Black, Anne C.; Beauvais, John; Dieckhaus, Kevin; Rosen, Marc I.

    2009-01-01

    Prospective memory is defined as the ability to “remember to remember” something at a future time despite intervening distractions and may be particularly important in remembering to take prescribed medication among people infected with HIV. Ninety-seven HIV-positive participants in a clinical trial had their adherence measured by electronic pillcaps and were administered neuropsychological screening tests and the memory for intentions screening test (MIST). Factor analysis of the MIST and ot...

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological tests for dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusion criteria for the study ... Neuropsychological tests can successfully distinguish between healthy elderly persons and those with clinically significant cognitive ..... Digital span. Forward. 0.646 (0.549 - 0.736). 0.011*. ≤9. 86.7. 43.6. Backward. 0.635 (0.537 - 0.726). 0.014*. ≤5. 93.3. 30.8. Total. 0.638 (0.540 - 0.728).

  14. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dysl...

  15. Neuropsychological rehabilitation and quality of life: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Peró, Maribel; Gudayol Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation procedures on the quality of life in non-Spanish-speaking individuals with some cognitive deficit. Sixteen studies published during the 2001–2012 period which yielded relevant information regarding the sample sizes used, the types of statistical contrasts, the evaluation instruments or pathologies among others, were analyzed. We carried out study following the usual estimation procedur...

  16. The A-B Neuropsychological Assessment Scale (ABNAS): the relationship between patient-percieved drug related cognitive impairment and results of neuropsychological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldenkamp, A.P.; Meel, H.F. van; Baker, G.A.; Brooks, J.; Hendriks, M.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Our intention was to evaluate the relationships between the A-B neuropsychological assessment schedule (ABNAS) as a measure of patient-perceived cognitive effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the results of neuropsychological tests. The measure was developed specifically to assess

  17. Development and application of neuropsychology in Hong Kong: implications of its value and future advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M Y

    2016-11-01

    To review the development, application, and value of neuropsychology, and the standard education and training pathway for neuropsychologists or clinical neuropsychologists in Hong Kong. The information provided here was gathered via a literature review of the status of neuropsychology and the validity of commonly adopted neuropsychological tests in Hong Kong. Additional details were acquired via the internet about local tertiary education curricula and the related requirements, the availability of professional associations for licensure or board certification, and relevant statistics/surveys conducted by the government. Some information about the clinical practice of neuropsychology was collected through personal communication with local clinical psychologists. The development of neuropsychology in Hong Kong over the past 20 years is rapid and productive, given the increasing application of advanced neuroimaging techniques, neuropsychological tests, and opportunities for exchanging up-to-date neuropsychological knowledge and professional training through international conferences, workshops, and seminars. Given that neuropsychology services are often provided by clinical psychologists who are master's degree graduates in clinical psychology, the relatively limited training in neuropsychological knowledge and skills and the lack of division for membership or mandatory registration as a neuropsychologist/clinical neuropsychologist may have an impact on the quality of clinical neuropsychological services and the development of this specialty. These findings signify a need for further improvement or refinement of educational and training pathways for neuropsychologist or clinical neuropsychologist along with the recognition of its value in clinical practice through registration of different disciplines of psychology in Hong Kong.

  18. Women's leadership in neuropsychology: historical perspectives, present trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Benitez, Andreana; Buelow, Melissa T; Gooding, Amanda; Schaefer, Lynn A; Sim, Anita H; Tussey, Chriscelyn M; Shear, Paula K

