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Sample records for brazil neuropsychological structural

  1. The posttraumatic stress disorder project in Brazil: neuropsychological, structural and molecular neuroimaging studies in victims of urban violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Rodrigo A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life trauma is highly prevalent in the general population and posttraumatic stress disorder is among the most prevalent psychiatric consequences of trauma exposure. Brazil has a unique environment to conduct translational research about psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, since urban violence became a Brazilian phenomenon, being particularly related to the rapid population growth of its cities. This research involves three case-control studies: a neuropsychological, a structural neuroimaging and a molecular neuroimaging study, each focusing on different objectives but providing complementary information. First, it aims to examine cognitive functioning of PTSD subjects and its relationships with symptomatology. The second objective is to evaluate neurostructural integrity of orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in PTSD subjects. The third aim is to evaluate if patients with PTSD have decreased dopamine transporter density in the basal ganglia as compared to resilient controls subjects. This paper shows the research rationale and design for these three case-control studies. Methods and design Cases and controls will be identified through an epidemiologic survey conducted in the city of São Paulo. Subjects exposed to traumatic life experiences resulting in posttraumatic stress disorder (cases will be compared to resilient victims of traumatic life experiences without PTSD (controls aiming to identify biological variables that might protect or predispose to PTSD. In the neuropsychological case-control study, 100 patients with PTSD, will be compared with 100 victims of trauma without posttraumatic stress disorder, age- and sex-matched controls. Similarly, 50 cases and 50 controls will be enrolled for the structural study and 25 cases and 25 controls in the functional neuroimaging study. All individuals from the three studies will complete psychometrics and a structured clinical interview (the Structured

  2. PRECIS OF - FROM NEUROPSYCHOLOGY TO MENTAL STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Shallice, T.

    1991-01-01

    Neuropsychological results are increasingly cited in cognitive theories although their methodology has been severely criticised. The book argues for an eclectic approach but particularly stresses the use of single-case studies. A range of potential artifacts exists when inferences are made from each studies to the organisation of formal function - for example, resource differences among tasks, premorbid individual differences, and reorganisation of function. The use of "strong" and "classical...

  3. Psychological structure of written speech in modern foreign neuropsychology

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    Yu V Mikadze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current foreign ideas on the structure of written speech in terms of the principle of the system structure of mental functions. It is shown that written speech is considered as a multicomponent structure within the framework of the presently dominating foreign concept Р a double route model. This structure includes both elements common to other functions and those specific only for writing. The performed analysis allows determination of the theoretical standpoint common to the Russian and foreign neuropsychological concepts of the structure of speech processes.

  4. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

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    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  5. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, G N; Alfradique, G M; Pereira, C C; Porto, C M; Santos, T R

    1998-03-01

    Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed) of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age) with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8), who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children. PMID:9698790

  6. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito G.N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418. A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8, who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children

  7. A Principal Components Analysis of Executive Processes: Exploring the Structure of Executive Functions using Neuropsychological Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Maner, Safir

    2011-01-01

    Whether executive system is a unified or separable structure is still a matter of debate. Using an individual differences approach, this study investigated the structure of five hypothesized executive functions (“Updating”, “Shifting,” “Inhibition”, “Dual-Tasking” and “Planning”) and their relationship to “Intelligence”. The separability of these executive functions was explored. Ten neuropsychological tests were administered to young and healthy participants (N =103). Correlations between t...

  8. Neuropsychological syndromes in patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep electric stimulation of pallidar complex structures

    OpenAIRE

    Yu V Mikadze; Irina Igorevna Titkova; A. O. Gushcha; V M Tyurnikov

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides the results of neuropsychological examinations in 10 patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent deep electrical stimulation of pallidar complex structures. The general neuropsychological test battery that had been developed by A.R. Luria and allowed the qualitative classification of the cognitive impairment symptoms detectable on examination to be made was used to study cognitive functions. The patients were examined before and just after surgery and in the late period...

  9. Finding models to detect Alzheimer's disease by fusing structural and neuropsychological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Velasco, Nelson; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects higher brain functions. Initial diagnosis of AD is based on the patient's clinical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The accuracy of the diagnosis is highly dependent on the examiner's skills and on the evolution of a variable clinical frame. This work presents an automatic strategy that learns probabilistic brain models for different stages of the disease, reducing the complexity, parameter adjustment and computational costs. The proposed method starts by setting a probabilistic class description using the information stored in the neuropsychological test, followed by constructing the different structural class models using membership values from the learned probabilistic functions. These models are then used as a reference frame for the classification problem: a new case is assigned to a particular class simply by projecting to the different models. The validation was performed using a leave-one-out cross-validation, two classes were used: Normal Control (NC) subjects and patients diagnosed with mild AD. In this experiment it is possible to achieve a sensibility and specificity of 80% and 79% respectively.

  10. Factor Structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision with Learning-Disabled Children.

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    Snow, Jeffrey; Hynd, George W.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the factor structure of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision in a population of learning-disabled children (N=100). Factor analysis and varimax rotation revealed three factors: a language-general intellectual factor, a reading-written expression factor, and a sensory-motor factor. (Author/MCF)

  11. Neuropsychological syndromes in patients with Parkinson’s disease after deep electric stimulation of pallidar complex structures

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    Yu V Mikadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the results of neuropsychological examinations in 10 patients with Parkinson’s disease who underwent deep electrical stimulation of pallidar complex structures. The general neuropsychological test battery that had been developed by A.R. Luria and allowed the qualitative classification of the cognitive impairment symptoms detectable on examination to be made was used to study cognitive functions. The patients were examined before and just after surgery and in the late period (following 1—2 years. The examinations have shown that the syndromes indicative of dysfunctions in the deep, parietal, and occipital and prefrontal regions of the left hemisphere and in the parietooccipital regions of the right hemisphere are stable components that determine the pattern of cognitive disorders and are preserved throughout all examinations.

  12. Cognitive profile and structural findings in Wilson′s disease: A neuropsychological and MRI-based study

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    Hegde Shantala

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systematic studies on neuropsychological profile in patients with Wilson′s disease (WD are far and few. Aim: To examine the profile of cognitive deficits and their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings in patients with WD. Patients and Methods: Twelve confirmed patients of WD (age at onset and evaluation, 13.7±11.2 and 21.7±5.3 years, respectively; M-F ratio, 7:5 on de-coppering therapy constituted the study sample. Battery of neuropsychological tests measuring mental speed, motor speed, sustained attention, focused attention, verbal category fluency, verbal working memory, response inhibition, planning, concept formation, set-shifting ability, verbal and visual learning and memory were administered. Phenotypic details and observations on MRI of brain carried out within six months of neuropsychological assessment were documented. Results: Neuropsychological assessment elicited cognitive deficits in multiple domains in all but one patient, who had normal MRI. Percentage of patients in the deficit range in various domains included: motor speed: 73%; verbal working memory, sustained and focused attention: 50%; verbal learning: 42%; visuo-constructive ability, verbal memory, mental speed: 33%-34%; verbal fluency, set-shifting ability, visual memory, verbal memory: 25%-27%; and verbal recognition: 17%. MRI was normal in three patients, and revealed variable abnormalities in the remaining: cerebral atrophy in 3; brainstem atrophy in 2; signal changes in basal ganglia in 9; and brainstem signal changes in 5. None had subcortical white matter changes. Two patients with normal MRI showed cognitive deficits. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the complex cognitive and brain changes observed on MRI in WD. Use of advanced MRI techniques in a larger cohort may improve understanding regarding functional and structural brain changes observed in similar disorders.

  13. Identifying Lesions on Structural Brain Images-Validation of the Method and Application to Neuropsychological Patients

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    Stamatakis, E.A.; Tyler, L.K.

    2005-01-01

    The study of neuropsychological disorders has been greatly facilitated by the localization of brain lesions on MRI scans. Current popular approaches for the assessment of MRI brain scans mostly depend on the successful segmentation of the brain into grey and white matter. These methods cannot be used effectively with large lesions because lesions…

  14. School Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; Obrzut, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies the increasing interest among school psychologists in neuropsychology as it relates to children in the educational environment. Attempts to identify forces which have led to this increased interest and provide a conceptual framework for recognizing this specialty within the profession of school psychology. (Author)

  15. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    are disproportionally impaired in one task or domain compared to another. In many cases data for normal performance has not been referred to or reported. This has resulted in several theories of cognitive functioning in different domains such as language, visual perception, and memory, specifying a number of different...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...

  16. The structural neuroanatomy of metacognitive insight in schizophrenia and its psychopathological and neuropsychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Caltagirone, Carlo; Orfei, Maria Donata

    2014-09-01

    Lack of insight into illness is a multidimensional phenomenon that has relevant implications on clinical course and therapy compliance. Here, we focused on metacognitive insight in schizophrenia, that is, the ability to monitor one's changes in state of mind and sensations, with the aim of investigating its neuroanatomical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological correlates. Fifty-seven consecutive patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnosis of schizophrenia were administered the Insight Scale, and comprehensive psychopathological and neuropsychological batteries. They underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. Reduced metacognitive insight was related to reduced GM volumes in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula, and bilateral premotor area and putamen. Further, it was related to reduced WM volumes of the right superior longitudinal fasciculum, left corona radiata, left forceps minor, and bilateral cingulum. Increased metacognitive insight was related to increased depression severity and attentional control impairment, while the latter was related to increased GM volumes in brain areas linked to metacognitive insight. Results of this study suggest that prefrontal GM and WM bundles, all implied in cognitive control and self-reflection, may be the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognitive insight in schizophrenia. Further, higher metacognitive insight is hypothesized to be a risk factor for depression which may subsequently impair attention. This line of research may provide the basis for the development of cognitive interventions aimed at improving self-monitoring and compliance to treatment. PMID:24700789

  17. TECHNOLOGY & NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: TOWARDS A CYBER – NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Soto - Pérez; Manuel Franco Martin; Fernando Jimenez Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Technologies have penetrated all walks of human beings. Numerous technological advances have been developed in the field of neuropsychology, but they are not usually used in daily care. In this regard, it are developed some reflections on the difficulties and of the process of implementing technology solutions in the field of neuropsychology.

  18. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

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    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  19. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

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    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  20. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

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    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  1. Fiscal reaction under endogenous structural changes in Brazil

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    Andrei G. Simonassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of fiscal policy in smoothing the impact of shocks such as the international financial and economic crises, the paper analyzes the sustainability of the Brazilian fiscal policy by taking into consideration the possibility of multiple endogenous structural breaks on the coefficients of government reaction function. From monthly data in the period 1991–2008, tests on the reliable estimates dictate the occurrence of structural change in May 1994, and another in February 2003. There has been a situation of fiscal solvency in Brazil, but only from May 1994 the hitherto innocuous actions of government to formulate policies on public debt turn out to be significant, as it rose twofold after February 2003. This reinforces the existence of a more flexible alternative to implement strategic policy in Brazil, if an eventual alternative for increasing public spending is a way of hindering the effects of international financial crises without compromising the fiscal targets.

  2. Structural Reforms in Brazil: Progress and Unfinished Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Ter-Minassian

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Brazil's structural reforms since the 1990s and areas where work remains to be done. Reforms of the 1990s included the containment of inflation, the adoption of a comprehensive Fiscal Responsibility Law, a successful debt restructuring program for subnational governments, the reduction of trade barriers, a wave of privatizations, and the expansion of health and education programs. Reforms of the 2000s included strengthening welfare programs, rapidly increasing the minimum...

  3. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  4. Neuropsychology of Illiteracy

    OpenAIRE

    Rosselli, M

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that analysis of illiteracy can not only discern the influence of schooling background on neuropsychological test performance, but also contributes to obtaining a better understanding about the cerebral organization of cognitive activity. Brain organization of cognition, and cognitive sequelae of brain pathology in illiterates are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1) cognitive abilities, as measured by standard neuropsychological tests, are significantly influenced by schooling ...

  5. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology. PMID:20582855

  6. Composition and structure of a riverine forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Dutra Saraiva

    2011-01-01

    Riverine vegetation occupies one of the most dynamic areas of a landscape, and has species that are specialized and adapted to grow in a variety of disturbances. A phytosociological survey was conducted that aimed to describe the floristic and phytosociological structure of the tree component in a riverine forest on the Jaguarão River, in southern Brazil. We sampled all of the trees with DBH ≥ 5cm in 25 plots of 10 × 10m (0.25ha). The study recorded 725 live trees belonging to 27 species, 24 ...

  7. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

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    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  8. Structuring a palliative care service in Brazil: experience report

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    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: in Brazil, palliative care (PC is not properly structured and that reality transforms this theme in a public health problem; therefore, initiatives become relevant in this context. This paper aims to share the experience that occurred in an oncology referral hospital in the State of Maranhão and present initiatives that helped in the development of PC Service. EXPERIENCE REPORT: the hospital had an outpatient Pain and PC Service, but without specialized beds. The terminally ill patients stayed in common wards, which caused much unrest. A sensitization process was initiated in the hospital through initiatives, such as a photo contest called Flashes of Life and a ward called Room of Dreams, designed in partnership with the architecture course at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. The process culminated in the granting of wards to the PC and in the commitment of the Foundation, sponsor of the hospital, to run the project. CONCLUSION: this experience was a reproducible local initiative for the establishment of PC in a cancer hospital. Local initiatives are valuable in Brazil because they favor a significant number of patients and show its effectiveness in practice to governments and society. To structure a PC service, it is essential to establish priorities that include the assignment of drugs for management of symptoms, humanization, multidisciplinarity, sensitization and education of professionals.

  9. Composition and structure of a riverine forest in southern Brazil

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    Daniel Dutra Saraiva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Riverine vegetation occupies one of the most dynamic areas of a landscape, and has species that are specialized and adapted to grow in a variety of disturbances. A phytosociological survey was conducted that aimed to describe the floristic and phytosociological structure of the tree component in a riverine forest on the Jaguarão River, in southern Brazil. We sampled all of the trees with DBH ≥ 5cm in 25 plots of 10 × 10m (0.25ha. The study recorded 725 live trees belonging to 27 species, 24 genera and 16 botanical families. Myrtaceae and Salicaceae had the highest species richness. The species with the highest values of cover (VC and importance (VI were Sebastiania commersoniana, Allophylus edulis, Eugenia uniflora and Pouteria salicifolia, which accounted for more than 80% of the total abundance. The diversity (H’ was estimated as 1.84nats.ind.-1 and the evenness (J’ as 0.56. We also found a high proportion of zoochorous species from initial and intermediate successional stages, which are mostly from the west contingent and widely distributed across southeastern and southern Brazil.

  10. Machado-Joseph disease op azorean ancestry in Brazil: the Catarina kindred neurological, neuroimaging, psychiatric and neuropsychological findings in the largest known family, the «Catarina» kindred

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    J. Radvany

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available At the moment 9 seemingly independent families with the clinical diagnosis of MJD are known in Brazil. The largest family tree of Azorean ancestry contatins 622 individuals in 9 generations. 236 were examined, 39 found to be affected by two examiners. Pheno-types I, II and III were expressed by 12, 23 and 4 patients with age of onset by phenotypea being 10-48, 14-54 and 30-55 respectively. Although clinically more severe, juvenile onset type I disease did not show as severe a ponto-mesencephialic atrophy on MRI as the father with type II disease of similar symptomatic duration. None of the 8 patients examined with MRI showed olivary atrophy or pallidal abnormalities. 12 affected and 23 at risk were evaluated with neuropsychological tests. Attention was normal in both groups. Verbal memory scores were below normal in the affected and there was greater decay with time than in the risk group. Both scored below normal in identifying silluettes and constructional praxis. Visual memory scores were well below normal for both, with many rotations but no omissions or confabulations. A peculiar pattern of multiplying internal details called «the fly-eye effect» was observed in 6 affected and 8 at risk. Defective color distinction when multiple colors presented close to each other, in face of proper naming of individual colors («color simultantagnosia», was looked for in 29 people. 4/10 affected and 4/19 at risk showed this phenomenon. Cognitive dysfunctions in this MJD family are prominent in the sphere of vision. Whether they constitute an early manifestation in those at risk and thus serve as a clinical identifier of the illnes is yet to be established. Depression was looked for in the history of the family with DSM III-R criteria and an atempt at quantification with the Montgomery-Asberg Rating Scale. There was no significant quantitative difference between affected and at risk. Once undeniably symptomatic however, the patients had no, or less

  11. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  12. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters a...

  13. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  14. Population structure and virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies found that the isolates of T. gondii from Brazil are biologically and genetically different from those in North America and Europe. However, so far only a small number of isolates were analyzed from different animal hosts in Brazil. In the present study DNA samples of 46 T. gondii iso...

  15. Neuropsychological Evaluation Against Geriatric Background

    OpenAIRE

    Rambe, Aldy S.

    2010-01-01

    Population aging will have an influence on pathologies associated with extreme old and dementia. Some aspects of cognitive functions, especially memory, and other thinking abilities decline as part of the normal aging process. When cognitive decline is suspected, a neuropsychological evaluation can provide an objective assessment of cognitive functioning. Neuropsychology is converged from the parent disciplines of neurological medicine and psychology. The neuropsychological evaluation typical...

  16. Population structure of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil

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    Ana Carla Borges Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the population genetic structure of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil. Pedigree information was collected from 175,231 animals born from 1967 to 2007. Probability of gene origin, inbreeding, average relatedness coefficient (AR, completeness pedigree, effective population size and generation interval were calculated. Generation interval was high due to the long period of time animals were used as reproducers. The bottleneck effect was evidenced as a result of intensive use of limited breeders over the last years. Low values were observed ​​in the effective number of founder animals (434 and ancestors (427 comparing with the number on the base (175,231 and reference populations (130,038. Generally, the variability explained by the founders and ancestors is considered low. The average coefficient of inbreeding (0.11% and AR (0.14% estimated for this population is considered low and can be partly explained by the increased population effective number in recent periods; however, it may be underestimated by shallow pedigree.

  17. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. PMID:25306079

  18. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  19. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Nilza Maria Diniz; Ademilson Espencer Egea Soares,; Walter Steve Sheppard; Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2003-01-01

    Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1) and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Sampl...

  20. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Both the medial temporal lobe and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have been implicated in autism. In the present study, performance on two neuropsychological tasks—one tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and another tapping the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex—was examined in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched groups of children with Down syndrome or typical development. Autistic symp...

  1. Macroeconomic Adjustment and Structural Change: The Experience of Argentina, Brazil and Chile in 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Katz; Gonzalo Bernat

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to throw light upon the influence macroeconomic policies have on structural change and microeconomic behaviour. We compare the cases of Chile and Brazil, on the one hand, and Argentina on the other, as these countries opted for different macroeconomic policy regimes. Whereas Chile and Brazil adopted an ‘inflation targeting’ regime, Argentina proceeded on the basis of an administrated exchange rate regime. The main conclusion of our research is that both regimes were incapa...

  2. Neuropsychological advocacy and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Hermann, Bruce P; Cohen, Morris J

    2010-04-01

    Neuropsychologists are in a unique position to be active advocates for patients with epilepsy given their unique understanding of the behavioral and cognitive effects associated the disease, its progression, and its treatment. Neuropsychologists communicate the cognitive and behavioral consequences of epilepsy and its long-term implications to patients, family, school, and employers. In this article we review factors influencing the neuropsychological profile of patients with epilepsy, and discuss common behavioral comorbidities, as well as special issues associated with school placement and long-term planning. We also include a seizure action plan, which is designed to be both an educational tool for individuals with limited epilepsy knowledge, and a way to minimize stigma associated with an event should a seizure occur during school or work. PMID:19214828

  3. The Impact of Structured Teaching Methods on the Quality of Education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Maria Carolina; Louzano, Paula; Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the use of structured methods on the quality of education for students in primary public school in Brazil. Structured methods encompass a range of pedagogical and managerial instruments applied in the educational system. In recent years, several municipalities in the state of Sao Paulo have contracted out private…

  4. Adolescent Schizophrenia: A Methodologic Review of the Current Neuroimaging and Neuropsychologic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the methodology in articles that have reported structural neuroimaging or neuropsychological data in adolescent patients with schizophrenia. Identification of methodological issues led to the finding that, at present, no conclusions can be made regarding the presence or absence of neuropsychologic dysfunction or structural…

  5. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  6. Hospital-based neuropsychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciara, A D

    1986-01-01

    Hospital-based neuropsychological services may provide the hospital with a new means of interfacing with the general medical community, especially neurologists and neurosurgeons. This could produce increased census through the evaluation and treatment of patients who may not have been referred to the psychiatric hospital previously. Additionally, it is a service that can be marketed to the legal community. The establishment of neuropsychological services is a relatively inexpensive project that requires little in the way of physical plant and personnel needs other than a qualified technician and neuropsychologist. PMID:10279536

  7. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TO ADULT POPULATION; ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza Bausela Herreras

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the assessment neuropsychological in compressive context. We study the instruments which have been very often applied, one of them are not instruments neuropsychology, also these are applied in this context, the aim is known which is the neurology subtract which is underneath; others have been traditionally neuropsychological instruments, we are going to deep in one of them, the batteryLuria-DNA. We are going to deep in neuropsychological batterys.

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  10. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Gori Maia; Arthur Sakamoto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1) a higher level of socioeconomic developme...

  11. Structural Change and Poverty Reduction in Brazil : The Impact of the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Bussolo, Maurizio; Lay, Jann; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Over the medium time horizon, skill upgrading, differentials in sectoral technological progress, and migration of labor out of farming activities are some of the major structural adjustment factors shaping the evolution of an economy and its connected poverty trends. The main focus of the authors is understanding, for the case of Brazil, how a trade shock interacts with these structural forces and ascertaining whether it enhances or hinders medium-term poverty reduction. In particular, they c...

  12. DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION OF DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE IN TWO ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista; Maria Jesus Nogueira Rodal; José Antonio Aleixo da Silva; Ana Carolina Borges Lins e Silva; Francisco Tarcisio Alves Junior; José Márcio de Mello

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragm...

  13. Commentary: the postdoctoral residency match in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Doug; Grote, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology has evolved significantly over the past two decades. Prior to 1994, there were no organized recruitment guidelines for the specialty. From 1994 to 2001, the Association of Postdoctoral Programs in Clinical Neuropsychology (APPCN) facilitated a uniform notification date where member programs agreed to not make offers prior to a specified date. In 2001, APPCN partnered with National Matching Services to administer a computerized match recruitment system. Presently, not all programs participate in the match. This often results in students applying to 'match' and 'non-match' programs which can lead to significant stress on the part of applicants and program directors. This issue has recently become the focus of journal articles and public discussions. The goals of this paper were to review the history of postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology, review the benefits of coordinated recruitment systems, review the structure and function of the computerized match, and explain why the computerized match for postdoctoral recruitment in clinical neuropsychology is beneficial for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:27348785

  14. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  15. Behavioral Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale for the integration of the principles of behavior therapy with those of neuropsychology is provided. Theoretical issues, empirical considerations and future directions pertaining to this area of specialization are discussed, with special reference to the practice of school psychology. (Author/AL)

  16. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  17. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the Wada

  18. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.

  19. Screening for Structural Hemoglobin Variants in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Santos Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the country that received the largest number of Africans during the time of colonization, and Bahia was the Brazilian state that received the largest number of slaves from Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage of the newborn screening program for sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region of the state of Bahia, and to show the frequency of the subjects with hemoglobin variants in the 2006–2009 period. Blood samples from neonates in twelve cities in the Recôncavo Baiano region were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A total of 16,402 children were born in this period, 14,773 of which underwent newborn screening. In this period 1416 children were born carrying hemoglobin variants HbS and HbC. Forty-seven patients—20 HbSS genotype and 27 HbSC genotype—were diagnosed in eleven of the twelve cities surveyed. The proportion of children born with sickle cell disease in the Recôncavo Baiano region was 1/314, which was higher than the 1/650 rate for the state of Bahia. The data presented in this study confirm the high frequency of sickle cell disease in Recôncavo Baiano, demonstrating the need to create a referral center for the care of patients with sickle cell diseases in the region.

  20. Neuropsychological Definition of Learning: Strategies for Rewiring Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwegen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    For many years, most scientists believed that the physical structure of our brains, and by definition the people we had become, was set after the initial developmental period of early childhood and adolescence. New research in the area of neurology and neuropsychology is revealing that our brain is a much more open system than ever thought…

  1. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton community in the Botafogo reservoir-Pernambuco-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares de Lira; Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira; Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton in the Botafogo reservoir-PE-Brazil. Phytoplankton assemblages were identified from current literature and density was estimated using an inverted microscope. Concurrently to the sampling of biotic variables, measurements of abiotic parameters, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, were determined using field probes and transparency was determined with a Secchi disk. Total phosphorus ...

  2. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Bianchini; Garcia, Cristina C.; José A. Pimenta; José M.D. Torezan

    2010-01-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. a...

  3. The Relationship among Ethanol, Sugar and Oil Prices in Brazil: Cointegration Analysis with Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bo; Saghaian, Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has gradually gain momentum in the world’s energy market in recent decades with Brazil the largest producers. The issue of price linkage among ethanol, sugar and oil is particular interesting and important in the context of Brazilian sugarcane sector. By accounting for the possible structural breaks in the data, we investigate the price linkage of the three commodities and discover that prices are not cointegrated in the first sub-periods but cointegrated in the second sub-period. Als...

  4. Species diversity and community structure in trap-nesting bees in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Tunes Buschini, Maria

    2006-01-01

    International audience The species diversity and community structure of trap-nesting bees in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in Southern Brazil was studied during 2 years. Three different habitats (Araucaria forest, swamp and grassland) were investigated in terms of abundance, richness, diversity and similarity of bee communicites. A total of 120 nests of 11 species were collected. The largest abundance of individuals and species richness was found for the family Megachilidae. The most...

  5. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE TINTINNIDS (CILIOPHORA: SPIROTRICHEA) IN THE REGION OF ABROLHOS (BAHIA, BRAZIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Esteweson Santos Faustino da Costa; Sigrid Neumann-Leitão; Fabiano Lopes Thompson; Pedro Augusto Mendes de Castro Melo; Jana Ribeiro de Santana

    2015-01-01

    The tintinnid community in the region of Abrolhos (Bahia, Brazil) was studied during February 2012. We hypothesized that the tintinnid community structure varies significantly over a short temporal scale (photoperiod), as well as spatially over a short scale (on and away from the reefs), and a broad scale (distance of the reef area from the coast). Three areas in Abrolhos were studied. Two sampling points were delimited in each area, where the tintinnids were collected by horizontal subsurfac...

  6. [Formula: see text]Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN): Guidelines for Practicum Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron P; Roper, Brad L; Slomine, Beth S; Morrison, Chris; Greher, Michael R; Janusz, Jennifer; Larson, Jennifer C; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Ready, Rebecca E; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Whiteside, Doug M; Willment, Kim; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Practical experience is central to the education and training of neuropsychologists, beginning in graduate school and extending through postdoctoral fellowship. However, historically, little attention has been given to the structure and requirements of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. A working group of senior-level neuropsychologists, as well as a current postdoctoral fellow, all from a diverse range of settings (The AACN Practicum Guidelines Workgroup), was formed to propose guidelines for practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. The Workgroup reviewed relevant literature and sought input from professional organizations involved in education and training in neuropsychology. The proposed guidelines provide a definition of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, detail entry and exit criteria across competencies relevant to practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, and discuss the relationship between doctoral training programs and practicum training sites. The proposed guidelines also provide a methodology for competency-based evaluation of clinical neuropsychology practicum trainees and outline characteristics and features that are integral to an effective training environment. Although the guidelines discussed below may not be implemented in their entirety across all clinical neuropsychology practicum training sites, they are consistent with the latest developments in competency-based education. PMID:26753742

  7. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310

  8. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  9. Neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cruz-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children. Seventy-three children underwent neuropsychological assessment and were divided into two groups: a group with dyslexia (DG; n=39 and a control group (CG; n= 34. A general linear model showed a significant difference between the groups regarding the following abilities: reading, writing and mathematics; forward and backward digit span tasks; semantic and phonological fluency; number of completed categories and total number of cards in the Wisconsin Cards Sorting Test; as well as right and left discrimination on self and on other. These results suggest impairment in executive functions, phonological working memory and semantic memory among dyslexic children, rather than impairment of just phonological abilities, as suggested in previous studies.

  10. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Naumann; Irene Daum

    2003-01-01

    Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Furth...

  11. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    The accumulated body of scientific evidence regarding intellectual function, presence of learning disorders, and specific neuropsychological deficits in TS suggests that difficulties in these areas are present in a significant percentage of patients with TS. Despite the numerous methodological shortcomings of past neuropsychological studies of TS, relatively robust and consistent findings have emerged. The literature to date has suggested that intellectual ability is normally distributed in TS. Whether or not individuals with TS have significant discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities remains unclear. The prevalence of learning disabilities in TS has been reported to be similar to the base rates reported for the general population, although there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of LDs in children with TS may actually be lower and specific for difficulties in math and written language. Specific cognitive deficits in TS consist of visuomotor integration problems, impaired fine motor skill, and executive dysfunction. The presence of comorbid conditions, notably ADHD and OCD, appears to significantly increase the likelihood that an individual with TS will also have learning problems or some demonstrable cognitive impairment. The presence of a learning disability, specific academic deficiency, or cognitive deficit may pose a greater obstacle for persons with TS than the tic disorder itself. This is particularly salient for children with TS, who may be at a higher risk for poor school performance and academic failure. The psychosocial impact of these problems is also far-reaching. Given the recent emphasis on the early detection of academic and learning problems, it would seem prudent that children with TS who are suspected of having neuropsychological difficulties be evaluated as soon as possible. There are numerous educational interventions and accommodations available to children with LDs and/or specific academic weaknesses that can work

  12. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  13. Technical infra-structure for accelerators in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A minimal technical support infra-structura for, operation, maintenance and development suitable to a multi-user laboratory is presented. The costs of this infra-structure are 1.300 MCr$ in equipment and 700 MCr$ in people. A coordinated utilization of a particle accelerator network existing in the country and its corresponding costs are shown. Considerations in relation to the local of the sinchrotron radiation laboratory implantation are done. (L.C.)

  14. The legacy of Luria and school neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Manga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the history of neuropsychology applied towork with children. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the school centres, a specialty some have called “school neuropsycology”. Since the term was initially introduced (Hynd & Obrzut, 1981, considerable advances have arisen regarding the field and professional identityof this specialty. Luria’work continues to have a strong international influence. Luria has served for neuropsychological understanding of the individual and for the professional practice. As professional activity, the school neuropsychology focuses in assessing, diagnosing, and intervening with students who are experiencing learning difficulties and/or behaviour disorders in academic setting. In recent years, a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for intervention is recommended within a school setting. Newer neuropsychological assessment procedures for children represent innovative applications of Luria’s conceptualmodel. Research and advances in neuroimaging allow us to view how the developmental brain changes.

  15. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology...

  16. The legacy of Luria and school neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio Manga; Francisco Ramos

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the history of neuropsychology applied towork with children. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the school centres, a specialty some have called “school neuropsycology”. Since the term was initially introduced (Hynd & Obrzut, 1981), considerable advances have arisen regarding the field and professional identityof this specialty. Luria’work continues to have a strong international influence. Luria has served for neuropsychological unde...

  17. Industrial Growth and Structural Change: Brazil in a Long-Run Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Aldrighi; Colistete, Renato P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a long-run analysis of industrial growth and structural change in Brazil, from the coffee export economy in the nineteenth century to the present day. We focus on Brazil’s high economic growth in most of the twentieth century and the disruption caused by the collapse of debt-led growth in the early 1980s. We then examine the recent trends in economic growth and structural change, with a sectoral analysis of output, employment and productivity growth. Employing new data and...

  18. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  19. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  20. Toward a neuropsychology of memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B L; Rosse, R B; Deutsch, S I

    1992-01-01

    Three brain regions that have been the focus of recent interest in the neuropathology of schizophrenia include the frontal lobes, the basal ganglia, and the temporal lobes. We tested patients with chronic schizophrenia on three memory tasks, the successful performance of which depends on the integrity of each of these three brain regions. Comparisons between chronic schizophrenic patients and normal control subjects yielded the following results: (a) patients were impaired in remembering the temporal order of previously presented events; (b) patients were impaired on a motor task of procedural learning; and (c) patients showed normal priming effects in an implicit memory task despite their recall deficit in an explicit memory task. The significance of these findings lies in their relation to neuropsychological findings in patients with dysfunction in frontal cortical, basal ganglia, and medial temporal lobe structures. PMID:1296215

  1. Clinical myths of forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical myths and lore are unfounded beliefs that still influence practice decisions. I examine the validity of six beliefs commonly encountered in forensic neuropsychology practice: the admissibility of test batteries; avoidance of practice effects; forewarning insures good effort; average deficits in bright persons; 15% chronic impairment in mild brain injury; and examiner bias causing malingering. I show these beliefs are invalid because of material misunderstandings of case law and literature, falsification by empirical findings, and lack of authoritative sources. The benefits, costs, and persistence of clinical myths are discussed. PMID:18609338

  2. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  3. Forensic neuropsychology: a selective introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilandas, A J; Touyz, S W

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, neuropsychology has emerged as one of the fastest growing disciplines within clinical psychology. One of the most important roles for neuropsychologists is their contribution to the forensic sciences. The present paper reviews how lawyers may best utilize the services of clinical neuropsychologists. Suggestions are also offered to neuropsychologists on how better to meet the needs of lawyers. The following forensic science issues are discussed: the legal framework in which neuropsychologists function; contributions psychologists may make towards answering basic medicolegal questions such as the elucidation of the nature, extent, and duration of head injury sequelae; criteria for acceptable neuropsychological reports; medicolegal aspects of severe head injury, minor head injury (posttraumatic syndrome), and pseudo-head injury (malingering). There are many causes of damage to the nervous system (for example, industrial toxins and medical malpractice) that are eligible for compensation. Examples will be confined to head injury since the basic forensic science principles remain the same, whatever the etiology of such brain damage. PMID:6619781

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana;

    2013-01-01

    motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results...... showed that executive functioning, memory and speed of motor abilities are valid latent variables of neuropsychological performance among older adults, and that this structure is relatively consistent longitudinally, even though performance decreases with time....

  5. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF EARLY DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT IN DEFECTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Svetomir Bojanin

    1997-01-01

    Every problem of defectology, based on the developmental difficulties of the senses, intelligence, motor and early socialization, is performed in the area of the developmental nervous structures and neuromuscular links. The scientific defectology , today, can not exist without neuropsychological studies of perception, movement, function of intelligence and feelings.The time when determined functions develop, and the appropriate time for stimulation of those functions, for improvement of the d...

  6. Neuropsychological Basis of Self Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Ceylan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a connection between the face recognition, the social relationship and the development of self. There must be a reason that people recognize faces through an important and complex module like the language functions. People know each other, recognize their friends and enemies and make friends through their faces. These show its fundamental role in the world. Like the integrity builds by collective self in inner world, integrity is established through face outside worlds. Researches and comments about the center of self in the brain are made based on neurological disorders like prosopagnosia. Especially some investigations about the evoked potentials will provide us a scientific basic for this subject. This paper addresses the relationship between facial recognition and self-development in terms of neuropsychological aspects. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 255-264

  7. Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2014-07-01

    Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

  8. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  9. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  10. Neuropsychological Outcomes of Neonatal Herpes Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological outcome and the relation to neuroimaging findings are studied in a cohort of 9 children between 2.5 and 13 years of age with neonatal herpes encephalitis, examined at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.

  11. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  12. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  13. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P.; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  14. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Durvasula, Ramani S; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall...

  15. Reflections on clinical neuropsychology: a multifaceted approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a rapidly growing, independent discipline with a broad work field. Neuropsychologists are working in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, forensic organisations and research institutes. One of the most important instruments of a neuropsychologist in assessing the behavioural expression of brain functions is the neuropsychological examination. This examination can have different purposes: 1. Diagnosis 2. Patient care 3. Treatment 4. Research The aim of this thes...

  16. Microsatellite diversity and genetic structure among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces in Brazil, a secondary center of diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Burle, Marília Lobo; Fonseca, Jaime Roberto; Kami, James A.; Gepts, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the largest producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is the most important source of human dietary protein in that country. This study assessed the genetic diversity and the structure of a sample of 279 geo-referenced common bean landraces from Brazil, using molecular markers. Sixty-seven microsatellite markers spread over the 11 linkage groups of the common bean genome, as well as Phaseolin, PvTFL1y, APA and four SCAR markers were used. As expected, the s...

