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Sample records for brazil lab for synchrotron radiation

  1. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  2. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs. (LEW)

  3. Sirepo for Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-25

    Sirepo is an open source framework for cloud computing. The graphical user interface (GUI) for Sirepo, also known as the client, executes in any HTML5 compliant web browser on any computing platform, including tablets. The client is built in JavaScript, making use of the following open source libraries: Bootstrap, which is fundamental for cross-platform web applications; AngularJS, which provides a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture and GUI components; and D3.js, which provides interactive plots and data-driven transformations. The Sirepo server is built on the following Python technologies: Flask, which is a lightweight framework for web development; Jinja, which is a secure and widely used templating language; and Werkzeug, a utility library that is compliant with the WSGI standard. We use Nginx as the HTTP server and proxy, which provides a scalable event-driven architecture. The physics codes supported by Sirepo execute inside a Docker container. One of the codes supported by Sirepo is the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). SRW computes synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons in arbitrary magnetic fields and propagates the radiation wavefronts through optical beamlines. SRW is open source and is primarily supported by Dr. Oleg Chubar of NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  4. Synchrotron radiation absorber for high density loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anashin, V. V.; Kuzminych, V. S.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Zholents, A. A.

    1991-10-01

    A design of a special synchrotron radiation absorber for the storage ring VEPP-4M is presented. The density of the synchrotron radiation power on the absorber surface is up to 500 W/mm 2. The absorber is made from a beryllium plate, brazed inside to the copper vacuum chamber, which is intensively water-cooled from outside.

  5. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a stand-alone X-ray tube and synchrotron X-ray. Moreover, any experimental equipment can be installed through which the synchrotron beam travels. This facilitates the so-called in situ characterization such as during heat treatment, hot deformation, chemical reaction or welding. Although steel which possesses rather high density requires very high energy X-ray for large interaction volume, lower energy is still effective for the investigation of local structure of nanoconstituents. This work picks up a couple examples employing synchrotron X-ray for the characterization of high strength steels. The first case is the quantification of precipitates in high strength low alloyed (HSLA steel by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The other case is the in situ X-ray diffraction for phase fraction and carbon partitioning in multiphase steels such as transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steel.

  6. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Paquin, R.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop{trademark}, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research.

  7. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  8. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  9. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    OpenAIRE

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a...

  10. Studies Of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation And Longitudinal Space Charge In The Jefferson Lab FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tsai, C.-Y. [Virginia Polytechnic University

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL Driver provides an ideal test bed for studying a variety of beam dynamical effects. Recent studies focused on characterizing the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with the goal of benchmarking measurements with simulation. Following measurements to characterize the beam, we quantitatively characterized energy extraction via CSR by measuring beam position at a dispersed location as a function of bunch compression. In addition to operating with the beam on the rising part of the linac RF waveform, measurements were also made while accelerating on the falling part. For each, the full compression point was moved along the backleg of the machine and the response of the beam (distribution, extracted energy) measured. Initial results of start-to-end simulations using a 1D CSR algorithm show remarkably good agreement with measurements. A subsequent experiment established lasing with the beam accelerated on the falling side of the RF waveform in conjunction with positive momentum compaction (R56) to compress the bunch. The success of this experiment motivated the design of a modified CEBAF-style arc with control of CSR and microbunching effects.

  11. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  12. A novel gas-filled detector for synchrotron radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocsis, Menyhert [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: kocsis@esrf.fr; Boesecke, P. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Carbone, D. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Herve, C. [ESRF BP 220 38043 Grenoble (France); Becker, B. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Diawara, Y. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Durst, R. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Khazins, D. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); He, B. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Medved, S. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Sedov, V. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Thorson, T. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Wachter, G. [Bruker AXS, Inc 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    We describe in this paper the performance under synchrotron radiation of a sealed gaseous detector, Vantec-1, operating at high pressure and less prone to discharges. It is consequently operating at high gain (>10{sup 5}) at high local counting rates up to 10{sup 6} cps/mm{sup 2}. To achieve these characteristics, a thin resistive layer is used on a glass plate between the mesh and the readout anode. The performance achieved with this detector is suited for applications in X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation. This detector has shown high reliability over time under harsh synchrotron radiation environment and robustness in manufacturing environment.