    2018-01-28

    Although psychology has become a female-dominated field, this pattern of gender representation has not held true within the specialty of neuropsychology. In recent years more women have been pursuing careers in neuropsychology, and while the balance of male and female neuropsychologists as a whole has shifted, it is unclear whether the gender composition of leadership has also changed. Our goal was to survey various neuropsychological organizations, training programs, editorial boards, and organizations granting board certification to determine the current gender composition of leadership positions within neuropsychology. A literature review was conducted to examine past trends of gender composition in neuropsychology, psychology, medicine, and academia. Data on current gender compositions of the field were culled from publicly available websites and through personal communication with representatives from major psychological and neuropsychological organizations. We found that the overall composition of the field has changed over time, but notable gender disparities in leadership positions remain. Women still comprise the minority of leadership positions within most neuropsychological organizations, editorial boards for neuropsychology journals, and fellow positions in major neuropsychological organizations. More equitable representation has been achieved in the directorships of training programs and ABPP/ABCN board certification. We review the historical trends in gender discrepancies in leadership in neuropsychology and discuss these within the broader arenas of academia, research, and medicine. We conclude with a summary addressing potential causes for these discrepancies, including work-life balance issues, discrimination, institutional bias, and various other factors. We also provide pragmatic suggestions to help address these continued disparities.

  19. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  20. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Beating the Odds: Intact Neuropsychological Functioning despite TLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Ashima; Chopra, Sakshi

    2014-10-01

    Patients with Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) frequently display cognitive comorbidity and can have widespread network abnormalities, which might affect a variety of cognitive and intellectual functions. As a result, refractory TLE seems to be associated with slow but ongoing cognitive deterioration. The case is of a 32 year old, right handed male, engineering graduate, diagnosed with TLE- right mesial, 12 years ago. A number of head injuries were caused due to the seizure present, which includes a fall from height of 12 feet in childhood. The neuropsychological tests administered were Gesell's Drawing Test, Mini Mental State Examination, PGI Memory Scale, Battery of Performance Tests of Intelligence, Verbal Adult Intelligence Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Dysfunction Analysis Questionnaire. No impairment found on orientation; average cognitive functioning; above average attention and concentration, verbal working memory, visual and verbal memory; average practical ability, abstract ability, average verbal intellectual ability; superior ability on comprehension and average performance ability. Mild to moderate impairment on perceptuo-motor functioning and an evidence of depression were present. Patient showed high dysfunction in personal, social, vocational and cognitive areas. The study highlights that even despite chronic epilepsy, with a series of head injuries due to the seizures; an individual can still have average neuropsychological abilities. Holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation along with Vocational Retraining would go a long way in the functional independence of the patient. Neuropsychologists have a significant role in the assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation of people with epilepsy.

  2. Cerebral circulation, neurological and neuropsychological disorders in idiopathic arterial hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Viktorovich Fonyakin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the cerebral circulation in idiopathic arterial hypotension (IAH in relation to neurological and neuropsychological disorders. Patients and methods. Sixty-five patients (mean age 40.2 [8, 14] years with prolonged IAH were examined. Neuropsychological examination was made using the procedure adapted by A.R. Luria; different psychic functions (memory, speech, gnosis, praxis, thinking, attention, counting, writing, and reading were studied. Cerebral hemodynamics was investigated using duplex scanning of the brachiocephalic arteries (BCA, middle cerebral arteries (MCA, internal jugular (IJV and vertebral veins (VV. The patients were assigned to 2 groups: 1 19 (29% patients with somatoform disorders, 2 46 (71% patients with signs of the initial manifestations of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency. Group 2 patients were older and had a longer history of IAH. Results. In all the patients, cerebral blood supply in the carotid system showed moderately lower arterial blood inflow with a compensatory vascular resistance decrease and balanced venous outflow reduction with increased vascular resistance. Group 2 patients had a substantial (to the lower normal range blood flow decline in the vertebral artery along with increased peripheral resistance in the VV. The degree of neuropsychological derangement was inversely proportional to blood flow velocity in BCA and MCA and to blood outflow in IJV and VV.