  17. The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

    2012-04-01

    The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. PMID:22341882

  18. [Neuropsychology, plasticity and childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Maryse; Sauerwein, Hannelore C

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. While most cases are well controlled, approximately 30-50% are resistant to medical treatment. In these cases, neurosurgery may be an option. Since 1979, our team at the Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal has studied the impact of epilepsy on the psycho-motor and cognitive development of the affected children. The aim of a first series of studies was to explore the extent and limits of cerebral plasticity by investigating the neuropsychological sequelae of early versus late callosotomy and hemispherectomy. In keeping with the plasticity hypothesis, the results revealed that the children who were operated before puberty showed fewer deficits than those operated during adolescence or adulthood. However, the compensatory mechanisms available to them appeared to be limited with respect to the nature and complexity of the information they can process. For instance, young children having undergone section of the corpus callosum resembled individuals born without a corpus callosum (callosal agenesis) in that there did not show the typical disconnection deficits seen in adult ''split-brain'' patients. However, they exhibited deficits on tasks requiring interhemispheric integration of motor and visuo-motor information. By the same token, hemispherectomy patients were still able to make visual judgements in their ''blind'' visual field but they were found to be impaired on a variety of visual and auditory tasks (localization of a sound sources in space) requiring the participation of both hemispheres. In a second series of studies, carried out in collaboration with a Parisian team, we intended to describe the neuropsychological profile of focal epilepsies, specifically frontal and temporal epilepsy. Contrary to the common belief that childhood epilepsy would result in diffuse impairments, we were able to demonstrate that children manifest the same localized deficits as adult patients. In studies presently underway in

  19. Regional Labor Market Differences in Brazil and Search Frictions: Some Structural Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate an equilibrium job search model for six metropolitan areas located in different regions of Brazil. Two mechanisms of wage determination are considered: wage posting by monopsony firms and Nash bilateral bargaining. In order to estimate the model, we use the non-parametric method developed by Bontemps, Robin, & van den Berg [2000. Equilibrium search with continuous productivity dispersion: Theory and nonparametric estimation. International Economic Review, 41(2, 305-358]. There is significant heterogeneity among the estimated structural parameters for these regions. We succeed in rationalizing some well-known regional differences in wages, unemployment rates and productivity prevalent in Brazilian labor markets, thus offering new interpretations. Metropolitan regions in the Northeast have much lower λ0 (arrival rate of wage offers for unemployed workers andλ1 (arrival rate of wage offers for employed workers vis a vis areas in the South or Southeast regions. This is a new, and much more precise, result worth considering on the regional inequality debate in Brazil. Regional inequality in wages, besides being an outcome of its regional human capital distribution, can be rationalized as inequality of search frictions brought by differences inλ1. We found a key (indirect role for search frictions when analysing productivity differences as well. Since search frictions impact simultaneously on monopsony power as well as on productivity, in order to understand better regional productivity differences we must deepen our analysis on how these structural parameters are differentiated by regions. Labor market frictions add important insights into the regional debate, something not captured by more traditional econometric reduced form approaches.

  20. Neuropsychology of childhood arithmetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, E S

    1989-01-01

    The arithmetic learning disability literature was reviewed and critiqued. Due to the paucity of research in this area, few conclusions may be inferred. In general, the available research has provided tentative hypotheses about the nature of arithmetic disabilities. A variety of psychosocial variables notwithstanding, childhood arithmetic disability may directly result from cerebral dysfunction, poor motivation, and emotional/behavioral disturbance. However, further research is necessary in order to clarify the effects of maturation on arithmetic skills acquisition. Indeed, one approach to identification of the disorder would consider individual differences in neuropsychological development and performance affecting arithmetic achievement. It was concluded that a more comprehensive approach to investigating and diagnosing childhood arithmetic disability is needed. Reformulations and methods of study were articulated. Six related lines of research were outlined. A diagnostic rating scale was suggested which would account for type and severity of disorder. Diagnostic criteria were recommended based on the degree and definition of disability. Needs for remediation research were briefly explored. PMID:2485827

  1. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Marinho, Jorge R.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2009-01-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene f...

  2. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-10-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  3. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high.

  4. Analysis by RAPD of the genetic structure of Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes) in reservoirs on the Paranapanema River, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Sueli Papa Leuzzi; Fernanda Simões de Almeida; Mário Luís Orsi; Leda Maria Koelblinger Sodré

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the RAPD technique was used to analyze the genetic structure of populations of the fish Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae, Tetragonopterinae) living in the lower, middle and upper Paranapanema River, Brazil. The aim was to assess this structure regarding fish handling and conservation programs. The genetic variability (P) was found to be 42.64%, 75% and 75% in the low, middle and upper reaches, respectively. The dendrogram of genetic similarity, obtained by comparative analysis ...

  5. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693

  6. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  7. Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Forensic Neuropsychology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty of clinical neuropsychology that applies neuropsychological principles and practices to matters that pertain to legal decision-making. Forensic neuropsychologists provide the trier of fact with specialized information regarding brain-behavior relationships. The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand-which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation. The methodology must be able to determine whether any dysfunction found is, in fact, the result of a neurological condition as opposed to non-neurological, psychological, or even factitious disorders. This paper discusses neuropsychological methodology in the context of forensic application and the requirements of the legal process and illustrates these issues with case examples. PMID:14609579

  8. Toward a model of neuropsychological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Galeano, L M; Rosselli, M

    1998-12-01

    The main purpose of this research was to establish the intercorrelations existing among different psychological and neuropsychological test scores in a normal and homogeneous population. A second purpose was to attempt further step in the component analysis of cognitive activity measured by means of neuropsychological tests. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually administered to a 300-subject sample, aged 17-25 year-old. All of them were right-handed male university students. The battery included some basic neuropsychological tests directed to assess language, calculation abilities, spatial cognition, praxic abilities, memory, perceptual abilities, and executive functions. In addition, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered. Forty-one different scores were calculated. Correlations among the different test scores were analyzed. It was found that some of the tests presented a quite complex intecorrelation system, whereas other tests presented few or no significant correlations. Mathematical ability tests and orthography knowledge represented the best predictors of Full Scale IQ. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed five factors (verbal, visuoperceptual, executive function, fine movements, and memory) accounting for 63.6% of the total variance. Implications of these results for a neuropsychological model about brain organization of cognition were analyzed. PMID:9951709

  9. Cu- and Mn-bearing tourmalines from Brazil and Mozambique: crystal structures, chemistry and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Andreas; Giester, Gerald; Schüssler, Ulrich; Brätz, Helene; Okrusch, Martin; Tillmanns, Ekkehart; Bank, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Cu- and Mn-bearing tourmalines from Brazil and Mozambique were characterised chemically (EMPA and LA-ICP-MS) and by X-ray single-crystal structure refinement. All these samples are rich in Al, Li and F (fluor-elbaite) and contain significant amounts of CuO (up to ~1.8 wt%) and MnO (up to ~3.5 wt%). Structurally investigated samples show a pronounced positive correlation between the distances and the (Li + Mn2+ + Cu + Fe2+) content (apfu) at this site with R 2 = 0.90. An excellent negative correlation exists between the distances and the Al2O3 content ( R 2 = 0.94). The samples at each locality generally show a strong negative correlation between the X-site vacancies and the (MnO + FeO) content. The Mn content in these tourmalines depends on the availability of Mn, on the formation temperature, as well as on stereochemical constraints. Because of a very weak correlation between MnO and CuO we believe that the Cu content in tourmaline is essentially dependent on the availability of Cu and on stereochemical constraints.

  10. Variations of Bacterial Community Structure and Composition in Mangrove Sediment at Different Depths in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas William Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical mangroves are considered one of the most productive ecosystems of the world, being characterized as nurseries and food sources for fish and other animals. Microorganisms play important roles in these environments, and the study of bacterial communities is of paramount importance for a better comprehension of mangrove dynamics. This study focused on the structure and composition of bacterial communities in mangrove sediments at different depths and points, located in Southeastern Brazil. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to determine the community structure, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to characterize the community composition. Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP patterns revealed differences in bacterial community structure according to soil attributes and depth. The parameters K and depth presented significant correlation with general community structure. Most sequences were classified into the phylum Proteobacteria (88%, which presented differences according to the depth, where the classes Betaproteobacteria (21% and Deltaproteobacteria (16% were abundant at 10 cm and Epsilonproteobacteria (35% was abundant at 40 cm depth. Clear differences were observed in community composition as shown by the differential distribution of the phyla Firmicutes (1.13% and 3.8%, for 10 cm and 40 cm respectively, Chloroflexi (2.8% and 0.75%, and Acidobacteria (2.75% and 0.57% according to the depth. Bacterial diversity measurements indicated higher diversity in shallow samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that mangrove holds a diverse bacterial community, which is shaped by the variations found in the ecosystem, such as sediment properties and depth.

  11. Effort testing in contemporary UK neuropsychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Renee J; Walton, Nigel H; Brooks, D Neil; Powell, Graham E

    2009-08-01

    A survey of members of the British Psychological Society Division of Neuropsychology (N = 588) was conducted via email to ascertain current practice with respect to the use of symptom validity testing (SVT) in clinical and legal neuropsychological assessments. Replies were received from 130 practicing neuropsychologists. Results showed that 59% frequently use SVT in legal assessments, but a minority (15%) employ them in clinical assessments. Practice in the UK is only moderately different to that in North America with respect to frequency of use of SVT, although methods employed showed greater diversity. Favored tests, respondents' justifications for use of SVT and rationales for not using SVT are reported. PMID:19235633

  12. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    OpenAIRE

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions f...

  13. Neuropsychological executive functioning and psychosocial well-being / Elizabeth Peters

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to come to a better understanding of possible neuropsychological mechanisms underlying psychosocial well-being and therefore to determine whether a relationship between neuropsychological executive functions and psychosocial well-being does indeed exist. Research was conducted in the domains of neuropsychology and positive psychology. This thesis consists of three articles, namely I ) Neuropsychological executive functions and psychosocial well-being: ...

  14. Reproductive ecology, seedling performance, and population structure of Parkia pendula in an Atlantic forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Piechowski, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive ecology, seedling performance, and population structure of Parkia pendula (Mimosaceae) were studied in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil. The developmental phases from buds to ripe pods, capitulum and flower morphology, breeding system, floral odour, nectar production and nectar sugar and amino acid composition, as well as the mammalian flower visitors were studied in detail during this 2-years lasting investigation. Furthermore, edge effects on the populatio...

  15. Analysis of the structure and location of charcoal production in Brazil - time period from 1980 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Thais; Bacha, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the regional impacts of the steel and environmental policies on the structure and location of charcoal production in Brazil during the time period from 1980 to 2007. Both statistic and interpretative analysis of secondary data, organized in tables or graphs, are used, paying a special attention to the similarities and differences among the database. The main findings of the paper are: (1st) even though charcoal is an archaic energy source, it still represents 3% of ...

  16. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Román Carlos Ríos; Franklin Galvão; Gustavo Ribas Curcio

    2010-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m). In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angusti...

  17. New patterns of structural change and effects on inclusive development: A case study of South Africa and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Greenstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the question of structural change and inclusive development in South Africa and Brazil. Using Census data from the two countries, the analysis combines a household level multidimensional indicator of well-being with the applications of growth incidence curves and a sectoral decomposition of change to provide insight into the relationship between the place of households in the economy as reflected by employment sector and geographical location, and the extent to which the r...

  18. Neuropsychology, Fact or Mythology, Educational Help or Hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, William H.

    1981-01-01

    A rationale is presented for the use of neuropsychological knowledge in the better understanding and treatment of the learning disabled child by the school psychologist. Neuropsychological classifications of brain function and behavior are discussed in order to help psychologists recognize those cases appropriate for neuropsychological assessment.…

  19. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  20. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  1. L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology

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    Tatyana V. Akhutina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  2. L.Vygotsky, A.Luria and Developmental Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Akhutina; Nataly M. Pylaeva

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to Lev Vygotsky's and Alexander Luria's contribution to the theory and methods of neuropsychology, and particularly, developmental neuropsychology. The first part of the article covers the principle foundations of neuropsychology as elaborated by Vygotsky and Luria. The goal of the second part is to show what interpretation of learning disabilities can be derived from it.

  3. Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B M; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silva, C R; Silva, I V; Silva, M L; Silva, C J

    2015-01-01

    Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T. subincanum natural populations in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was studied. We sampled all individuals of each species (N = 25) present inside a designated research area established by the Program for Research on Biodiversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 for T. speciosum and 6.69 for T. subincanum, with average PIC values above 0.5 in both species. All evaluated individuals varied genetically. Seeds from the individuals analyzed will be useful for the development of germplasm banks and for establishment of breeding programs. PMID:26345977

  4. Composition and structure of bird communities in vegetational gradients of Bodoquena Mountains, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Mauricio N; Souza, Franco L; Laps, Rudi R; Ribeiro, Danilo B

    2016-03-01

    The informations of bird species distribution in different habitats and the structure of their communities are crucial for bird conservation. We tested the differences in composition, richness and abundance of birds in different phytophysiognomies at Bodoquena Mountains, western Brazil, and we demonstrated the variations in richness and abundance of birds between different trophic groups. Sampling was conducted between July 2011 and June 2012 in 200 point counts arranged in the study area. A total of 3350 contacts were obtained belonging to 156 bird species. Woodland savannas, seasonal forests and arboreal savannas had higher bird abundance and richness, while riparian forests, clean pastures and dirty pastures had smaller values of these parameters. The bird community was organized according to local vegetational gradient, with communities of forests, open areas and savannas, although many species occurred in more than one vegetation type. The insectivorous, omnivorous, frugivorous and gramnivorous birds composed most of the community. These data showed how important environmental heterogeneity is to bird communities. Furthermore, the presence of extensive patches of natural habitats, the small distance between these patches and the permeability of pastures, with high arboreal and shrubby cover, are indicated as important factors to maintain the bird diversity. PMID:26959319

  5. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF THE TINTINNIDS (CILIOPHORA: SPIROTRICHEA IN THE REGION OF ABROLHOS (BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Alejandro Esteweson Santos Faustino da Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The tintinnid community in the region of Abrolhos (Bahia, Brazil was studied during February 2012. We hypothesized that the tintinnid community structure varies significantly over a short temporal scale (photoperiod, as well as spatially over a short scale (on and away from the reefs, and a broad scale (distance of the reef area from the coast. Three areas in Abrolhos were studied. Two sampling points were delimited in each area, where the tintinnids were collected by horizontal subsurface plankton net (20 μm mesh-size hauls. Sampling was undertaken every 6 hours, during 24 hours in each area. 24 species were found, all of which are of neritic, cosmopolitan, and of warm-water distribution. The only hypothesis that is not rejected is that related to variability on an extensive spatial scale. There are significant differences between the samples collected in the three areas studied (ANOVA p = 0.017. The clustering of the species highlights a continent-ocean gradient. There is one community typical of the internal arc, composed mainly of neritic agglutinated tintinnids, and another community typical of the external arc, composed mainly of hyaline warm-water and cosmopolitan tintinnids. The factor which exercises the greatest influence on the tintinnid community in the Abrolhos region is the distance from the coast.

  6. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting....

  7. Neuropsychological Profiles and Behavioral Ratings in ADHD Overlap Only in the Dimension of Syndrome Severity

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    Ádám Takács

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive neuropsychological and the behavioral rating profiles of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods. Forty-two children diagnosed with ADHD (M=11.5  years, SD=1.1 and 43 typically developing children (M=11.2 years, SD=1.7 participated. We measured symptom severity with behavioral rating scales, and we administered neuropsychological tasks to measure inhibitory performance, updating/working memory, and shifting ability. Results. On the basis of the three neuropsychological variables, the hierarchical cluster analytic method yielded a six-cluster structure. The clusters, according to the severity of the impairment, were labeled as follows: none or few symptoms, Moderate inhibition and mild shifting, moderate to severe shifting with moderate updating, moderate updating, severe updating with mild shifting, and severe updating with severe shifting. There were no systematic differences in inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior across the clusters. The comorbid learning disorder appeared more likely only in severe neuropsychological forms of ADHD. Conclusion. In sum, our results suggest that behavioral ratings and neuropsychological profiles converge only in the dimension of symptom severity and that atypicalities in executive functions may manifest in nonspecific everyday problems.

  8. DYNAMICS AND PREDICTION OF DIAMETRIC STRUCTURE IN TWO ATLANTIC FOREST FRAGMENTS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Anderson Pedro Bernardina Batista

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring analyses aim to understand the processes that drive changes in forest structure and, along with prediction studies, may assist in the management planning and conservation of forest remnants. The objective of this study was to analyze the forest dynamics in two Atlantic rainforest fragments in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to predict their future forest diameter structure using the Markov chain model. We used continuous forest inventory data from three surveys in two forest fragments of 87 ha (F1 and 388 ha (F2. We calculated the annual rates of mortality and recruitment, the mean annual increment, and the basal area for each of the 3-year periods. Data from the first and second surveys were used to project the third inventory measurements, which were compared to the observed values in the permanent plots using chi-squared tests (a = 0.05. In F1, a decrease in the number of individuals was observed due to mortality rates being higher than recruitment rates; however, there was an increase in the basal area. In this fragment, the fit to the Markov model was adequate. In F2, there was an increase in both the basal area and the number of individuals during the 6-year period due to the recruitment rate exceeding the mortality rate. For this fragment, the fit of the model was unacceptable. Hence, for the studied fragments, the demographic rates influenced the stem density more than the floristic composition. Yet, even with these intense dynamics, both fragments showed active growth.

  9. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  10. Applying Clinical Neuropsychology in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federhar, David B.

    Neuropsychology is an area in which the functioning or integrity of the brain is linked to measurable human behavior. This paper describes the use of the Reitan batteries (Reitan and Davison; 1974) in public school settings for documenting and prescribing appropriate academic programs. Three individual case studies are presented. Case 1 is a 16…

  11. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, Byron P.

    2005-01-01

    Some of the issues that dominated, or at least held sway, in the neuropsychology of learning disabilities (LD) in the 1970s included: the definition of LD, whether there are reliable and valid subtypes of LD, whether and to what extent LD are related to cerebral dysfunction, and whether LD are related to types and/or degrees of psychosocial…

  12. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  13. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  14. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  15. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  16. The Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowsky, Ellis I.

    1990-01-01

    The Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery identifies cognitive deficits and localizes specific brain impairment in individuals age 15 or older. The instrument uses visual stimulus cards and an audiotape to assess performance in such areas as tactile functions, speech, arithmetic, and memory. This paper examines test administration, summation…

  17. A motion to exclude and the 'fixed' versus 'flexible' battery in 'forensic' neuropsychology: challenges to the practice of clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2007-01-01

    Two recent publications in Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (ACN) have been used by defense attorneys as the centerpiece for an argument that only a 'fixed' battery approach, exemplified by the Halstead-Reitan battery (HRB), satisfies the Daubert criteria for admissibility; and therefore, the HRB represents the only method of forensic neuropsychological assessment that should be admitted into evidence. Since this case has important implications for the practice of clinical neuropsychology in the United States, this 'Motion to Exclude' and its rationale are presented, which demonstrates how the legal profession uses neuropsychological literature. The critical issues of this argument for clinical neuropsychological practice are reviewed. PMID:17194563

  18. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  19. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Matveyeva E. Yu.; Romanova A. A.; Yegorova O. I.; Agris A.R.

    2012-01-01

    The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure), are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions an...

  20. Tabapuã breed in Northeastern Brazil: genetic progress and population structure

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    Dirlane Novais Caires

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the history of the Tabapuã breed in Northeastern Brazil by determining its population structure and genetic progress. Pedigree information from animals born in the period between 1965 and 2006 and weight-adjusted data at 205 (W205, 365 (W365 and 550 (W550 days of age for bovines born between 1975 and 2006 were used. The (covariance components and genetic value were estimated using the application MTDFREML. Also, the software ENDOG was used for pedigree analysis and parameter estimation based on the probabilities of gene origin, inbreeding and average generation interval. The heritability coefficients for direct genetic effects were 0.21±0.03, 0.26±0.04 and 0.36±0.05 for W205, W365 and W550, respectively. During the first 20 years studied, the observed effective size was small. The generation intervals by gametic pathway were: 7.7±3.4 (sire-son, 7.8±3.7 (sire-daughter, 6.9±3.3 (dam-son, 6.8 ± 3.1 (dam-daughter, and mean interval of 7.3±3.4 years. The studied population showed moderate heritability coefficients, whereas the genetic gains based on the studied traits may be higher than those estimated by genetic tendencies. Reduced generation interval, increased effective size and continuous mating control of relatives are important strategies for the genetic progress of the Tabapuã breed in the region.

  1. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  2. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá; Lilian Eggers; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses usin...

  3. Rhodolith bed structure along a depth gradient on the northern coast of bahia state, brazil

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    Ricardo G. Bahia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the structure of a rhodolith bed along a depth gradient of 5 to 25 m in the shelf in front of Salvador City, a region of northeastern Brazil. The dimensions, morphology and coralline algae composition of the rhodoliths were analyzed, as well as the vitality, density, and associated flora of the bed at three depths: 5, 15 and 25 m. Samples were obtained by SCUBA divers in summer 2007. Five rhodolith-forming taxa were identified: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens, and Lithophyllum sp. The encrusting growth form and the spherical shape were predominant at all depths. Rhodolith dimensions and vitality decreased and the density increased from the shallow to the deepest zones. Fifty-six macroalgal species were found as rhodolith-associated flora. The shallower depth presented higher values for macroalgal biomass and number of species. These results associated with other recent rhodolith bed descriptions indicate that the pattern of Brazilian rhodolith bed structure along depth gradients may be related to a combination of the extent and slope of the continental shelf.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de um banco de rodolitos ao longo de um gradiente de profundidade na plataforma em frente à cidade de Salvador, nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas as dimensões, a forma e composição das algas calcárias dos rodolitos, bem como a vitalidade, densidade e flora associada ao banco, em três profundidades: 5, 15 e 25 m. As amostras foram obtidas por meio de mergulho autônomo no verão de 2007. Cinco espécies de algas calcárias formadoras de rodolito foram identificadas: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens e Lithophyllum sp. A forma de crescimento incrustante e a forma esférica foram predominantes em todas as profundidades. Houve uma redução da dimensão e

  4. Neuropsychological differential diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Rohling, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is reviewed from the perspective of meta-analyses of neuropsychological outcome, showing full recovery from a single, uncomplicated mTBI by 90 days post-trauma. Persons with history of complicated mTBI characterized by day-of-injury computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities, and those who have suffered prior mTBIs may or may not show evidence of complete recovery similar to that experienced by persons suffering a single, uncomplicated mTBI. Persistent post-concussion syndrome (PCS) is considered as a somatoform presentation, influenced by the non-specificity of PCS symptoms which commonly occur in non-TBI samples and co-vary as a function of general life stress, and psychological factors including symptom expectation, depression and anxiety. A model is presented for forensic evaluation of the individual mTBI case, which involves open-ended interview, followed by structured interview, record review, and detailed neuropsychological testing. Differential diagnosis includes consideration of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, symptom expectation, diagnosis threat, developmental disorders, and malingering. PMID:24105915

  5. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

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    Berg, R.A.; Ch' ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-06-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years.

  6. EFFECTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Buller P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article comes in the development of a degree paper, and its original purpose pointed to assess the success of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program focused on the executive function. Nevertheless, it is possible to extend its usefulness as a complete and efficient instrument that allows an exhaustive diagnosis of the executive functioning to lead its accurate rehabilitation. The main importance of its consideration deals with the limitations observed in the context of the Chilean tertiary public attention, in terms of the lack of resources and benefits related to neuropsychological rehabilitation, and because of the need of a treatment focused on that very function that will secure better cognitive recovering for brain damaged patients served by such institutions.

  7. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition. PMID:19333063

  8. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  9. Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Harris

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to expectation, OCD patients also exhibited performance deficits on measures sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex dysfunction. However, distinct neurocognitive profiles emerged when we examined the impact of comorbid schizotypal personality features on neuropsychological test performance. Primary OCD patients displayed impaired performance on measures sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction; however, they did not differ from control subjects on tests of dorsolateral function. OCD subjects presenting with schizotypal personality features performed poorly not only on tests sensitive to orbitofrontal dysfunction, but also on tests sensitive to dorsolateral dysfunction. Findings suggest that OCD can be subdivided into clinical subtypes, and distinct prefrontal subsystems may be differentially involved in these subtypes.

  10. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are express...

  11. EFFECTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Buller P.

    2010-01-01

    The following article comes in the development of a degree paper, and its original purpose pointed to assess the success of a neuropsychological rehabilitation program focused on the executive function. Nevertheless, it is possible to extend its usefulness as a complete and efficient instrument that allows an exhaustive diagnosis of the executive functioning to lead its accurate rehabilitation. The main importance of its consideration deals with the limitations observed in the context of the ...

  12. Measurement in Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the f...

  13. Image analysis of neuropsychological test responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen L.; Hiller, Darren L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reports recent advances in the development of an automated approach to neuropsychological testing. High performance image analysis algorithms have been developed as part of a convenient and non-invasive computer-based system to provide an objective assessment of patient responses to figure-copying tests. Tests of this type are important in determining the neurological function of patients following stroke through evaluation of their visuo-spatial performance. Many conventional neuropsychological tests suffer from the serious drawback that subjective judgement on the part of the tester is required in the measurement of the patient's response which leads to a qualitative neuropsychological assessment that can be both inconsistent and inaccurate. Results for this automated approach are presented for three clinical populations: patients suffering right hemisphere stroke are compared with adults with no known neurological disorder and a population comprising normal school children of 11 years is presented to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. As well as providing a more reliable and consistent diagnosis this technique is sufficiently sensitive to monitor a patient's progress over a period of time and will provide the neuropsychologist with a practical means of evaluating the effectiveness of therapy or medication administered as part of a rehabilitation program.

  14. Illiteracy: the neuropsychology of cognition without reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Braga, Lucia W; Castro-Caldas, Alexander; Judd, Tedd; Kosmidis, Mary H; Matute, Esmeralda; Nitrini, Ricardo; Ostrosky-Solis, Feggy; Rosselli, Monica

    2010-12-01

    Illiterates represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Written language not only plays a role in mediating cognition, but also extends our knowledge of the world. Two major reasons for illiteracy can be distinguished, social (e.g., absence of schools), and personal (e.g., learning difficulties). Without written language, our knowledge of the external world is partially limited by immediate sensory information and concrete environmental conditions. Literacy is significantly associated with virtually all neuropsychological measures, even though the correlation between education and neuropsychological test scores depends on the specific test. The impact of literacy is reflected in different spheres of cognitive functioning. Learning to read reinforces and modifies certain fundamental abilities, such as verbal and visual memory, phonological awareness, and visuospatial and visuomotor skills. Functional imaging studies are now demonstrating that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for problem-solving. The existence of partially specific neuronal networks as a probable consequence of the literacy level supports the hypothesis that education impacts not only the individual's day-to-day strategies, but also the brain networks. A review of the issues related to dementia in illiterates is presented, emphasizing that the association between the education level and age-related cognitive changes and education remains controversial. The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions. PMID:21075867

  15. The fine structure of the endogenous stages of Isospora hemidactyli carini, 1936 in the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia from North Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure is described of the meronts, microgamonts and young oocyst stages of Isospora hemidactyli of the gecko Hemidactylus mabouia from Belém, PA, north Brazil. The endogenous stages all develop in the nucleus of the gut epithelial cells. The nucleus remains intact up to the latest stages of the parasite's development, but degenerates by the time the oocyst appears. Merogonic division appears to be asynchronous, and some of the differentiated merozoites contained more than one nucleus. Microgamonts conform in structure with those of other eimeriids. Some of the type 2 wall-forming bodies disintegrate into smaller globules and ground substance of lower density.

  16. Structure and dynamics of phytoplankton community in the Botafogo reservoir-Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliari Alan da Silva Tavares de Lira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton in the Botafogo reservoir-PE-Brazil. Phytoplankton assemblages were identified from current literature and density was estimated using an inverted microscope. Concurrently to the sampling of biotic variables, measurements of abiotic parameters, such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH, were determined using field probes and transparency was determined with a Secchi disk. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were determined in laboratory. A total of 24 taxa were identified. Chlorophyta presented the greatest number of species. Species diversity in the reservoir was low throughout the study period. Principal component analysis revealed that Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. and Peridinium gatunense were directly correlated with oxygen, turbidity and total nitrogen; Planktosphaeria gelatinosa, P. gatunense and Euglena sp. were directed correlated with total nitrogen; rainfall explained the occurrence of Monoraphidium arcuatum and Chlorella vulgaris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a estrutura e dinâmica do fitoplâncton no reservatório de Botafogo-PE-Brasil. A comunidade fitoplanctônica foi identificada com literatura atualizada e a densidade estimada usando microscópio invertido. Concomitantemente as coletas das variáveis bióticas, foram medidos alguns parâmetros abióticos como temperatura da água, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e pH usando sondas de campo e transparência com disco de Secchi. Concentrações de fósforo total e nitrogênio total foram determinados em laboratório. Vinte e quatro táxons foram identificados tendo Chlorophyta apresentado maior número de espécie. A diversidade de espécie no reservatório foi baixa durante todo o período de estudo. A análise de componentes principais mostrou que Trachelomonas volvocina, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena sp. e

  17. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

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    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  18. Neuropsychology of music – a rapidly growing branch of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Habe

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field.There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of music...

  19. Neuropsychological Decline in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Libon, David J.; Xie, Sharon X.; Wang, Xingmei; Massimo, Lauren; Moore, Peachie; Vesely, Luisa; Khan, Alea; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; Hurtig, Howard I.; Grossman, Murray; Liang, Tsao-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have assessed whether the patterns of neuropsychological impairment in patients with different frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) subtypes remain distinct over the duration of their illness or devolve into a common, undifferentiated neuropsychological state. A longitudinal neuropsychological analysis was obtained over 100 months assessing executive control, language/naming, and visuoconstruction in 441 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and four FTLD subtypes, ...

  20. Ictal Neuropsychological Assessment in a Patient with Transient Global Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ju-Young; Chae, Hee-Yun; Huh, So-Young; Kim, Meyung-Kug; Yoo, Bong-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by anterograde amnesia and variable retrograde amnesia without other focal neurological deficits. Neuropsychological tests during attack in TGA have been rarely reported. We report a 62-year-old man with TGA who was evaluated with detailed neuropsychological tests during attack. Ictal neuropsychological tests showed encoding failure in verbal and visual memory with frontal/executive dysfunction.

  1. Neuropsychology of music: a rapidly growing branch of psychology:

    OpenAIRE

    Habe, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Relationship between brain and music is of interest to musicians, psychologists and neuroscientists. In recent years no other area of psychology of music has seen as much advancement as neuropsychology of music. The aim of the article is to present some main issues in the neuropsychology of music abroad and in Slovenia, to classify research studies into larger categories and to predict the future development of this field. There are different levels of inquiry into the neuropsychology of musi...

  2. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...

  3. Preconditions for Establishing Structural Fiscal Balances in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Case of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Levy

    2013-01-01

    Fiscal policy has been at the center of Brazil's economic dynamics and performance for more than 30 years. In this line, the approval and implementation of a Fiscal Responsibility Law in 2000 was a key step in supporting fiscal sustainability and the transparency of fiscal accounts. Despite these improvements, removing the uncertainties and addressing the imbalances that still persist in fiscal policy-a long-term trend of rising expenditures and tax burden-will be a crucial step when consider...

  4. Genetic Population Structure of Cercariae from an Urban Foci of Schistosoma mansoni, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Samaly S.; Lúcio M Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E.; Zilton A. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Brazil has meant that many persons from rural areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic have migrated to cities. Discovery of a focus of active transmission in the city of Salvador prompted a citywide survey for active and potential transmission sites. Cercariae shed from infected snails collected from four locations were used to determine how these samples were related and if they were representative of the parasite population infecting humans. Each cercarial collectio...

  5. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti; Luiz Mauro Barbosa; Regina Tomoko Shirasuna; Hilton Thadeu Zarate do Couto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014). The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforesta...

  6. Coral community structure and sedimentation at different distances from the coast of the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Segal; Clovis B. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Sedimentation has previously been considered an important source of impact in coral reefs. We compared 3 sites on the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil, regarding sedimentation rates, carbonate sediment composition, coral cover, and colony size for the commonest local coral species (Mussismilia braziliensis, Siderastrea stellata, and Favia gravida). The sites are located at different distances from the mainland: Pedra de Leste (14 km), Pontas Sul (26 km), and Parcel dos Abrolhos (58 km). Sedimentation wa...

  7. Population structure of Rudgea parquioides (Rubiaceae, a shade-tolerant shrub species, in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C.G. Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The expectations that shade-tolerant forest species show 1 a population structure composed by a high amount of small individuals, and 2 biomass allocation for diameter higher than for height growth, were tested for Rudgea parquioides, a typical shrub in Southern Brazil. We described the size structure (height and stem diameter and allometrical relations of a R. parquioides population by counting and measuring all the individuals in a 725m² area in the municipality of Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. A total of 916 individuals (12,634 ind.ha-1 were recorded in the area. The firstexpectation was supported, since distribution by height and diameter classes showed a predominance of small individuals (skewness coefficients > 1. On the other hand, the regression between height and stem base diameter showed slope β Foram testadas duas hipóteses relativas a espécies florestaistolerantes à sombra em uma população de Rudgea parquioides, um arbusto característico do sul do Brasil: 1 espécies tolerantes à sombra possuem uma estrutura populacional composta por um grande número de indivíduos pequenos e 2 a alocação de biomassa para o crescimento em diâmetro é maior que para o crescimento em altura. Foram descritas as estruturas de tamanho (altura e diâmetro do tronco e relações alométricas através da contagem e medição de todos os indivíduos de R. parquioides em uma área de 725m² no município de Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. Um total de 916 indivíduos(12.634 ind.ha-1 foi medido nesta área. A primeira hipótese foi aceita, uma vez que a distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou um predomínio de indivíduos pequenos (coeficiente de assimetria > 1. Por outro lado, a regressão entre altura e diâmetro na base do caule mostrou inclinação β < 1, o que indica que o crescimento em altura é maior que em diâmetro, não suportando a segunda hipótese. Esses resultados mostram que as estratégias de crescimento em esp

  8. The Neuropsychological Profile of Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-02-24

    Objective: ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often comorbid yet despite the increased comorbidity between the two disorders, to our knowledge, no data have been published regarding the neuropsychological profile of adults with comorbid ADHD and PTSD. Likewise, previous empirical studies of the neuropsychology of PTSD did not control for ADHD status. We sought to fill this gap in the literature and to assess the extent to which neuropsychological test performance predicted psychosocial functioning, and perceived quality of life. Method: Participants were 201 adults with ADHD attending an outpatient mental health clinic between 1998 and 2003 and 123 controls without ADHD. Participants completed a large battery of self-report measures and psychological tests. Diagnoses were made using data obtained from structured psychiatric interviews (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version). Results: Differences emerged between control participants and participants with ADHD on multiple neuropsychological tests. Across all tests, control participants outperformed participants with ADHD. Differences between the two ADHD groups emerged on seven psychological subtests including multiple Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third edition and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test measures. These test differences did not account for self-reported quality of life differences between groups. Conclusion: The comorbidity with PTSD in adults with ADHD is associated with weaker cognitive performance on several tasks that appear related to spatial/perceptual abilities and fluency. Neuropsychological test performances may share variance with the quality of life variables yet are not mediators of the quality of life ratings. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567364

  9. Discovery of endangered annual killifish Austrolebias cheradophilus (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in Brazil, with comments on habitat, population structure and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Esteban Krause Lanés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Austrolebias genus comprises about 40 small annual killifishes endemic to South America and their highest diversity occurs in southern Brazil and Uruguay, especially in drainages of Patos-Mirim system. Austrolebiasspecies are severely threatened with extinction because their life cycle and restricted ranges. Low dispersal ability and the extensive loss and fragmentation of freshwater wetlands contribute to this threat. Accurate information on the geographic distribution and ecology of the species, vital to plan conservation and management strategies, are scarce. In order to provide basic knowledge for annual fish conservation this paper reports the presence of Austrolebias cheradophilus and present data about its population structure (CPUA, size, sex ratio, length-weight relationships and condition factor and conservation status in southern Brazil. The estimated CPUA of populations was 0.86 fish/m2. Standard length (SL of males ranged between 32.14 and 49.17 mm and for females between 25.11 and 41.6 mm. There were no differences in SL between the sexes (t-test = - 1.678; P = 0.105, and Chi-squared test demonstrated marginal differences in proportions of sexes (2.25:1; χ2 = 3.846; P= 0.07. Allometric coefficient of the LWR was slightly hyperallometric (b = 3.08 and K of the specimens ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 (mean ± S.E. = 2.12 ± 0.04. Populations have low density and their biotopes are under critical threat, mainly due to suppression by agriculture, pastures for livestock and increase housing. The species is considered "Critically Endangered" in Brazil, furthermore is strongly recommended its inclusion on lists of endangered fauna and ensures the protection of their remaining habitats.