  13. Synchrotron radiation for direct analysis of metalloproteins on electrophoresis gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Metalloproteomics requires analytical techniques able to assess and quantify the inorganic species in metalloproteins. The most widely used methods are hyphenated techniques, based on the coupling of a high resolution chromatographic method with a high sensitivity method for metal analysis in solution. An alternative approach is the use of methods for solid sample analysis, combining metalloprotein separation by gel electrophoresis and direct analysis of the gels. Direct methods are based on beam analysis, such as lasers, ion beams or synchrotron radiation beams. The aim of this review article is to present the main features of synchrotron radiation based methods and their applications for metalloprotein analysis directly on electrophoresis gels. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence has been successfully employed for sensitive metal identification, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for metal local structure speciation in proteins. Synchrotron based methods will be compared to ion beam and mass spectrometry for direct analysis of metalloproteins in electrophoresis gels.

  14. Extended 1D Method for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, David; Mayes, Christopher; Sae-Ueng, Udom

    2008-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on ERLs or FELs, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, the established 1-dimensional formalism is extended to work at lower energies, at shorter bunch lengths, and for an arbitrary configuration of multiple bends. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. This formalism has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code "Bmad" and its results are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code "elegant".

  15. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  16. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Anne [Institut Neel - CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Artioli, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy); Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cotte, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR171, 75 - Paris (France)]|[European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kockelmann, W. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom); Kolar, J. [Ljubljana Univ., Morana RTD, Slovenia, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Areon, I. [Nova Gorica Univ. (Slovenia); Meden, A.; Strlie, M. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Pantos, M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Vendrell, M. [Barcelona Univ., dept. of Crystallography and Mineralogy (Spain); Wess, T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Optometry and Institute of Vision (Ireland); Gunneweg, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures.

  17. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  18. Open Cell Conducting Foams for High Synchrotron Radiation Beam Liners

    CERN Document Server

    Petracca, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The possible use of open-cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerator beam liners is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  19. Characteristics of radiation safety for synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2011-07-01

    Radiation safety problems are discussed for typical electron accelerators, synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. The radiation sources at the beamline of the facilities are SR, including XFEL, gas bremsstrahlung and high-energy gamma ray and photo-neutrons due to electron beam loss. The radiation safety problems for each source are compared by using 8 GeV class SR and XFEL facilities as an example.

  20. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 1. Introductory topics. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    Various fundamental topics are considered which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation. The point of view of linear system theory is chosen which acts as a unifying concept throughout the series. In this context the important optical quantities usually appear as either impulse response functions (Green's functions) or frequency transfer functions (Fourier Transforms of the Green's functions). Topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free-space optical field propagation, optical properties of materials, dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations.

  1. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  2. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  3. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  4. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Nazanin, E-mail: nazanin.samadi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-06-25

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  5. Laser-heating-based active optics for synchrotron radiation applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Active optics has attracted considerable interest from researchers in synchrotron radiation facilities, because of its capacity for x-ray wavefront correction. Here, we report a novel and efficient technique for correcting or modulating a mirror surface profile based on laser-heating-induced thermal expansion. An experimental study of the characteristics of the surface thermal deformation response indicates that the power of a milliwatt laser yields a bump height as low as sub-nanometer scale, and that variation of the spot size modulates the response function width effectively. In addition, the capacity of the laser-heating technique for free-form surface modulation is demonstrated via a surface correction experiment. The developed method is a promising new approach towards effective x-ray active optics coupled with at-wavelength metrology techniques.

  6. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL`s users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL`s experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year.