  3. Neuropsychological Measures in the Arab World: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Al-Joudi, Haya F; Puente, Antonio E; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Although Arabic is one of the most widely used languages in the world, little is known on the availability of standardized neuropsychological tests in Arabic. We review the literature published before 2016, using the keywords Arab*, cogniti*, and neuropsycholo*, as well as keywords for each Arab country. PubMed, PsycINFO, Education Source, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, Shamaa, and Arabpsynet databases were searched, in addition to a selected number of Arabic medical and educational journals. After excluding case reports, studies conducted on Arab groups residing outside the Arab world or Israel, and studies that employed intelligence scales or cognitive screens without standardization, 384 studies were eventually reviewed. Tests with most extensive use, adaptation, validation and norming were identified. The Raven Matrices, with its variants, was the most normed cognitive test for Arab individuals (normed in 16 countries). The rate of neuropsychology publications from the Arab countries combined, per year, was less than half of that of each American journal (top 10 journals pertaining to cognition). Nonetheless, the rate in Arab countries has increased after 2010. Publications were mostly from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, but the ratio of test adaptation-to-publication was the largest in Jordan and Lebanon. Approximately half of these publications did not employ cognitive tests that were developed, translated, adapted, or standardized according to international guidelines of psychological measurement. We provide recommendations on improving clinical neuropsychology to better serve Arab patients.

  4. Case series in cognitive neuropsychology: promise, perils, and proper perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Brenda

    2011-10-01

    Schwartz and Dell (2010) advocated for a major role for case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology. They defined the key features of this approach and presented a number of arguments and examples illustrating the benefits of case series studies and their contribution to computational cognitive neuropsychology. In the Special Issue on "Case Series in Cognitive Neuropsychology" there are six commentaries on Schwartz and Dell as well as a response to the six commentaries by Dell and Schwartz (2011 this issue). In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the key points made in Schwartz and Dell, and I review the promise and perils of case series design as revealed by the six commentaries. I conclude by placing the set of papers within a broader perspective, providing some clarification of the historical record on case series and single-case approaches, raising some cautionary notes for case series studies and situating both case series and single-case approaches within the larger context of theory development in the cognitive sciences.

  5. [Clinical neuropsychology in perspective: future challenges based on current developments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier

    2012-02-01

    New lines of translational, interdisciplinary research are emerging among different fields of the neurosciences, which often point at clinical neuropsychology as the hinge discipline capable of linking the basic findings with their clinical implications and thereby endow them with some meaning for phenomenological experience. To establish the great lines of progress made in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychology in recent years, so as to be able to foresee the strategic lines and priorities of neuroscience in the near future. To achieve this aim, the first step will be to identify the changes of paradigm that have taken place in the areas of neuroscience and psychology in the last two decades. The next step will be to propose new topics and fields of application that these changes in paradigm offer and demand from neuroscience. The false dichotomies of genes versus environment, mind versus brain, and reason versus emotion are considered, as are the new applications of neuropsychology to the understanding of psychopathological disorders, from the neurodegenerative to neurodevelopment, from 'dirty' drugs to cognitive and affective enhancers.

  6. Cognitive neuropsychology and its vicissitudes: The fate of Caramazza's axioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology is characterized as the discipline in which one draws conclusions about the organization of the normal cognitive systems from the behaviour of brain-damaged individuals. In a series of papers, Caramazza, later in collaboration with McCloskey, put forward four assumptions as the bridge principles for making such inferences. Four potential pitfalls, one for each axiom, are discussed with respect to the use of single-case methods. Two of the pitfalls also apply to case series and group study procedures, and the other two are held to be indirectly testable or avoidable. Moreover, four other pitfalls are held to apply to case series or group study methods. It is held that inferences from single-case procedures may profitably be supported or rejected using case series/group study methods, but also that analogous support needs to be given in the other direction for functionally based case series or group studies. It is argued that at least six types of neuropsychological method are valuable for extrapolation to theories of the normal cognitive system but that the single- or multiple-case study remains a critical part of cognitive neuropsychology's methods.

  7. Neuropsychological correlates of decision making in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Franke-Sievert, Christiane; Jacoby, Georg E; Markowitsch, Hans J; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2007-11-01