  10. Neuropsychological consequences of chronic drug use: relevance to treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lud eCadet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users.

  11. Neuropsychological Consequences of Chronic Drug Use: Relevance to Treatment Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Heavy use of drugs impacts of the daily activities of individuals in these activities. Several groups of investigators have indeed documented changes in cognitive performance by individuals who have a long history of chronic drug use. In the case of marijuana, a wealth of information suggests that heavy long-term use of the drug may have neurobehavioral consequences in some individuals. In humans, heavy cocaine use is accompanied by neuropathological changes that might serve as substrates for cognitive dysfunctions. Similarly, methamphetamine users suffer from cognitive abnormalities that may be consequent to alterations in structures and functions. Here, we detail the evidence for these neuropsychological consequences. The review suggests that improving the care of our patients will necessarily depend on the better characterization of drug-induced cognitive phenotypes because they might inform the development of better pharmacological and behavioral interventions, with the goal of improving cognitive functions in these subsets of drug users. PMID:26834649

  12. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co

  13. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  14. Neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Starkstein, S E; Brandt, J.; Folstein, S; Strauss, M.; Berthier, M L; Pearlson, G.D.; Wong, D.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were made on CT scans of 34 patients with Huntington's disease. Significant correlations were found between the bicaudate ratio (BCR) and an eye movement scale (r = 0.44, p less than 0.01), and activities of daily living scale (r = 0.57, p less than 0.001) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (r = 0.49, p less than 0.01). No correlations were found between BCR values and severity of chorea or voluntary motor impairment. A detailed neuropsychological ...

  15. DISORDERED ATTENTION AS NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL COGNITIVE DISFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors are using the neuropsychological method. On the base of their theoretical and practical experiences they come to certain considered that brain is reacting as a functional unity, same in the pathological like in the normal conditions. In this context, attention disorder is followed parallel by motorcar disorder and disorders in emotions, remembering, thinking, intelligence, perceptions, cognition’s, socialization, that means functioning of whole personality.For securing a good selective attention, authors suggest that is important to have a mature and integrity cerebral and neurotransmitter system which is respec­tive for the age of the child.

  16. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    and psycho-educational sessions with a neuropsychologist in the acute care setting. The intervention group completed self-report scales in the acute setting and after the intervention at admission to sub-acute rehabilitation. The control group completed the self-report scales only at admission to sub.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  17. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-01-01

    This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are...

  18. Analysis of floristic composition and structure as an aid to monitoring protected areas of dense rain forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study forest composition and structure, as well as to facilitate management plans and monitoring programs, we conducted a phytosociological survey in the PE Caverna do Diabo State Park and the Quilombos do Médio Ribeira Environmentally Protected Area, both located within the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed 20 plots of 400 m² each, including only individuals with a circumference at breast height > 15 cm. We employed cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, including species data and abiotic data. We evaluated 1051 individuals, belonging to 155 species in 48 families. Of those 155, 18 were threatened species, 33 were endemic species, and 92 (59.4% were secondary species. The overall Shannon index was 4.524, one of the highest recorded for a dense rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We found that our sample plots fell into three blocks. The first was forest in which there had been human disturbance, showing low species richness, minimal density, and a small relative quantity of biomass. The second was undisturbed mature forest, showing a comparatively larger quantity of biomass. The third was mature forest in which there had been natural intermediate disturbance (dead trees, showing higher species richness and greater density. We identified various groups of species that could be used in monitoring these distinct forest conditions.

  19. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Carlos Ríos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m. In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze prevail at higher stratum and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C.Burger, Lanj. & Boer, Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart., Ocotea lancifolia Mez and Apuleia leiocarpa J.F.Macbr. follow it. In Ustorthent araucaria is absent and Gymnanthes concolor Müll.Arg., Trichilia claussenii C.DC., Apuleia leiocarpa, Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. and Sorocea bonplandii prevail. Aracuaria is scarce in Udorthent where Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan, Alchornea triplinervia Müll.Arg., Luehea divaricata Mart., Erythrina falcata Benth. and Myrsine gardneriana A.DC. prevail. A comparative analysis shown Cruce Caballero more similar to seasonal forests than mixed araucaria forest from Brazil.

  20. Language and Brain: Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the neuropsychology of written language is provided. An historical review of language disorders is presented to provide a framework for understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the reading process. Recent neuropsychological studies of developmental reading disability are discussed. Two distinct forms of the disorder are…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Academic Interventions Derived from Neuropsychological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to…

  2. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

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    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  3. Trophic organization and fish assemblage structure as disturbance indicators in headwater streams of lower Sorocaba River basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Bruna Botti Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the relationship patterns between environmental structure complexity and fish fauna provide crucial information to stream restoration efforts. In order to test the hypothesis that streams with more complex environmental structure sustain more diverse and functionally more complex fish communities we sampled fish fauna from Sorocaba River headwater stream reaches (SE - Brazil. Reaches represented two distinct treatments: (1 a simplified reach, characterized by unstable fine substrate, clay, deeper channel and higher water velocity and (2 structurally complex reaches, characterized by coarse substrate, with gravel, pebble, rock, stems and branches and leaves inside the channel, producing a diverse pattern of microhabitat, associated with sequences of pools, runs, and riffles. Both trophic structure and taxonomic composition varied significantly between treatments. Invertivorous trophic group exclusively occurred in structurally complex reaches, which also presented greater diversity and species richness. We suggest enhancing in-stream environmental structure that suffered simplification processes due to human impacts in order to reestablish fish communities and ecossistemic functioning.

  4. Recognizing and identifying people: A neuropsychological review.

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    Barton, Jason J S; Corrow, Sherryse L

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing people is a classic example of a cognitive function that involves multiple processing stages and parallel routes of information. Neuropsychological data have provided important evidence for models of this process, particularly from case reports; however, the quality and extent of the data varies widely between studies. In this review we first discuss the requirements and logical basis of the types of neuropsychological evidence to support conclusions about the modules in this process. We then survey the adequacy of the current body of reports to address two key issues. First is the question of which cognitive operation generates a sense of familiarity: the current debate revolves around whether familiarity arises in modality-specific recognition units or later amodal processes. Key evidence on this point comes from the search for dissociations between familiarity for faces, voices and names. The second question is whether lesions can differentially affect the abilities to link diverse sources of person information (e.g., face, voice, name, biographic data). Dissociations of these linkages may favor a 'distributed-only' model of the organization of semantic knowledge, whereas a 'person-hub' model would predict uniform impairments of all linkages. While we conclude that there is reasonable evidence for dissociations in name, voice and face familiarity in regards to the first question, the evidence for or against dissociated linkages between information stores in regards to the second question is tenuous at best. We identify deficiencies in the current literature that should motivate and inform the design of future studies. PMID:26773237

  5. Tourette Syndrome neuropsychological profile: a study case

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    Eliana Gomes da Silva Almeida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses findings resulting from the neuro-psychological assessment of an adolescent with Tourette Syndrome (TS, a rare neuro-developmental disorder characterized by the manifestation of physical and/or audible tics that emerge in childhood or early adolescence. Although we performed an extensive assessment of all cognitive functions, our reported findings focus on those functions that are described in prior research as relevant to the understanding of the cognitive profile of patients with this condition. The findings reported here are consistent with other reports and suggest that intellectual and long-term memory potentials are preserved, while noting deficiencies in executive functioning, reduced speed of mental and psycho-motor functions, and decreased recent memory capacity. Given the rarity of this diagnosis, our reporting of this case should contribute to the understanding of cognitive function in adolescents with TS. In addition, this article highlights and describes factors that affect the quality of neuropsychological assessment and facilitate accurate therapeutical diagnosis and referral for TS carriers.

  6. Neuropsychology of eating disorders: 1995–2012

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    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaNutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are considered psychiatric pathologies that are characterized by pathological worry related to body shape and weight. The lack of progress in treatment development, at least in part, reflects the fact that little is known about the pathophysiologic mechanisms that account for the development and persistence of eating disorders. The possibility that patients with eating disorders have a dysfunction of the central nervous system has been previously explored; several studies assessing the relationship between cognitive processing and certain eating behaviors have been conducted. These studies aim to achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. The aim of this study was to review the current state of neuropsychological studies focused on eating disorders. This was done by means of a search process covering three relevant electronic databases, as well as an additional search on references included in the analyzed papers; we also mention other published reviews obtained by handsearching.Keywords: eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, neuropsychology, cognitive performance

  7. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

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    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  8. Neuropsychological function in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Tükel, Raşit; Gürvit, Hakan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oflaz, Serap; Ertekin, Erhan; Baran, Bengi; Kalem, Sükriye Akça; Kandemir, Pınar Elif; Ozdemiroğlu, Filiz Alyanak; Atalay, Figen

    2012-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic disease characterized by repetitive, unwanted intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors. Studies of neuropsychological functions in OCD have documented deficits in several cognitive domains, particularly with regard to visuospatial abilities, executive functioning, and motor speed. The objective of the present study was to investigate systematically the cognitive functioning of OCD patients who were free of medication and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 72 OCD patients were compared with 54 healthy controls on their performance in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were administered to the patients, and a semistructured interview form was used to evaluate the demographic features of the patients and control subjects. Overall, widespread statistically significant differences were found in tests related to verbal memory, global attention and psychomotor speed, and visuospatial and executive functions indicating a poorer performance of the OCD group. A closer scrutiny of these results suggests that the OCD group has difficulty in using an effective learning strategy that might be partly explained by their insufficient mental flexibility and somewhat poor planning abilities. PMID:21550029

  9. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

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    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  10. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological insights into hoarding disorder

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    Grisham JR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jessica R Grisham, Peter A Baldwin School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Abstract: Hoarding disorder (HD is associated with significant personal impairment in function and constitutes a severe public health burden. Individuals who hoard experience intense distress in discarding a large number of objects, which results in extreme clutter. Research and theory suggest that hoarding may be associated with specific deficits in information processing, particularly in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. There is also growing interest in the neural underpinnings of hoarding behavior. Thus, the primary aim of this review is to summarize the current state of evidence regarding neuropsychological deficits associated with hoarding and review research on its neurophysiological underpinnings. We also outline the prominent theoretical model of hoarding and provide an up-to-date description of empirically based psychological and medical treatment approaches for HD. Finally, we discuss important future avenues for elaborating our model of HD and improving treatment access and outcomes for this disabling disorder. Keywords: hoarding, information processing, neuropsychology, neurophysiology, treatment

  11. Hydrobiology in the Cabo Frio (Brazil) upwelling: two-dimensional structure and variability during a wind cycle

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    Valentin, Jean L.; Andre, Dalmo L.; Jacob, Salvador A.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the variability of hydrobiological parameters in a vertical section during .. wind cycle allowed us to investigate the structure and dynamics of the upwelling ecosystem at Cabo Frio (Brazil). This coastal upwelling system is extremely sensitive to wind changes with nutrient-rich water reaching the surface under NE winds along a coastal belt less than 5 km wide. This narrow strip is dominated by great hydrological instability. Above the continental shelf the upwelling of cold water is characterized by the inclination of the thermocline, whose vertical oscillation determines the main factors of planktonic fluctuations through the water column. After reaching the surface the deep water induces new production which spreads up to 20 km offshore. From a general point of view, pigment richness would fit a quadratic function of general hydrologic conditions. However, this function is only useful at the given collecting point, and within the limits of the amplitude of the hydrological variations.

  12. The Concepts normatized by Legislation and the Interpretation of Agrarian Structure in Brazil

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    Alcione Talaska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering agrarian legislation of the last 50 years, this article expressed the objetive to identify and describe the concepts that are used for the characterization and understanding of the conformation of the brazilian agrarian space. We noted, in this context, a process of change in the laws, which suppressed the concepts of latifundio (landlordism and minifundio (small parcels property, which created concepts of small property, of average property, of productive property and of family agriculture, but which not considered other important definitions: large farms and paternal agriculture. This substitution of interpretative concepts limits the understanding of the brazilian agrarian dynamics, especially if we consider the analysis of contradictory process of development capitalism in the field, in Brazil.

  13. Measurement in cross-cultural neuropsychology.

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    Pedraza, Otto; Mungas, Dan

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of cognitive abilities across diverse cultural, racial, and ethnic groups has a contentious history, with broad political, legal, economic, and ethical repercussions. Advances in psychometric methods and converging scientific ideas about genetic variation afford new tools and theoretical contexts to move beyond the reflective analysis of between-group test score discrepancies. Neuropsychology is poised to benefit from these advances to cultivate a richer understanding of the factors that underlie cognitive test score disparities. To this end, the present article considers several topics relevant to the measurement of cognitive abilities across groups from diverse ancestral origins, including fairness and bias, equivalence, diagnostic validity, item response theory, and differential item functioning. PMID:18814034

  14. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

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    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  15. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

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    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  16. Neuropsychological profile of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Anna Roshini; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited myogenic disorder characterized by progressive muscle wasting. DMD is a fatal X-linked recessive disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 3,500 male live births. This disease has long been associated with intellectual impairment. Research has shown that boys with DMD have variable intellectual performance, indicating the presence of specific cognitive deficits. The aim of the study was to use a battery of intelligence, learning, and memory tests to identify a neuropsychological profile in boys with DMD. A total of 22 boys diagnosed with DMD in the age range of 6 to 10 years old were evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Memory for Designs Test. The data were interpreted using means, standard deviations, percentages, and percentiles. Normative data were also used for further interpretation. The results showed that boys with DMD had a significantly lower IQ (88.5). Verbal IQ (86.59) was found to be lower than Performance IQ (92.64). There was evidence of impaired performance on the Processing Speed, Freedom From Distractibility, and Verbal Comprehension Indexes. Specific deficits in information processing, complex attention, immediate verbal memory span, verbal working memory, verbal comprehension, vocabulary, visuoconstruction ability, and verbal learning and encoding were observed. However, perceptional organization, general fund of information, abstract reasoning, visual discrimination and acuity, visual learning and memory, and verbal memory were adequate. The neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that these children have specific cognitive deficits as opposed to a global intellectual deficit. PMID:24279481

  17. Preliminary examination of food web structure of Nicola Lake (Taim Hydrological System, south Brazil) using dual C and N stable isotope analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre M. Garcia; Hoeinghaus, David J.; João P Vieira; Kirk O. Winemiller; David M. L. Motta Marques; Marlise de A Bemvenuti

    2006-01-01

    Taim Ecological Reserve is located within the Taim Hydrological System and was created to protect a heterogeneous and productive landscape harboring exceptional biological diversity in southern Brazil. Using stable isotope ratio analyses of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N), we provide a preliminary description of the food web structure, including estimates of production sources supporting fish populations and vertical trophic structure, within a representative lake of this system. A ...

  18. Forensic neuropsychological evaluations in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lauren; Schrift, Michael; Pliskin, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Within the expanding field of clinical neuropsychology, the subspecialty of forensic neuropsychology has developed. Currently, there is considerable diversity within the discipline as to how practitioners approach test selection, reports, and number of hours billed. How individuals handle these issues is subject to debate, but what is clear is that there are no specific guidelines as to how to conduct these evaluations. The current study provides an introduction to the issues faced by clinical neuropsychologists completing forensic evaluations. In addition, the authors present how the relevant issues are addressed in one neuropsychology service housed within a university-affiliated academic medical center. PMID:19333065

  19. Outcomes assessment for forensic neuropsychology: recommendations and considerations.

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    Kalechstein, A D; van Gorp, W D

    1998-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently retained by attorneys or the courts to assist in the resolution of legal disputes. Yet, an outcomes assessment demonstrating the utility of neuropsychological evaluations in the forensic arena has not been implemented, nor has a method for conducting an outcomes assessment of forensic neuropsychology been delineated. This article offers recommendations and considerations for the formulation of outcomes assessments. These include defining an outcomes assessment, identifying the consumers of forensic neuropsychological assessments, and specifying potential moderator and dependent variables in the context of study designs that may be feasibly implemented. Moreover, the ethical implications of outcomes assessments are discussed. PMID:16318446

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. PMID:24731964

  1. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D. Phillips; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  2. Neuropsychological Testing in Interventional Cardiology Staff after Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Demi, Virginia; Campana, Serena; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Guagliumi, Giulio; Conversano, Ciro; Baroni, Stefano; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Picano, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at comparing neuropsychological test scores in 83 cardiologists and nurses (exposed group, EG) working in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, and 83 control participants (non exposed group, nEG), to explore possible cognitive impairments. The neuropsychological assessment was carried out by means of a battery called "Esame Neuropsicologico Breve." EG participants showed significantly lower scores on the delayed recall, visual short-term memory, and semantic lexical access ability than the nEG ones. No dose response could be detected. EG participants showed lower memory and verbal fluency performances, as compared with nEG. These reduced skills suggest alterations of some left hemisphere structures that are more exposed to IR in interventional cardiology staff. On the basis of these findings, therefore, head protection would be a mandatory good practice to reduce effects of head exposure to ionizing radiation among invasive cardiology personnel (and among other exposed professionals). PMID:26400563

  3. Small mammal community structure and microhabitat use in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Daniela O. de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the richness, composition, and species relative abundance of a terrestrial small mammal community in a Deciduous Forest area in the austral boundary of the Atlantic Forest. The microhabitat use of the most common species was also investigated. Six rodents - Akodon montensis (Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Sooretamys angouya (Thomas, 1913, Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829, Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Juliomys sp. - and one marsupial - Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 - were captured. Thaptomys nigrita is recorded in the state of Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Species richness was poor when compared with communities in the central portions of the Atlantic Forest, but equivalent to that found in the Araucaria and Dense Ombrophilous forests of southern Brazil. The species most often captured in our study, A. montensis and O. nigripes, are also the most common in the majority of faunistic studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. Akodon montensis and S. angouya used places with high abundance of bamboo, possibly to avoid predators. Oligorizomys nigripes used areas with a high density of scrubs, what could facilitate aboveground movements, and was negatively correlated to mature forest indicators, which reinforce the idea that this species has opportunistic habits.

  4. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  5. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

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    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:25010514

  6. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOODY REGENERATION FROM A REFORESTATION WITH NATIVE SPECIES IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Michel Anderson Almeida Colmanetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, specifically in São Paulo State, there are guidelines based on the high diversity of tropical forests that instructs the restoration projects in the state (current SMA 32/2014. The main goal of this study was verify the importance and effectiveness of the high diversity of arboreal species originated from a reforestation, and its influence in a woody regenerating composition. We developed a phytosociologic study in a woody regenerating stratum of a nine year old reforestation at a Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, in Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo State. All specimens with height > 30 cm and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH < 5 cm were evaluated. The woody regenerating diversity was smaller than the overstory diversity and the species composition was similar to the overstory. The Simpson index (1-D was 0.85, Shannon index (H' was 2.46 and the Pielou index (J' was 0.60. The zoochoric dispersion syndrome was major among the species. Our results suggest that the use of high diversity of native seedlings in a reforestation leads to high diversity of species in woody regeneration stratum, after one decade of planting.

  7. Topographical and hydrographical impacts on the structure of microphytoplankton assemblages on the Abrolhos Bank region, Brazil

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    Susini-Ribeiro, Sylvia M. M.; Pompeu, Mayza; Gaeta, Salvador A.; de Souza, Júlia S. D.; Masuda, Laura S. D.

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at the Abrolhos Bank (15°60‧-21°30‧S; 37°00‧-40°30‧W), Brazil, in July and August 2007, to evaluate the topographic and hydrographic influences on microphytoplankton composition and relative abundance. Net phytoplankton was collected from the top 200 m of the water column to assess diversity proxies (species richness, Shannon index, dominance and equitability) and compared with thermohaline, nutrient and chlorophyll profiles. A total of 326 taxa occurred in the area. Patterns in spatial distribution of microphytoplankton assemblages were two-fold: a north-south gradient linked to variations in temperature and nitrite, and a coast-offshore gradient associated with the depth of the mixed layer and the Brunt-Väisälä maximum frequency. Microphytoplankton assemblages were typical of tropical oligotrophic environments. However, the inshore community found on the Abrolhos Bank was enriched by bottom dwelling, large-sized cells ressuspended from local sediments as a result of the highly dynamic coastal circulation. Species diversity was high in oceanic sites where water column stability as measured by the Brunt-Väisälä frequency achieved its maxima, but high values of ecological indexes were also found in the southern part of the study area influenced by bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich oceanic waters, giving support to the notion that phytoplankton diversity increases at intermediate levels of environmental disturbance.

  8. Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil

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    Alexandro Herbert dos Santos Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-litter amount as a factor in the structure of a ponerine ants community (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Leaf-litter may be an important factor in structuring ponerine ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae in tropical rainforests. We specifically examined how leaf-litter affects the structure of a ponerine ant community in primary Amazonian rainforest sites at the Ferreira Penna Scientific Station, Pará, Brazil. A total of 53 species belonging to eight genera of three ponerine tribes were collected with mini-Winkler extractors. The amount of leaf-litter positively affected the abundance and richness of the ponerine ant community, and also influenced species composition. Nearby samples often had low species similarity, especially when adjacent samples differed in the amount of leaf-litter. Leaf-litter availability in Amazonian primary forests is a key factor for distribution of ground-dwelling ponerine species, even at small scales.

  9. Group structure of Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tardin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cetaceans present a group structure of great complexity and display a wide behavioral plasticity. Many efforts have been made to understand the group structures of the various species, however, this type of information is still lacking for some species. Therefore, our objectives were to 1 characterize the structure of the Sotalia guianensis groups in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 2 investigate how both behavior and season influence the group structure of this population. This species is considered "data deficient" by the IUCN. We conducted 28 boat trips using group focal procedures, and a total of 1,314 groups were observed. Of these groups, 1,268 (94.4% contained calves, the largest percentage ever reported for the species. Groups with calves were larger than those without them, suggesting a strategy to protect these individuals with underdeveloped physiology. The mean group sizes reached 17.6 ± 18.3 individuals. Within these groups, we observed that both behavior (H = 112.5, d.f. = 2, P < 0.05 and season (number of simulations: 10,000; sample size of fall-winter = 544; sample size of spring-summer = 684; P < 0.05, demonstrated a statistically significant influence. The most common degree of cohesion was mixed, and cohesion also varied with behavior (χ2 = 10.1, P < 0.05 and season (χ2 = 31.0, P < 0.05. This paper contributes towards understanding the highly variable nature of S. guianensis group dynamics. These data may be important in understanding the structure of groups in a site that is being increasingly impacted by different human activities. Moreover, this area contains the largest aggregation ever observed for this species and may therefore represent an important source of genetic diversity for the species as a whole.

  10. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparecida Ribeiro, Andreza; Quintao Lima, Diana; Anderson Duarte, Helio; Murad, Enver [ICEx, UFMG, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio Cesar, E-mail: mcpqui@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Tadeu de Freitas Suita, Marcos [UFOP, Departamento de Geologia (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil); Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaqua copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  11. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  12. Neuropsychological-EEG Activation in Genetic Generalized Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, evaluated the effects of neuropsychological activation (NPA tasks on epileptiform discharges (ED in adolescents with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE and in comparison with hyperventilation and photic stimulation.

  13. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  14. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  15. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  16. Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy: Two years of good neuropsychological outcomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, H.; Krámská, L.; Vojtěch, Z.; Lukavský, Jiří; Liščák, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 423-432. ISSN 0920-1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : temporal lobe epilepsy * stereotactic surgery * neuropsychology outcome Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2013

  17. Neuropsychological Perspectives in Pupil Services: Practical Application of Luria's Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrzut, John E.; Obrzut, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The rationale and guidelines for incorporating a neuropsychological perspective in the educational process are presented. Luria's (1973) model is most pertinent for "neuroeducators" because it describes the concept of functional systems interacting to produce behavior. (CJ)

  18. Structure of the understory community in four stretches of Araucaria forest in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Trassi Polisel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the structure of the understory community in the Atlantic Forest sensu lato, for which phytosociological descriptions of the understory are lacking. We delineated 50 plots of 10 × 20 m each at four sites within an Araucaria forest (a subtype of Atlantic Forest, located in the municipalities of Bananal, Campos do Jordão, Itaberá and Barra do Chapéu, all of which are in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. To sample the resident species of the understory, we randomly selected five 1 × 1 m subplots within each plot, resulting in a total sampling area of 250 m² at each site. We identified differences among the locations, mostly due to proportional differences in growth forms, in terms of species richness and the importance values within the community. Factors potentially influencing the understory structure include macroclimatic and microclimatic conditions, as well as forest fragmentation, the abundance of deciduous trees in the canopy, the surrounding vegetation and geographic location.

  19. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

  20. Analysis by RAPD of the genetic structure of Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes in reservoirs on the Paranapanema River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Papa Leuzzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the RAPD technique was used to analyze the genetic structure of populations of the fish Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae, Tetragonopterinae living in the lower, middle and upper Paranapanema River, Brazil. The aim was to assess this structure regarding fish handling and conservation programs. The genetic variability (P was found to be 42.64%, 75% and 75% in the low, middle and upper reaches, respectively. The dendrogram of genetic similarity, obtained by comparative analysis of the sets of samples from the three sites, showed the formation of three clusters. All of the genetic parameters used indicate that the population in the lower Paranapanema is genetically different from those in the middle and upper sections. The theta P test shows that the low Paranapanema is highly differentiated from the middle (0.2813 and upper (0.2912 Paranapanema, while the differentiation between the last two is moderate (0.0895. The data obtained in the present work suggest that recolonization and conservation studies should not be focused on the species A. altiparanae as such, but on the conservation units, because they are the genetically differentiated populations.

  1. Neuropsychological Functioning in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelson, Kristin W.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Rothlind, Johannes; Choucroun, Gerard; Neylan, Thomas C.; Lenoci, Maryanne; Henn-Haase, Clare; Weiner, Michael W.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown differences in neuropsychological functioning between groups with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control participants. Because individuals with PTSD often have a history of comorbid alcohol abuse, the extent to which an alcohol confound is responsible for these differences remains a concern. The current study compares neuropsychological testing scores in 4 groups of veterans with and without PTSD (PTSD+] and PTSD–, respectively) and with and without a history of a...

  2. Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Lisa R.; Anil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV...

  3. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Iannone; Clelia Tripaldi; Antonino Chindemi; Lorenzo Piscitelli; Antonio Mastrorocco; Silvano Palazzo; Luigi Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of childre...

  4. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: Evidence from neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Daniel L.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each...

  5. Neuropsychological Decline After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article “Neuropsychological decline after cath- eter ablation of atrial fibrillation” by Schwarz et al. is the first publication that focused on cognitive side effects of elective circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (PVI.1 Adverse neuropsychological changes after left atrial catheter ablation, as report- ed in this paper, were found in verbal memory and the result, conjoined with ischemic brain lesions, might represent cerebral side-effects of the ablation procedure.

  6. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  7. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Coral community structure and sedimentation at different distances from the coast of the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Segal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation has previously been considered an important source of impact in coral reefs. We compared 3 sites on the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil, regarding sedimentation rates, carbonate sediment composition, coral cover, and colony size for the commonest local coral species (Mussismilia braziliensis, Siderastrea stellata, and Favia gravida. The sites are located at different distances from the mainland: Pedra de Leste (14 km, Pontas Sul (26 km, and Parcel dos Abrolhos (58 km. Sedimentation was higher in winter (p A sedimentação tem sido considerada uma importante fonte de impacto nos recifes de coral. Uma comparação entre as taxas de sedimentação, teor de carbonatos nos sedimentos, cobertura coralínea e tamanho de colônias de corais para as espécies mais comuns (Mussismilia braziliensis, Siderastrea stellata, e Favia gravida foi realizada em 3 locais no Banco dos Abrolhos. Os locais representam um gradiente de distância da costa: Pedra de Leste (14 km, Pontas Sul (26 km e Parcel dos Abrolhos (58 km. A sedimentação foi maior no inverno (p <0,05, mas não foi observada diferença entre os locais. O tipo de sedimento diferiu entre locais (P <0,05, sendo que Parcel dos Abrolhos apresentou 90% de carbonatos, Pontas Sul 65% e Pedra de Leste 50%. A cobertura coralínea foi maior no local mais afastado de terra (p <0,01, onde a cobertura de zoantídeos foi menor. Diferenças de tamanho de colônias foram encontradas apenas para M. braziliensis, com menores colônias em Pedra de Leste (p <0,05. A distribuição dos sedimentos terrígenos e a turbidez devem ser os principais fatores controladores do desenvolvimento dos recifes de Abrolhos.

  9. The philosophical foundations of Aleksandr R. Luria's neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Gavriela

    2003-12-01

    This article attempts to show that the cultural-historical psychological theory of Aleksandr R. Luria (Luriya) and his colleagues is based on the foundations of historical materialism. It argues in particular that Luria's psychology, neuropsychology, and brain theory are integrated in the same scientific research program and are based on the same philosophical premises, and that his theories must be interpreted in the Marxist context in which they are embedded. Luria's research program asserts that the development of higher mental functions depends on the appropriation of cultural means, particularly language, within social practice. Moreover, the brain structures underlying mental functions are also dependent on the appropriation of cultural means. Luria's clinical diagnosis and his program for rehabilitation of patients with brain lesions are based on his psychological theory and brain theory. The following analysis of Luria's comprehensive program will show that a socio-cultural non-reductive explanation of mental functions and their underlying brain structures may have implications for the philosophical discussion of the mind-brain problem. PMID:15025065

  10. Official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology on serial neuropsychological assessments: the utility and challenges of repeat test administrations in clinical and forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Robert L; Sweet, Jerry J; Attix, Deborah K; Krull, Kevin R; Henry, George K; Hart, Robert P

    2010-11-01

    Serial assessments are now common in neuropsychological practice, and have a recognized value in numerous clinical and forensic settings. These assessments can aid in differential diagnosis, tracking neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses over time, and managing various neurologic and psychiatric conditions. This document provides a discussion of the benefits and challenges of serial neuropsychological testing in the context of clinical and forensic assessments. Recommendations regarding the use of repeated testing in neuropsychological practice are provided. PMID:21108148

  11. Firms’ capital structure and the bankruptcy law design:e vidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Funchal; Mateus Clóvis

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of changes in creditors? priority order defined by the bankruptcy law on firms? capital structure. Taking advantage of the Brazilian bankruptcy law Reform and using firms? balance sheet data, we obtain results in line with theories that predict the effects on the capital structure due to changes in creditors? expectations. We find evidence of an increase in the debt portion of the capital structure.

  12. Contrasting Structures and Deformational History of Syntectonic Granites of Campina Grande and Serra Redonda, Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wilians de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Campina Grande and Serra Redonda Granites are intrusive along the contact of the Paleoproterozoic basement(Alto Moxotó Domain with the Tonian gneisses (Alto Pajeú Domain of the Borborema Province (northeast Brazil. TheCampina Grande Granite (U-Pb age = 581± 2 Ma shows a concentric oval-shaped structure whereas the Serra RedondaGranite (U-Pb age = 576 ± 3 Ma has a tabular shape, elongated in the NE-SW direction. The plutons are separated bythe left-lateral Galante transcurrent shear zone. In this study, the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS was appliedto 64 outcrops of granites to determine the internal structures of these plutons and to explore the relationship betweenmagmatism and deformation in an orogenic setting. The magnetic fabrics are concordant with the metamorphic structure ofthe host rocks. Strike-slip shear zones controlled the emplacement of the Serra Redonda Granite, as indicated by sigmoidalfoliation, defining shear bands associated with the Galante shear zone. In contrast, the magmatic/magnetic fabric of theCampina Grande granite seems to have been produced by body (ascensional forces. The pluton displays an inward dipping, concentric planar fabric parallel to the wall rock contact and lineations highly oblique to the foliation trend. The fabric of the Campina Grande pluton is consistent with a magma moving over a ramp dipping to southwest, with the lineation at high angle to the NE-trending flow direction. The contrasting structures of the plutons reflect the episodic nature of orogenic deformation, which was punctuated by the alternation of weak and strong strains, affecting the fabric development of the syntectonic intrusions.

  13. Obsessive compulsive disorder networks: positron emission tomography and neuropsychology provide new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation has shed new light on the central role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. We explored this structure from a functional perspective, synchronizing neuroimaging and cognitive measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This case-control cross-sectional study compared 15 OCD patients without comorbidities and not currently on serotonin reuptake inhibitors or cognitive behavioural therapy with 15 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and education level on resting-state (18FDG-PET scans and a neuropsychological battery assessing executive functions. We looked for correlations between metabolic modifications and impaired neuropsychological scores. Modifications in glucose metabolism were found in frontal regions (orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral cortices, the cingulate gyrus, insula and parietal gyrus. Neuropsychological differences between patients and controls, which were subtle, were correlated with the metabolism of the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. CONCLUSION: As expected, we confirmed previous reports of a PFC dysfunction in OCD patients, and established a correlation with cognitive deficits. Other regions outside the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsoparietal cortex and the insula, also appeared to be implicated in the pathophysiology of OCD, providing fresh insights on the complexity of OCD syndromes.

  14. Integrating Genetic, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Data to Model Early-Onset Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Gassó, Patricia; Morer, Astrid; Calvo, Anna; Bargalló, Nuria; Lafuente, Amalia; Lázaro, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrative approach that combines structural magnetic resonance imaging data (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI), neuropsychological data, and genetic data to predict early-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) severity. From a cohort of 87 patients, 56 with complete information were used in the present analysis. First, we performed a multivariate genetic association analysis of OCD severity with 266 genetic polymorphisms. This association analysis was used to select and prioritize the SNPs that would be included in the model. Second, we split the sample into a training set (N = 38) and a validation set (N = 18). Third, entropy-based measures of information gain were used for feature selection with the training subset. Fourth, the selected features were fed into two supervised methods of class prediction based on machine learning, using the leave-one-out procedure with the training set. Finally, the resulting model was validated with the validation set. Nine variables were used for the creation of the OCD severity predictor, including six genetic polymorphisms and three variables from the neuropsychological data. The developed model classified child and adolescent patients with OCD by disease severity with an accuracy of 0.90 in the testing set and 0.70 in the validation sample. Above its clinical applicability, the combination of particular neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic characteristics could enhance our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder. PMID:27093171

  15. Morphologic and neuropsychological patterns in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapuis, Pierre; Banciu, Eldda [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); Sauvee, Mathilde; Serra, Amelie; Moreaud, Olivier [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neurology, Grenoble (France); Medici, Maud [CIT803, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Moreau-Gaudry, Alexandre [CIT803, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Krainik, Alexandre [University Hospital of Grenoble, Department of Neuroradiology and MRI, Grenoble (France); INSERM U 836, Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences, Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-15

    We conducted a retrospective study to identify morphological subgroups of patients referred for AD or aMCI and to seek for differences across neuropsychological performances. One hundred forty-five patients (mean age = 76.01, 88 women and 57 men) referred for AD, either at the stage of dementia or aMCI, were examined using structural MRI. Five observers reviewed blindly twice all examinations. We rated microangiopathy, hippocampal, parietal atrophies, including a gradient of fronto-parietal atrophy (GFPA). A multiple component analysis (MCA) followed by a hierarchical ascending classification was conducted to identify morphologically distinct subgroups. Among these, 76 patients completed all the neuropsychological tests. Univariate and multivariate analyses were further conducted on these data across morphological subgroups. The institutional review board approved the research protocol. Inter- and intra-raters' agreements were excellent and very good for microangiopathy and hippocampal atrophy ratings. They were higher for GFPA than for the parietal atrophy scale. MCA without priors identified three groups: group 1 was characterized by no/discrete microangiopathy, severe hippocampal, and predominant parietal atrophy; group 2 had significant microangiopathy, severe hippocampal atrophy, and no predominant parietal atrophy; group 3 had a mild hippocampal atrophy and parietal atrophies. In group 1, working memory profile was less impaired than in group 2 (p = 0.01). Neuropsychological performances of group 3 were higher in most domains. Combined characterization of microangiopathy, hippocampal, parietal, and GFPA allows identifying morphological subgroups among patients referred for AD and at risk. These groups have some neuropsychological differences, suggesting different pathophysiological mechanisms or co-existing conditions. (orig.)