  7. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  8. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  9. Polycapillary X-ray lens for the secondary focusing Beijing synchrotron radiation source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-De; Lin Xiao-Yan; Liu Shi-Gang; He Jin-Long; Guo Fei; Sun Tian-Xi; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    According to intensity distribution of the synchrotron radiation source focused by a toroidal mirror at the Beijing synchrotron radiation biological macromolecule station,theoretical modeling of the Beijing synchrotron radiation source is developed for capillary optics.Using this theoretical modeling,the influences of the configuration curve of the polycapillary X-ray lens on transmission efficiency and working distance are analyzed.The experimental results of the transmission efficiency and working distance at the biological macromolecule station are in good agreement with the theoretical results.

  10. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.; Cantwell, K. [eds.

    1988-12-31

    During 1987, SSRL achieved many significant advances and reached several major milestones utilizing both SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources as described in this report. Perhaps the following two are worthy of particular mention: (1) SPEAR reached an all time high of 4,190 delivered user-shifts during calendar year 1987, highlights of the many scientific results are given; (2) during a 12 day run in December of 1987, PEP was operated in a low emittance mode (calculated emittance 6.4 nanometer-radians) at 7.1 GeV with currents up to 33 mA. A second undulator beam line on PEP was commissioned during this run and used to record many spectra showing the extremely high brightness of the radiation. PEP is now by far the highest brightness synchrotron radiation source in the world. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) laboratory operations; (2) accelerator physics programs; (3) experimental facilities; (4) engineering division; (5) conferences and workshops; (6) SSRL organization; (7) experimental progress reports; (8) active proposals; (9) SSRL experiments and proposals by institution; and (10) SSRL publications.

  11. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  12. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  13. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  14. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.; Gupta, Sayan; Zhan, Chenyang; Chance, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  15. Synchrotron radiation in biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: marinkov@bnl.gov; Gupta, Sayan [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Zhan, Chenyang [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Chance, Mark R. [Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Ullman 315, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The Center for Synchrotron Biosciences (CSB) operates five beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Infrared (IR) micro-spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, structural proteomics and macromolecular footprinting are among the major technologies available through the Center. IR micro-spectroscopy is used to examine protein-folding in the microsecond time regime, image bone, neurons, seeds and other biological tissues, as well as image samples of interest in the chemical and environmental sciences. Structural proteomics research of New York Structural Genomics Research Consortium (NYSGRC) is steadily increasing the number of solved protein structures, with a goal to solve 100-200 structures per year. To speed up the research, a high-throughput method called 'metallomics' was implemented for NYSGRC crystallographers to detect intrinsic anomalous scatterers using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Hydroxyl radical mediated X-ray footprinting is capable of resolving folding events of RNA, at single base resolution on millisecond timescales using a synchrotron white beam. The high brightness of synchrotron source is essential for CSB projects as it permits the use of smaller sample sizes and/or concentration, and allows studies of more complicated biological systems than with conventional sources.

  16. A Monitor and Control System for the Synchrotron Radiation Beam Lines at DAΦNE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three synchrotron radiation beam lines have been built on DAΦNE,the Frascati electron-positron accelerator.It is Possible to monitor and control all the elements on the beam lines using a modular network distributed I/O system by National Instrunments (FieldPoint) with Bridge VIEW/Lab VIEW programs,Two of these beam lines have radiation safety problems solved by two independent and redundant systems,using mechanical switches ,and S7-200 PLC's by Siemens.In this article our solution will be described in details.

  17. Anticlastic curvature measurements on unribbed crystal optics for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, J.P.; Dolin, Y.; Georgopoulos, P. (DND-CAT Synchrotron Research Center, APS/ANL Sector 5, Building 400, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)); Kushnir, V.I. (APS/XFD, Bldg. 362, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

    1995-02-01

    Various methods have been proposed for measuring the distortion in perfect crystals using double-crystal methods. The majority of these methods rely on making comparisons between double-crystal rocking curve measurements under the spatial extent of an extended x-ray beam. Unless the beam is large and parallel (such as at a synchrotron bending magnet), these methods are not easily scalable to large crystals (e.g., crystal focusing elements for synchrotron beamlines) due to the mechanical inaccuracies inherent in moving the various optical components. We present a method based on a scanning source which simplifies the problems in scaling double-crystal methods to large optics. In addition, results using this method are presented on a ribless sagittal focusing Si(111) crystal demonstrating that the anticlastic deviation can be made to be less than [plus minus]1 s of arc over a 1-cm-long section parallel to the sagittal axis.