    In addition to the core psychopathology of bulimia nervosa (BN), patients with BN often show impulsive behavior that has been related to decision making deficits in other patient groups, such as individuals with anorexia nervosa and pathological gamblers. However, it remains unclear whether BN patients also show difficulties in decision making. In this study, 14 patients with BN and 14 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, education, body mass index, and intelligence, were examined with the Game of Dice Task (M. Brand, E. Fujiwara, et al., 2005), a gambling task that has fixed winning probabilities and explicit rules for gains and losses, as well as with a neuropsychological test battery and personality questionnaires. On the task, the patients with BN chose the disadvantageous alternatives more frequently than did the comparison subjects. Performance on the Game of Dice Task was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological functions, personality, or disease-specific variables in the BN group. Thus, in patients with BN, decision making abnormalities and executive reductions can be demonstrated and might be neuropsychological correlates of the patients' dysfunctional everyday-life decision making behavior. Neurocognitive functions should be considered in the treatment of BN. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Profile in a Patient with Triple A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mazzone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple A syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of adrenocorticotropic hormone resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima. Our aim was to describe the neuropsychological characteristics and the cooccurring psychopathological and neurological disorders in an Italian male child suffering from Triple A syndrome at the time of admission (T0 and after one year of follow-up (T1. Many difficulties were observed in the motor domain, as well as in manual dexterity and static/dynamic balance domains of the motor task over time. In sharp contrast with previous literature reports on frequent mild cognitive dysfunction in patients with Triple A syndrome, our child did not show any mental retardation. By contrast, he showed an average IQ at T0 with a slight improvement at T1. To our knowledge, this report is the first describing neuropsychological profile and co-occurring psychopathological problems in a child with Triple A syndrome. Considering that the Triple A syndrome is a progressive disorder which can take years to develop the full-blown clinical picture, these patients require periodical medical controls. Moreover, assessment of neuropsychological and psychopathological features should be performed in patients with this disease, in order to underline the variability of this syndrome.

  9. Oculomotor deficits affect neuropsychological performance in oculomotor apraxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, Silvia; De Luca, Maria; Chiricozzi, Francesca R; Tedesco, Anna M; Casali, Carlo; Molinari, Marco; Leggio, Maria G

    2013-03-01

    Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 is a rare and early-disabling neurodegenerative disease, part of a subgroup of autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia, in which oculomotor symptoms (e.g., increased saccade latency and hypometria) and executive function deficits have been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of oculomotor symptoms on cognitive performance and, in particular, over reading in 2 Italian siblings affected by ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2. The neuropsychological profiles and the oculomotor patterns during nonverbal and verbal tasks were recorded and analyzed. Saccadic intrusions and/or nystagmus were observed in all eye movement tasks. The neuropsychological profiles were substantially preserved, with only subtle deficits that affected visuomotor integration and attention. Reading ability decreased and became impaired. The reading scan was disturbed by saccadic intrusions and/or nystagmus. However, an ad hoc reading task demonstrated that deficits appeared only when the items that were displayed enhanced oculomotor requests. The preservation of lexical-semantic processes confirmed that the reading disability was caused by oculomotor deficits, not cognitive problems. Present findings indicate that in patients who are affected by ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2, performance on neuropsychological tests, especially those that require rapid performance and eye or hand-eye control, must be analyzed with respect to oculomotor components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  11. Neuropsychological investigation in Chinese patients with progressive muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cui

    Full Text Available Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA is a rare type of degenerative motor neuron disease (MND of which the onset happens in adult period. Despite its well-defined clinical characteristics, its neuropsychological profile has remained poorly understood, considering the consensus of cognitive and behavioral impairment reached in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of Chinese PMA patients with a series of comprehensive batteries emphasizing the executive and attention function, and covering other domains of memory, language, visuospatial function, calculation and behavior as well. Their performances were compared with those of age- and education-matched ALS and healthy controls (HC.21 patients newly diagnosed with PMA were consecutively enrolled into our ALS and other MND registry platform, accounting for 14.7% of all the incident MND cases registered during the same period. 20 patients who completed the neuropsychological batteries were included into analysis. Compared with HC, PMA performed significantly worse in maintenance function of attention, while they exhibited quantitative similarity to ALS in all behavioral inventories and neuropsychological tests except the time for Stroop interference effect.PMA could display mild cognitive dysfunction in the same frontal-mediated territory of ALS but in a lesser degree, whereas they did not differ from ALS behaviorally.