  16. Cortical brain atrophy and intra-individual variability in neuropsychological test performance in HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Lindsay J; Miller, Eric N; Hinkin, Charles H; Alger, Jeffery R; Barker, Peter; Goodkin, Karl; Martin, Eileen M; Maruca, Victoria; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Sanders, Joanne; Selnes, Ola; Becker, James T

    2016-09-01

    To characterize the relationship between dispersion-based intra-individual variability (IIVd) in neuropsychological test performance and brain volume among HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine the effects of cardiovascular risk and HIV infection on this relationship. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data from 147 men age 50 and over, including 80 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 67 seronegative controls (HIV-) in this cross-sectional cohort study. Voxel Based Morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. These brain structure maps were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). IIVd was measured by computing intra-individual standard deviations (ISD's) from the standardized performance scores of five neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-III Visual Reproduction I and II, Logical Memory I and II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Letter Number Sequencing. Total gray matter (GM) volume was inversely associated with IIVd. Among all subjects, IIVd -related GM atrophy was observed primarily in: 1) the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left inferior temporal gyrus extending to the supramarginal gyrus, spanning the lateral sulcus; 2) the right superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus; and, 3) dorsal/ventral regions of the posterior section of the transverse temporal gyrus. HIV status, biological, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) variables were not linked to IIVd -related GM atrophy. IIVd in neuropsychological test performance may be a sensitive marker of cortical integrity in older adults, regardless of HIV infection status or CVD risk factors, and degree of intra-individual variability links with volume loss in specific cortical regions; independent of mean-level performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:26303224

  17. Structure of the phytoplankton in a water supply system in the State of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne do Nascimento Moura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the phytoplankton community composition at limnetic environment in Pernambuco, Brazil. Samplings were carried out from April/2001 to March/2002. Samples to analyses the biotic variables were taken using a recipient with a large overture, at the subsurface and with a Van Dorn bottle at the bottom. The rainfall data were recorded and the water transparency was used to calculate the light attenuation coefficient, photic zone and the determination of trophic state index. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were determined in a typical dry and rainy month. Equitability, also the, similarity and diversity indexes and the densities and correlation of total densities among depths were calculated. Forty-five taxa were identified in Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp and Bacillariophyta (7spp, while flagellates were quantified in groups without identification. Cyanophyta presented highest diversity at both the depths and Planktothrix agardhii was the highest density species. Significant differences were not observed between subsurface and bottom densities. Results showed that the reservoir was eutrophicated and presented high densities of Cyanophyta.O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo da comunidade fitoplanctônica em ambiente limnético de Pernambuco, Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas de abril/2001 a março/2002. As amostras para análises abióticas foram coletadas na superfície da água e destinadas às análises bióticas foram coletadas na subsuperfície e no fundo, sendo fixadas com solução de lugol e quantificadas usando microscópio invertido. Equitatividade, índices de similaridade e diversidade foram calculados, bem como correlação entre as profundidades. 45 táxons foram identificados, pertencentes as Chlorophyta (21spp, Cyanophyta (17spp e Bacillariophyta (7spp. Os flagelados foram apenas quantificados, mas não foram identificados. Cyanophyta apresentou a mais alta

  18. The neuropsychology of antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Katherine L; Demakis, George J

    2007-03-01

    Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) is a psychological disorder most commonly associated with the legal and criminal justice systems, as many persons arrested for the commission of illegal acts meet the diagnostic criteria for this disorder, such as deception, manipulation, disregard for the rights of others, and a lack of remorse for their behavior. Most researchers agree that this disorder stems from brain abnormalities, including the theories of frontal lobe dysfunction and differences in the autonomic nervous systems in individuals diagnosed with APD. The Integrated Emotional Systems (IES) model, a third model of APD, is itself not a brain abnormality, but provides an understanding of antisocial characteristics based on dysfunctions in select parts of the brain. Based on research using neuropsychological assessments and other techniques, several cognitive characteristics appear to exist among these individuals. Examples include cognitive inflexibility, attention deficits, and inappropriate processing of contextual cues in the environment, sometimes leading to poor behavioral choices. Further research is needed to help identify the cause of this disorder so that the most appropriate treatments can be made available to these individuals. PMID:17544650

  19. The affective neuropsychology of confabulation and delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the scientific understanding of the role of emotion in confabulation and delusion. I argue that the significance of emotion in the pathogenesis of these symptoms was obscured by academic polarisation between psychodynamic and neurocognitive traditions and was also often obfuscated by rigid distinctions between psychogenic and neurogenic explanations. This tradition of epistemic dualism was implicitly maintained in the fields of cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive neuropsychiatry. This paper focuses on memory-related confabulation following ventromedial frontal lobe lesions, awareness-related confabulation following right perisylvian lesions, and delusions of various aetiologies. Ambiguity regarding the definition and taxonomy of symptoms renders direct comparison difficult, but certain overriding principles are becoming discernible. Recent findings suggest that emotion and motivation influence both confabulation and delusion. These influences may be instigated directly by neural dysfunction or indirectly by life changes and altered social circumstances, or by a combination of these. Importantly, the rejection of epistemic dualism in the conceptualisation of both symptoms can allow us to study them in parallel and draw conclusions about the relation between cognition and emotion. Specifically, confabulation and delusion can be described as faulty attempts to balance the conflicting demands of accurate and self-serving reality representation. PMID:19823958

  20. Neuropsychological sequelae of medulloblastoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the neuropsychological consequences of medulloblastoma in adults. Methods: Patients 18 years of age or older who had medulloblastoma and at least 3 years of disease-free survival were eligible. A battery of tests was conducted to assess global intellectual functioning, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, memory, reasoning, and academic proficiency. For the verbal memory performance, each patient was matched with two normal controls selected on the basis of age, sex, and level of education. Results: Review of the Neuro-Oncology database revealed 24 patients eligible for the study. Of these, 10 patients (6 good-risk and 4 poor-risk) agreed to participate; 7 patients were lost to follow-up; 5 lived too far away to come to the testing site, and 2 refused testing. There were four men and six women; their mean age was 36.5 years at testing and 29.9 years at surgical diagnosis. Mean dose of whole brain radiation was 34.5 Gy. Mean interval between diagnosis and testing was 79.1 months. Test results demonstrated below average intelligence quotients (mean intelligence quotient 90.2; range 67-103) and specific deficits in memory, reasoning, visuospatial ability, and arithmetic. Conclusion: Adults with medulloblastoma in a prolonged disease-free status may suffer significant cognitive deficits. We recommend further controlled, prospective studies to evaluate cognitive outcomes in this patient population in the hope that interventional strategies could be developed, or treatment modified to minimize such toxicities

  1. Genetic structure and diversity of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. in Cerrado fragments of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Maris Orth Ritter Antiqueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The loss of large areas of Cerrado (Brazilian savanna in Brazil can lead to reduced biodiversity and to the extinction of species. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic fragility of populations of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf exposed to different anthropic conditions in fragments of Cerrado in the state of São Paulo. The study was carried out in two Experimental Stations operated by the Forest Institute (Assis and Itirapina, in one fully protected conservation unit (Pedregulho and in one private property (Brotas. Analyses were conducted using leaf samples from 353 adult specimens and eight pairs of microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 13 to 15 in all populations, but the mean number of effective alleles was approximately half this value (7.2 to 9-1. Observed heterozygosity was significant and lower than the expected in all populations. Consequently, all populations deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expected frequencies. Fixation indexes were significant for all populations, with the Pedregulho population having the lowest value (0.189 and Itirapina having the highest (0.283. The analysis of spatial genetic structure detected family structures at distance classes of 20 to 65 m in the populations studied. No clones were detected in the populations. Estimates of effective population size were low, but the area occupied by each population studied was large enough for conservation, medium and long term. Recent reductions or bottlenecks were detected in all four populations. Mean Gst’ (genetic divergence indicated that most of the variation was within populations. Cluster structure analysis based on the genotypes detected K= 4 clusters with distinct allele frequencies patterns. The genetic differentiation observed among populations is consistent with the hypothesis of genetic and geographic isolation. Therefore, it is essential to adopt conservation strategies that raise the gene flow between fragments.

  2. Species composition, diversity, and vegetation structure in a gallery forest-cerrado sensu stricto transition zone in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Lenza; Josias O. Santos; Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe investigated the existence of an ecotone in the species composition, diversity and vegetation structure in the transition between gallery forest and cerrado sensu strictoin central Brazil. We tested two hypotheses: 1) a ecotone can be found between gallery forest and cerrado; 2) a gradient exists in the species composition of the cerrado. We established three parallel transects of 5 m × 350 m running between gallery forest and cerrado, which were divided into subplots of 5 m × 10 m...

  3. [Neuropsychological studies of the gnostic processes in children with various forms of infantile cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaĭchuk, I I

    1992-01-01

    Psychometric and neuropsychological studies were carried out in 182 patients with three forms of infantile cerebral paralysis (ICP). Of these, 112 children presented with spastic diplegia, 50 with hemiparetic diplegia, and 20 with hyperkinetic diplegia. The children's age ranged from 8 to 14 years. Depending on the form of ICP, the structural characteristics of intellect were defined as were specific features of the development of higher cortical functions depending on the localization of the underdevelopment of different brain areas. The classification of the structure of the disorders with the aid of the methods used makes it possible to have a differentiated approach to the medical and pedagogical correction of those patients. PMID:1333706

  4. Effects of understory structure on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola (Arthropoda) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Troian, Vera R; Baldissera, Ronei; Hartz, Sandra M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different landscape structures on the understory Collembola community. Four different forest physiognomies were compared: Pinus spp. plantation, Eucalyptus spp. plantation, Araucaria angustifolia plantation, and a remaining native Araucaria forest. Three areas containing two sampling units (25 mx2 m each) were selected in each forest physiognomy. Understory Collembola collection was done with a 1x1 m canvas sheet held horizontally below the vegetation, which was beaten with a 1 m long stick, seasonally from September 2003 to August 2004. We evaluated the influence of forest physiognomies on the abundance, richness and diversity of Collembola communities. It was also verified if the habitat structure of each physiognomy was associated with the composition of the Collembola community. A total number of 4,111 individuals were collected belonging to the families Entomobrydae and Tomocerida (Entomobryomorpha), and Sminthuridae (Symphypleona), and divided in 12 morphospecies. Pinus plantation presented the highest richness, abundance and diversity of Collembola and it was associated to diverse understory vegetation. The abundance of Entomobrydae and Sminthuridae was associated to the presence of bushes, while Tomoceridae abundance was associated to the presence of trees. The habitat structure, measured through understory vegetation density and composition, plays an important role on the determination of the structure and composition of the Collembola community. PMID:19618049

  5. Savant Syndrome: Clinical and Neuropsychological Features

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    Ibrahim Durukan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Savant syndrome defines the people who have severe developmental and mental disabilities but also have extraordinary mental skills which are missing in many people. Although general mental capacity is under average mental level, savant has excessive knowledge about one or more domains. It is accepted that as many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Males outnumber females by an approximate 6 : 1 ratio in savant syndrome. Savant skills are limited to five general categories. These are music, art, calender calculating, mathematics and mechanical or spatial skills. Savant skills can also be divided into three as savants who have splinter skills, talented savants and prodigious savants. A remarkable memory welds to the special abilities determined in savant syndrome. Savant syndrome can be congenital or it can be acquired. Most often savant skills emerge in childhood, superimposed on some underlying developmental disability present at birth. However, acquired savant skills can also appear, when none were previously present, in neurotypical individuals following brain injury or disease later in infancy, childhood or adult life. Savant skills don’t depend on only rote memory. It is approved that an enhanced or spared ability to represent and manipulate highly organised domain-specific information. Various theoretic models were defined to explain the neuropsychological profile in savant syndrome. Interest in savants has a long history, stretching back to the early 18th century; nevertheless, the savant syndrome remains as much a mystery now as it did when it was first described. Given that many questions about the existence and nature of savant talent remain unanswered, it seems likely that research efforts will continue unabated.

  6. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Naomi McKeon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structure of An. triannulatus and An. goeldii revealed distinct demographic histories in a largely overlapping geographic range. Cytochrome oxidase I sequence parsimony networks found geographic clustering for both species; however nuclear marker networks depicted An. triannulatus with a more complex history of fragmentation, secondary contact and recent divergence. Evidence of Pleistocene expansions suggests both species are more likely to be genetically structured by geographic and ecological barriers than demography. We hypothesise that niche partitioning is a driving force for diversity, particularly in An. triannulatus.

  7. Ownership and Control Structures, Corporate Governance and Income Smoothing in Brazil

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    Damiana Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between the ownership and control structure, level of corporate governance and origin of capital (foreign or domestic of Brazilian companies on their propensity to smooth income. Using a sample of nonancialrms with shares traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa at the end of 2007, we performed covariance analysis based on data from the preceding ten years, where the dependent variable was the index proposed by Eckel, an empirical proxy for smoothing. The results indicate that the more concentrated the shareholding and control structures of Brazilianrms are, both according to overall capital and voting capital, the more intensely they tend to smooth earnings to favor the interests of the majority shareholder. The results also show that this effect is less pronounced forrms with enhanced corporate governance levels and those with foreign capital.

  8. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Naomi McKeon; Marta Moreno; Maria Anise Sallum; Marinete Marins Povoa; Jan Evelyn Conn

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structur...

  9. Restructuring of the electric power sector in Brazil. Analysis of the new institutional structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the risks related to the State of not following its original principles and objectives regarding the energy sector. The challenges and risks of the State with its new function as regulator, through the regulation agencies, will be analysed. A comparison between the institutional structure of the Brazilian electrical sector and other countries will be accomplished, focusing on the following aspects: competition, regulation and commercial operation. (author)

  10. Neuropsychologic predictors of operative skill among general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueneman, A L; Pickleman, J; Hesslein, R; Freeark, R J

    1984-08-01

    The present study develops a rating scale method for evaluating operative skills, assesses the predictive utility of neuropsychologic tests of nonverbal cognitive and psychomotor abilities in accounting for individual differences in surgical skills, and compares the efficiency of these measures with those of traditional residency selection criteria. According to a multifactorial design, 120 general surgery residents were tested with a neuropsychologic test battery and then rated by attending surgeons on surgical skills exhibited during the course of 1445 surgical procedures. Analysis of the neuropsychologic battery resulted in three factors (complex visuo-spatial organization, stress tolerance, psychomotor abilities) that were statistically unrelated to traditional measures such as Medical College Admission Test and National Board scores. Multiple regression analyses indicated that academic predictors, taken alone, either do not correlate (National Board scores) or correlate negatively (Medical College Admission Test scores) with the surgery ratings. Conversely, neuropsychologic test scores show significant positive correlation (r = 0.68) with the ratings. When both sets of predictor variables are combined, a multiple regression coefficient of 0.80 is found with the ratings, with more than two thirds of the predictive power attributable to the neuropsychologic test scores. These tests may provide a useful addition to traditional methods of predicting operative skills. PMID:6463862

  11. Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinfeld Matthew

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive deficits and personality pathology are prevalent in opiate dependence, even during periods of remission, and likely contribute to relapse. Understanding the relationship between the two in vulnerable, opiate-addicted patients may contribute to the design of better treatment and relapse prevention strategies. Methods The Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI and a series of neuropsychological tests were administered to three subject groups: 29 subjects receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MM, 27 subjects in protracted abstinence from methadone maintenance treatment (PA, and 29 healthy non-dependent comparison subjects. Relationships between MCMI scores, neuropsychological test results, and measures of substance use and treatment were examined using bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results MCMI scores were greater in subjects with a history of opiate dependence than in comparison subjects. A significant negative correlation between MCMI scores and neuropsychological test performance was identified in all subjects. MCMI scores were stronger predictors of neuropsychological test performance than measures of drug use. Conclusion Formerly methadone-treated opiate dependent individuals in protracted opiate abstinence demonstrate a strong relationship between personality pathology and cognitive deficits. The cause of these deficits is unclear and most likely multi-factorial. This finding may be important in understanding and interpreting neuropsychological testing deficiencies in opiate-dependent subjects.

  12. Crustal structural survey for the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, utilizing geophysical and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravity, Magnetic (airborne, Magnet and Magsat), heat flow and seismicity available data for the state of Minas Gerais and adjacent regions is here analyzed, discussed and integrated with geologic information. The Late Archean crustal structure is defined as blocks of granite-greenstone separated by belts of high-grade terrains. The belts in eastern and southern Minas Gerais represent the lower parts of the Vitoria, Sao Paulo and Parana Blocks, which were up thrusted over the Brasilia Block through low-angle ductile simple shear Zones. That regional structure is cut and somewhat displaced by NW, ENE, NE and Ns fault sets. These faults are mostly related to the Transamazonian Event, and their geological expression appears to be as high-angle ductile simple shear zones. The development of the Middle/upper proterozoic folded sequences, the incidence of the Brasiliano/Uruacuano thermo tectonic events and the geometry of the Sao Francisco Craton were highly influenced by the preexistent weakness zones. The high-grade terrains, the borders of the Brasilia Block and the Transamazonian lineaments have been preferentially affected. The tectono-magmatic manifestations of the Wealdenian Reactivation, related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, occurred mostly among the uplifted zones (Alto Paranaiba Uplift) that developed partially until the rift stage (Mantiqueira Uplift). These processes clearly reveal the influence of the old structures of the state of Minas Gerais. The Mantiqueira Uplift presents a more accentuated seismic activity and thermal flow regime than the neighboring regions, so corresponding to the present less stable area of Minas Gerais. (DJM)

  13. Fish assemblage structure in tributaries of the Meia Ponte River, Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso P. Fialho; Leandro G. Oliveira; Francisco L. Tejerina-Garro; Luiz C. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Meia Ponte River basin, which is located in the Cerrado biome. The objective was to describe the structure of fish assemblages and to evaluate the results with the regard to the position of the tributaries (sampling stations) along the basin. This basin drains 35 municipalities of Goiás State. Springs of the Meia Ponte are located in the district of Itauçu (GO), in the Serra dos Brandões. Two sampling were conducted, one in the rainy season (March/2001) and ano...

  14. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Evain, M.; Afilhado, A; Rigoti, C; Loureiro, A.; D. Alves; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P; Feld, A.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; de Lima, M. Vinicius; Corela, C.; L. Matias; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.

    2015-01-01

    International audience The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, are discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the Santos Basin (SanBa) experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS...

  15. Colonizer vegetation structure in gravel mining degraded environment in Diamantina, MG, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Marinho Pereira; Anne Priscila Dias Gonzaga; Evandro Luiz Mendonça Machado; Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira; Izabel Cristina Marques

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at identifying and quantifying colonizer species and structure in gravel mining degraded environment and to identify species for restoration. It was selected three sites characterized as: site 1 (S1), place with less intense history of use; site 2 (S2), intermediary level of degradation; and site 3 (S3), with higher degradation. Within the three sites it was withdrawn 20 plots of 25 m². Within each plot, species with height ≥ 0.10 m and DNS ≤ 5.0 cm were sampled. It was calcul...

  16. Colonizer vegetation structure in gravel mining degraded environment in Diamantina, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Marinho Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at identifying and quantifying colonizer species and structure in gravel mining degraded environment and to identify species for restoration. It was selected three sites characterized as: site 1 (S1, place with less intense history of use; site 2 (S2, intermediary level of degradation; and site 3 (S3, with higher degradation. Within the three sites it was withdrawn 20 plots of 25 m². Within each plot, species with height ≥ 0.10 m and DNS ≤ 5.0 cm were sampled. It was calculated Shannon’s diversity (H’, Pielou’s equability (J’, Jaccard’s and Czekanowski’s similarity indices, as well as the phytosociology parameters, besides the analysis of indicator species. Thirty-two species and 15 families were registered. S1 was the most species-rich, with the highest density, while S2 presented the lowest richness and density. The sites showed low floristic and structural similarity and statistical differences regarding density, (it was found 844, 270 and 497 individuals in, sites A1, A2 and A3, respectively. Diversity varied from 1,680 to 2,074 nats.individual-1. Probably, these divergences are due to the environment variations imposed by the different degradation intensities.

  17. Neuropsychological Assessment Following Concussion: an Evidence-Based Review of the Role of Neuropsychological Assessment Pre- and Post-Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Anthony P; Sufrinko, Alicia; Womble, Melissa; Kegel, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation is one component of a comprehensive and multifaceted assessment following concussion. Although some neuropsychologists use a "hybrid" assessment approach integrating computerized neurocognitive testing batteries with traditional paper and pencil tests, computerized neurocognitive test batteries are the predominant testing modality for assessment of athletes from the youth to professional level. This review summarizes the most recent research supporting the utility of neuropsychological evaluation and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both computerized and traditional neuropsychological testing approaches. The most up to date research and guidelines on baseline neurocognitive testing is also discussed. This paper addresses concerns regarding reliability of neuropsychological testing while providing an overview of factors that influence test performance, both transient situational factors (e.g., pain level, anxiety) and characteristics of particular subgroups (e.g., age, preexisting learning disabilities), warranting the expertise of an experienced neuropsychologist for interpretation. Currently, research is moving forward by integrating neuropsychological evaluation with emerging assessment approaches for other domains of brain function (e.g., vestibular function) vulnerable to concussion. PMID:27099226

  18. Forensic neuropsychology: a reply to the method skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J T; Ryan, T V; Hawk, G L

    1991-09-01

    Various critics or "method skeptics" have contended that clinical neuropsychology is not sufficiently developed as a science to be offered as evidence in legal or trial proceedings. The present article attempts to balance the extreme position of the method skeptics with an overview of legal and research data that support forensic applications of neuropsychology. It is suggested that clinical evidence can usefully inform legal decision making and that the modern trend has been for courts to be increasingly open to such expert testimony. The relevance of studies of clinical judgement, experience, and actuarial prediction is discussed, and neuropsychological assessment validity is specifically addressed. It is concluded that the arguments of the method skeptics should guide future research and caution forensic neuropsychologists, but that a retreat from the courtroom is unwarranted. PMID:1844712

  19. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  20. Evidence for Quaternary earthquakes from paleo-fluidization structures along the Pernambuco lineament (NE-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Yago; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Hilario Rego Bezerra, Francisco; Cézar Costa Nogueira, Fancisco; Storti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics theory postulate that seismicity is mostly restricted to the plate's boundaries. Nevertheless, intraplate earthquakes occur in stable continental areas such as the NE-Brazilian craton, where seismicity is clustered along fault systems reactivating major Neoproterozoic shear zones. Moreover, evidence for tectonic activity is recorded in the Cenozoic post-rift formations, widely outcropping along the coast of the NE-Brazilian passive margin. To investigate such unexpected seismic and tectonic activity we performed a structural field survey along the coastal segment of the Pernambuco shear zone, where the Miocene sandstone of the Barreiras Fm. and the overlying Quaternary post-Barreiras deposits extensively crop out. They are separated by a Tortonian lateritic paleosoil and are affected by mainly extensional faulting, associated with some strike-slip deformation, clustered in N-S, WNW-ESE, and NE-SW trends. In the proximity of the Pernambuco shear zone, in the hinterland of the Recife town, we found evidence for paleo-fluidization structures in post-Barreiras deposits, where mobilized materials include cm-dm-sized, heterogeneous angular clasts in a sandy-dominated matrix. The extent of the exposed fluidized bodies exceeds ~50 m in active quarry walls, the maximum thickness reaches ~3 m, and the depth of fluidization is estimated to be about 30 m. The top seal of fluidized material was provided by a ~80 cm thick clay layer. Such fluidizations are located few hundreds meters far from a major NE-SW-trending, sin-sedimentary extensional fault zone developed in Quaternary deposits, which is consistent with a left-lateral strike-slip sense of shear of the Pernambuco shear zone. Our results further improve the knowledge of paleo-seismic activity along the Pernambuco shear zone and, in particular, provide additional information for the seismic hazard assessment in the high-density populated area of the Recife town.

  1. Neuropsychological, Metabolic, and GABAA Receptor Studies in Subjects with Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Song, Yoo Sung; Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) occurs as a result of mild and accumulative brain damage. A prototype of rTBI is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which is a degenerative disease that occurs in patients with histories of multiple concussions or head injuries. Boxers have been the most commonly studied patient group because they may experience thousands of subconcussive hits over the course of a career. This study examined the consequences of rTBI with structural brain imaging and biomolecular imaging and investigated whether the neuropsychological features of rTBI were related to the findings of the imaging studies. Five retired professional boxers (mean age, 46.8 ± 3.19 years) and four age-matched controls (mean age, 48.5 ± 3.32 years) were studied. Cognitive-motor related functional impairment was assessed, and all subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation and behavioral tasks, as well as structural brain imaging and functional-molecular imaging. In neuropsychological tests, boxers showed deficits in delayed retrieval of visuospatial memory and motor coordination, which had a meaningful relationship with biomolecular imaging results indicative of neuronal injury. Morphometric abnormalities were not found in professional boxers by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Glucose metabolism was impaired in frontal areas associated with cognitive dysfunction, similar to findings in Alzheimer's disease. Low binding potential (BP) of (18)F-flumazenil (FMZ) was found in the angular gyrus and temporal cortical regions, revealing neuronal deficits. These results suggested that cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction reflect chronic damage to neurons in professional boxers with rTBI. PMID:26414498

  2. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Iannone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of children aged 6—12 years, 86 twins and 86 singletons, submitted to paediatric, neurological, psychological, and ophthalmological examinations. Inclusion criteria were twin pregnancy and gestational age 27—36 weeks for index group; same gestational age, but single pregnancy, for the comparison group. All children underwent paediatric and neuropsychiatric examinations, cognitive assessment, and psychological evaluation by standardized tests for screening of learning specific disorders and language difficulties, and finally, ophthalmological examination. In order to study their role in predicting neuropsychological outcome, we examined some perinatal prognostic factors by statistical analysis. Unfavourable neuropsychological outcome was observed in 55/172 (32% children, with different prevalence in the two groups, 42/172 (24% in twins and 13/172 (8% in singletons. Statistical analysis performed for examined prognostic factors showed significant differences in neuropsychological outcome with regard only to gestational age < 32 weeks, low birth weight, intraventricular haemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. The incidence of neuropsychological diseases in the two groups showed significant difference about language and learning difficulties. Our data suggest that preterm twins represent a particular high-risk category of premature babies, mostly regarding the risk of so-called “minimal brain dysfunction”, so a careful follow-up is recommended.

  3. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  4. The Combined Effect of Neuropsychological and Neuropathological Deficits on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdorp, Eduard J; Kessels, Roy P C; Claassen, Jurgen A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2016-03-01

    To date, studies have consistently demonstrated associations between either neuropsychological deficits or neuroanatomical changes and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in aging. Only a limited number of studies have evaluated morphological brain changes and neuropsychological test performance concurrently in relation to IADL in this population. As a result, it remains largely unknown whether these factors independently predict functional outcome. The current systematic review intended to address this lack of information by reviewing the literature on older adults, incorporating studies that examined e.g., normal aging, but also stroke or dementia patients. A comprehensive search of databases (Pubmed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO) and reference lists was performed, focusing on papers in the English language that examined the combined effect of neuropsychological and neuroanatomical factors on IADL in samples of adults with an average age above 50. In total, 58 potential articles were identified; 20 were included in the review. The results show that especially neuropsychological variables (primarily memory and executive functions) independently predict IADL. Although some unique predictive value of brain morphological changes, such as hippocampal atrophy, was found, support for the importance of white matter changes was limited. However, the results of the studies reviewed are diverse, and appear to be at least partially determined by the variables included. For example, studies were less likely to find an independent effect of cognition if they solely employed a cognitive screening instrument. This indicates that a structured examination of neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of IADL in different patient populations is warranted. PMID:26732392

  5. Sleep imaging and the neuro-psychological assessment of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sophie; Maquet, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that human rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. Although this is usually interpreted in relation to physiological and cellular mechanisms, the specific regional distribution of brain activity during REM sleep might also be linked to specific dream features. Remarkably, several bizarre features of normal dreams have similarities with well-known neuropsychological syndromes after brain damage, such as delusional misidentifications for faces and places. We propose that neuropsychological analysis of dream content might offer new ways of interpreting neuroimaging maps of sleep, and make specific predictions for future neuroimaging studies. PMID:11849612

  6. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological approaches to study of variants of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveyeva E. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review carries out analysis of empirical studies concerning neuropsychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The current data, regarding malfunctions of brain systems at various levels of aetiopathogenesis (genetic, neurotrasmitting, functioning of separate brain structure, are discussed. The article regards the character of deficit in various components of psychic activity in people with ADHD, namely, executive functions and temporary storage (working memory, activating and neurodynamic components of activity, separate operational characteristics, and motivational impairments of patients with ADHD. The possibility of disclosing some clinical variants of the ADHD syndrome, differing in mechanisms, is also discussed in the article.

  7. Structural analysis and magmatism characterization of the Major Gercino shear zone, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the Major Gercino Shear Zone (MGSZ) in the Canelinha-Garcia area. This shear zone is one of the major lineaments that affect all southern Brazilian precambrian terrains. In Santa Catarina State, it separates, along its whole extension, the supracrustal rocks of the Brusque belt (northern part) from the Granitoid belt (southern). This zone is characterized by a regional NE trend and a dextral sense of movement where ductile-brittle structures predominate. The MGSZ is composed of two mylonitic belts separated by granitoid rocks probably associated to the development of the shear zone. Both shear zones show cataclastic to ultra mylonitic rocks, but mylonites and protomylonites conditions at high strain rate. The calc-alkaline granitoids present in the area can be grouped in two granitoid associations with meta to peraluminous affinities. The Rolador Granitoid Association is characterized by grayish porphyritic biotite-monzogranites and the Fernandes Granitoid Association by coarsed-grained to porphyritic pinkish amphibole-syenogranites. The U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages range from 670 to 590 Ma with the Sr87 / Sr86 initial ratios suggesting a crustal contribution in the generation of these rocks. The importance of the pure shear component is also emphasized by the results of the Fry method. Many z axes of the strain ellipses are at high angle to the shear foliation. Symmetric porphyroclasts also corroborate this hypothesis. The micaceous minerals formed during the shear development indicate K-Ar ages around 555 ± 15 Ma. Brittle reactivations of the shear zone have been placed by K-Ar in fine-fraction materials at Triassic time (215 ± 15 Ma.)

  8. Reactors licensing: proposal of an integrated quality and environment regulatory structure for nuclear research reactors in Brazil; Licenciamento de reatores: proposta de uma estrutura regulatoria integrada com abordagem em qualidade e meio ambiente para reatores de pesquisa no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Reynaldo Cavalcanti

    2014-07-01

    A new integrated regulatory structure based on quality and integrated issues has been proposed to be implemented on the licensing process of nuclear research reactors in Brazil. The study starts with a literature review about the licensing process in several countries, all of them members of the International Atomic Energy Agency. After this phase it is performed a comparative study with the Brazilian licensing process to identify good practices (positive aspects), the gaps on it and to propose an approach of an integrated quality and environmental management system, in order to contribute with a new licensing process scheme in Brazil. The literature review considered the following research nuclear reactors: Jules-Horowitz and OSIRIS (France), Hanaro (Korea), Maples 1 and 2 (Canada), OPAL (Australia), Pallas (Holand), ETRR-2 (Egypt) and IEA-R1 (Brazil). The current nuclear research reactors licensing process in Brazil is conducted by two regulatory bodies: the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). CNEN is responsible by nuclear issues, while IBAMA by environmental one. To support the study it was applied a questionnaire and interviews based on the current regulatory structure to four nuclear research reactors in Brazil. Nowadays, the nuclear research reactor’s licensing process, in Brazil, has six phases and the environmental licensing process has three phases. A correlation study among these phases leads to a proposal of a new quality and environmental integrated licensing structure with four harmonized phases, hence reducing potential delays in this process. (author)

  9. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L.; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species’ specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  10. Reversible denaturation of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) and implication of structural destabilization on digestion by pepsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Gaspari, M.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.; Knol, E.F.; Hefle, S.L.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2005-01-01

    The high resistance of Brazil nut 2S albumin, previously identified as an allergen, against proteolysis by pepsin was examined in this work. Although the denaturation temperature of this protein exceeds the 110 °C at neutral pH, at low pH a fully reversible thermal denaturation was observed at ∼82 °

  11. MMPI-2 Symptom Validity (FBS) Scale: psychometric characteristics and limitations in a Veterans Affairs neuropsychological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Symptom Validity (Fake Bad Scale [FBS]) Scale is widely used to assist in determining noncredible symptom reporting, despite a paucity of detailed research regarding its itemmetric characteristics. Originally designed for use in civil litigation, the FBS is often used in a variety of clinical settings. The present study explored its fundamental psychometric characteristics in a sample of 303 patients who were consecutively referred for a comprehensive examination in a Veterans Affairs (VA) neuropsychology clinic. FBS internal consistency (reliability) was .77. Its underlying factor structure consisted of three unitary dimensions (Tiredness/Distractibility, Stomach/Head Discomfort, and Claimed Virtue of Self/Others) accounting for 28.5% of the total variance. The FBS's internal structure showed factoral discordance, as Claimed Virtue was negatively related to most of the FBS and to its somatic complaint components. Scores on this 12-item FBS component reflected a denial of socially undesirable attitudes and behaviors (Antisocial Practices Scale) that is commonly expressed by the 1,138 males in the MMPI-2 normative sample. These 12 items significantly reduced FBS reliability, introducing systematic error variance. In this VA neuropsychological referral setting, scores on the FBS have ambiguous meaning because of its structural discordance. PMID:24826489

  12. Neuropsychology in the Schools: Implications for School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Ilene R.

    The incidence of neurologically impaired students in the classroom may continue to increase as advances in medicine contribute to the survival of children suffering from severe trauma. Inclusion of neuropsychological principles into a psychological evaluation provides a comprehensive synthesis of cognitive, sensorimotor, and emotional elements of…

  13. Contributions of Neuropsychology to Our Understanding of Developmental Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how neuropsychological research has increased understanding of the reading process and reading disabilities in children. Variations in impaired processes in reading disabilities can best be understood when brain-behavior relations involved in reading are conceptualized as a widespread functional system. Discusses implications for…

  14. Rebuttal to the Critical Commentary on Neuropsychology in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.

    1981-01-01

    A defense of the articles published in the September 1981 issue of "School Psychology Review" is provided. Concerns raised regarding the integration and application of neuropsychological knowledge in the school environment are addressed. Readers are urged to reevaluate their concepts regarding the learning problem child. (Author/AL)

  15. Integrating Neuropsychology and School Psychology: Potential and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Paul B.; Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    The neurological basis of learning disabilities (LD), and other handicapping conditions commonly found in school-age children, makes the integration of neuropsychology and school psychology plausible. However, there has been longstanding debate over the required level of education, training, supervision, and credentialing needed for the practice…

  16. Depression vs. Dementia: A comparative analysis of neuropsychological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Leposavić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of depression, detected comparatively specific profile of cognitive deficiencies, including the disorders of attention, memory and executive functions. Although the classical depression is recognized as psuedodementia, or reversible dementia, these two entities frequently overlap in the elder population. Many patients who are at first depressive, become demented later, and the initial stages of dementia are not rarely accompanied with mood changes. The aim of this study is the establishing of differences between neuropsychological profiles of depression and dementia. The sample included three groups: the first group represented the patients with endogenous depression, the second – the patients with dementia, and the third one – healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery. Two patient groups were tested during the stage of remission/adequate mood. Abilities most susceptible to depression are: attention, executive functions and memory. Cognitive flexibility and general cognitive ability are preserved in depressive patients. Depressive patients express cognitive disorders of moderate degree during the remission stage. Impairment pattern in the group of depressive patients does not indicate intellectual degradation of the dementia type. Neuropsychological deficiencies of the patients with endogenous depression suggest frontal limbic dysfunction. Еxcesses in cognitive functioning of demented patients are more serious and massive in comparison with cognitive difficulties in depressive patients.