  18. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  19. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL`s history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia`s leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR`s performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY `91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL`s three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL`s users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report.

  20. A study on radiation shielding and safety analysis for a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuhi, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Methods of shielding design and safety analysis are presented for a beam-line of synchrotron radiation. This paper consists of the shielding and safety study of synchrotron radiation with extremely intense and low energy photon below several hundreds keV, and the study for the behavior of remarkable high-energy photons up to 8 GeV, which can creep into beam-lines. A new shielding design code, STAC8 was developed to estimate the leakage dose outside the beam line hutch (an enclosure of the beam, optical elements or experimental instruments) easily and quickly with satisfactory accuracy. The code can calculate consistently from sources of synchrotron radiation to dose equivalent outside hutches with considering the build up effect and polarization effect. Validity of the code was verified by comparing its calculations with those of Monte Carlo simulations and measurement results of the doses inside the hutch of the BL14C of Photon Factory in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), showing good agreements. The shielding design calculations using STAC8 were carried out to apply to the practical beam-lines with the considering polarization effect and clarified the characteristics of the typical beam-line of the third generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In addition, the shielding calculations were compared with the measurement outside the shield wall of the bending magnet beam-line of SPring-8, and showed fairly good agreement. The new shielding problems, which have usually been neglected in shielding designs for existing synchrotron radiation facilities, are clarified through the analysis of the beam-line shielding of SPring-8. The synchrotron radiation from the SPring-8 has such extremely high-intensity involving high energy photons that the scattered synchrotron radiation from the concrete floor of the hutch, the ground shine, causes a seriously high dose. The method of effective shielding is presented. For the estimation of the gas

  1. The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, R.; Burgess, J. Michael; von Kienlin, A.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Byrne, D.; Chaplin, V.; Cleveland, W.; Collazzi, A. C.; Goldstein, A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Nemmen, R.; Racusin, J. L.; Scargle, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 s is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.

  2. Use of a Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Microprobe for Elemental Analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B. M.

    1980-04-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases being as low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples.

  3. Emittance Adapter for a Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Radiation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /Frascati

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of reaching very small horizontal and vertical emittances inside an undulator in a storage ring, by means of a local exchange of the apparent horizontal and vertical emittances, performed with a combination of skew quadrupoles and one solenoid in a dedicated insertion line in the storage ring. The insertion leaves the ring parameters and its optical properties unaffected. This scheme could greatly relax the emittance requirements for a diffraction limited synchrotron light source. The lattice derivation and design is described.

  4. An assessment of research opportunities and the need for synchrotron radiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop focused on six topics, all of which are areas of active research: (1) speciation, reactivity and mobility of contaminants in aqueous systems, (2) the role of surfaces and interfaces in molecular environmental science, (3) the role of solid phases in molecular environmental science, (4) molecular biological processes affecting speciation, reactivity, and mobility of contaminants in the environment, (5) molecular constraints on macroscopic- and field-scale processes, and (6) synchrotron radiation facilities and molecular environmental sciences. These topics span a range of important issues in molecular environmental science. They focus on the basic knowledge required for understanding contaminant transport and fate and for the development of science-based remediation and waste management technologies. Each topic was assigned to a working group charged with discussing recent research accomplishments, significant research opportunities, methods required for obtaining molecular-scale information on environmental contaminants and processes, and the value of synchrotron x-ray methods relative to other methods in providing this information. A special working group on synchrotron radiation facilities was convened to provide technical information about experimental facilities at the four DOE-supported synchrotron radiation sources in the US (NSLS, SSRL, AS and UPS) and synchrotron- based methods available for molecular environmental science research. Similar information on the NSF-funded Cornell High Energy synchrotron Source (CHESS) was obtained after the workshop was held.