  12. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  13. Microstructural changes in the striatum and their impact on motor and neuropsychological performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cavallari

    Full Text Available Grey matter (GM damage is a clinically relevant feature of multiple sclerosis (MS that has been previously assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Fractional anisotropy (FA of the basal ganglia and thalamus might be increased in MS patients, and correlates with disability scores. Despite the established role of the striatum and thalamus in motor control, mood and cognition, the impact of DTI changes within these structures on motor and neuropsychological performance has not yet been specifically addressed in MS. We investigated DTI metrics of deep GM nuclei and their potential association with mobility and neuropsychological function. DTI metrics from 3T MRI were assessed in the caudate, putamen, and thalamus of 30 MS patients and 10 controls. Sixteen of the patients underwent neuropsychological testing. FA of the caudate and putamen was higher in MS patients compared to controls. Caudate FA correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score, Ambulation Index, and severity of depressive symptomatology. Putamen and thalamus FA correlated with deficits in memory tests. In contrast, cerebral white matter (WM lesion burden showed no significant correlation with any of the disability, mobility and psychometric parameters. Our findings support evidence of FA changes in the basal ganglia in MS patients, as well as deep GM involvement in disabling features of MS, including mobility and cognitive impairment. Deep GM FA appears to be a more sensitive correlate of disability than WM lesion burden.

  14. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  15. Neuropsychological Investigation of "The Amazing Memory Man".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold

    2017-12-21

    Mnemonists, memory champions, and persons with highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) are apparently rare breeds, with no more than a few dozen cases of each described in the neuroscientific literature. This report describes a newly discovered HSAM case who has extraordinary memory for a wider range of material than has heretofore been described. Subject MM was interviewed about his personal life and administered standard clinical tests of cognition and personality, as well as experimental tasks assessing personal and generic episodic and semantic memory. Finally, he was studied with high resolution structural MRI of the medial temporal lobes, as well as brain connectivity analysis using resting-state functional MRI. MM's ability to recall general factual information, historical facts and dates, sports statistics, and popular culture, as well as personal life experiences, is exceptional, even though he performs in only the average range on tests of intellect and new learning ability. Unlike most mnemonists, he denies using any specific mnemonic strategy and, unlike many other HSAM cases, is unable to recall highly specific details of days in his adult life. Structural brain imaging in MM reveals atypical anatomy in his left temporal lobe, and functional neuroimaging suggests greater than usual connectivity of the left hippocampus with premotor, prefrontal and retrosplenial cingulate cortex. These observations are discussed in the context of previous studies of mnemonists and HSAM cases, some of which implicate hyperconnectivity among components of an expanded memory network in extraordinary memory retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease versus clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease in the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging: a comparison of quantitative MRI and neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearing, Michael A; Bigler, Erin D; Norton, Maria; Tschanz, Jo Ann; Hulette, Christine; Leslie, Carol; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    Atrophy of specific, regional, and generalized brain structures occurs as a result of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) process. Comparing AD patients with histopathological confirmation of the disease at autopsy to those without autopsy but who were clinically diagnosed using the same antemortem criteria will provide further evidence of the utility and accuracy of neuropsychological assessments at the time of diagnosis, as well as the efficacy of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) in demonstrating gross neuropathological changes associated with the disease. The Cache County Study of Aging provides a unique opportunity to determine how closely AD subjects with only the clinical diagnosis match similarly diagnosed AD subjects but with postmortem confirmation of the disease. qMRI volumes of various brain structures, as well as neuropsychological outcome measures from an expanded battery, were obtained in 31 autopsy-confirmed AD subjects and 45 clinically diagnosed AD subjects. Of the various qMRI variables examined, only total temporal lobe volume was different, where those with postmortem confirmation had reduced volume. No significant differences between the two groups were found with any of the neuropsychological outcome measures. These findings confirm the similarity in neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment findings between those with just the clinical diagnosis of AD and those with an autopsy-confirmed diagnosis in the moderate-to-severe stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis.