  17. A neuropsychological model relating self-awareness to hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, H A; Harrison, D W

    1997-12-01

    Neuropsychological advances may help researchers better understand the relationship between psychological constructs. This paper proposes a neuropsychological model explaining the negative relationship between hostility and "self-awareness," which has been suggested by previous research [H. A. Demaree and D. W. Harrison (1995a) "Behavioral, Physiological, and Neuropsychological Correlates of Hostility," manuscript submitted for publication; L. H. Epstein and P. A. Cluss (1982) "A Behavioral Medicine Perspective on Adherence to Long-Term Medical Regimes," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 50, pp. 950-971; M. F. Scheier et al. (1974) "Self-Awareness and Physical Aggression," Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, Vol. 10, pp. 254-273]. The authors review the role of the right cerebrum in both hostility and "self-awareness"--including arousal, perceptual, expressive, and integrative processes. Using identifiable tracts in the brain, the model suggests how deficits in "self-awareness"--poor awareness of physiological arousal, natural and emotional environment, etc.--may enhance the probability of hostility expression. This model is supported by previous empirical research and provides direction for future neuropsychological investigation. PMID:9471112

  18. The Impact of Chronic Pesticide Exposure on Neuropsychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Caitlin G.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study compared neuropsychological test performance of individuals (n = 18) with an occupational history of pesticide exposure to individuals (n = 35) with no such exposure history. Results showed that a history of pesticide-related occupation exposure led to deficits in only Digit Symbol performance. Additionally, the correlation between…

  19. Assessing Medication Effects in the MTA Study Using Neuropsychological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Conners, C. Keith; Hervey, Aaron S.; Tonev, Simon T.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Wells, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: While studies have increasingly investigated deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant medication on these important neuropsychological outcome measures. Methods: 316 children who participated in the Multimodal…

  20. Neuropsychological Profile of Children with Subcortical Band Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Richard; Jacobs, Rani; De Luca, Cinzia; Anderson, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) or "double cortex" is a malformation of cortical development resulting from impaired neuronal migration. So far, research has focused on the neurological, neuroimaging, and genetic correlates of SBH. More recently, clinical reports and small sample studies have documented neuropsychological dysfunction in…

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  2. Neuropsychological Correlates of Academic Success among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, B. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Significant differences were found between younger and older children on most neuropsychological tests. Girls were found to be superior to boys in verbal reasoning, language skills, and serial perceptual matching skills, whereas boys were superior on tests of spatial memory and motor skills. (Author)

  3. Attorneys Influence Expert Evidence in Forensic Psychological and Neuropsychological Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees-Haley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that attorneys are influencing data relied on by psychological experts in forensic cases, usually by advising clients how to respond to psychological tests or by prompting them in other ways. This article alerts psychologists to this threat to the validity of psychological and neuropsychological evaluations.…

  4. Functional Amnesia: Clinical Description and Neuropsychological Profile of 10 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, Mark; Chang, Judy; Squire, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    We carried out the first neuropsychological study of a series of patients with functional amnesia. We evaluated 10 patients, first with a neurological examination and then with three tests of anterograde amnesia and four tests of retrograde amnesia. Excluding one patient who later admitted to malingering, all patients had a significant premorbid…

  5. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and…

  6. Neuropsychological Treatment of Dyslexia: Does Type of Treatment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Maria Lulsa; Facoetti, Andrea; Bakker, Dirk J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 123 children with a diagnosis of developmental dyslexia were assigned to different treatment groups, either variations of Bakker's intervention program based on the balance model or a control, a specific reading training group. Thorough cognitive and neuropsychological assessment allowed determination of the subtype of dyslexia…

  7. Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

  8. Neuropsychological Complications of HIV Disease and Substances of Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Norman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that neuropsychological deficits and impairments are associated with HIV infection. Given that antiretroviral therapies have extended the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons, it becomes critical to focus on the physical and mental health of these patients. Understanding the neuropsychology of HIV disease can provide insight into improving mental health, functional capacity and overall quality of life for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, clinicians may be better able to assist patients to manage their symptoms, thereby increasing the number of patients who are able to successfully maintain difficult treatment schedules. In addition, it is equally important to understand the potentially exacerbating effects of various factors. One such factor is substance abuse, which has been associated with various neuropsychological impairments, irrespective of the substance of abuse. Therefore, a more complete understanding of the effects of substance abuse on the progression of impaired cognitive processes and functioning can allow for an enhanced evaluation and management of those patients who live with HIV disease and who suffer from substance abuse disorders. As such, the present paper provides an overview of the neuropsychology of HIV and substance abuse, as well as of the available research that has examined the potential interaction effects between HIV disease and substance abuse. The implications of the findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstedt, Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A…

  10. Evaluation of Consumer Satisfaction with Information Derived from Neuropsychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H. B.; Horton, Arthur MacNeill, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of information derived from a consumer satisfaction questionnaire was demonstrated via an analysis of feedback from 22 referring health professionals (21 physicians and 1 clinical psychologist) who replied to questions about their satisfaction with neuropsychological evaluation reports. The questionnaire used was the Neuropsychology…

  11. Neuropsychological underpinnings of different forms of antisocial behaviour in schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Yin-hung; 林嫣紅

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and other psychotic disorders are often affiliated with pathological concepts such as being violent and socially incompetent. For instance, prior studies have established the associations of schizophrenia with social dysfunction such as antisocial behaviour. However, it is unclear what specific neuropsychological factors underlie these relationships. Besides, whether such linkage can transcend to the su...

  12. Mild cognitive impairment in adult: A neuropsychological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Yanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. This is clinically relevant as overt dementia can be prevented if treatment strategies are devised for MCI. Neuropsychological deficits in this condition are very common and are important clinically for treatment and outcomes. We aimed to review various neuropsychological deficits in MCI. Further, we have presented the current evidence for nosological status, neuroanatomical basis, and clinical outcome of this heterogeneous construct. All published papers on the topic of neuropsychological deficits in MCI on Medline and other databases were reviewed. A wide range of memory and executive function deficits are common in MCI patients. However, several studies are limited by either improper designs or inadequate sample sizes. Several neuropsychological impairments like memory function and executive functions can be diagnosed in MCI. The evidence base for the exact neuroanatomical basis of MCI is not robust yet. However, given the wide range of outcomes, controversies and debates exist regarding the nosological significance of the deficits. Hence, more studies are needed to specifically localise the impairments and further delineate the construct of MCI.

  13. Avaliação neuropsicológica da criança Neuropsychological assessment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle I. Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a metodologia empregada na avaliação neuropsicológica de crianças e suas contribuições, priorizando aqueles aspectos de interesse dos profissionais da área da saúde, em especial pediatras, psicólogos, psiquiatras, neurologistas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura sobre o tema proposto nos últimos anos e incluídas referências de livros texto e manuais dos testes imprescindíveis para a compreensão do exame neuropsicológico e aporte da experiência da Unidade de Neuropsicologia do HSL - PUCRS. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A avaliação neuropsicológica não se limita a aplicação de testes psicométricos e neuropsicológicos organizados em baterias, mas objetiva, também, avaliar a relação destes achados com a patologia neurológica e/ou comportamental e em estabelecer a possível área cerebral envolvida. Adicionalmente, a interpretação cuidadosa destes resultados deve ser associada à análise da situação atual do sujeito e do contexto onde vive. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado final deve fornecer um perfil neuropsicológico do paciente que, combinado à avaliação dos aspectos neurológicos/clínicos, psicológicos e sociais, permitirá auxiliar no seu diagnóstico e/ou orientar sobre o melhor aproveitamento de suas potencialidades.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods used for neuropsychological assessment in children, emphasizing aspects of interest to pediatricians, psychologists and neurologists. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of the published literature concerning neuropsychological assessment, including textbooks and reference manuals. The experience of the Neuropsychology Unit at Hospital São Lucas, Brazil, is described. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Neuropsychological assessment should not be limited to the application of psychometric and neuropsychological tests; it should also correlate test findings with the neurological/behavioral disorder and establish which part of the brain is likely

  14. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G

    2005-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common, yet few studies have examined neuropsychological outcomes more than 1 year postinjury. Studies of nonreferred individuals with MTBI or studies with appropriate control groups are lacking, but necessary to draw conclusions regarding natural recovery from MTBI. We examined the long-term neuropsychological outcomes of a self-reported MTBI an average of 8 years postinjury in a nonreferred community-dwelling sample of male veterans. This was a cross-sectional cohort study derived from the Vietnam Experience Study. Three groups matched on premorbid cognitive ability were examined, those who (1) had not been injured in a MVA nor had a head injury (Normal Control; n = 3214), (2) had been injured in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) but did not have a head injury (MVA Control; n = 539), and (3) had a head injury with altered consciousness (MTBI; n = 254). A MANOVA found no group differences on a standard neuropsychological test battery of 15 measures. Across 15 measures, the average neuropsychological effect size of MTBI compared with either control group was -.03. Subtle aspects of attention and working memory also were examined by comparing groups on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) continuation rate and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) proactive interference (PI). Compared with normal controls, the MTBI group evidenced attention problems in their lower rate of continuation to completion on the PASAT (odds ratio = 1.32, CI = 1.0-1.73) and in excessive PI (odds ratio = 1.66, CI = 1.11-2.47). Unique to the MTBI group, PASAT continuation problems were associated with left-sided visual imperceptions and excessive PI was associated with impaired tandem gait. These results show that MTBI can have adverse long-term neuropsychological outcomes on subtle aspects of complex attention and working memory. PMID:15892899

  15. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca eSá

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological difference between two types of AD using the conventional dividing line of 65 years.Methods: We evaluated the results obtained in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and in a comprehensive neuropsychological battery – Battery of Lisbon for the Assessment of Dementia (BLAD, at a Dementia clinic in the University Hospital of Coimbra and a Memory Clinic. Consecutive patients with a clinical probable diagnosis of mild to moderate AD, using standard criteria (DSMIV and NINCDS-ADRDA, were selected. Statistical analysis was performed using Qui-square and U-Mann-Whitney, for categorical and non-categorical variables.Results: The sample included 280 patients: 109 with early-onset AD and 171 with a late-onset form. Groups were comparable in gender, education, severity of disease and MMSE. In BLAD, the early onset group had lower scores in Naming (p=0,025, Right-Left Orientation (p=0,029 and Praxis (p=0,001, and better performances in Orientation (p=0,001 and Visual Memory (p=0,022. After application of Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons only Praxis and Orientation could differentiate the two groups.Discussion: The results are suggestive of dissociated profiles between early and late-onset AD. Younger patients have a major impairment in Praxis and a tendency for a great impairment in neocortical temporal functions. Late-onset form had a tendency for worse performances in Visual Memory and Orientation, suggesting a more localized disease to the limbic

  16. Neuropsychological Test Performance and the Attention Deficit Disorders: Clinical Utility of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaughency, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Administered Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery--Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) to 54 clinic-referred children aged 8-12 years. Compared children reliably diagnosed as attention deficit disorder (ADD) with hyperactivity, without hyperactivity, and control group with internalizing disorders. Findings failed to support hypothesis that ADD is…

  17. Leading Educational Change Using a Neuropsychological Response-to-Intervention Approach: Linking Our Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsken, Deborah; Stoeckel, Amanda; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology may be described as the study of brain-behavior relationships (National Academy of Neuropsychology [NAN], 2001). Clinical neuropsychology represents the application of knowledge of the intricacies of these relationships to individual cases. Several authors have advocated for the application of neuropsychology to the public schools,…

  18. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  19. Wearing-off in Parkinson’s disease: neuropsychological differences between on and off periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caillava-Santos F

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabiane Caillava-Santos,1,2 Regina Margis,2 Carlos Roberto de Mello Rieder2–4 1Psychology Department, Universidade da Região da Campanha, Bagé, RS, Brazil; 2Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina, Ciências Médicas da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Movement Disorders Center, Division of Neurology, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 4Movement Disorder Clinic, Division of Neurology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilBackground: Levodopa-associated motor fluctuations are common complications observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. Although nonmotor fluctuations are a significant cause of morbidity, they frequently are not properly identified. Few studies have characterized the nonmotor emotional fluctuations and their relation to motor fluctuations.Aims: The objective of the present study is to analyze the occurrence of fluctuations in anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as in cognitive function (memory, language, executive function, and attention, and their relation to motor fluctuations in PD patients presenting wearing-off phenomenon.Methods: Twenty-four patients were assessed during the wearing on-off periods. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were used to assess anxiety and depression, respectively, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Stroop Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, Weschler Memory Scale - digits (WMS and Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA for assessing executive functions, verbal memory, attention and work memory and verbal fluency, respectively.Results: Patients presented higher depression and anxiety scores in the wearing-off period (P<0.05. Differences were also found in the semantic verbal fluency (P=0.017 and executive function (P=0.008 tests performance.Conclusions: Nonmotor

  20. Thermomagnetic Features of Crust in Southern Parts of the Structural Provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Suze Nei P. Guimaraes; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we report results of a regional scale investigation of the thermal and magnetic characteristics of the crust in the southern sector of the geologic provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco, Brazil. Updated compilations of aeromagnetic and geothermal data sets were employed for this purpose. Use of such techniques as vertical derivative, analytic signal, and Euler deconvolution in analysis of aeromagnetic data has allowed precise locations of the sources of magnetic anomali...

  1. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion: Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer performance on neuropsychological tests. Therefore, it is important to consider smoking status in alcoholism studies and vice versa. Keywords: MRI, morphometry, neuropsychology, tobacco, alcohol

  2. Labelling and Packaging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Tania M; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Brazil is the largest country in South America, with an area of 8 547 403.5 square kilometres and a population of 169 799 170 (IBGE, 2000). Its geopolitical structure com-prises 26 states and one Federal District, the capital of Brazil, Brasilia. Each state is divided into municipalities, of which there are a total of 5 507. The primary causes of death in Brazil are cardiovascular diseases and cancer and their major risk factor is tobacco use. Lung cancer is the...

  3. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  4. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  5. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  6. Reasons for holding a Consensus Conference on neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavass, E; Paolucci, S; Umiltà, C

    2011-03-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are common in various cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative and traumatic pathologies. Neuropsychological rehabilitation refers to a set of interventions that aim to improve a person's ability to perform cognitive tasks by retraining previously learned skills and teaching compensatory strategies. However, today there are some relevant points that need of further investigations. In 2007, a Task Force was set up under the auspices of several scientific societies that operate in the field of psychology, neuropsychology, rehabilitation and neurology (AIP, GIRN, SIMFER, SIN, SINP, and SPAN) with the aim to clarify the theoretical background of neuropsychological rehabilitation and to assess the diagnostic instruments and the treatments available to date. This consensus conference (CC), using methods derived from those of Evidence-Based-Medicine (EMB), evaluated several points, including: a) legal aspects; b) epidemiological aspects; c) neuropsychological rehabilitation of attentional and executive disorders; d) neuropsychological rehabilitation of speech/language disorders; e) neuropsychological rehabilitation of visual field defects; f) neuropsychological rehabilitation of neglect; g) neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory disorders; h) cognitive rehabilitation of arm apraxia; i) neuropsychological rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease; j) rehabilitation of multiple sclerosis; k) rehabilitation of severe brain injuries; l) rehabilitation of mild to moderate brain injuries; m) rehabilitation of behavioral disorders in severe brain injuries. Then, CC submitted to a specific Jury a final report with summary tables and questions. The final meeting of the Jury was held in Siena in February 2010. PMID:21448122

  7. Neuropsychological effects of the CSMD1 genome-wide associated schizophrenia risk variant rs10503253.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, G; Walters, J; Hargreaves, A; Rose, E J; Morris, D W; Fahey, C; Bellini, S; Cummins, E; Giegling, I; Hartmann, A M; Möller, H-J; Muglia, P; Owen, M J; Gill, M; O'Donovan, M C; Tropea, D; Rujescu, D; Corvin, A

    2013-03-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10503253, located within the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene on 8p23.2, was recently identified as genome-wide significant for schizophrenia (SZ), but is of unknown function. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of this CSMD1 variant in vivo in patients and healthy participants using behavioral and imaging measures of brain structure and function. We compared carriers and non-carriers of the risk 'A' allele on measures of neuropsychological performance typically impaired in SZ (general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory and attentional control) in independent samples of Irish patients (n = 387) and controls (n = 171) and German patients (205) and controls (n = 533). Across these groups, the risk 'A' allele at CSMD1 was associated with deleterious effects across a number of neurocognitive phenotypes. Specifically, the risk allele was associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological measures of general cognitive ability and memory function but not attentional control. These effects, while significant, were subtle, and varied between samples. Consistent with previous evidence suggesting that CSMD1 may be involved in brain mechanisms related to memory and learning, these data appear to reflect the deleterious effects of the identified 'A' risk allele on neurocognitive function, possibly as part of the mechanism by which CSMD1 is associated with SZ risk. PMID:23320435

  8. Functional and neuropsychological late outcomes in posterior fossa tumors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Alvaro; Bouffet, Eric; Mabbott, Donald; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2015-10-01

    Tumors of the posterior fossa (PF) account for up to 60 % of all childhood intracranial tumors. Over the last decades, the mortality rate of children with posterior fossa tumors has gradually decreased. While survival has been the primary objective in most reports, quality of survival increasingly appears to be an important indicator of a successful outcome. Children with a PF tumor can sustain damage to the cerebellum and other brain structures from the tumor itself, concomitant hydrocephalus, the consequences of treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), or a combination of these factors. Together, these contribute to long-term sequelae in physical functioning, neuropsychological late outcomes (including academic outcome, working memory, perception and estimation of time, and selective attention, long-term neuromotor speech deficits, and executive functioning). Long-term quality of life can also be affected by endocrinological complication or the occurrence of secondary tumors. A significant proportion of survivors of PF tumors require long-term special education services and have reduced rates of high school graduation and employment. Interventions to improve neuropsychological functioning in childhood PF tumor survivors include (1) pharmacological interventions (such as methylphenidate, modafinil, or donepezil), (2) cognitive remediation, and (3) home-based computerized cognitive training. In order to achieve the best possible outcome for survivors, and ultimately minimize long-term complications, new interventions must be developed to prevent and ameliorate the neuro-toxic effects experienced by these children. PMID:26351237

  9. Neuropsychological effects of the CSMD1 genome-wide associated schizophrenia risk variant rs10503253.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, G

    2013-03-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10503253, located within the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene on 8p23.2, was recently identified as genome-wide significant for schizophrenia (SZ), but is of unknown function. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of this CSMD1 variant in vivo in patients and healthy participants using behavioral and imaging measures of brain structure and function. We compared carriers and non-carriers of the risk \\'A\\' allele on measures of neuropsychological performance typically impaired in SZ (general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory and attentional control) in independent samples of Irish patients (n = 387) and controls (n = 171) and German patients (205) and controls (n = 533). Across these groups, the risk \\'A\\' allele at CSMD1 was associated with deleterious effects across a number of neurocognitive phenotypes. Specifically, the risk allele was associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological measures of general cognitive ability and memory function but not attentional control. These effects, while significant, were subtle, and varied between samples. Consistent with previous evidence suggesting that CSMD1 may be involved in brain mechanisms related to memory and learning, these data appear to reflect the deleterious effects of the identified \\'A\\' risk allele on neurocognitive function, possibly as part of the mechanism by which CSMD1 is associated with SZ risk.

  10. Neuropsychological functioning following bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C E; Borod, J C; Perrine, K; Beric, A; Brin, M F; Rezai, A; Kelly, P; Sterio, D; Germano, I; Weisz, D; Olanow, C W

    2004-03-01

    The cognitive effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been examined. However, there are no reported studies that evaluate, by incorporating a disease control group, whether neuropsychological performance in surgical patients changes beyond the variability of the assessment measures. To examine this issue, 17 PD patients were tested before and after bilateral STN stimulator implantation, both on and off stimulation. Eleven matched PD controls were administered the same repeatable neuropsychological test battery twice. Relative to changes seen in the controls, the surgery for electrode placement mildly adversely affected attention and language functions. STN stimulation, per se, had little effect on cognition. The STN DBS procedure as a whole resulted in a mild decline in delayed verbal recall and language functions. There were no surgery, stimulation, or procedure effects on depression scale scores. In contrast to these group findings, one DBS patient demonstrated significant cognitive decline following surgery. PMID:15010083

  11. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the 133xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning

  12. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  13. Neuropsychological and MMPI correlates of patients' future employment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnan, O S; Heaton, R K; Lehman, R A

    1978-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that patients' neuropsychological test scores correlate not only with neurologic status but also with their success in coping with some of the demands of daily living. This study investigated the utility of such laboratory test scores in predicting several vocational variables. Patients who had recieved neuropsychological evaluations were recontacted and questioned about their employment over the previous 6 mo. Of the 78 individuals who participated, 25 had been chronically unemployed. The remaining 53 were asked about job stability, hours worked, and wages earned, and were administered the Minnsota Job Requirements Questionnaire. Patients' scores on the Halstead-Reitan Battery, the WAIS and the MMPI were highly correlated with employment status (employed or chronically unemployed), income, and skills required on the jobs held. The results suggest that these tests may have clinical utility in assessing patients' employability, as well as the types of jobs for which they are suited. PMID:662567

  14. Importance of a critical reading of neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappedi, M; Baschenis, I M C; Dolci, R; Bejor, M

    2011-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing has become an important part of the diagnostic tools available to assess children's functioning. Tests are routinely use to establish diagnosis, measure patient's impairment and drive rehabilitation. The authors present the clinical case of a eight-year-old girl, sent to our Child Neuropsychiatry and Rehabilitation Unit for a suspected Specific Learning Disorder. Peculiar findings regarding attention and reading ability became evident during the initial evaluation; a mistaken diagnosis of dyslexia was avoided by carefully examining her global functioning (in particular sight, as she suffered from hyperopia but more importantly she had an insufficient control of vertical saccadic movements) and the strategies she used during testing. This constitutes a good example of the need to take into consideration the patient as a whole during any assessment, including neuropsychological testing. PMID:21654605

  15. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level. PMID:26936160

  16. Oscar Marin and the Creation of a Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I

    2015-09-01

    During the 1980s, the Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory at Good Samaritan Hospital, Portland, Oregon, made important strides in the study of brain injury. Created and headed by Oscar Marin and the author, in affiliation with the University of Oregon, the lab brought together students, fellows, and visiting experts in neurology, psychology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, neurobiology, neurophysiology, and computation. Their patient-focused collaborations produced groundbreaking research in language and its disorders, bradyphrenia, neglect, cerebellar function and impairment, and the psychology of music. The lab hosted the meeting that they documented in the influential 1985 book Attention and Performance XI: Mechanisms of Attention. The lab's members have gone on to lead distinguished careers and continue making major contributions to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:26413738

  17. A Case of Chronic Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A Neuropsychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Postma, Albert; Wijnia, Jan W; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was referred to our Korsakoff Center because of extensive cognitive problems following acute Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). She had a relatively short history of alcohol abuse and was found lying on the floor in her home by her son. After 5 days without treatment, she was diagnosed with WE in a general hospital. During the course of the disease, minimal change to the acute situation occurred, with chronic confusion, attention deficits, and incoherent behavior symptoms most notable unlike classical Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychological assessment after 4 and 16 months after admission to the hospital revealed global cognitive decline, with striking impairments in attentional, executive, and memory functions. The present case study suggests that the state of confusion and the neuropsychological symptoms in WE can become chronic in case of very late treatment. We therefore recommend that confused alcoholics should receive appropriate parenteral thiamine according to the current clinical standards. PMID:24904442

  18. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: clinical case of depression and working incapacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to mental health in relation to court matters have increasingly required the participation of the psychologist. We present the use of forensic neuropsychological assessment in a case of retirement reversal. Incapacity was attested due to disability resulting from depression of a 35-year-old attorney, and the case was forwarded from the courts to the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Unit at the USP Clinical Hospital. A clinical interview and application of cognitive tests was conducted. Despite the depression, significant cognitive losses that would prevent return to his professional assignments were not detected. The neuropsychological assessment has been shown to be an important tool in the forensic context, as it assists with diagnostic value for clarification of functional aspects in the various psychopathological areas in terms of disabilities or potentialities.

  19. Genetics and Neuropsychology: A Merger Whose Time Has Come

    OpenAIRE

    Kremen, William S.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2016-01-01

    Genetics and neuropsychology have historically been two rather distant and unrelated fields. With the very rapid advances that have been taking place in genetics, research and treatment of disorders of cognition in the 21st century are likely to be increasingly informed by individual differences in genetics and epigenetics. Although neuropsychologists are not expected to become geneticists, it is our view that increased training in genetics should become more central to training in neuropsych...

  20. Cognitive Neuropsychology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Steven Paul; Moore, David J; Weber, Erica; Grant, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have dramatically improved survival rates over the past 10 years, but HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain highly prevalent and continue to represent a significant public health problem. This review provides an update on the nature, extent, and diagnosis of HAND. Particular emphasis is placed on critically evaluating research within the realm of cognitive neuropsychology that aims to elucidate the component p...

  1. Brain Evolution and Human Neuropsychology: The Inferential Brain Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Koscik, Timothy R.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration between human neuropsychology and comparative neuroscience has generated invaluable contributions to our understanding of human brain evolution and function. Further cross-talk between these disciplines has the potential to continue to revolutionize these fields. Modern neuroimaging methods could be applied in a comparative context, yielding exciting new data with the potential of providing insight into brain evolution. Conversely, incorporating an evolutionary base into the the...

  2. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Maia

    2010-01-01

    We study the results of a descriptive and exploratory study, with the intent to understand the results of a 21 male schizophrenic patients interned in a Portuguese Mental Health Care Centre, evaluated with neuropsychological test. We tried also to link these tests with variables such as schooling, family contact or lengh of internment. The assessment instruments were: Digits Series and Vocabulary Task, both from WAIS, Raven Progressive Matrices, Rey’s Complex Figures, Luria’s Series Neuropsyc...

  3. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S. E.; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospecti...

  4. Thinking about Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: An Interview with Barbara Wilson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E. Salas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This interview was held in 2008, during the 5th World Congress for Neuro-Rehabilitation in Brasilia, Brasil. Barbara Wilson is a psychologist and researcher in neuropsychological rehabilitation from United Kingdom. She is the founder of the Oliver Zangwill Centre, a place that has strongly contributed to the development of theorical and technical approaches to rehabilitate cognitive and socio-emotional problems after brain injury.

  5. Decomposing age correlations on neuropsychological and cognitive variables

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences associated with age and various neurological conditions are often found in many different neuropsychological and cognitive variables. These variables are frequently treated as though they were independent of one another, with the results interpreted in terms of effects on task-specific processes. However, an alternative perspective evaluates the breadth of the individual difference influences, and takes relations with other variables into account when considering effect...

  6. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Mary M Valmas; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across r...

  7. The Neuropsychology of Cocaine Addiction: Recent Cocaine Use Masks Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Woicik, Patricia A.; Moeller, Scott J.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also ...

  8. The Effects of Age and HIV on Neuropsychological Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Valcour, Victor; Paul, Robert; Neuhaus, John; Shikuma, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Both HIV and aging impact performance on neuropsychological testing; however, evidence for differences between HIV effects in younger compared to older subjects (interaction effects) is limited and the findings have been inconsistent. Coexisting morbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in HIV include those not directly referable to infection, per se, and are more prevalent with advancing age, increasing the likelihood that HIV and age effects may be largely independent. As individu...

  9. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: a review of its scope

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio de Pádua Serafim; Fabiana Saffi; Thais Guerra Barbosa Da Silva; Camila Viana De Almeida; Erica Hokama; Daniel Martins de Barros; Alvaro Machado Dias

    2015-01-01

    Background Issues related to the field of mental health and justice require a multifactorial understanding of the possible causes of such issues. Objective To conduct an integrative literature review of controlled studies describing forensic neuropsychological assessment. Methods The articles were compiled and analyzed in two phases: 1) first, we retrieved all papers in PubMed by the keywords “Forensic Neuropsychology” and generated a growth curve for the subject and a cluster-based thematic ...

  10. The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The development of robust neuropsychological measures of social and affective function—which link critical dimensions of mental health to their underlying neural circuitry—could be a key step in achieving a more pathophysiologically-based approach to psychiatric medicine. In this article, we summarize research indicating that self-reflection (the inward attention to personal thoughts, memories, feelings, and actions) may be a useful model for developing such a paradigm, as there is evidence t...

  11. Thinking about Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: An Interview with Barbara Wilson

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Christian E.; Wilson, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    This interview was held in 2008, during the 5th World Congress for Neuro-Rehabilitation in Brasilia, Brasil. Barbara Wilson is a psychologist and researcher in neuropsychological rehabilitation from United Kingdom. She is the founder of the Oliver Zangwill Centre, a place that has strongly contributed to the development of theorical and technical approaches to rehabilitate cognitive and socio-emotional problems after brain injury.

  12. Modeling the neural correlates of imitation from a neuropsychological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petreska, Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Imitation is a fundamental mechanism by which humans learn and understand the actions of others. This thesis addresses the low-level neural mechanisms underlying the imitation of meaningless gestures, using tools from computational neuroscience. We investigate how the human brain perceives these gestures and translates them into appropriate motor commands. In addition, we take a relatively unexplored neuropsychological perspective, which looks at imitation following a brain lesion. The analys...

  13. Paediatric neuropsychological assessment: an analysis of parents' perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Daniel; Thomas, Sophie; Dawson, Dave; Talbot, Emily; Bennett, Emily; Starza-Smith, Arleta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Modern healthcare services are commonly based on shared models of care, in which a strong emphasis is placed upon the views of those in receipt of services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the parents' experiences of their child's neuropsychological assessment. Design/methodology/approach: This was a mixed-methodology study employing both quantitative and qualitative measures. Findings: The questionnaire measure indicated a high overall level of satisfaction. Qualitative anal...

  14. Cognitive–Neuropsychological Function in Chronic Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Jean R.; Nagin, Daniel; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive–neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found. In a 1st model, both histories of problem behavior wer...

  15. Essential books and journals in clinical neuropsychology: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Karen A; Ryan, Joseph J

    2004-04-01

    To assist in the identification of key professional resources for neuropsychologists, 214 Australian clinical neuropsychologists were asked to identify "essential" reference materials. Fifty members of the Australian College of Clinical Neuropsychologists returned useable surveys. Forty-three respondents provided information about which clinical neuropsychology books and journals they considered essential and why. Results showed 15 books, including 3 Australian books, and 31 journals were included in the essential reading list of at least 10% of this sample. Compared to similar previous surveys (predominantly conducted overseas and mostly over 10 years ago), the results of this survey suggest that, Australian neuropsychologists have similar views about the top ranking books and journals in clinical neuropsychology as their overseas counterparts. An exception to this general trend may be the status of reference books containing norms, which appear to be growing in perceived importance. Importantly, the results of this survey may be used to help practitioners identify key professional resources in the area of clinical neuropsychology. PMID:15202548

  16. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  17. Neuropsychological investigation in Chinese patients with progressive muscular atrophy.

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    Bo Cui

    Full Text Available Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA is a rare type of degenerative motor neuron disease (MND of which the onset happens in adult period. Despite its well-defined clinical characteristics, its neuropsychological profile has remained poorly understood, considering the consensus of cognitive and behavioral impairment reached in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of Chinese PMA patients with a series of comprehensive batteries emphasizing the executive and attention function, and covering other domains of memory, language, visuospatial function, calculation and behavior as well. Their performances were compared with those of age- and education-matched ALS and healthy controls (HC.21 patients newly diagnosed with PMA were consecutively enrolled into our ALS and other MND registry platform, accounting for 14.7% of all the incident MND cases registered during the same period. 20 patients who completed the neuropsychological batteries were included into analysis. Compared with HC, PMA performed significantly worse in maintenance function of attention, while they exhibited quantitative similarity to ALS in all behavioral inventories and neuropsychological tests except the time for Stroop interference effect.PMA could display mild cognitive dysfunction in the same frontal-mediated territory of ALS but in a lesser degree, whereas they did not differ from ALS behaviorally.

  18. Neuropsychological test norms controlled for physical health: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ingvar; Almkvist, Ove

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of physical health on neuropsychological test norms. Medical and neuropsychological data from 118 healthy volunteer controls, aged 26-91 years, were collected during five recruitment occasions. The examinations included a clinical investigation, brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Test-specific statistical regression-weights for age, education and gender were calculated to establish preliminary test norms. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that control in addition for physical health moved best performance from age 60 to 65 for abstraction; replaced a plateau above age 70 for verbal fluency, with a continued rise in performance; eliminated significant negative influences of age on auditory learning, spatial reasoning and complex copying; reduced them on wordlist recall, psychomotor speed, visual scanning and mental shifting; and slightly reduced negative influences of low education on most verbal tests, several memory tests, and psychomotor speed, indicating rises in normative scores of up to 0.8 SD at age 80 and 0.4 SD at age 60. No differences were found at age 40. Although the sample size is not adequate to be used for normative data, the findings indicate that norms uncontrolled for health overestimate the negative influence of advanced age and low education, implying a risk of drawing false diagnostic conclusions. PMID:25356656

  19. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: a review of its scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Pádua Serafim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Issues related to the field of mental health and justice require a multifactorial understanding of the possible causes of such issues. Objective To conduct an integrative literature review of controlled studies describing forensic neuropsychological assessment. Methods The articles were compiled and analyzed in two phases: 1 first, we retrieved all papers in PubMed by the keywords “Forensic Neuropsychology” and generated a growth curve for the subject and a cluster-based thematic distribution of publications. 2 We then conducted a curated analysis of all relevant papers indexed in Medline, PubMed and ISI, between 2000 and 2012. Results The evolution of the field during the last 15 years reveals an unstable growth pattern and three main thematic clusters. In terms of our curated analysis, a total of 390 articles were pre-selected, resulting in the selection of 44 fully-relevant studies, which comprise four main categories: cognitive damage in forensic psychiatric patients; imitation of cognitive damage; civil capacity, penal liability and violence risk; and validation of neuropsychological assessment tools. Discussion Two aspects appeared as the most relevant in this study: growth in the use of neuropsychological assessment as a diagnostic tool in the forensic context; and the necessity to enhance conformity in assessments.

  20. Investigation of a neuropsychological screen for chemo-fog

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    Lea Ann Ouimet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (the term ‘‘chemo-fog’’ is used by many investigators supports the occurrence of subtle declines in function for a subset of recipients. Identification of vulnerable individuals via comprehensive neuropsychological batteries is complicated due to their lack of clinical utility and increased risk of misclassification. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the ability of a reduced battery to detect chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments. Data from our previous study (Ouimet et al. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 31:73–89, 2009 were used to compare a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery comprising 23 tests with a reduced battery consisting of a subset of nine tests. A standardized regression-based approach revealed that a comparable numbers of participants were identified by both batteries, suggesting that individuals vulnerable to chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment can be identified by a more selective battery. Further work is needed to clarify the neuropsychological tests most sensitive to detecting impairments associated with chemotherapy so that assessment batteries can be limited to these tests.

  1. Pattern of neuropsychological performance among HIV positive patients in Uganda

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    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined cognitive functioning of HIV positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa. It cannot be assumed that HIV positive patients in Africa exhibit the same declines as patients in high-resource settings, since there are differences that may influence cognitive functioning including nutrition, history of concomitant disease, and varying HIV strains, among other possibilities. Part of the difficulty of specifying abnormalities in neuropsychological functioning among African HIV positive patients is that there are no readily available African normative databases. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the pattern of neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV positive patients in comparison to HIV negative control subjects in Uganda. Methods The neuropsychological test scores of 110 HIV positive patients (WHO Stage 2, n = 21; WHO Stage 3, n = 69; WHO Stage 4, n = 20 were contrasted with those of 100 control subjects on measures of attention/concentration, mental flexibility, learning/memory, and motor functioning. Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA revealed significant group differences on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention and executive functioning between HIV seropositive and seronegative subjects. Conclusion Ugandan patients with HIV demonstrated relative deficits on measures of verbal learning and memory, speed of processing, attention, and executive functioning compared to HIV negative controls. These results from a resource limited region where clades A and D are prevalent are consistent with previous findings in the developed world where clade B predominates.

  2. The parametric, psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical properties of self and world evaluation.

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    Alan N Simmons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an individual moves from adolescence to adulthood, they need to form a new sense of self as their environment changes from a limited to a more expansive structure. During this critical stage in development the last dramatic steps of neural development occur and numerous psychiatric conditions begin to manifest. Currently, there is no measure that aids in the quantification of how the individual is adapting to, and conceptualizing their role in, these new structures. To fill this gap we created the Self and World Evaluation Expressions Test(SWEET. METHOD: Sixty-five young adults (20.6 years-old, 36 with a history of drug use, completed the SWEET. A factor analysis was performed on the SWEET and the resultant factors were correlated with psychological, neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical battery that included both T1-wieghted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: WE DERIVED FOUR FACTORS: Self, Social-Emotional, Financial-Intellectual, and Spirituality. While showing limited relationships to psychological and neuropsychological measures, both white matter integrity and gray matter density showed significant relationships with SWEET factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that while individual responses may not be indicative of psychological or cognitive processes they may relate to changes in brain structure. Several of these structures, such as the negative correlation of the affective impact of world with the dorsal anterior corpus callosum white matter integrity have been observed in psychiatric conditions (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder. Further longitudinal research using the SWEET may help understand the impact of dramatic shifts in self/world conceptualization and potentially link these shifts to underlying changes in brain structure.

  3. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  4. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls and 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found…

  6. Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, B.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the degenerative diseases, and also to issues in the clinical diagnosis of memory impairments. Understanding the bases of...

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Neuropsychological Executive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    JESTER, JENNIFER M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Puttler, Leon I.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Robert A. Zucker

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between parent and child executive functioning were examined, controlling for the critical potential confound of IQ, in a family study involving 434 children (130 girls, 304 boys) and 376 parents from 204 community recruited families at high risk for the development of substance use disorder. Structural equation modeling found evidence of separate executive functioning and intelligence (IQ) latent variables. Mother’s and father’s executive functioning were associated with child’...