  5. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  6. FROST: an ASIC for digital mammography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, A. E-mail: bergamaschi@ts.infn.it; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Castelli, E

    2003-09-01

    The FRONTier RADiography (FRONTRAD) collaboration is developing a digital system for mammography at the Elettra Synchrotron Light Source in Trieste. The system is based on a silicon microstrip detector array. The ASIC FROST (FRONTRAD Read Out sySTem) was developed as a collaboration between INFN Trieste and Aurelia Microelettronica and is designed to operate in single photon counting mode. FROST provides low-noise and high-gain performances and is able to work at incident photon rates higher than 100 kHz with almost 100% efficiency. The ASIC has been tested and the first images of mammographic test objects will be shown. The acquisition time per breast image should be of about 10 s.

  7. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gal'tsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some authors suggest that strictly massless charge does not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for ab initio massless particle of zero spin. Provided E2≫eH, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at ħω=E/3, and the average photon energy is 4E/9. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on E nor on H. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Classical theory is reliable only as providing the low-frequency part of the true quantum radiation spectrum.

  8. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems.

  9. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  10. Synchrotron radiation with radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira

    1991-04-01

    A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.

  11. A Furnace for Diffraction Studies using Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Lebech, Bente; Kofoed, W.

    1984-01-01

    A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation is described. The furnace can be operated between ambient temperature and 1 800 °C with a temperature stability better than 5 °C for temperatures above 300 °C. Kapton windows allow almost 360° access for the X-ray beam in the hor...

  12. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  13. Precision Calibration of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, A A; Maslova, M V

    2003-01-01

    The technique of calibration of synchrotron radiation precision detectors on a tungsten source based on similarity (close similarity) of character of spectral distributions of synchrotron and thermal radiations is given. The characteristics of various commonly used lamps, used as "standard" ones, are given. The errors of measurements are analyzed. The detectors are intended for absolute measurements of the number of electrons in a ring-shaped bunch.

  14. Modulation of synchrotron radiation by acoustic oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Kocharyan, L A; Mirzoyan, V K

    1986-01-01

    By means of a quartz single crystal excited by piezoelectric oscillations, the modulation of synchrotron radiation reflected from the quartz planes (1011) is realized for frequencies ranging from 1 Hz to 15 kHz when the Bragg condition is satisfied. The wavelength of synchrotron radiation ranged from 0.3 to 12A. The patterns of modulated beams taken from oscillograph and analyzer screens are shown.

  15. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, H.; Wattjes, A.C.; Amirthalingam, M.; Zuidwijk, T.; Geerlofs, N.; Offerman, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other ty

  16. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2012-03-29

    The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit

  17. Wakefields in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; Dallin, L.; May, Tim E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, Ward A.; Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, D. A.; Kramer, S.; Michaelian, K. H.

    2016-06-01

    When the electron bunches in a storage ring are sufficiently short the electrons act coherently producing radiation several orders of magnitude more intense than normal synchrotron radiation. This is referred to as Coherent Syncrotron Radiation (CSR). Due to the potential of CSR to provide a good source of Terahertz radiation for our users, the Canadian Light Source (CLS) has been researching the production and application of CSR. CSR has been produced at the CLS for many years, and has been used for a number of applications. However, resonances that permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of 0.074 cm-1, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup, have hampered some experiments. Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by rf diodes. These results are consistent with observations made by the interferometer in the THz range. Also discussed will be some practical examples of the application of CSR for the study of condensed phase samples using both transmission and Photoacoustic techniques.

  18. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs.