  17. Complex complementizers and the structural relation with weak T. New (morpho)syntactic data from a Pomeranian language island in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I discuss three properties of Brazilian Pomeranian, a Germanic language spoken in Espirito Santo, Brazil by descendents who emigrated in the 19th century. These three aspects of the verbal system are: 1. The relation between complex complementizers, a two-infinitive system, and split

  18. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  19. The neuropsychological correlates of borderline personality disorder and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGris, Jeannette; van Reekum, Rob

    2006-03-01

    In subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD), compared with subjects who attempted suicide, to review neuropsychological (NP) function that may predispose to suicidal behaviour along a continuum of high and low lethality. We undertook electronic searches of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Biosos Reviews, and Cinhal. The searches were restricted to English-language publications from 1985 onward. The search terms borderline personality disorder, suicide, suicide attempt, self-harm behaviour, neuropsychological, executive function (EF), neurocognitive, and neuropsychological function produced 29 neuropsychology studies involving BPD and 7 neuropsychology studies of suicide attempters, regardless of psychiatric diagnosis. Of the BPD studies, 83% found NP impairment in one or more cognitive domains, irrespective of depression, involving specific or generalized deficits linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal regions. The functions most frequently reported (in 71% to 86% of BPD studies) are response-inhibitory processes affecting executive function performance that requires speeded attention and visuomotor skills. Decision making and visual memory impairment are also most frequently affected; 60% to 67% of BPD studies report attentional impairment, verbal memory impairment, and visuospatial organizational impairment. Least affected processes in BPD appear to involve spatial working memory, planning, and possibly, IQ. The similarities in NP deficits found in BPD and suicide-attempt studies involve decision making and Trails performances. BPD studies, however, reflect more frequent impairment on the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sort Test performance than the suicide-attempt studies, whereas verbal fluency appears to be more frequently impaired in those attempting suicide. Impaired EF and disinhibitory processes, as indicated by verbal fluency, Trails, and Stroop performance, primarily associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortical regions may

  20. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    that help the government promote creativity and entrepreneurship. □ Wage inequalities in Brazil and India. Funding: $247,200. Duration: 2013–2015. Grantee: Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento, Brazil. Although poverty in Brazil and India has diminished, inequality among wage earners remains high. Think tanks ...

  1. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  2. Brain networks of temporal preparation: A multiple regression analysis of neuropsychological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño, Mónica; Correa, Ángel; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Catena, Andrés; He, Xun; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2016-11-15

    There are only a few studies on the brain networks involved in the ability to prepare in time, and most of them followed a correlational rather than a neuropsychological approach. The present neuropsychological study performed multiple regression analysis to address the relationship between both grey and white matter (measured by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with brain lesion) and different effects in temporal preparation (Temporal orienting, Foreperiod and Sequential effects). Two versions of a temporal preparation task were administered to a group of 23 patients with acquired brain injury. In one task, the cue presented (a red versus green square) to inform participants about the time of appearance (early versus late) of a target stimulus was blocked, while in the other task the cue was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. The duration of the cue-target time intervals (400 versus 1400ms) was always manipulated within blocks in both tasks. Regression analysis were conducted between either the grey matter lesion size or the white matter tracts disconnection and the three temporal preparation effects separately. The main finding was that each temporal preparation effect was predicted by a different network of structures, depending on cue expectancy. Specifically, the Temporal orienting effect was related to both prefrontal and temporal brain areas. The Foreperiod effect was related to right and left prefrontal structures. Sequential effects were predicted by both parietal cortex and left subcortical structures. These findings show a clear dissociation of brain circuits involved in the different ways to prepare in time, showing for the first time the involvement of temporal areas in the Temporal orienting effect, as well as the parietal cortex in the Sequential effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CIVIL JUSTICE IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A.A. Wambier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals in a succinct way with the Brazilian model of civil procedural law. There is an historical approach specifically about Portuguese law which was in force in Brazil at the beginning (until 1832, after what there comes a brief description of the judiciary structure (courts and judges and only then we talk about the scope of civil procedure, its fundamental principles and, in a “law in practice” approach, access to justice. The role of a judge towards deciding “according to statutes and evidence” is analysed and the current importance of case law is deeply focused, mainly according to the new CPC (in force since 2015 and so are appellate proceedings, class actions, enforcement proceedings and ADR. The last items concern the role and the importance of academia, and some interesting cultural observations, where we deal with the very serious crisis, both ethical and economic, that Brazil is living now, in the political sphere. The judiciary branch is now our only hope.