  8. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear

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    Nolan M. Dehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain.A geometria das zonas de cisalhamento no CinturãoParaíba do Sul no Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, delineia uma estrutura-em-leque com direção NE. Estaszonas de cisalhamento mergulham para SE no flanco norte, e para NW no flanco sul da estrutura. Esta geometria tem sido interpretada de duas formas: (a implantação de um regime transpressivo ou (b dobramento tardio de superfícies de empurrão originalmente sub-horizontais. A lineação de estiramento mineral mostra caimento para ENE-ESE, no flanco norte, e para NNE-NE, no flanco sul, onde ocorre a Zona

  9. Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Concept and Diagnostic Entity in Need of Input from Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Bondi, Mark W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individu...

  10. A combined neuropsychological and brain imaging study of obstructive sleep apnea.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaouhi, Khalid; Bertran, Françoise; Clochon, Patrice; Mézenge, Florence; Denise, Pierre; Foret, Jean; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show neuropsychological impairments ranging from vigilance decrements, attentional lapses and memory gaps to decreased motor coordination, but their cognitive profile, and the origin of the impairments, remain unclear. We sought to establish the neuropsychological profile of 16 newly diagnosed apneics and to highlight both their morphological and functional brain abnormalities. We used an extensive neuropsychological test battery to investigate atte...

  11. When the third party observer of a neuropsychological evaluation is an audio-recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Ashendorf, Lee; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The presence of third parties during neuropsychological evaluations is an issue of concern for contemporary neuropsychologists. Previous studies have reported that the presence of an observer during neuropsychological testing alters the performance of individuals under evaluation. The present study sought to investigate whether audio-recording affects the neuropsychological test performance of individuals in the same way that third party observation does. In the presence of an audio-recorder the performance of the participants on memory tests declined. Performance on motor tests, on the other hand, was not affected by the presence of an audio-recorder. The implications of these findings in forensic neuropsychological evaluations are discussed. PMID:12607152

  12. Influence of structural habitat use on the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Squamata: Gekkonidae from a transitional forest in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo P. Miranda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the structural habitat use and the thermal ecology of Gonatodes humeralis (Guichenot, 1855 in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, to examine intersexual differences in the use of perch features and to simultaneously analyze reciprocal differences on thermal ecology between the sexes. Gonatodes humeralis body temperature was strongly correlated with environmental temperatures (air and substrate, but air temperature had an additional effect on the males' body temperatures after removing the effect of the substrate temperature. Males and females differed significantly in perch height use above ground (males perched higher but the sexes did not differ in the trunk perimeter used. Gonatodes humeralis tended to use the larger tree trunks available in its environment and selected trunks with deeper leaf litter at the base. It is hypothesized that choosing tree trunks with deeper leaf litter is a defensive behavior against predation.

  13. Structural chromosome polymorphism in a Pimelodus maculatus La Cepède, 1803 population (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Paranapanema River basin, PR, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuchelli, J; Swarça, A C; Dias, A L

    2007-12-01

    In the present cytogenetic study of Pimelodus maculatus, 13 specimens (8 males and 5 females) from the Congonhas Stream in Paraná State, Brazil, were examined using conventional staining. All of them showed a karyotype of 2n=56, with a chromosome distribution of 20m + 20sm + 10st + 6a. However, four individuals (2 males and 2 females) were found to have a variant karyotype (cytotype) with two heteromorphic chromosomes in the group of submetacentric chromosomes--one of them corresponds to the second largest chromosome of this group and the other is a chromosome of small size. This variation suggests the existence of a structural polymorphism in the studied population. PMID:18278362

  14. Detecting Light Hydrocarbon Microseepages and related Intra-sedimentary Structures at the São Francisco Basin, Brazil, using Airborne Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, J. B.; Pires, A. C.; Silva, A.; Crosta, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    The use of indirect techniques for the detection of light hydrocarbons occurrences on the surface, named as microseepages, has been used to augment hydrocarbon exploration. Surveys developed for this type of application are normally targeted at mapping the effects that microseepages cause on the environment. In Brazil, most available airborne geophysical surveys were not appropriately designed for this type of application and, thus far they have been mostly used to define the main basin structural features. Existing microseepages are known in Remanso do Fogo area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), located in São Francisco Basin, where the Quaternary sedimentary cover made the identification of new occurrences and associated controlling structures quite difficult. This study investigates the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon related structures in shallower to intra-sedimentary depths in the Remanso do Fogo area, using airborne magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometry data. These data were managed by the ANP (Brazilian Petroleum National Agency) and conducted by Lasa Engineering & Surveys in 2006. In the study area, data were acquired along north-south flight lines spaced 500 m apart and along orthogonal tie lines flown 4 Km apart at a terrain clearance of 100 m. The geophysical data were processed using techniques developed to suppress the influence of regional geological signatures. For the magnetic data, this study focuses on the enhancement of intra-sedimentary structures and possible near surface accumulations of diagenetic magnetic minerals, provided by hydrocarbon related chemical reactions. The amplitude of the analytic signal, calculated with second order derivatives, combined with the total horizontal gradient of the subtraction between the 1200 and 400 meter upward continuations, illuminated the NW and EW magnetic lineaments, which are partially related to the microseepages and the drainage of the area. The distinction of near-surface and deeper signatures also

  15. The structure of the natural gas industry in Brazil; A estrutura da industria de gas natural no Barsil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Cristiane R.; Fontes, Cristiane M.; Andrade, Marcelo C.; Goncalves, Raquel G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The opening of the Brazilian economy and the end of the state-owned oil company PETROBRAS monopoly made possible for national and international companies to become concessionaires of the rights and obligations regarding the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas. The increasing of the oil reserves and production, together with the technological development and the more restricted environmental legislation, resulted in a gradual increased participation of the natural gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply. Around 3% for many years, the participation of gas in the Brazilian domestic energy supply has increased to 7.5% in 2002, as mentioned in the 2003 Brazil Energy Balance (BEN). The 2003 production was more than 100 millions boe, and the import was more than 37 millions boe according to the National Oil Agency (ANP). We present in this article a summary of today's situation, and the consumer market full development limitations. (author)

  16. Diffusion MRI and its Role in Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Hemmy, Laura; Camchong, Jazmin

    2015-09-01

    Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is a popular method used by neuroscientists to uncover unique information about the structural connections within the brain. dMRI is a non-invasive imaging methodology in which image contrast is based on the diffusion of water molecules in tissue. While applicable to many tissues in the body, this review focuses exclusively on the use of dMRI to examine white matter in the brain. In this review, we begin with a definition of diffusion and how diffusion is measured with MRI. Next we introduce the diffusion tensor model, the predominant model used in dMRI. We then describe acquisition issues related to acquisition parameters and scanner hardware and software. Sources of artifacts are then discussed, followed by a brief review of analysis approaches. We provide an overview of the limitations of the traditional diffusion tensor model, and highlight several more sophisticated non-tensor models that better describe the complex architecture of the brain's white matter. We then touch on reliability and validity issues of diffusion measurements. Finally, we describe examples of ways in which dMRI has been applied to studies of brain disorders and how identified alterations relate to symptomatology and cognition. PMID:26255305

  17. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  18. [Neuropsychology and psychopathology: cognitive analysis during medically refractory epilepsy surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Antérion, C

    2008-05-01

    In psychopathology, few studies have been focused on the psychiatric complications of medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The aim of the present study was to study NG's capacities, who presented emotional change after right temporal epilepsy surgery with phobias and empathy disorders. NG was examined in two emotional judgment tasks: one explicit and another implicit. For negative stimuli, NG had attraction in the explicit task and dependency in the implicit task. This study suggests that surgical intervention might be one of the causes of postoperative psychiatric disorders in patients with MTLE. MTLE patients have to be explored with neuropsychological paradigms. PMID:18675038

  19. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide. PMID:26675449

  20. Integrating Response to Intervention (RTI) with Neuropsychology: A Scientific Approach to Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    This article integrates the fundamental components of both "Response to Intervention" (RTI) and cognitive neuropsychology when identifying reading disorders in children. Both proponents of RTI and cognitive neuropsychology agree the "discrepancy model" is not a reliable or valid method to identify learning disorders in school. In addition, both…

  1. Neuropsychological Training in American Psychological Association-Accredited and Nonaccredited School Psychology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Rik Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited and nonaccredited programs differ in views and offerings of neuropsychological training. Of 72 programs surveyed, 59 percent of APA-accredited programs and 53 percent of nonaccredited programs offered course work in neuropsychology. Found that students viewed neuropsychological…

  2. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads; Leemans, Alexander;

    neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate the...... possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC....

  3. A Critical Commentary on Neuropsychology in the Schools: Are We Ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jonathan; Haapmanen, Randy M.

    1981-01-01

    The other articles in the September 1981 issue of "School Psychology Review" are discussed and criticized. Distinction between the general strategy of neuropsychology and other conceptualizations used by school psychologists is made. A discussion on whether the neuropsychological conceptualization makes a unique contribution to school psychology…

  4. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  5. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  6. Specific and generalized neuropsychological deficits: a comparison of patients with various first-episode psychosis presentations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanelli, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that compromised neuropsychological function is frequently observed in schizophrenia. Neurocognitive dysfunction has often been reported in other psychotic disorders, although there are inconsistencies in the literature. In the context of four distinct diagnostic groups, the authors compared neuropsychological performance among patients experiencing their first psychotic episode.

  7. A Developmental Neuropsychological Model for the Study of Children with HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others

    A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…

  8. Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment and perceived employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Johnny H; Boone, Kyle; Kim, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Ecological validity studies that have examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and employment in psychiatric and medical populations have found that a wide range of cognitive domains predict employability, although memory and executive skills appear to be the most important. However, no information is available regarding a patient's self-perceived work attributes and objective neuropsychological performance, and whether the same cognitive domains associated with successful employment are also related to a patient's self-perception of work competence. In the present study, 73 medical and psychiatric patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Step-wise multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual-spatial domain was the only significant predictor of self-perceived work attributes and work competence as measured by the Working Inventory (WI) and the Work Adjustment Inventory (WAI), accounting for 7% to 10% of inventory score variability. The results raise the intriguing possibility that targeting of visual spatial skills for remediation and development might play a separate and unique role in the vocational rehabilitation of a lower SES population, specifically, by leading to enhanced self-perception of work competence as these individuals attempt to enter the job market. PMID:17043034

  9. Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers in the management of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognosis for patients with brain metastasis remains poor. Whole brain radiation therapy is the conventional treatment option; it can improve neurological symptoms, prevent and improve tumor associated neurocognitive decline, and prevents death from neurologic causes. In addition to whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, neurosurgery and chemotherapy also are used in the management of brain metastases. Radiosensitizers are now currently being investigated as potential treatment options. All of these treatment modalities carry a risk of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity that can lead to neurocognitive impairment in long term survivors. Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers are potential ways of measuring and better understanding CNS toxicity. These tools may help optimize current therapies and develop new treatments for these patients. This article will review the current management of brain metastases, summarize the data on the CNS effects associated with brain metastases and whole brain radiation therapy in these patients, discuss the use of neuropsychological tests as outcome measures in clinical trials evaluating treatments for brain metastases, and give an overview of the potential of biomarker development in brain metastases research

  10. School children with neuropsychological handicap: coping strategies and parents' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krener, P; Cranston, C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty six boys (mean age 9 years 1 months, SD = two years, nine months) and forty one girls (mean age 8 years 6 months, SD = three years, three months) received medical, developmental, psychoeducational, and psychiatric evaluations in a multidisciplinary developmental pediatric clinic. Two hundred fifty variables were analyzed by developing ten scales to quantitatively evaluate neuropsychological risk factors, family and parent functioning, and outcome measures of academic achievement, social adjustment and coping or psychiatric symptom pattern. Higher academic achievement, and lower behavioral symptomatology were associated with high IQ scores but not with higher scores on neurobehavioral risk factors. Chief complaints reported by parents did not correlate with their children's final psychiatric diagnoses and also were found to be independent of children's coping styles observed in the office. Problem parenting, as observed in the pediatrician's office, was associated with behavioral problems, and also with decreased competence on language measures and lower academic achievement in relation to IQ. In this sample, assessing parenting yielded a stronger prediction of the child's school and behavioral functioning than did taking a detailed history of neuropsychological risk factors. PMID:2134302

  11. Affective infrastructures: toward a cultural neuropsychology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie L Heywood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently researchers within sport studies have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement is incomplete, and emphasize athletes’ social and familial contexts in a paradigm that examines movement, cognition, and emotion. But this model is still incomplete since it is missing a fundamental variable—our evolutionary neurobiological roots. Affective neuroscience shows that because sport so clearly activates neural systems at the ultimate level of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies by suggesting what forms of coaching might be most effective. I propose cultural neuropsychology of sport to describe a model that examines relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes' social and familial contexts, and how these variables facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which impact performance. A cultural neuropsychology of sport thereby concretely connects proximate and ultimate mechanisms.

  12. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  13. Neuropsychological performance of native versus non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Wendell, Carrington R; Spencer, Robert J; Waldstein, Shari R

    2012-11-01

    Relatively little is known about differences in English-administered, clinical neuropsychological test performance between native versus non-native English speakers, with prior literature yielding mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of native and non-native English speakers with similar age and educational backgrounds on a variety of cognitive tests. Participants were 153 university students (115 native and 38 non-native English speakers) who completed a neuropsychological battery during two testing sessions. Multiple regression analyses examined relations of native language to cognitive performance after adjustment for age, education, sex, and depressive symptomatology. Results showed that native English speakers outperformed non-native English speakers on several language-mediated tasks-Letter and Category Fluency and the Cognitive Estimation Test-as well as Trails A (p's executive functions, perceptuo-motor speed, verbal memory, and visuospatial abilities. These results suggest that non-native English language may have a negative influence predominantly on language-dependent tasks. PMID:22985952

  14. The CERAD Neuropsychological Battery in Patients with Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanpää, Ramona M.; Suhonen, Noora-Maria; Hartikainen, Päivi; Koivisto, Anne M.; Moilanen, Virpi; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Hänninen, Tuomo; Remes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is based on neuropsychological examination in addition to clinical symptoms and brain imaging. There is no simple, validated, cognitive tool available in screening for FTLD. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NB) was originally devised to identify the early cognitive changes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate the utility of the CERAD-NB in FTLD. Methods Patients with FTLD (n = 95) and AD (n = 90) were assessed with the CERAD-NB, Trail Making Test parts A and B and single-letter Phonemic Fluency. Results FTLD patients were more severely impaired in the Verbal Fluency subtest in the CERAD-NB and Trail Making Test part A compared to AD patients. In addition, AD patients were more impaired in memory subtests compared to FTLD patients. Conclusion The CERAD-NB may be a useful tool in screening for FTLD. Impaired performance in Verbal Fluency with moderately well-preserved Delayed Recall and Memory Tests may help in identifying patients with probable FTLD and discriminating FTLD from AD. Adding the Trail Making Test to the battery might enhance its value as a screening instrument for FTLD. PMID:25999981

  15. Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Franco; Crescentini, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    Pain is an experience that none of us would like to have but that each one of us is destined to experience in our lives. Despite its pervasiveness, the experience of pain remains problematic and complex in its depth. Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves nociception as well as emotional and cognitive aspects that can modulate its perception. Following a brief discussion of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pain, the purpose of this review is to discuss the main psychological, neuropsychological, cultural, and existential aspects which are the basis of diverse forms of pain, like the pain of separation from caregivers or from ourselves (e.g., connected to the thought of our death), the suffering that we experience observing other people's pain, the pain of change and the existential pain connected to the temporal dimension of the mind. Finally, after a discussion of how the mind is able to not only create but also alleviate the pain, through mechanisms such as the expectation of the treatment and the hope of healing, we conclude by discussing neuropsychological research data and the attitude promoted by mindfulness meditation in relation to the pain. An attitude in which, instead to avoid and reject the pain, one learns to face mindfully the experience of pain.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Williams syndrome: shared behavioral and neuropsychological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sinead M; Riby, Deborah M; Matthews, Keith; Coghill, David R

    2011-01-01

    We compared verbally matched attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Williams syndrome (WS), and typically developing individuals (N = 19 each group) on behavioral symptoms (Conners ADHD rating scale) and neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological tasks included those that assessed short-term memory and executive functions from the CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) neuropsychological battery. Children with WS scored within the abnormal range and did not differ in severity from ADHD children on the Conners Oppositionality, Cognitive Problems/Inattention, Hyperactivity, and ADHD Index subscales. The WS and ADHD groups also showed similar patterns of neuropsychological functioning, particularly in working memory (WM) strategy use and delayed short-term memory (STM). The findings may have clinical implications for the management of individuals with WS, highlighting the potential significance of behavioral, educational, and pharmacological strategies and treatments known to be useful in the treatment of children with ADHD for individuals with WS. PMID:20700845

  17. Neuropsychological heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis / Heterogeneidade neuropsicológica na esclerose múlipla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressively disabling neurological disease which symptoms affect sensory, motor and psychological functioning. Several clinical neurological and psychological variables influence the neuropsychological profile in MS, which is extremely heterogeneous. The main objective of the present study was to investigate if it is possible to statistically stratify control subjects and MS patients from neurological, socio-demographic and neuropsychological dimensions. With this purpose we applied cluster analysis procedures to five neuropsychological instruments selected according to diagnostic accuracy from a pool of 9 neuropsychological tests. The sample was composed of 45 healthy controls and 35 MS patients with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The results indicated an ideal solution with 4 different clusters according to two dimensions: "cognitive" and "psychosocial" functioning, which represent independent but non-disjunctive aspects of neuropsychological functioning in MS.

  18. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bouso

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127 and controls (n = 115 at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.

  19. Personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance among ritual users of Ayahuasca: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; González, Débora; Fondevila, Sabela; Cutchet, Marta; Fernández, Xavier; Ribeiro Barbosa, Paulo César; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Araújo, Wladimyr Sena; Barbanoj, Manel J; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Riba, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n = 127) and controls (n = 115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group. PMID:22905130

  20. Decomposition analysis of the variations in residential electricity consumption in Brazil for the 1980-2007 period. Measuring the activity, intensity and structure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla; Schaeffer, Roberto [Energy Planning Program, Post-Graduate School of Engineering (COPPE), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, Sala 211, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this article, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The technique is sufficiently robust and flexible to perform this analysis, by disaggregating residential consumers by consumption classes and regions of the country. Among the main results is measurement of the impact of government programs for income transfer and universal service on variations in residential consumption, typical of developing countries. (author)

  1. Decomposition analysis of the variations in residential electricity consumption in Brazil for the 1980-2007 period: Measuring the activity, intensity and structure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achao, Carla [Energy Planning Program, Post-Graduate School of Engineering (COPPE), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, Sala 211, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Schaeffer, Roberto, E-mail: roberto@ppe.ufrj.b [Energy Planning Program, Post-Graduate School of Engineering (COPPE), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, Sala 211, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this article, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The technique is sufficiently robust and flexible to perform this analysis, by disaggregating residential consumers by consumption classes and regions of the country. Among the main results is measurement of the impact of government programs for income transfer and universal service on variations in residential consumption, typical of developing countries.

  2. Diametric structure of the shrub and tree vegetation around the headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, Salgado – Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednei Santos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze the diametric structure of the ciliary vegetation in headwaters in the Piauitinga River drainage basin, located at the town of Salgado, Sergipe, Brazil. One analyzed 14 headwaters, using a classification with regard to the conservation status and the type of reservoir, being divided into 4 categories: 1 punctual preserved (PPr, 1 punctual disturbed (PD, 6 punctual degraded (PD, and 6 diffuse degraded (DD. The survey was conducted through a population census of vegetation in a 50 m radius around the headwaters, equivalent to 0.79 ha, where one recorded all living shrub and tree individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5.0 cm. The individuals were distributed into diametric classes, at 2.5 cm intervals. The punctual preserved and the punctual disturbed headwaters showed a diametric structure characteristic of heterogeneous forests, with an “inverted J” shape. The diffuse and punctual degraded headwaters didn’t show the “inverted J” pattern, except for DD2, perhaps reflecting the higher numberof individuals in this headwater. The intense disturbance generated in the headwater areas, which are currently degraded, promoted the impoverishment of natural regeneration and, as a result, compromised the recruitment of individuals in the early diameter grades.

  3. Decomposition analysis of the variations in residential electricity consumption in Brazil for the 1980-2007 period: Measuring the activity, intensity and structure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduced at the end of the 1970s to study the impacts of structural changes on electricity consumption by industry, index decomposition analysis techniques have been extended to various other areas to help in the formulation of energy policies, notably in developed countries. However, few authors have applied these techniques to study the evolution of energy consumption in developing countries. In Brazil, the few available studies have focused only on the industrial sector. In this article, we apply the decomposition technique called the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) to electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector, to explain its evolution in terms of the activity, structure and intensity affects, over the period from 1980 to 2007. The technique is sufficiently robust and flexible to perform this analysis, by disaggregating residential consumers by consumption classes and regions of the country. Among the main results is measurement of the impact of government programs for income transfer and universal service on variations in residential consumption, typical of developing countries.

  4. Relationships between structure of the tree component and environmental variables in a subtropical seasonal forest in the upper Uruguay River valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máida Ariane de Mélo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze relationships among the structure of the tree component, edaphic variables and canopy discontinuity along a toposequence in a seasonal upland (hillside forest in southern Brazil. Soil and vegetation were sampled in 25 plots of 20 × 20 m each. We described the vegetation in terms of structure, richness and diversity, as well as by species distribution patterns. We evaluated canopy continuity, determined sloping and calculated spatial coordinates. We applied partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA to determine whether species distribution correlated with environmental and spatial variables. We identified 1201 individuals belonging to 76 species within 30 families. The species with highest density and frequency were Gymnanthes concolor Spreng., Calyptranthes tricona D.Legrand, Eugenia moraviana O.Berg and Trichilia claussenii DC. The pCCAs indicated significant correlations with environmental and spatial variables. Sand content, boron content and soil density collectively explained 36.17% of the species matrix variation (total inertia, whereas the spatial variables x, y and xy² collectively explained 14.27%. The interaction between environmental and spatial variables explained nearly 4.5%. However, 45.05% remained unexplained, attributed to stochastic variation or unmeasured variables. Terrain morphology and canopy discontinuity had no apparent influence on richness, and changes in species distribution were correlated with sloping, which affects soil features and determines the directional distribution of some species.

  5. Brazil; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure investment in Brazil. Brazil has inferior overall infrastructure quality relative to almost all its export competitors. Brazil’s infrastructure endowment ranks low by international standards, and its low quality affects productivity, market efficiency, and competitiveness. Areas in which Brazil’s competitiveness has lagged include, but are not limited to, education, innovation, governance, and justice. Brazil’s infrastructure gap has be...

  6. Structure and biodiversity of zooplankton communities in freshwater habitats of a Vereda Wetland Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Penatti Pinese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Vereda wetlands are among the most important aquatic habitats in Brazilian savannah (Cerrado because of their association with river springs and its relevancy for biodiversity conservation. This study aimed to determine and compare the biodiversity of zooplankton in vereda lakes, differentiated by the presence or absence of aquatic macrophytes at an environmental reserve in Uberlândia, Minas Geais, Southeastern Brazil. Zooplanctonic abundance patterns and their relation with environmental parameters were also discussed and presented through multivariate statistics. Methods Twelve samples were taken at water surface, at 15-day intervals in 2006. It was observed a total richness of 75 species, including 12 genera, 29 species and one sub-species as new records for Minas Gerais State. Results Rotifers were the predominant group and Lecanidae was the most diverse family. Among cladocerans, Chydoridae showed the greatest richness and Bosminidae the highest abundance. Few adult copepods were sampled in this study, but nauplii were very frequent. Cyclopidae was the most common family among copepods and there was no record of Calanoida. Conclusions The difference in composition among the studied lakes was remarkable. The lake with macrophytes showed the greatest richness but the lowest density, and the opposite situation occurred in the other lake. This can be explained by the fact that aquatic macrophytes, as primary producers, exert a bottom-up effect on zooplankton community, sustaining a high local diversity in contrast with a low numeric abundance of these microorganisms. Therefore, this pattern may have been created by the surround heterogeneity and, at the same time, by the reduction of available minerals of the system caused by macrophyte matter fixation. Many studies on zooplankton need to be developed in palm swamp communities in order to better comprehend the biological diversity and the energy balance in different habitats for

  7. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  8. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  9. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms. PMID:11827093

  10. Elevation as a barrier: genetic structure for an Atlantic rain forest tree (Bathysa australis) in the Serra do Mar mountain range, SE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Talita Soares; Ciampi-Guillardi, Maísa; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-05-01

    Distance and discrete geographic barriers play a role in isolating populations, as seed and pollen dispersal become limited. Nearby populations without any geographic barrier between them may also suffer from ecological isolation driven by habitat heterogeneity, which may promote divergence by local adaptation and drift. Likewise, elevation gradients may influence the genetic structure and diversity of populations, particularly those marginally distributed. Bathysa australis (Rubiaceae) is a widespread tree along the elevation gradient of the Serra do Mar, SE Brazil. This self-compatible species is pollinated by bees and wasps and has autochoric seeds, suggesting restricted gene dispersal. We investigated the distribution of genetic diversity in six B. australis populations at two extreme sites along an elevation gradient: a lowland site (80-216 m) and an upland site (1010-1100 m.a.s.l.). Nine microsatellite loci were used to test for genetic structure and to verify differences in genetic diversity between sites. We found a marked genetic structure on a scale as small as 6 km (F ST = 0.21), and two distinct clusters were identified, each corresponding to a site. Although B. australis is continuously distributed along the elevation gradient, we have not observed a gene flow between the extreme populations. This might be related to B. australis biological features and creates a potential scenario for adaptation to the different conditions imposed by the elevation gradient. We failed to find an isolation-by-distance pattern; although on the fine scale, all populations showed spatial autocorrelation until ∼10-20 m. Elevation difference was a relevant factor though, but we need further sampling effort to check its correlation with genetic distance. The lowland populations had a higher allelic richness and showed higher rare allele counts than the upland ones. The upland site may be more selective, eliminating rare alleles, as we did not find any evidence for

  11. Population structure of Monosporascus cannonballus isolated from melons produced in Northeastern Brazil based on mycelial compatibility groups - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15182

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia Souza Bezerra; Kamila Câmara Correia; Marcos Paz Saraiva Câmara; Rui Sales Junior; Josep Armengol; Sami Jorge Michereff

    2012-01-01

    The population structure of Monosporascus cannonballus, which causes vine decline in melons, was assessed based on the determination of mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) in a collection of 58 isolates obtained from seven melon fields in three municipalities of Northeastern Brazil. For comparison, an additional 11 isolates of M. cannonballus from Spain were included in the analysis. MCGs were determined through comparisons of paired isolates growing on PDA culture media in the dark at 30ºC...

  12. Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation. PMID:26551577

  13. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835

  14. Thiamine deficiency induced neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological alterations: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Storti, Monica; Christova, Monica; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans. PMID:24235882

  15. Neuropsychological profile of patients with bipolar depression in remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine if the patients with bipolar affective disorder, after the depressive phase, would exhibit cognitive impairment in remission. Methods. Twenty three euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were matched, on a case-by-case basis, to twenty-one healthy subjects in the control group, for the presence of the symptoms of depression. The patients and the control group were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results. Impairments were found in the patients compared with the control group in tests of verbal learning and memory and in tests of executive function. Verbal learning and memory, as well as executive functions, did not correlate either with the clinical indices of patients, or with the demographic and baseline clinical measures of depression. Conclusion. Impaired verbal learning and memory and executive functions may represent a trait rather than the state variables in bipolar disorder.

  16. Structural indexes and sexual maturity of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (cuvier, 1818) (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. VILLACORTA-CORREA; Saint-Paul, U.

    1999-01-01

    Length, weight, structural index and sexual maturity in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum were analysed. 449 specimens were obtained from the commercial fishing fleet arriving at Manaus Harbour from the floodplain areas from May 1992 to July 1993. The objective of this study is to describe changes in structural index during one hidrological cycle and to interpret them according to the water level fluctuations and to also determine the time, reproductive period and length in sexual maturity. Sex r...

  17. Population structure analysis of Pimelodus maculatus (Pisces, Siluriformes) from the Tietê and Paranapanema Rivers (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Simões de Almeida; Leda Maria Koelblinger Sodré; Eucleia Primo Betioli Contel

    2003-01-01

    Pimelodus maculatus populations from the Tietê and Paranapanema rivers were sampled and had their genetic structure analyzed by using RAPD markers, with the aim of contributing to future conservation studies. The proportion of polymorphic loci was greater than 50% in the populations of both rivers. Genetic diversity data showed that, in spite of its nine hydroelectric plants, the Tietê river population was genetically homogeneous, whereas the Paranapanema river population was structured. This...

  18. Effects of a nuclear power plant thermal discharge on habitat complexity and fish community structure in Ilha Grande Bay, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Tatiana Pires; Neves, Leonardo Mitrano; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Fish communities and habitat structures were evaluated by underwater visual censuses a rocky location impacted by thermal discharge (I) and at two control locations, one in a Sargassum bed (C1) and the other in a rocky shore with higher structural complexity (C2). Habitat indicators and fish communities exhibited significant differences between the impacted and control locations, with the impacted one showing a significant decrease in fish species richness and diversity, a...

  19. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  20. Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura communities in tropical forests: a case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824 presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.

  1. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement. PMID:26578018

  2. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

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    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  3. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author)

  4. Herpes simlex encephalitis. A neuropsychological and neuroradiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Masaya [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common causative pathogen of nonepidemic encephalitis in Japan. The mortality rate is approximately 30% and surviving patients often have severe sequelae such as amnestic syndrome. Between 1979 and 1992, 13 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) were admitted to our Department. Diagnosis was based on the neurological symptoms and signs, the findings on EEG, CT and MRI, and the results of serological examination including ELISA for HSV type 1. Neuropsychological tests were performed over a period of approximatly 2 years in seven of 13 patients. The results of the tests disclosed memory impairments as follows. Namely, immediate recall was well preserved, but disturbance of recent memory and retrograde amnesia over 20 years were observed. The neuropsychological features more closely resembled those of amnestic syndrome than those of Korsakoff syndrome. The amnesia in HSE patients was characterized in the finding that it was prone to recover more gradually as compared with that following head trauma or surgical brain resection. CT scan was performed in 13 patients during the acute and convalescent stages. The low density areas were found in the temporal lobes in 60% of the patients. MRI were obtained during the convalescent stage in ten of 13 patients. In seven of the ten patients, abnormal signals were distributed uni- or bilaterally to the temporal lobe, insular and limbic system such as the hippocampus and amygdala. In the remaining three patients, the abnormal signals were localized in both hippocampi and amygdalae in one patient and only in the brain stem in another. In the last case, the MRI was normal. The findings that signal intensity on MRI showing the lesion in the temporal lobe spread continuously to the opposite limbic area or occipital lobe strongly suggested the spreading of HSV through neural fiber connections in HSE. (author).

  5. Meta-analysis of academic interventions derived from neuropsychological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Haegele, Katherine; Rodriguez, Megan; Schmitt, Braden; Cooper, Maureen; Clayton, Kate; Hutcheson, Shannon; Conner, Cynthia; Hosp, John; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Several scholars have recommended using data from neuropsychological tests to develop interventions for reading and mathematics. The current study examined the effects of using neuropsychological data within the intervention process with meta-analytic procedures. A total of 1,126 articles were found from an electronic search and compared to inclusion criteria, which resulted in 37 articles that were included in the current study. Each article was coded based on how the data were used (screening-86% or designing interventions-14%), size of the group for which interventions were delivered (small group-45%, individual students-45%, or entire classroom-10%), and type of data collected (cognitive functions-24%, reading fluency-33%, phonemic/phonological awareness-35%, or mixed-8%). A corrected Hedges' g was computed for every study and reported for variables of interest. A Fail-safe N was also computed to determine how many studies with a zero effect would have to be found to change the conclusions. The data resulted in a small effect (g = 0.17) for measures of cognitive functioning, but moderate effects of g = 0.43 and g = 0.48 for measures of reading fluency and phonemic/phonological awareness. There were few studies that examined measures of cognitive functioning within the intervention process. Taken together with previous research, the data do not support the use of cognitive measures to develop interventions but instead favor more direct measures of academic skills (e.g., reading fluency) in a skill-by-treatment interaction. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26192390

  6. Better quality of life with neuropsychological improvement on HAART

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    Hall Colin D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimens have resulted in substantial improvements in the systemic health of HIV infected persons and increased survival times. Despite increased systemic health, the prevalence of minor HIV-associated cognitive impairment appears to be rising with increased longevity, and it remains to be seen what functional outcomes will result from these improvements. Cognitive impairment can dramatically impact functional ability and day-to-day productivity. We assessed the relationship of quality of life (QOL and neuropsychological functioning with successful HAART treatment. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study, subjects were evaluated before instituting HAART (naïve or before changing HAART regimens because current therapy failed to maintain suppression of plasma viral load (treatment failure. Subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, as well as psychological evaluation sensitive to possible confounds. Re-evaluation was performed six months after institution of the new HAART regimen and/or if plasma viral load indicated treatment failure. At each evaluation, subjects underwent ultrasensitive HIV RNA quantitative evaluation in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Results HAART successes performed better than failures on measures exploring speed of mental processing (p Conclusion Our study investigated the relationship between HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and quality of life. HAART failures experienced slower psychomotor processing, and had increased self-reports of physical health complaints and substance abuse. Contrariwise, HAART successes experienced improved mental processing, demonstrating the impact of successful treatment on functioning. With increasing life expectancy for those who are HIV seropositive, it is important to measure cognitive functioning in relation to the actual QOL these individuals report. The study

  7. Neuropsychological profile in a large group of heart transplant candidates.

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    Daniela Mapelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported that patients with end-stage heart disease can have cognitive deficits ranging from mild to severe. Little is known, however, about the relationship between cognitive performance, neurophysiological characteristics and relevant clinical and instrumental indexes for an extensive evaluation of patients with heart failure, such as: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and other haemodynamic measures, maximum oxygen uptake during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, comorbidities, major cardiovascular risk factors and disease duration. Our purpose was to outline the cognitive profiles of end-stage heart disease patients in order to identify the cognitive deficits that could compromise the quality of life and the therapeutic adherence in end-stage heart disease patients, and to identify the variables associated with an increased risk of cognitive deficits in these patients. METHODS: 207 patients with end-stage cardiac disease, candidates for heart transplant, were assessed by complete neuropsychological evaluation and by electroencephalographic recording with EEG spectral analysis. RESULTS: Pathological scores in one or more of the cognitive tests were obtained by 86% of the patients, while 36% performed within the impaired range on five or more tests, indicating poor performance across a broad range of cognitive domains. The executive functions were the cognitive domain most impaired (70%. Poor performances were not related to the aetiology of heart disease, but rather to cerebral dysfunction secondary to haemodynamic impairment and to comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Severe heart failure induces significant neurophysiological and neuropsychological alterations, which may produce an impairment of cognitive functioning and possibly compromise the quality of life of patients and the therapeutic adherence.

  8. Population structure analysis of Pimelodus maculatus (Pisces, Siluriformes from the Tietê and Paranapanema Rivers (Brazil

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    Almeida Fernanda Simões de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pimelodus maculatus populations from the Tietê and Paranapanema rivers were sampled and had their genetic structure analyzed by using RAPD markers, with the aim of contributing to future conservation studies. The proportion of polymorphic loci was greater than 50% in the populations of both rivers. Genetic diversity data showed that, in spite of its nine hydroelectric plants, the Tietê river population was genetically homogeneous, whereas the Paranapanema river population was structured. This might be due to the presence of high waterfalls distributed all along its course. These data may serve as indicators for future conservation studies on the Tietê and Paranapanema rivers.

  9. Petrography, structure and geochemistry of nepheline syenites from the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcircular Mid-Cretaceous Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif, states of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, southern Brazil, covers over 800 Km2, and has as its main rock types phonolites and nepheline syenites, with subordinate amounts of pyroclastic rocks. Nepheline syenites consist mainly of K-feldspar, nepheline and pyroxene, varying both in texture and 'rare-metal silicates' content. A useful petrographic division is that which classifies the rocks into agpaitic and non-agpaitic (miaskitic or intermediate) types. The latter varieties, characterized by the absence of rare-metal silicates, are predominant by far; agpaitic types are easily recognized by the presence of eudialyte and other rare-metal silicates. Both petrographic and, as far as possible, structural descriptions as well are given for most of the mapped nepheline syenite bodies; many bodies show subhorizontal or moderately-dipping contacts with their country rocks. Chemically, these rocks show, on the whole, high alkaline contents (12-15%) and commonly very high K2O abundances. Chemical as well as additional isotopic and geochronological (Rb/Sr) data suggest that the asthenosphere is the source of parental magmas for the Pocos de Caldas nepheline syenites. The same arguments are used to reject, as unlikely, the magmatic activity interval (over 30 m.y.) given by previously published K/Ar ages. Simple structural models of the crust lithosphre in the Parana Basin area, coupled with the westward plate movement, suggest that irregularities at the asthenosphere-lithosphere decoupling surface are probable sites for melting of asthenospheric (and lithospheric) rocks induced by pressure relief. (D.J.M.)

  10. Responses of five small mammal species to micro-scale variations in vegetation structure in secondary Atlantic Forest remnants, Brazil

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    Meyer-Lucht Yvonne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is highly endangered and only about 7% of the original forest remains, most of which consists of fragments of secondary forest. Small mammals in the Atlantic Forest have differential responses to this process of fragmentation and conversion of forest into anthropogenic habitats, and have varying abilities to occupy the surrounding altered habitats. We investigated the influence of vegetation structure on the micro-scale distribution of five small mammal species in six secondary forest remnants in a landscape of fragmented Atlantic Forest. We tested whether the occurrence of small mammal species is influenced by vegetation structure, aiming to ascertain whether species with different degrees of vulnerability to forest fragmentation (not vulnerable: A. montensis, O. nigripes and G. microtarsus; vulnerable: M. incanus and D. sublineatus; classification of vulnerability was based on the results of previous studies are associated with distinct vegetation characteristics. Results Although vegetation structure differed among fragments, micro-scale distribution of most of the species was influenced by vegetation structure in a similar way in different fragments. Among the three species that were previously shown not to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation, A. montensis and G. microtarsus were present at locations with an open canopy and the occurrence of O. nigripes was associated to a low canopy and a dense understory. On the other hand, from the two species that were shown to be vulnerable to fragmentation, M. incanus was captured most often at locations with a closed canopy while the distribution of D. sublineatus was not clearly influenced by micro-scale variation in vegetation structure. Conclusion Results indicate the importance of micro-scale variation in vegetation structure for the distribution of small mammal species in secondary forest fragments. Species that are not vulnerable to

  11. Population structure and reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira, 2000 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in the rio Ibicuí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Éverton Luís Zardo; Everton Rodolfo Behr

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze population structure (spatial distribution, seasonal distribution and distribution by length classes, sex ratio and length-weight relationship) and aspects of the reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus. Fish were sampled bimonthly using gillnets and trammel nets in lentic and lotic environments in the rio Ibicuí, between the years 2000 and 2001. Were collected 410 specimens: 230 females, 164 males and 16 specimens whose sex could not b...

  12. Proton magnetic resonance neurospectroscopy and EEG cartography in corticobasal degeneration: correlations with neuropsychological signs

    OpenAIRE

    Vion-Dury, J; Rochefort, N; Michotey, P; Planche, D; M. Ceccaldi

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Eight patients with probable CBD were included in the study after full neurological examination and extensive neuropsychological testing, single photon emission computed tomography, anatomical x ray tomodensitometry (TDM), magnetic resonance imaging, and MRS examination.

  13. Different Surgical Approaches for Mesial Temporal Epilepsy: Resection Extent, Seizure, and Neuropsychological Outcomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíková, H.; Krámská, L.; Vojtěch, Z.; Liščák, R.; Šroubek, J.; Lukavský, Jiří; Druga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2014), s. 372-380. ISSN 1011-6125 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : temporal lobe epilepsy * stereotactic surgery * neuropsychology outcome Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2014

  14. Alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning in first-year undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Martin, E D; Wood, P K; Rutledge, P C

    1997-08-01

    The relation between alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning was examined in 489 first-year undergraduates, approximately half of whom had a history of alcoholism in their biological fathers. Factor analyses of 17 neuropsychological tests and subtests produced the following 5 factors that were the basis of subsequent analyses: Language/Verbal Memory, Visuospatial Ability, Motor Speed, Booklet Category Performance, and Attention. Participants with alcohol use disorders showed deficits in visuospatial ability. Those who had alcohol dependence showed deficits in both visuospatial ability and motor speed relative to participants who abused alcohol. The differences in neuropsychological functioning remained even after several potential confounding variables were controlled statistically. Results suggest that alcohol use disorders in first-year college students are associated with deficits in neuropsychological measures that are not attributable to several potential third-variable explanations. PMID:9260079

  15. Fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil Determinant factors of capital structure for the largest companies active in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Estrutura de capital é um tema ainda controverso em teoria de finanças. Desde a discussão entre a teoria tradicional, que defende a existência de uma estrutura de capital ótima que leva à maximização do valor da empresa, e a proposta por Modigliani e Miller (1958, que considera que o valor da empresa não é afetado pela forma como ela é financiada, diversos estudos empíricos têm sido realizados com o objetivo de identificar os fatores que explicam a forma como as empresas se financiam. Esta pesquisa analisa a estrutura de capital das maiores empresas que atuam no Brasil, investigando a relação entre o nível de endividamento e os fatores apontados pela teoria como seu determinante. O estudo é baseado em dados contábeis extraídos das demonstrações financeiras de empresas de capital aberto e de empresas de capital fechado. A técnica estatística utilizada no estudo é a regressão linear múltipla. Os resultados indicam que os fatores risco, tamanho, composição dos ativos e crescimento são determinantes da estrutura de capital das empresas, enquanto que o fator rentabilidade não é determinante. Os resultados, também, mostram que o nível de endividamento da empresa não é afetado pelo fato de ela ser de capital aberto ou de capital fechado.Capital structure is still a still controversial issue in finance theory. Since the discussion between traditional theory, which asserts the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the firm’s value, and Modigliani and Miller’s theory (1958, which considers that the value of a firm is unaffected by how it is financed, many empirical studies have been carried out to identify the factors that explain how a firm finances itself. This research analyses the capital structure of the largest firms in Brazil and investigates the relationship between the leverage ratio and the factors indicated by theory as determinant. The study is based on accounting data extracted from

  16. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  17. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bousman, Chad A.; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; BARRON, DANIEL; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Heaton, Robert K.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug “ecstasy,” or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA−). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35–365] days of abstinence. There were ...

  18. Neuropsychology of colour vision: Studies in patients with acquired brain damage, healthy participants, and cases

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, T. C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied the neuropsychology of low-level sensory and higher-order visual perception in healthy participants, patients with acquired deficits in visual perception, and a man with a selective developmental deficit in colour processing. In neuropsychological literature, sensory disorders as well as higher-order recognition deficits have been reported after acquired brain damage. There is still considerable debate about the link between sensory disorders and higher-order, recog...

  19. Incremental Validity of Neuropsychological Assessment in the Identification and Treatment of Youth with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    PRITCHARD, ALISON E; Koriakin, Taylor; Jacobson, Lisa A.; MAHONE, E MARK

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments for youth with ADHD allow for thorough consideration of co-occurring disorders and provide targeted recommendations for treating ADHD and comorbid conditions. This study offers a preliminary evaluation of the added value (compared to routine care) associated with neuropsychological assessment in the identification and treatment of ADHD in youth ages 3-17 years. First, we describe a novel measure developed to evaluate broad-based outcomes for youth ...

  20. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging...

  1. A comparison of neuropsychological test performance on the Ravello Profile between bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ravello Profile is a battery of standardised neuropsychological measures of areas of functioning that evidence indicates are impaired in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), namely visuo-spatial functioning, central coherence and executive functioning. The neuropsychological profile of individuals with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is less well established. The current study aimed to examine differences in cognitive performance between people with BN, AN and non-eating disordered controls on the Rave...

  2. Concept of inclusion on the section of Vygotskian socio-cultural theory and neuropsychology:

    OpenAIRE

    Kobal Grum, Darja

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of inclusion of children with special needs from the context of contemporary fi ndings in neuropsychology as well as from the context of the psychology of L.S. Vygotsky and his theory of socio- cultural development. In contrast to the classical physiological models that treated deficits and defects in brain functioning as final and "non-serviceable", the contemporary neuropsychological advancements show the significance of brain plastic changes, which enable t...

  3. ON THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN THE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Glozman, Janna

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and main features of the cultural-historical approach in neuropsychology. A three step model of the evolution of Russian neuropsychology is proposed. The social and subjective features of disturbances in the pattern of mental functions and their dynamics in children and adults are discussed. The problems of the internal representation of defects, of the quality of life of patients and of their caregivers prove to be of fundamental value for contemporary n...

  4. Is Cognitive Neuropsychology Plausible? The Perils of Sitting on a One-Legged Stool

    OpenAIRE

    Kosslyn, Stephen Michael; Intriligator, James M.

    1992-01-01

    We distinguish between strong and weak cognitive neuropsychology, with the former attempting to provide direct insights into the nature of information processing and the latter having the more modest goal of providing constraints on such theories. We argue that strong cognitive neuropsychology, although possible, is unlikely to succeed and that researchers will fare better by combining behavioral, computational, and neural investigations. Arguments offered by Caramazza (1992) in defense of st...

  5. Neuropsychological deficits in the antisocial personality and their relationship to progress in treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baliousis, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antisocial personality is characterised by impulsive behaviour and a pervasive disregard for the rights of others. Its consequences are often debilitating and its presentation poses considerable treatment challenges. While it may be associated with a range of neuropsychological deficits, the literature is often contradictory and no research has examined their effect on treatment. Method: A systematic review of the neuropsychological literature on male adults with antisocial pe...

  6. Verbal memory functioning in borderline personality disorder : neuropsychological and neuroimaging perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mensebach, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Clinical features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as an unstable and dysregulated control over behavior, emotion, and cognition as well as clinical descriptions of temporary disturbances of perception and cognition led to the question of neuropsychological deficits. Although neuropsychological investigations of BPD did not provide a consistent constellation of findings, some evidence is available for a non-domain-specific impairment in multiple domains of memory, attention, visuo-spa...

  7. Differences between early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease in neuropsychological tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca eSá; Paula ePinto; Catarina eCunha; Raquel eLemos; Liliana eLetra; Mário eSimões; Isabel eSantana

    2012-01-01

    Although patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) share clinical and histological features regardless of age of onset, the hypothesis that early-onset AD constitutes a distinct subgroup prevails. Some authors suggest that early attention or language impairment constitute patterns of differentiation in terms of neuropsychological profile. However, investigations are not consensual in terms of cognitive domains affected in each group.Aim: To investigate whether there is early neuropsychological dif...

  8. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADULT PATIENTS UNDER DIALYSIS IN A SPECIALIZED INSTITUTIONIN MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    ANA DUARTE; LUZ GÓMEZ; DANIEL AGUIRRE; DAVID PINEDA

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) have cognitive impairments and intellectual deficiencies comparedwith normal people. Objective: To analyze the neuropsychological characteristics in adult patients (18 to 65 years old),belonging to a dialysis program in the Instituto del Riñón [Kidney Institute] of Medellín-Colombia. Subjects andMethods: A non-randomized sample of 59 patients, aged between 23 to 64 years old, a neuropsychological tests batterywas applied to patients, whi...

  9. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: Attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    O Keeffe, F.; Liégeois, F.; Eve, M.; Ganesan, V; King, J.; Murphy, T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Background. Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Method. Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist c...

  10. Neuropsychological function in college students with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Hami, S; Stein, M. B.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research on the neuropsychology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has identified several neurocognitive deficits that co-occur with the disorder. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are due to trauma exposure, PTSD symptomatology or psychiatric/substance abuse comorbidity. We examined trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and neuropsychological performance in 235 undergraduate students, i.e. a non-clinical sample. The sample comprised 146 subjects with trauma exposure (...

  11. Major Depressive Disorder, Cognitive Symptoms, and Neuropsychological Performance among Ethnically Diverse HIV+ Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fellows, Robert P.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Morgello, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), cognitive symptoms, and mild cognitive deficits commonly occur in HIV-infected individuals, despite highly active antiretroviral therapies. In this study, we compared neuropsychological performance and cognitive symptoms of 191 HIV-infected participants. Results indicated that participants with a formal diagnosis of current MDD performed significantly worse than participants without MDD in all seven neuropsychological domains evaluated, with the largest effect...

  12. Prediction of Driving Ability with Neuropsychological Tests: Demographic Adjustments Diminish Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Barrash, Joseph; Stillman, Ashley; Anderson, Steven W; UC, Ergun Y; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Demographically-adjusted norms are used to enhance accuracy of inferences based on neuropsychological assessment. However, we hypothesized that predictive accuracy regarding complex real-world activities is diminished by demographic corrections. Driving performance was assessed with a standardized on-road test in participants aged 65+ (24 healthy elderly, 26 Alzheimer’s disease, 33 Parkinson’s disease). Neuropsychological measures included Trailmaking A and B, Complex Figure, Benton Visual Re...

  13. The Impact of Neuropsychological Functioning on Adherence to HAART in HIV-Infected Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Applebaum, Allison J.; Reilly, Laura C.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, Mark A.; Leveroni, Catherine L.; Steven A Safren

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the frequency of neuropsychological impairment and its relationship to adherence in a sample of HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) in treatment. One hundred eight participants recruited between September 2006 and October 2008 completed psychodiagnostic and neuropsychological assessments and monitored HAART adherence over a 2-week period via the use of Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) electronic pill caps and self-report. Assessment of concurrent functioning ...

  14. EMOTICOM: A Neuropsychological Test Battery to Evaluate Emotion, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Amy R.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Mehta, Mitul A; Schei, Thea; Boland, Heather; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K.; Emsley, Richard A; Munafo, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi; Voon, Valerie; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Elliott, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardised test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of ...

  15. The Role of Bilingualism on Neuropsychological Test Performance among Spanish Speakers Tested in Their Native Language

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Paola A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale : The cognitive science literature suggests both advantages and disadvantages of bilingualism for cognitive performance. However, little is known about the generalizability of such findings to clinical neuropsychology for diagnosing brain dysfunction in Spanish dominant bilinguals in the U.S. The present study examined the effects of bilingualism on Spanish-language neuropsychological test performance, and whether or not these bilingual advantages could be explained by socioeconomic...

  16. Subjective cognitive complaints and neuropsychological test performance following military-related traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Louis M. French, PsyD; Rael T. Lange, PhD; Tracey A. Brickell, D.Psych

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between neuropsychological test performance and self-reported cognitive complaints following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 109 servicemembers from the U.S. military who completed a neuropsychological evaluation within the first 2 yr following mild–severe TBI. Measures included the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and 17 se...

  17. Indirect estimation of the tectonic evolution of magnetic structures along the Indiavaí-Lucialva Shear Zone, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, V. H.; Ribeiro, V. B.; Mantovani, M. S.; Geolit Team

    2013-05-01

    The Indiavaí-Lucialva Shear Zone (ILSZ) has a notorious cinematic standard, moving from SW to NE, juxtaposing the Santa Helena Granitic Batholith to the metavolcanosedimentary sets and orthogneisses from the Jauru Domain basement. Along the ILSZ, a sequence of magnetic anomalies of high interference, with each other, and varied polarities occurs, what suggests the presence of different lithologies or times of (re)crystallization of the ferromagnetic minerals from these magnetic structures. In its southernmost portion, the sequence of magnetic anomalies splits in two directions, SW and SE, with the first invading the limits of the Santa Helena batholith and, the latest, accompanying the ILSZ. This study aimed for the comprehension of complex tectonic setting of this region. It analyzed the set of anomalies estimating their lateral limits, depths and directions of total magnetization, with the Enhanced Horizontal Derivatives (EHD), its extrapolation for depth estimative (EHD-Depth), and through an iterative reduction to the magnetic pole, respectively. This procedure allowed the composition of initial models for further inversions of magnetic data which, results, indicate contrasts of magnetic susceptibility in sub-surface. Once known the approximated 3-D shape of the magnetic structures along the ILSZ, the total magnetization intensity of each anomaly was recovered, what consequently allowed, by vector subtraction, to estimate their individual remnant magnetization. The remnant magnetization's inclinations and declinations of the anomalies sources and their latitudes and longitudes permitted the calculus of their respective virtual magnetic paleopoles. When confronted with the South American paleopole wander path and the datings linked to this path, available in the literature, it was possible to have an indirect approximation of the age of (re)crystallization of each magnetic structure near the ILSZ. This procedure indicated an increasing of the ages of the

  18. Diversity and community structure of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in three ecosystems in Itaparica island, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gilberto M de M; Bichara Filho, Carlos C; Resende, Janete J; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M

    2007-01-01

    We studied the structure and composition of communities of social wasps associated with the three insular ecosystems: mangrove swamp, the Atlantic Rain Forest and the 'restinga'- lowland sandy ecosystems located between the mountain range and the sea. Three hundred and ninety-one nests of 21 social wasp species were collected. The diversity of wasps found in each ecosystem was significantly correlated to the diversity of vegetation in each of the three physiognomies, (r(2) = 0.85; F(1.16) = 93.85; P physiognomy had higher species richness (18 species), followed by the restinga (16 species) and the mangrove (8 species) ecosystems. PMID:17607449

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in population structure of Hemigrammus marginatus (Characiformes: Characidae) in streams of the Ivinhema River Basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia da Silva Lourenço; Izaias Médice Fernandes; Yzel Rondon Súarez

    2012-01-01

    The present study has assessed spatial and temporal variations in the length structure of Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis, 1911 and estimated growth parameters for the species. Sampling was carried out in five streams in the Vitória and Piravevê sub-basins of the Ivinhema River from January to December 2002. A total of 933 specimens of H. marginatus were caught (97 in the Vitória sub-basin and 836 in the Piravevê sub-basin). Mean length of the individuals caught in the Piravevê sub-basin was sho...

  20. Relationship between neuropsychological impairment and grey and white matter changes in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldanzi, Sigrid; Cecchi, Paolo; Fabbri, Serena; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Simoncini, Costanza; Angelini, Corrado; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Cosottini, Mirco; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) has a wide phenotypic spectrum and potentially may affect central nervous system with mild to severe involvement. Our aim was to investigate grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structural alterations in a sample of adult-onset DM1 patients and to evaluate relationship with clinical and cognitive variables. Thirty DM1 patients underwent neuropsychological investigation and 3T-MRI protocol. GM and WM changes were evaluated calculating brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), white matter lesion load (LL% and Fazekas scale) and tract based spatial statistical (TBSS). Patients showed main impairment in tests exploring executive and mnesic domains with visuo-spatial involvement, significantly related to BPF. VBM revealed clusters of widespread GM reduction and TBSS revealed areas of decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in patients compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Multiple regression analyses showed areas of significant negative relationship between left temporal atrophy and verbal memory, between RD and mnesic and visuo-spatial cognitive domains, and between AD and verbal memory. TBSS results indicate that the involvement of normal appearance WM, beyond the signal changes detected with conventional MR imaging (Fazekas scale and LL%), was associated with neuropsychological deficit. These data suggest that disrupted complex neuronal networks can underlie cognitive-behavioural dysfunctions in DM1. PMID:27437180

  1. Neuropsychological rehabilitation and quality of life: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Guàrdia-Olmos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of neuropsychological rehabilitation procedures on the quality of life in non-Spanish-speaking individuals with some cognitive deficit. Sixteen studies published during the 2001–2012 period which yielded relevant information regarding the sample sizes used, the types of statistical contrasts, the evaluation instruments or pathologies among others, were analyzed. We carried out study following the usual estimation procedures, based on the definition of the effect size and the scrutiny of their relationship with relevant variables (e.g., sample sizes, type of population, or methodological variables (e.g., type of research or sampling design. The data analysis shows a statistically significant effect (r+ = .38; p < .001 in all the variables associated with the characteristics of the intervention (duration, type of intervention, gender, year of publication and, more importantly, quality of life and neuropsychological outcomes. As a general conclusion, we were able to determine that Quality of Life (QoL can improve, under certain conditions, through neuropsychological rehabilitation, but this change is not permanent. El propósito de este estudio fue generar un meta-análisis sobre los efectos de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica en la dimensión Calidad de Vida en muestras de no hispano-hablantes, con algún déficit cognitivo. Se analizaron dieciséis estudios publicados durante el período 2001 - 2012, que mostraron información relevante con respecto a los tamaños de muestra utilizados, los tipos de contrastes estadísticos, los instrumentos de evaluación o diagnóstico, entre otros. Se realizó el estudio siguiendo los procedimientos de estimación habituales, sobre la base de la definición del tamaño del efecto y el análisis de su relación con las variables relevantes (tamaños de muestra, tipo de población, etc., o variables metodológicas (tipo de investigaci

  2. Neuropsychological function in adults after high dose fractionated radiation therapy of skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the long term effects of high dose fractionated radiation therapy on brain functioning prospectively in adults without primary brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with histologically confirmed chordomas and low grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base were evaluated with neuropsychological measures of intelligence, language, memory, attention, motor function and mood following surgical resection/biopsy of the tumor prior to irradiation, and then at about 6 months, 2 years and 4 years following completion of treatment. None received chemotherapy. Results: In the patients without tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis, there were no indications of adverse effects on cognitive functioning in the post-acute through the late stages after brain irradiation. Even in patients who received doses of radiation up to 66 Cobalt Gy equivalent through nondiseased (temporal lobe) brain tissue, memory and cognitive functioning remained stable for up to 5 years after treatment. A mild decline in psycho-motor speed was seen in more than half of the patients, and motor slowing was related to higher radiation doses in midline and temporal lobe brain structures. Conclusion: Results suggest that in adults, tolerance for focused radiation is relatively high in cortical brain structures

  3. Effects of a nuclear power plant thermal discharge on habitat complexity and fish community structure in Ilha Grande Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tatiana Pires; Neves, Leonardo Mitrano; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2009-10-01

    Fish communities and habitat structures were evaluated by underwater visual censuses a rocky location impacted by thermal discharge (I) and at two control locations, one in a Sargassum bed (C1) and the other in a rocky shore with higher structural complexity (C2). Habitat indicators and fish communities exhibited significant differences between the impacted and control locations, with the impacted one showing a significant decrease in fish species richness and diversity, as well as a decrease in benthic cover. At the I location, only 13 fish species were described, and the average water temperature was 32+/-0.4 degrees C, compared with 44 species at C1 (25.9+/-0.3 degrees C) and 33 species at C2 (24.6+/-0.2 degrees C). Significant differences in fish communities among locations were found by ANOSIM with Eucinostomus argenteus, Mugil sp. and Haemulon steindachneri typical of location I, while Abudefduf saxatilis, Stegastes fuscus and Malacoctenus delalandi were typical of the control locations. Our study shows that thermal pollution alters benthic cover and influences fish assemblages by altering composition and decreasing richness. PMID:19573906

  4. Genetic structure based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite loci of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae) in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, K; Chaves, L J; Vencovsky, R; Kageyama, P Y

    2011-01-01

    Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) is a woody species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. The flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa spp bees, and seeds are dispersed by mammals with distinct home range sizes. As a consequence, relative contributions of pollen and seeds to overall gene flow can vary according to different spatial scales. We studied the genetic structure of four natural populations of S. lycocarpum separated by 19 to 128 km, including individuals located along dirt roads that interlink three of the populations. A total of 294 individuals were genotyped with five nuclear and six chloroplast microsatellite markers. Significant spatial genetic structure was found in the total set of individuals; the Sp statistic was 0.0086. Population differentiation based on the six chloroplast microsatellite markers (θ(pC) = 0.042) was small and similar to that based on the five nuclear microsatellite markers (θ(p) = 0.054). For this set of populations, pollen and seed flow did not differ significantly from one another (pollen-to-seed flow ratio = 1.22). Capability for long distance seed dispersion and colonization of anthropogenic sites contributes to the ability of S. lycocarpum to maintain genetic diversity. Seed dispersion along dirt roads may be critical in preserving S. lycocarpum genetic diversity in fragmented landscapes. PMID:21523656

  5. Genetic structure of goat breeds from Brazil and the United States: Implications for conservation and breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G M C; Paiva, S R; Araújo, A M; Mariante, A; Blackburn, H D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 5 Brazilian (155 animals) and 5 U.S. goat (120 animals) breeds using 23 microsatellite markers. Samples from the United States represented a broad geographic distribution whereas Brazilian samples were from the northeast region. Samples from Boer were common to each country's breed count. Expected and observed heterozygosity among breeds ranged from 0.55 to 0.72, suggesting ample genetic diversity in the breeds evaluated. United States Angora, U.S. Spanish, and Brazilian Nambi ranked highest for allelic richness, averaging 6.1, 7.1, and 6.5 alleles per locus, respectively. Angora and Spanish also ranked highest in private alleles (7 and 9, respectively). Using STRUCTURE, the U.S. Spanish were also found to share a common cluster assignment with Brazilian Nambi, suggesting that progenitor breeds may have been the same and passed through the Canary Islands or Cape Verde in route to the New World. When non-Boer breeds were pooled by country, the effect of the subpopulation compared with total population () = 0.05, suggesting minor genetic differences exist between countries. The lack of genetic structure among goat breeds when compared with other species (e.g., vs. ) suggests goat breeds may exhibit a plasticity that facilitates productivity across a wide range of countries and environments. Taken a step further, the concept of breed for meat goats may not be as relevant for goat production. PMID:26523555

  6. Compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C

    2016-03-01

    Complaints of cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and they are often accompanied by deficits on neuropsychological testing. Prior studies of BPD, however, did not evaluate compliance on neuropsychological performance validity testing, which could partially account for cognitive deficits observed in patients. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency at which patients with BPD show less than adequate compliance on performance validity testing, and whether patients showing less compliance perform lower on standardized neuropsychological measures. Fifty outpatients with BPD completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, a 2-alternative, forced-choice recognition test as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery for research on cognitive functioning in BPD. As a group, patients with BPD made more errors and had longer response latencies on seemingly difficult items as compared to healthy individuals. Based on established guidelines for interpretation of performances on the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, 2% of the sample was classified as probably not compliant, 10% questionably compliant, and 88% compliant. Patients with questionably or probably not compliant performances had lower estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and displayed poorer response control on neuropsychological testing than compliant patients. These findings highlight the value of incorporating performance validity testing in neuropsychological studies of patients with BPD and suggest that prior research on the disorder should be interpreted with caution because the results may not be based on valid performances. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121384

  7. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  8. Incremental validity of neuropsychological assessment in the identification and treatment of youth with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Alison E; Koriakin, Taylor; Jacobson, Lisa A; Mahone, E Mark

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments for youth with ADHD allow for thorough consideration of co-occurring disorders and provide targeted recommendations for treating ADHD and comorbid conditions. This study offers a preliminary evaluation of the added value (compared to routine care) associated with neuropsychological assessment in the identification and treatment of ADHD in youth ages 3-17 years. First we describe a novel measure developed to evaluate broad-based outcomes for youth with ADHD following neuropsychological assessment. Next we compare parent ratings of child symptoms and quality of life between two groups of youth with ADHD: those who have recently received neuropsychological assessments (NP+), and those who have not (NP-). Participants were surveyed again 5 months after baseline to assess changes in symptoms, quality of life, and service utilization. While both groups experienced significant improvements in behavioral/emotional symptoms, the NP+ group had greater initiation of parent behavior management training and special education services and greater initiation of medication management over the follow-up period, compared with the NP- group. Satisfaction with neuropsychological assessment was high overall but slightly decreased over the course of the follow-up period. The findings offer preliminary support for the incremental efficacy of neuropsychological evaluation in the diagnosis and management of ADHD. PMID:24345262

  9. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  10. THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY OF PURE STAND OF Mimosa scabrella Bentham IN MINED AREA, IN POÇOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic and structural survey of the natural regeneration of shrubby and arboreal species of the understory of an established homogeneous plantation of Mimosa scabrella Bentham was corried out  viewing, the  reclamation  of  a  mined  area,  in  Poços de  Caldas, Minas  Gerais State, Brazil. Nineteen  plots of 50 m2 (5 m × 10 m were used and the shrubby and arboreal individuals measuring equal or above 30 cm were sampled and 1,946 individuals belonging to 63 botanic families were found. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm, in each of the 19 plots, and the contents of sand, silt,clay, organic matters, pH nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were analysed. The influence of the soil variables upon the density of the sampled species was analysed using the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A significative correlation was verified among these variables at a level of 5% of probability using the Monte Carlo test. The species Miconia sellowiana, Miconia pepericarpa, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Cordia superba and Casearia sylvestris presented a close to indifferent behaviour in relation to the soil variables studied, and these species largely surpassed the other species in relation to the floristic and the strutured parameters. This behaviour reinforces the indication of the species, made by NAPPO (1999, as having a potential for use in mixed and enrichment plantation in condition similar to those of the studied area. The identification and mensuration of the enviromental variables and of the history of the area are important pieces for the understanding of the process of population dynamics, and particularly, for degraded area getting to the reclamation phase.

  11. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-02-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  12. Structural indexes and sexual maturity of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) (Characiformes: Characidae) in central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta-Correa, M A; Saint-Paul, U

    1999-11-01

    Length, weight, structural index and sexual maturity in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum were analysed. 449 specimens were obtained from the commercial fishing fleet arriving at Manaus Harbour from the floodplain areas from May 1992 to July 1993. The objective of this study is to describe changes in structural index during one hidrological cycle and to interpret them according to the water level fluctuations and to also determine the time, reproductive period and length in sexual maturity. Sex ratio in tambaqui was 1:1 however, the length of females was significantly longer than males'. Length/weight relationship was described by the expression: Pt = 0.00058*Cp2.9039. b value was significantly different from 3 which meant an alometric growth. Lower condition index values (Kn) were found from August to October at the end of receding water and dry period. The feeding index was significantly lower during the receding water and dry period. Lower hepatosomatic index values were found in December during the dry period. Fishes in lengths longer than 550 mm which were more common from September to December during the dry period, stored larger cavitary fat reserves. Fishes smaller than the standard length of 550 mm stored less fat reserves and were more common during the rising of the water and flooding period. Spawning period of tambaqui extends from September to February in a total spawning synchronized with "repiquetes" (native term used to name a sudden recending and rising of the water level). Length of tambaqui was 60.69 cm, at sexual maturity. PMID:23505652

  13. Estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio: testes no Brasil Capital structure, dividends and interests on equity: tests in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Seikitsi Futema

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de capital e os dividendos são dois dos temas mais estudados em finanças corporativas. Em 2002, Fama e French estudaram esses dois temas simultaneamente dentro do contexto das teorias de tradeoff estática e pecking order. A análise conjunta significa reconhecer que o dividendo afeta a estrutura de capital e vice-versa, o que gera um problema de endogeneidade. Estendendo o estudo de Fama e French e adaptando a análise para a realidade brasileira com a inclusão de mais uma variável dependente, os juros sobre o capital próprio, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações conjuntas da estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio das empresas brasileiras para o período de 1995 a 2004. Em linhas gerais, os resultados confirmam boa parte das previsões das teorias, embora a distribuição de lucros no Brasil ainda seja muito baixa, comparada com a americana. A lucratividade demonstrou ser a variável explicativa de maior peso e influência tanto para a distribuição de lucros como para a alavancagem.Capital structure and dividends have been frequently studied in corporate finance. In 2002, Fama and French simultaneously analyzed these two subjects in the context of tradeoff and pecking order theories. The simultaneous analysis means acknowledging that dividend influences capital structure and vice versa, leading to an endogeneity problem. Extending and adapting Fama and French's study to the Brazilian environment and including yet another dependent variable, i.e. interest on equity, this article aims to analyze the relationship among capital structure, dividends and interest on equity in the context of Brazilian companies. The analysis comprises the period from 1995 to 2004. Results corroborate many of the predictions of tradeoff and pecking order theories, despite the fact that dividend payout in Brazil is low when compared to the United States. Profitability was the most significant variable in

  14. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  15. Population structure and reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira, 2000 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae in the rio Ibicuí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Luís Zardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze population structure (spatial distribution, seasonal distribution and distribution by length classes, sex ratio and length-weight relationship and aspects of the reproductive biology of Loricariichthys melanocheilus. Fish were sampled bimonthly using gillnets and trammel nets in lentic and lotic environments in the rio Ibicuí, between the years 2000 and 2001. Were collected 410 specimens: 230 females, 164 males and 16 specimens whose sex could not be determined. A greater number of specimens were collected in October/November and December/January and in lentic environments. The greater length classes had a higher amount of females (p < 0.05 and the sex ratio in all sampling periods was 1.38 females per male. Both males and females showed positive allometric growth (b = 3.299 and b =3.487, respectively. The highest values for gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonadal condition factor (K were observed from August/September and peaked in October/November, just like the highest frequencies of females at maturity stage C (mature, which is indicative that the breeding season occurs at this time.

  16. The Term Structure of Interest Rates and its Impact on the Liability Adequacy Test for Insurance Companies in Brazil

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    Antonio Aurelio Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian regulation for applying the Liability Adequacy Test (LAT to technical provisions in insurance companies requires that the current estimate is discounted by a term structure of interest rates (hereafter TSIR. This article aims to analyze the LAT results, derived from the use of various models to build the TSIR: the cubic spline interpolation technique, Svensson's model (adopted by the regulator and Vasicek's model. In order to achieve the objective proposed, the exchange rates of BM&FBOVESPA trading days were used to model the ETTJ and, consequently, to discount the cash flow of the insurance company. The results indicate that: (i LAT is sensitive to the choice of the model used to build the TSIR; (ii this sensitivity increases with cash flow longevity; (iii the adoption of an ultimate forward rate (UFR for the Brazilian insurance market should be evaluated by the regulator, in order to stabilize the trajectory of the yield curve at longer maturities. The technical provision is among the main solvency items of insurance companies and the LAT result is a significant indicator of the quality of this provision, as this evaluates its sufficiency or insufficiency. Thus, this article bridges a gap in the Brazilian actuarial literature, introducing the main methodologies available for modeling the yield curve and a practical application to analyze the impact of its choice on LAT.

  17. Energy Structures as Determinants of Response to Climate Change. Case Studies of Brazil, China, India and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Javier; Bergesen, Helge Ole [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This report analyses whether a `low carbon emissions` alternative exists for the expansion and modernization of the energy sector in less developed countries (LDCs). The authors are convinced that energy development and hence carbon emissions in LDCs will be strongly driven by the energy structures and policies that are already in place. Options for future carbon emissions must be assessed based on analyses of the underlying pattern of economic and political interests that shape the energy sector that produces the emissions. The countries studied account for more than 1/3 of the total emissions outside OECD. In all these countries the energy sector was organized decades ago to promote industrialization and welfare with little environmental concern. The energy utilities are under financed for their tasks, having excessive personnel, cumbersome administration and budgets in deficit. Increased supply capacity has been given priority over energy efficiency and the projected increase of CO{sub 2} emission is enormous. Strong urbanization has caused major health problems. Vehicle transportation and power generation are major sources of air pollution. Most countries with emerging economies have comprehensive environmental rules for the energy sector, but standards seldom go beyond well-established practices. The development of regulations that promote a sustainable energy industry must take place in stages. First, raise the efficiency standard of the traditional energy industries and make new owners of energy companies take environmental responsibility. Then revise the regulatory framework to promote the development of sustainable energy at the municipal level. 81 refs., 15 figs., 63 tabs.

  18. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms. PMID:22437397

  19. Phylogenetic signal and major ecological shifts in the ecomorphological structure of stream fish in two river basins in Brazil

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    Camilo Andrés Roa-Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the contribution of the phylogenetic and specific components to the ecomorphological structure of stream fish from the upper Paraguai River and upper São Francisco River basins, and identified nodes in the phylogenetic tree at which major ecological shifts occurred. Fish were sampled between June and October of 2008 in 12 streams (six in each basin. In total, 22 species from the upper Paraguai River basin and 12 from the upper São Francisco River were analyzed. The ecomorphological patterns exhibited phylogenetic signal, indicating that the ecomorphological similarity among species is associated with the degree of relatedness. A strong habitat template is most likely to be the primary cause for a high phylogenetic signal. A significant contribution from the specific component was also detected, supporting the idea that the phylogenetic signal occurs in some clades for some traits, but not in others. The major ecological shifts were observed in the basal nodes, suggesting that ecological niche differences appear to accumulate early in the evolutionary history of major clades. This finding reinforces the role of key traits in the diversification of Neotropical fishes. Ecological shifts in recent groups could be related to morphological modifications associated with habitat use.

  20. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure. PMID:19528026

  1. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  2. Misconceptions on neuropsychological rehabilitation and traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García- Molina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many misconceptions about traumatic brain injuries, their recovery and outcome; misconceptions that have their origin in a lack of information influenced by the image that the media show of the brain damage. Development. Based on clinical experience, the authors of this essay sets out his personal view on some of the most frequent misconceptions in the field of neuropsychological rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury: 1 All deficits are evident; 2 The recovery depends mainly on the involvement of the patient: more effort, more rapid recovery; 3 Two years after traumatic brain injury there is no possibility of improvement and recovery; and 4 The “miracle” of recovery will occur when is found the appropriate professional or treatment. These and other beliefs may influence directly or indirectly on the recovery process and the expectations placed on it by the families and patients. Conclusions. Provide accurate, clear and honest information, at the right time, helps patients and their families to better understand the deficits, the course of recovery and to adapt to the new reality resulting from a traumatic brain injury.