  4. A comparison for a multiscale study of structural lineaments in southern Brazil: LANDSAT-7 ETM+ and shaded relief images from SRTM3-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D. Jacques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of descriptive statistics obtained for brittle structural lineaments extracted manually from LANDSAT images and shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM at 1:100, 000 and 1:500, 000 scales. The selected area is located in the southern of Brazil and comprises Precambrian rocks and stratigraphic units of the Paraná Basin. The application of this methodology shows that the visual interpretation depends on the kind of remote sensing image. The resulting descriptive statistics obtained for lineaments extracted from the images do not follow the same pattern according to the scale adopted. The main direction obtained for Proterozoic rocks using both image types at a 1:500, 000 scale are close to NS±10, whereas at a 1:100, 000 scale N45E was obtained for shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM and N10W for LANDSAT images. The Paleozoic sediments yielded the best results for the different images and scales (N50W. On the other hand, the Mesozoic igneous rocks showed greatest differences, the shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM images highlighting NE structures and the LANDSAT images highlighting NW structures. The accumulated frequency demonstrated high similarity between products for each image type no matter the scale, indicating that they can be used in multiscale studies. Conversely, major differences were found when comparing data obtained using shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM and Landsat images at a 1:100, 000 scale.Este artigo apresenta a comparação, através da estatística descritiva, de lineamentos de estruturas rúpteis obtidas manualmente sobre imagens Landsat e relevo sombreado do SRTM 3 MDE nas escalas 1:100.000 e 1:500.000. A área selecionada localiza-se no sul do Brasil e engloba rochas do pré-Cambriano e unidades estratigráficas da Bacia do Paraná. A aplicação desta metodologia demonstra que a interpretação visual depende do tipo de imagem do sensor remoto. O resultado da estatística descritiva

  5. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition.

  6. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Júnior,Valdester Cavalcante; Branco,Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante,Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior,Waldemiro; Lima,José Rubens Costa; Freitas,Sílvia Maria de; Fraga,Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; Souza,Nayana Maria Gomes de

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction:Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007.Objective:To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes.Methods:The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for...

  7. Social and environmental determinants of neuropsychological development from birth to preadolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Forns i Guzman, Joan, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Neuropsychological development is a genetically guided process which is continuously modified by socio-environmental factors. This thesis aimed to study the main socio-environmental determinants of neuropsychological development in different time-periods, such in the first two years of life, during preschool, and during preadolescence. This thesis also aimed to summarize the work done in environmental epidemiology on neuropsychological development in a novel conceptual framewo...

  8. Qualitative syndrome analysis by neuropsychological assessment in preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Quintanar L.; Solovieva Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The basis of this article is A. R. Luria’s conception of the qualitative approach in neuropsychology. Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity is one of the most frequent clinical diagnoses given during preschool age. However, precise qualitative neuropsychological criteria for analysis of this clinical diagnosis do not exist and change from one approach to another. Our objective here is to propose such qualitative criteria for neuropsychological analysis of children with diagnoses of at...

  9. Neuropsychology in South Africa: confronting the challenges of specialist practice in a culturally diverse developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ann D; Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B

    2016-11-01

    This was an invited paper on the history and current status of neuropsychology in South Africa. Information was gathered from literature searches, personal communication, and the authors' experiences while occupying relevant professional and academic positions for over 30 years. Since its origins in the 1950s, the development of neuropsychology in South Africa has faced numerous challenges, against a background of extreme sociocultural and socioeconomic disparity in the country that is on-going. The creation of the South African Clinical Neuropsychological Society in the 1980s, a credentialing and training body, gave impetus to the discipline. In the absence of a neuropsychology category within the South African professional framework, university instruction has been ad hoc with vastly different levels of competency depending on the institution involved. The small number of practitioners and/or academics involved in neuropsychology includes mainly masters, and some doctoral level psychologists registered in clinical, counseling or educational categories. A prime emphasis of neuropsychological research has been local norming of psychometric tests to facilitate valid assessment practices in the country. South Africa is on the cusp of achieving a hard-won neuropsychology professional register. It is anticipated that this development will provide impetus to the discipline by promoting training programs, the creation of neuropsychology posts, wider service delivery, and increased research funding. Despite significant challenges in a culturally diverse, developing country, neuropsychology has evolved sufficiently to warrant the creation of a separate category in the professional framework. This development will facilitate training, research, and services in the country.