  3. Transactional Neuropsychology, a Holistic View of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Restrepo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this article is to review some essential concepts to understan­ding the traditional way in which neuropsychology conceives difficulties in child development, and to propose an alternative model for integrally understanding this problematic. Development: Physicians, psychologists, therapists, and teachers conceive difficulties in development as a result of a neuro-biological problem that can be subject of identification and treatment. This premise, widely used currently by interdisciplinary staffs, is the prevailing focus and the traditional po­sition to evaluate and intervene in medicine, psychology and education. The traditional model, known as the deficit model, conceptualizes the difficulties in child development as being essentially neuro-biological, without considering the various aspects of both family and school environments, which are of paramount importance not only for the child development, but also in the genesis of its difficulties. This explains why efforts invested in the rehabilitation and education of the child with difficulties have a limited success. In contrast, the ecological or transactional neurop­sychology is an approach that considers the child in a comprehensive manner, relating with its social, family and cultural environment. Conclusion: Integrally conceptualizing and interpreting these phenomena leads to a holistic intervention where each element of the problem is assessed, leading to the proposal of a model in which the environment plays a crucial role in the genesis of the difficulties in child development, and the search for solutions.

  4. [Forensic neuropsychology in the aging and the dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Losada, M L; Rodríguez Aizcorbe, J R; Fernández Guinea, S

    INTRODUCTION. Forensic Neuropsychology establishes an expert valuation of the brain-injured patient (or supposed), or of the law offender people (or supposed) requiring law protection due to their illness. This discipline has a fundamental role in the study of cerebral organic syndromes, particularly in the dementias. DEVELOPMENT. The demential syndrome is common to a group of diseases as degenerative or cardiovascular disorders, brain tumors, syphilis, alcoholism or toxic factors, etc. When speaking of dementia we refer to a syndrome characterized by a progressive and global deterioration of the cognitive functions (memory, language, attention, space-temporal orientation, praxis, thinking, etc.) with preservation of the level of conscience (DSM-IV). This symptomatology affects the personality of the individual as reasonable being , as well as to his behavior and social adaptation. The decrease or loss of the intellectual and volitives abilities of the affected person of a demential syndrome, if it is permanent, also implies a change in its legal situation, since its legal capacity is altered. Therefore, it will be necessary to adopt protective measures for his person and his patrimony. Even if it is necessary, to promote a process of disability, whose sentence will be emitted by a judge, who will indicate: the degree of the mentioned disability, the trusteeship regime and who is designated as a legal tutor. PMID:11391517

  5. [About the necessity of neuropsychological assessment in the civil law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    2000-01-01

    Giving expert opinions within legal psychiatry in civil cases requires more and more strict co-operation of expert psychiatrists with psychologists. Assessment of the cognitive functions with the help of neuropsychological methods is an important diagnostic element that leads to giving the right opinion. The most frequent reasons for appointing experts in psychiatry and psychology are disorders of cognitive functions as a result of various brain injuries. Dementia syndromes are particularly often subjects of doubts in preparing expert opinions as they must be distinguished from other organic dysfunctions and from the age--associated memory impairment. Considering the evidence value the most important thing is to assess all the objective data included in the medical records and subsequently to assess the testimony of the witnesses Usually people from legal circles and families of the people who make declarations of will overvalue the importance of additional examinations. Those examinations are important but they do not settle the patient's psychic state because the decisive factor is not the kind of somatic disease but the influence of that disease on the psychic state. The neuropsychologist's role in giving medical statements is going to increase together with the tendency to objectivization and qualitative assessment of intensification of respective disorders of cognitive functions when examining patients in order to give expert opinions. PMID:11055184

  6. Probing prefrontal function in schizophrenia with neuropsychological paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, T E; Weinberger, D R

    1988-01-01

    In a recent series of studies we have attempted to clarify the nature of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia, and in particular, how patterns of dysfunction implicate specific neural systems. First, we found that acute psychotic adolescent patients displayed the same pattern of IQ scores (Performance less than Verbal) as adult chronic schizophrenic patients. We explored this deficit in problem solving by studying the performance of schizophrenic patients after receiving concrete and explicit instructions on how to do the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a task thought to be mediated by prefrontal cortex. We then studied the differential impact such a deficit in problem-solving strategies might have on a task thought to elicit both cognitive (prefrontal) and procedural or motor-skill (basal ganglia) processing. Procedural components appeared to be relatively more intact. We also addressed schizophrenic patients' ability to learn in other (extrafrontal) cognitive domains through verbal memory tasks and block design puzzles. Learning occurred under both conditions. We believe the overall pattern of deficit implicates primarily prefrontal neural systems, though a number of other neuropsychological functions are yet to be surveyed. PMID:3059467

  7. Neurological implications and neuropsychological considerations on folk music and dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Vittorio A; Riva, Michele A

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of folk music and traditional dance have been poorly investigated by historical and scientific literature. Some of these performances could be indeed the manifestation of latent pathological conditions or the expression of liberation rituals. This chapter aimed at analyzing the relationships between traditional dance, folk music, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Since ancient times, dance has been used in the individual or collective as treatment of some diseases, including epilepsy and movement disorders (dyskinesia, chorea, etc.). Dionysia in Ancient Greece, St. Vitus dance in the Middle Age, tarantism and other traditional dances of southern Italy and of non-Western countries might be credited as curative rituals of these neurological and psychiatric conditions. During the nineteenth century, dance was also used for the treatment of psychiatric patients; the relationship between dance and insanity could also be reflected in classical ballets and music of that period. Nowadays, neuropsychiatric manifestations could also be evidenced in modern dances (mass fainting at rock concerts, flash mobs); some ballroom dances are commonly used for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Interdisciplinary research on these subjects (ethnomusicology and cultural anthropology, clinical neurology and dynamic psychology, neuroradiology and neurophysiology, and socioneurology and neuromusicology) should be increased. PMID:25725916

  8. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population. PMID:25314037

  9. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: current knowledge and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is an invaluable therapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer, with well-established palliative and curative efficacy. As patient survival has improved, attention has focused on long-range treatment side effects. One such adverse effect, neuropsychological impairment, is incompletely understood. Much of the extant research has been directed at childhood leukemia survivors treated with low-dose whole-brain radiation. Less is known about the effects of high-dose focal or whole-brain radiation used in the treatment of brain lesions. This article reviews the scientific literature in this area, with greatest emphasis on methodologically rigorous studies. Research design considerations are discussed. Review findings suggest that low-dose whole-brain radiation (18 to 24 Gy) in children is associated with mild delayed IQ decline, with more substantial deficits occurring in children treated at a young age. A high incidence of learning disabilities and academic failure is observed in this population and may be caused by poor attention and memory rather than low intellectual level. Children who receive higher dose radiation for treatment of brain tumors experience more pronounced cognitive decline. At higher doses, whole-brain radiation, in particular, is linked to deleterious cognitive outcomes. Remarkably little is known about cognitive outcomes in irradiated adults. Preliminary findings indicate that certain cognitive functions, including memory, may be more vulnerable to decline than others. Suggestions for future research are proposed

  10. Imaging Subsurface Velocity Structure Under the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, With Passive-Source Seismology: From Crust to Lithosphere and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.; Bastow, I. D.; Dias, R. C.; Pinheiro, A. G.; Farias do Nascimento, A.; Ferreira, J. M.; Fuck, R. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Borborema Province of NE Brazil can be regarded as a collage ofseveral terranes of Precambrian age that amalgamated during the Brasiliano-Pan African orogeny around 600 Ma. It comprises the northeasternmost corner of the South American continent and it is bounded by the São Francisco craton to the South, the Paleozoic Parnaiba basin to the West and a number of Mesozoic marginal basins to the North and East. The Cenozoic evolution of the Province is marked by the uplift of the Borborema Plateau and the coeval magmatism along two mutually orthogonal alignments: Macau-Queimadas, onshore and trending in the NS direction, and Fernando de Noronha-Mecejana, offshore and trending EW. Constraints on the geodynamical evolution of the Province come mostly from geochronological data and neotectonic markers, which have related this Cenozoic volcanism and the coeval plateau uplift to a small-scale convection cell that might have developed at the edge of the continent. Available seismic constraints on deep crustal and upper mantle structure to validate this interpretation, however, are scarce. In order to develop seismic constraints on deep crustal and upper mantle structure, a network of 16 short-period stations was deployed in 2011 under the Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Estudos Tectônicos (INCT-ET) of the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). The stations complement an existing network of 16 broadband stations used for seismic monitoring of the Brazilian northeast. The combined network has an aperture of ˜400 km in the NE direction, ˜600 km in the NS direction, and an average inter-station spacing of ˜100 km and will operate for about 2 years. Tomographic images based on fundamental model surface-waves dispersion as well as ambient-noise cross-correlations and P- and S-wave travel-times are now being developed, along with detailed crustal-velocity models from the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface

  11. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

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    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  12. The mind of the mnemonists: an MEG and neuropsychological study of autistic memory savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M; Braun, Christoph; Löw, Andreas; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-12-20

    About 10% of autistic individuals exhibit some form of islets of abilities in the face of serious intellectual or mental disability ("savant syndrome"). The aim of this study was to investigate brain mechanisms in a sample of autistic subjects with outstanding memory. We investigated seven mnemonist savants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and seven matched controls with 151-channel whole-head magnetencephalography in a continuous old-new paradigm. They were presented with 300 pseudowords and 300 shapes and had to indicate by button press, whether the presented stimulus had been shown before. Unexpectedly, mnemonist savants did not perform better than controls, but were outperformed in the recognition of pseudowords. Accordingly, event-related magnetic fields elicited by pseudowords showed widespread old-new effects in controls, but not in savants. A source analysis of its early components revealed right occipital activation in savants, but left parietal activation in controls. This might be related to a visual processing style in mnemonist savants that proved to be inefficient in this task. During the possibly familiarity-based recognition of shapes, there were earlier and more widespread bilateral old-new effects in mnemonist savants, what might reflect their experience with figural material. In a neuropsychological test battery, mnemonist savants performed comparably to autistic people without special memory skills. However, a different factor structure of these tests pointed to a different organization of memory in mnemonist savants compared to controls that is characterized by its relative independence of general intelligence. PMID:20637245

  13. Brazil: Mechanisms of Direct Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bovo, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    In the structure of Brazilian Government, regarding both the executive as well as the executive powers, the increase in ways in which society can participate in decisions of public interest, stands out. Among the shared or participatory managerial policies implemented in Brazil, the following are noteworthy: the participatory budget, managerial councils, committees dealing with watersheds, thematic conferences, plebiscites, public meetings and referenda. However, if compared to the size of Br...

  14. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for ΔWAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO2 (r=0.52), for ΔWAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO2 and elevated OEF. (author)

  15. Impairment of neuropsychological function in patients with hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and efficacy of bypass surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, Masayuki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-08-01

    In order to evaluate the relation between neuropsychological functions and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, the author analyzed neuropsychological examination and the cerebral blood flow and metabolism of patients before and after bypass surgery. Twenty-five patients were defined by clinical and laboratory criteria as suffering from hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. All patients had one or more episodes of focal cerebral ischemia due to unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery occlusion. Computerized tomography scans either were normal or showed evidence of watershed infarction. Based on these criteria, superficial temporal artery-proximal middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed. The baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) were studied using positron emission computerized tomography (PET) and the acetazolamide test. Neuropsychological evaluations including Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, Mini-Mental State and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and PET study were completed one month after the last ischemic event and 3-6 months after the operation. A significant negative correlation was observed between OEF and neuropsychological functions. Postoperative neuropsychological functions showed significant improvement. Significant correlations were observed for {delta}WAIS-R (preoperative WAIS-R postoperative WAIS-R) versus preoperative CMRO{sub 2} (r=0.52), for {delta}WAIS-R versus preoperative OEF (r=0.47). In view of these findings, the author concludes that elevation of OEF impairs neuropsychological functions and bypass surgery improves neuropsychological functions in patients with normal CMRO{sub 2} and elevated OEF. (author)

  16. Neuropsychological findings in personality disorders: A.R. Luria’s Approach.

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    Pluzhnikov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information concerning the features of cognitive processes in personality disorders, as well as the brain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Luria’s neuropsychological approach demonstrated its heuristicity in estimating the cognitive status of patients with mental disorders and can be employed to identify the brain bases of non-psychotic mental disorders (including personality disorders. The objective of this research is to study the features of neurocognitive functioning in patients with schizoid personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder (against the norm, employing Luria’s neuropsychological methodology. Hypotheses: 1 While both types of personality disorders are related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the specificity of the neurocognitive functioning of each personality disorder will be observed in addition to general neuropsychological signs. Specific neuropsychological symptoms point to different brain deficits, which allows conclusion to be drawn regarding differences in the pathogenesis of each personality disorder; and 2 Luria’s methodology neuropsychology is adequate for the study of neurocognitive functioning in personality disorders. The study was conducted using qualitative and quantitative analyses (according to Luria of neuropsychological testing data in a group of fifty male patients aged 19,2±3,7 years with pathocharacteristic domain disorders. The group consisted of 30 schizoid personality disorder patients and 20 schizotypal personality disorder patients. Statistically significant differences (p <0,005 in neurocognitive function (regulatory processes, memory, spatial function between the healthy controls and patients with personality disorders were observed. Specific cognitive disorders pointing to the dysfunction of front-thalamoparietal connections were characteristic of both groups. Lateral differences were discovered for both patient groups. The

  17. Neuropsychological Status in Children After Repair of Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Flynn, Thomas B.; Gaynor, J. William; Zhang, Xuemei; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Nance, Michael L.; Wernovsky, Gil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The majority of previous studies that described the neuropsychological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children were performed after surgery in infancy for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to limit confounding variables and isolate potential independent effects of CPB by describing neuropsychological function in school-aged children after repair of acyanotic CHD. METHODS This was a prospective study of patients who were aged 5 to 18 years and undergoing repair of acyanotic CHD. Neuropsychological testing battery included assessment of intelligence, memory, motor, attention, executive function, and behavior before and 6 months after CPB. The independent effects of anesthesia, surgery, and hospitalization on neuropsychological function were assessed by testing a surgical control group of patients who were undergoing repair of pectus deformities. In addition, an outpatient group of children with mild CHD were enrolled to assess the practice effects of serial testing. RESULTS Patients included CPB (n = 35), surgical control (n = 19), and nonsurgical (n = 12). Groups were comparable in age, gender, and race and demonstrated similar unadjusted group mean scores on baseline and 6-month follow-up neuropsychological testing. When adjusted for practice effects, the CPB group performed similar to the non-CPB groups in all assessed neuropsychological domains, with the exception of 1 of 4 tests of executive function. CONCLUSIONS When controlling for the non-CPB effects of surgery (eg, hospitalization, anesthesia, thoracotomy) and the practice effects of serial testing, there were no consistent independent effects of CPB on neuropsychological status in a cohort of children and adolescents 6 months after repair of acyanotic CHD. PMID:20660542

  18. The stratigraphy and regional structure of Miocene deposits in western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), with implications for late Neogene landscape evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, M.C.; Guerrero, J.; Räsänen, M.E.; Romero Pittmann, L.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A biozonation based on molluscs is proposed for Miocene deposits of western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), commonly referred to as the Pebas Formation. The new zonation refines existing pollen zonations and provides a key for the quick assessment of the stratigraphic position of Neogene depos

  19. STROOP EFFECT AND ITS LIMITATIONS IN PRACTICE EXECUTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHILD.

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    Yaser Ramírez-Benitez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The test of Stroop on line modality word / color is of limited application in the clinical child population. A digital adaptation of the test demands the infant's quick answer and at the same time that the processes used in the test have an interference in the boy. If the boy doesn't adapt to the digital demands it doesn't happen the interference between the processes and the test he doesn't have effect. Material and Method: The investigation seeks to determine if the results of the test Stroop, modality word / color, they are related with the results of other tests that evaluate the executive functions. The Dpto. of Neuropsychology he intended to revise all the results of the test SESH in the population from 7 to 15 years of the 2009 - 2011. The analyzed tests were: Stroop, Wisconsin, Time of complex reaction and the simple sustained Attention. Result: The clinical histories demonstrated that of the 207 evaluated children 59 present punctuations above the superior norm in the Stroop. However, the results in the Wisconsin, the time of reaction and the attention reports that the 59 children have a pathological index. The investigation shows that the punctuations risen in the Stroop are not sign of good acting in the other tests. Conclusions: The task Stroop is not effective in all the analyzed children. The problems in the prosecution speed and atencionales are a negative condition to execute with success the on-line task Stroop modality word / color in the infantile population.

  20. Reliable Change on Neuropsychological Tests in the Uniform Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Brandon E; Ashendorf, Lee; Gurnani, Ashita S

    2015-08-01

    Longitudinal normative data obtained from a robust elderly sample (i.e., believed to be free from neurodegenerative disease) are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable change indices (RCIs) that can assist with interpretation of test score changes relative to a healthy sample of older adults (ages 50+). Participants were 4217 individuals who completed at least three annual evaluations at one of 34 past and present Alzheimer's Disease Centers throughout the United States. All participants were diagnosed as cognitively normal at every study visit, which ranged from three to nine approximately annual evaluations. One-year RCIs were calculated for 11 neuropsychological variables in the Uniform Data Set by regressing follow-up test scores onto baseline test scores, age, education, visit number, post-baseline assessment interval, race, and sex in a linear mixed effects regression framework. In addition, the cumulative frequency distributions of raw score changes were examined to describe the base rates of test score changes. Baseline test score, age, education, and race were robust predictors of follow-up test scores across most tests. The effects of maturation (aging) were more pronounced on tests related to attention and executive functioning, whereas practice effects were more pronounced on tests of episodic and semantic memory. Interpretation of longitudinal changes on 11 cognitive test variables can be facilitated through the use of reliable change intervals and base rates of score changes in this robust sample of older adults. A Web-based calculator is provided to assist neuropsychologists with interpretation of longitudinal change. PMID:26234918

  1. Reliable change on neuropsychological tests in the Uniform Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavett, Brandon E.; Ashendorf, Lee; Gurnani, Ashita S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Longitudinal normative data obtained from a robust elderly sample (i.e., believed to be free from neurodegenerative disease) are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to develop reliable change indices (RCIs) that can assist with interpretation of test score changes relative to a healthy sample of older adults (ages 50+). Method Participants were 4217 individuals who completed at least 3 annual evaluations at one of 34 past and present Alzheimer’s Disease Centers throughout the United States. All participants were diagnosed as cognitively normal at every study visit, which ranged from three to nine approximately annual evaluations. One-year RCIs were calculated for 11 neuropsychological variables in the Uniform Data Set by regressing follow-up test scores onto baseline test scores, age, education, visit number, post-baseline assessment interval, race, and sex in a linear mixed effects regression framework. In addition, the cumulative frequency distributions of raw score changes were examined to describe the base rates of test score changes. Results Baseline test score, age, education, and race were robust predictors of follow-up test scores across most tests. The effects of maturation (aging) were more pronounced on tests related to attention and executive functioning, whereas practice effects were more pronounced on tests of episodic and semantic memory. Interpretation of longitudinal changes on 11 cognitive test variables can be facilitated through the use of reliable change intervals and base rates of score changes in this robust sample of older adults. A web-based calculator is provided to assist neuropsychologists with interpretation of longitudinal change. PMID:26234918

  2. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

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    YANG Ming-yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC. Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic undergoing general anesthesia (GA in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigated during telephone follow-ups, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36 was adopted to evaluate the life quality of patients. Results Almost 73 pairs of patients fulfilled the survey of AC and GA group respectively. There were 21 patients and 28 patients with postoperative neurological deficits, and 12 patients and 8 patients with psychological disorders in AC and GA group respectively. Thirty patients of AC group had the recollection of being awake during the surgery. There were 9 patients in CA group having long-term ( > 6 months neurological deficits, which was less than the number of GA group (18 patients, P = 0.038. According to the assessment in short-term, medium-term and long-term postoperative neurological deficits, there was no significant difference in the quality-of-life scores between the two groups (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion Awake craniotomy can be the main method for removing the lesions located in or close to functional areas with lower incidence of long?term postoperative neurological deficits, and it has no significant impact on the psychological status and the quality of life postoperatively.

  3. Estrutura populacional do rebanho Tabapuã registrado no Brasil Population structure of the registered Tabapuã cattle in Brazil

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    A.E. Vercesi Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a estrutura da população do rebanho Tabapuã registrado no Brasil. Foram geradas estatísticas descritivas da distribuição do número de progênies e estimados o intervalo de gerações, estatísticas de F, número efetivo de fundadores, de ancestrais e de genomas remanescentes, além do tamanho efetivo da população, usando o registro genealógico de animais nascidos entre 1971-1998. Entre 1994 e 1998 foram registrados 37.778 animais, 18.736 machos e 19.042 fêmeas, pertencentes a 136 criadores. As médias dos intervalos de gerações estimadas para os períodos de 1979-1983, 1984-1988, 1989-1993 e 1994-1998 foram, respectivamente, 6,26; 7,18; 7,68 e 7,56 anos para pais-filhos e 6,18; 6,43; 6,99 e 7,27 para pais-pais. O tamanho efetivo da população e o número efetivo de fundadores, de ancestrais e de genomas remanescentes em cada um dos períodos foram, respectivamente, 378, 218, 213 e 181; 131, 254, 202 e 163; 73, 150, 119 e 94 e 55, 112, 78 e 61.The population structure of the registered Tabapuã cattle in Brazil was described. Descriptive statistics of the distribution of the number of progeny, the generation interval, F-statistics, effective number of founders, ancestors, reminiscent genomes and effective population size were estimated using pedigree records from registered animals from 1971 to 1998. In the last period studied (1994-1998, 37,778 animals, 18,736 males and 19,042 females from 136 breeders were registered. The generations intervals calculated in each of the four periods 1979-1983, 1984-1988, 1989-1993 and 1994-1998 were, respectively, 6.26, 7.18, 7.68 and 7.56 yr for parent-progeny and 6.18, 6.43, 6.99 and 7.27 yr for parent to parent. The effective size of the population, founders, ancestors and reminiscent genomes in each of these periods were respectively: 378, 218, 213 and 181; 131, 254, 202 and 163; 73, 150, 119 and 94; 55, 112, 78 and 61.

  4. An assessment of the Brazil Current baroclinic structure and variability near 22° S in Distinct Ocean Forecasting and Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mateus O.; Cirano, Mauro; Mata, Mauricio M.; Goes, Marlos; Goni, Gustavo; Baringer, Molly

    2016-07-01

    The Brazil Current (BC) is the Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic subtropical gyre, the dominant dynamic feature in the South Atlantic Ocean. The importance of this current lies in that it is the main conduit of subtropical waters to higher latitudes in the South Atlantic Ocean. This study assesses the structure and variability of the BC across the nominal latitude of 22° S using data from the high-density eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) AX97 transect and from three numerical ocean models with data assimilation. This XBT transect was implemented in 2004 and represents one of the longer-term monitoring systems of the BC in existence. The goal of this work is to enhance the understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of the ocean dynamics in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean by using a suite of hydrographic observations and numerical model outputs. In the present work, 37 XBT transect realizations using data collected between 2004 and 2012 are used. Daily outputs covering the same time period are evaluated from Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (HYCOM-NCODA) with a 1/12° horizontal resolution, and GLORYS2V3 and FOAM, both with a 1/4° horizontal resolution. These Ocean Forecasting and Analysis Systems (OFAS) are able to capture the mean observed features in the 22° S region, showing a BC core confined to the west of 39° W and an Intermediate Western Boundary Current between the depths of 200 and 800 m. However, the OFAS tend to overestimate the mean BC baroclinic volume transport across the AX97 reference transect and underestimate its variability. The OFAS show that the coastal region between the coastline and the western edge of the AX97 transect plays an important role in the mean BC total transport, contributing to up to 23 % of its value, and further that this transport is not sampled by the XBT observations with its current sampling strategy. In order to understand the variability of the

  5. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Urban, Stephanie; McCauley, Ashley; Bangen, Katherine J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W

    2009-11-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62-91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled in a longitudinal study of normal aging. A comprehensive neuropsychological definition of MCI that required the presence of more than one impaired score in a cognitive domain resulted in expected anatomical results; hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller in the aMCI group as compared to cognitively normal or nonamnestic MCI participants. However, a typical definitional scheme for classifying MCI based only on the presence of one impaired score within a cognitive domain did not result in hippocampal differences between groups. Global stroke risk factors did not differ between the two definitional schemes, although the relationship between stroke risk variables and neuropsychological performance did vary by diagnostic approach. The comprehensive approach demonstrated associations between stroke risk and cognition, whereas the typical approach did not. Use of more sophisticated clinical decision-making and diagnostic approaches that incorporate comprehensive neuropsychological assessment techniques is supported by this convergence of neuropsychological, neuropathological, and stroke risk findings. PMID:19570306

  6. Supervision in neuropsychological assessment: a survey of training, practices, and perspectives of supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Laura A Schwent; Pedersen, Heather A; Roper, Brad L; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Within the psychology supervision literature, most theoretical models and practices pertain to general clinical or counseling psychology. Supervision specific to clinical neuropsychology has garnered little attention. This survey study explores supervision training, practices, and perspectives of neuropsychology supervisors. Practicing neuropsychologists were invited to participate in an online survey via listservs and email lists. Of 451 respondents, 382 provided supervision to students, interns, and/or fellows in settings such as VA medical centers (37%), university medical centers (35%), and private practice (15%). Most supervisors (84%) reported supervision was discussed in graduate school "minimally" or "not at all." Although 67% completed informal didactics or received continuing education in supervision, only 27% reported receiving training specific to neuropsychology supervision. Notably, only 39% were satisfied with their training in providing supervision and 77% indicated they would likely participate in training in providing supervision, if available at professional conferences. Results indicate that clinical neuropsychology as a specialty has paid scant attention to developing supervision models and explicit training in supervision skills. We recommend that the specialty develop models of supervision for neuropsychological practice, supervision standards and competencies, training methods in provision of supervision, and benchmark measures for supervision competencies. PMID:25116655

  7. Neuropsychological Profiles of Written Expression Learning Disabilities Determined by Concordance-Discordance Model Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Melanie E; Kubas, Hanna A; Witzke, Justin W; Fitzer, Kim R; Miller, Daniel C; Maricle, Denise E; Harrison, Gina L; Macoun, Sarah J; Hale, James B

    2016-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have disparate neuropsychological processing deficits that interfere with academic achievement in spelling, writing fluency, and/or written expression (WE). Although there are multiple potential causes of WE SLD, there is a paucity of research exploring this critical academic skill from a neuropsychological perspective. This study examined the neuropsychological profiles of WE SLD subtypes defined using the concordance-discordance model (C-DM) of SLD identification. Participants were drawn from a sample of 283 children (194 boys, 89 girls) aged 6 years to 16 years old (Mage = 9.58 years, SD = 2.29 years) referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations in school settings and subsequently selected based on C-DM determined spelling, writing fluency, and WE SLD. WE SLD subtypes differed on several psychomotor, memory, and executive function measures (F range = 2.48-5.07, p range = .049 to <.001), suggesting that these children exhibit distinct patterns of neuropsychological processing strengths and weaknesses. Findings have relevance for differential diagnosis of WE subtypes, discriminating WE SLD subtypes from low WE achievement, and developing differentiated evidence-based instruction and intervention for children with WE SLD. Limitations and future research will be addressed. PMID:25671391

  8. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  9. Influence of depressed mood on neuropsychologic performance in HIV-seropositive drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Justo, Enrique; Rodríguez Alvarez, Marina; Ferraces Otero, Maria J

    2003-06-01

    Some studies point out that depression affects the performance of HIV patients in neuropsychological tasks, but at present this effect is not clear. The purpose of the present paper was to study whether the presence of symptoms of depression affects the neuropsychologic performance of seropositive drug users in tasks of attention/concentration, learning and memory, language, construction and visuospatial function, speed of motor performance, cognitive flexibility, manual skill and concept formation and reasoning. In order to carry out this research a sample consisting of 127 male volunteer subjects was used. These subjects were distributed in four groups: one group consisted of HIV-seropositive drug users with symptoms of depression (n = 33); the second group consisted of HIV-seropositive drug users without symptoms of depression (n = 47); the third group was formed by HIV-seronegative drug users with symptoms of depression (n = 15) and the fourth group was formed by HIV-seronegative drug users without symptoms of depression (n = 32). The results reveal the effect of symptoms of depression (evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory) on the neuropsychologic performance of seropositive drug users. This effect, however, was not observed in the seronegative group. These findings lead us to suggest that symptoms of depression constitute a risk factor for presenting neuropsychologic disturbances in seropositive subjects, which could well be acting as a factor that foments the neuropsychological effects of HIV. PMID:12753563

  10. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  11. A comparison for a multiscale study of structural lineaments in southern Brazil: LANDSAT-7 ETM+ and shaded relief images from SRTM3-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D. Jacques

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of descriptive statistics obtained for brittle structural lineaments extracted manually from LANDSAT images and shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM at 1:100, 000 and 1:500, 000 scales. The selected area is located in the southern of Brazil and comprises Precambrian rocks and stratigraphic units of the Paraná Basin. The application of this methodology shows that the visual interpretation depends on the kind of remote sensing image. The resulting descriptive statistics obtained for lineaments extracted from the images do not follow the same pattern according to the scale adopted. The main direction obtained for Proterozoic rocks using both image types at a 1:500, 000 scale are close to NS±10, whereas at a 1:100, 000 scale N45E was obtained for shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM and N10W for LANDSAT images. The Paleozoic sediments yielded the best results for the different images and scales (N50W. On the other hand, the Mesozoic igneous rocks showed greatest differences, the shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM images highlighting NE structures and the LANDSAT images highlighting NW structures. The accumulated frequency demonstrated high similarity between products for each image type no matter the scale, indicating that they can be used in multiscale studies. Conversely, major differences were found when comparing data obtained using shaded relief images from SRTM 3 DEM and Landsat images at a 1:100, 000 scale.Este artigo apresenta a comparação, através da estatística descritiva, de lineamentos de estruturas rúpteis obtidas manualmente sobre imagens Landsat e relevo sombreado do SRTM 3 MDE nas escalas 1:100.000 e 1:500.000. A área selecionada localiza-se no sul do Brasil e engloba rochas do pré-Cambriano e unidades estratigráficas da Bacia do Paraná. A aplicação desta metodologia demonstra que a interpretação visual depende do tipo de imagem do sensor remoto. O resultado da estatística descritiva

  12. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  13. Ocular motility, visual acuity and dysfunction of neuropsychological impairment in children with shunted uncomplicated hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, H K; Prigatano, G P; Pollay, M; Biscoe, C B; Smith, R V

    1985-01-01

    Children with shunted, uncomplicated, communicating hydrocephalus were tested to determine (1) the persistence of neuropsychological impairment and (2) the relationship between neuropsychological functioning, ocular motility, and acuity abnormalities. Eighteen hydrocephalic and 18 individually age- and sex-matched controls were given a neuropsychological battery, repeated after an interval of 1 year. Hydrocephalic children were also tested at the beginning of the second year for strabismus, amblyopia and visual acuity. Their medical records were reviewed for history of ocular motility and/or acuity abnormalities. Hydrocephalic children with normal range IQ were found to have lower verbal IQ, memory, and fine motor skills compared to controls. A history of ocular motility and acuity abnormalities was associated with impaired visuospatial and verbal problem-solving skills. PMID:4005882

  14. Test security in medicolegal cases: proposed guidelines for attorneys utilizing neuropsychology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Kenneth R

    2009-11-01

    In the context of forensic neuropsychological assessments, the professional interaction of law and psychology is viewed primarily as one where the retaining attorney or court dictates its needs to psychologists when resolving legal disputes. While this perspective is conceptually accurate, the positive and practical collaboration of law and psychology also relies on attorneys adhering to basic protections of sensitive psychological assessment procedures and tests. Objective testing is undermined when a practitioner of law engages in actions prior to, during, or following a neuropsychological examination in a manner that threatens the test security. An appreciation among practitioners of law and psychology regarding the necessity of test security is essential. This article reviews attorney actions that can affect test security, proposes a distinction by psychology between appropriate and problematic client preparation for a neuropsychological examination, integrates the available legal precedent regarding test security, and suggests productive measures to protect test security in medicolegal settings. PMID:19778915

  15. Total dream loss: a distinct neuropsychological dysfunction after bilateral PCA stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Matthias; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2004-10-01

    The term Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome (CWS) denotes dream loss following focal brain damage. We report the first case of CWS, in whom neuropsychological functions, extension of the underlying lesion, and sleep architecture changes were assessed. A 73-year-old woman reported a total dream loss after acute, bilateral occipital artery infarction (including the right inferior lingual gyrus), which lasted for over 3 months. In the absence of sleep-wake complaints and (other) neuropsychological deficits, polysomnography demonstrated an essentially normal sleep architecture with preservation of REM sleep. Dreaming was denied also after repeated awakenings from REM sleep. This observation suggests that CWS (1) can represent a distinct and isolated neuropsychological manifestation of deep occipital lobe damage, and (2) may occur in the absence of detectable REM sleep abnormalities. PMID:15389890

  16. MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-IMAGING OF THE BRAIN AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION IN CHILDREN TREATED FOR ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA AT A YOUNG AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, A; MOOYAART, EL; KAMPS, WA; WILMINK, JT

    1993-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the adverse late effects of ALL treatment on cognitive functions and brain morphology; to integrate the results of a neuropsychological and neuroradiological study. Patients and Methods: Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological assessments (NA) were perfor

  17. Does neuropsychological test performance predict outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and what is the role of underperformance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Goedendorp; S.P. van der Werf; G. Bleijenberg; M. Tummers; H. Knoop

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A subgroup of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has cognitive impairments, reflected by deviant neuropsychological test performance. However, abnormal test scores can also be caused by suboptimal effort. We hypothesized that worse neuropsychological test performance and underpe

  18. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory. PMID:25786428

  19. Personality profile and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine-abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Lubomski, M; Murray, S; King, K

    2001-09-01

    Little is known about the association between personality disorders and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine users. The aims of the present study were to (1) pinpoint the specific neuropsychological characteristics of chronic cocaine abusers, (2) analyze their personality profile, and (3) explore the association between personality traits and neuropsychological test performance. A sample of 42 drug-abusers (mean age = 34.15; SD = 6.73; mean educational level = 11.44; SD = 2.01) was selected from a state rehabilitation facility and was compared to a control group (mean age = 34.53; SD = 9.01; mean educational level = 12.29; SD = 1.31). The following information was collected for each subject: (1) A clinical history adapted from Horton (1996). (2) The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991). (3) A neuropsychological test battery including: Arithmetic and Digits subtests from the WAIS-R, California Verbal Learning Test, Trial Making Test, Verbal Fluency tests, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Stroop Neurological Screening Test and Hooper Visual Organization. Thirty-seven of the drug-dependent subjects obtained an abnormal score in at least one PAI scale. The personality profile of the drug-dependent subjects found via the PAI pointed to a Borderline/Antisocial personality, frequently associated with mania features. In six of the drug-abusers, a normal personality profile was observed. Neuropsychological test performance scores were within the low average or borderline range. The most abnormal scores were observed in attention, memory, and executive functioning tests. The results did not show any robust association between personality profile and neuropsychological test performance. PMID:11697211

  20. Population structure of Monosporascus cannonballus isolated from melons produced in Northeastern Brazil based on mycelial compatibility groups - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15182

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Souza Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The population structure of Monosporascus cannonballus, which causes vine decline in melons, was assessed based on the determination of mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs in a collection of 58 isolates obtained from seven melon fields in three municipalities of Northeastern Brazil. For comparison, an additional 11 isolates of M. cannonballus from Spain were included in the analysis. MCGs were determined through comparisons of paired isolates growing on PDA culture media in the dark at 30ºC in various combinations. The Brazilian isolates were assigned into four MCGs: MCG-1 (n = 35 isolates, MCG-2 (n = 20, MCG-3 (n = 2, and MGC-4 (n = 1. MCG-1 and MCG-2 included isolates from all surveyed areas. The Spanish isolates were assigned into six different MCGs, and none of them were compatible with the Brazilian isolates. The genetic structure was determined using the frequencies of MCGs and genotypic diversity indices. The maximum genotypic diversity was 6.9 and 54.5% for the Brazilian and Spanish populations, respectively. The low level of genetic diversity in the M. cannonballus population from Northeastern Brazil suggests that breeding melons for disease resistance may be a promising strategy for the region.