  10. The profession of neuropsychology in Spain: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Caracuel, Alfonso; Pérez-García, Miguel; Panyavin, Ivan; Morlett-Paredes, Alejandra; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To examine the current status of professional neuropsychology in Spain, with particular focus on the areas of professional training, current work situation, evaluation and diagnostic practice, rehabilitation, teaching, and research. Three hundred and thirty-nine self-identified professionals in neuropsychology from Spain completed an online survey between July and December of 2013. Respondents had an average age of 35.8 years and 77% were women. Ninety-seven percent of the respondents identified as psychologists; 82% of the sample had a master's degree, and 33% a doctoral degree. The majority (91%) received their neuropsychological training at a graduate level; 88% engaged in neuropsychological evaluation, 59% in rehabilitation, 50% in research, and 40% in teaching. Average number of hours per week dedicated to work in neuropsychology was 29.7, with 28% of the respondents reporting working in hospitals, 17% in not-for-profit rehabilitation centers, 15% in universities, and 14% in private clinics. Clinicians primarily work with individuals with stroke, traumatic brain injury, and dementia. The top perceived barriers to development of neuropsychology in Spain included lack of clinical and academic training opportunities, and negative attitude toward professional collaboration. The field of neuropsychology in Spain is young and rapidly growing. There is a need to regulate professional neuropsychology, improve graduate curricula, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate and create normative data for existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  11. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly J; Smith, Megan M; Bruce, Jared M; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The current study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neuropsychological performance in HD. Participants with impaired oculomotor functioning performed worse than those with normal oculomotor functioning on cognitive tasks requiring oculomotor involvement, particularly on psychomotor speed tasks, controlling for covariates. Consideration of oculomotor dysfunction on neuropsychological performance is critical, particularly for populations with motor deficits.

  12. Systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes in dementia from cognition-based psychological interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin; Hall, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of cognition-based psychological interventions in dementia, little is known about which neuropsychological domains are more amenable to change...

  13. Social Cognition Deficits: Current Position and Future Directions for Neuropsychological Interventions in Cerebrovascular Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Progress Njomboro

    2017-01-01

      Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing...

  14. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  15. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth

  16. The neurological, neuroimaging and neuropsychological effects of playing professional football: Results of the UK five-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Steven; Duff, Alistair; Hampson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the scientific understanding of mild traumatic brain injury sequelae has advanced, the consequences of neurological insults sustained during football play in the form of multiple concussions and heading remains unclear. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first longitudinal prospective study to follow-up a group of footballers and controls over time. Thirty-two elite young professional footballers were recruited and 24 were identified at follow-up. Thirty-three controls were recruited and 17 identified at follow-up. Medical examination, MRI (brain) imaging and detailed neuropsychological data were collected on the footballers at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Medical examination and detailed neuropsychological data were collected on the controls at baseline and 5-year follow-up. All participants had normal neurological examination at both time points. At baseline, 37% of the footballers had sustained minor neurological insults. Between baseline and 5 years, 66% of the footballers had sustained minor neurological insults. No MRI (brain) abnormalities were identified among the footballers at either time point. Regarding the neuropsychology, there was a 6-point IQ difference between footballers and controls, with the footballers being low. Test-re-test analysis on a range of carefully selected neurocognitive tests revealed a picture of good stability in cognitive functioning over this 5-year period. These longitudinal prospective data indicate no significant neurological, structural brain imaging or neuropsychological change among a sample of young elite professional footballers over the first 5 years of their professional career.

  17. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications

    OpenAIRE

    VLACH, SILVIO R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce), followed by ...

  18. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 y