  19. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  20. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-07-18

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  1. Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.; Fois, G.; Edouard, M.; Nemoz, C.; Renier, M.; Requardt, H.; Esteve, F.; Adam, JF.; Elleaume, H.; Bravin, A., E-mail: prezado@esrf.fr [ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2009-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation is an innovative tool for the treatment of brain tumors. In the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (SSRT) technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high atomic number (Z) element and it is irradiated in stereotactic conditions from several entrance angles. The aim of this work was to assess dosimetric properties of the SSRT for preparing clinical trials at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). To estimate the possible risks, the doses received by the tumor and healthy tissues in the future clinical conditions have been calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE code). The dose enhancement factors have been determined for different iodine concentrations in the tumor, several tumor positions, tumor sizes, and different beam sizes. A scheme for the dose escalation in the various phases of the clinical trials has been proposed. The biological equivalent doses and the normalized total doses received by the skull have been calculated in order to assure that the tolerance values are not reached.

  2. Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Studies the effects of UV radiation and X rays on solids, and calibrates X-ray optics, detectors, and instruments.DESCRIPTION: Research focuses on applying...

  3. Statistical optics approach to the design of beamlines for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we analyze the image formation problem for undulator radiation through an optical system, accounting for the influence of the electron beam emittance. On the one hand, image formation with Synchrotron Radiation is governed by the laws of Statistical Optics. On the other hand, the widely used Gaussian-Shell model cannot be applied to describe the coherence properties of X-ray beams from third generation Synchrotron Radiation sources. As a result, a more rigorous analysis of coherence properties is required. We propose a technique to explicitly calculate the cross-spectral density of an undulator source, that we subsequently propagate through an optical imaging system. At first we focus on the case of an ideal lens with a non-limiting pupil aperture. Our theory, which makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, also allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their applicability region. Particular emphasis is given to the asymptotic situation when the horizontal emittance is much larger than the radiation wavelength, which is relevant for third generation Synchrotron Radiation sources. First principle calculations of undulator radiation characteristics (i.e. ten-dimensional integrals) are then reduced to one-dimensional convolutions of analytical functions with universal functions specific for undulator radiation sources. We also consider the imaging problem for a non-ideal lens in presence of abberations and a limiting pupil aperture, which increases the dimension of the convolution from one to three. In particular we give emphasis to cases when the intensity at the observation plane can be presented as a convolution of an impulse response function and the intensity from an ideal lens. Our results may be used in practical cases as well as in benchmarks for numerical methods.

  4. Detailed Resolution Studies of the Synchrotron Radiation Profile Monitor for the HERA Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kube, G; Wittenburg, K

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of the beam emittance is essential for the understanding of the luminosity in colliding beam experiments as the ones at the e-p storage ring HERA at DESY. For the measurement of the electron beam emittance a monitor is used which is based on the direct imaging of visible synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. In order to reduce the thermal heating of the light extracting beryllium mirror it is moved away from the beam axis in vertical direction. While the resolution of profile measurements by synchrotron radiation is already strictly limited by fundamental effects, the observation in off-axis geometry modifies the intensity distribution additionally leading to an increased contribution of the diffraction limited resolution. In order to describe the resolution broadening effects detailed calculations have been performed with the computer code SRW. Taking into account the calculated corrections the deduced beam emittances are in good agreement with independent measurements from a...

  5. Application of partially coherent wavefront propagation calculations for design of coherence-preserving synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Chu, Yong S.; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Yan, Hanfei

    2011-09-01

    Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, such as NSLS-II and MAX-IV, will offer excellent opportunities for further development of experimental techniques exploiting X-ray coherence. However, even in these new SR sources, the radiation produced by relativistic electrons (in undulators, wigglers and bending magnets) will remain only partially coherent in the X-ray spectral range. "Extraction" of "coherent portion" of the radiation flux and its transport to sample without loss of coherence must be performed by dedicated SR beamlines, optimized for particular types of experiments. Detailed quantitative prediction of partially coherent X-ray beam properties at propagation through optical elements, which is required for the optimization of such beamlines, can only be obtained from accurate and efficient physical-optics based numerical simulations. Examples of such simulations, made for NSLS-II beamlines, using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) computer code, are presented. Special attention is paid to the numerical analysis of the basic properties of partially coherent undulator radiation beam and its distinctions from the Gaussian beam. Performance characteristics of importance for particular beamlines, such as radiation spot size and flux at sample vs size of secondary source aperture for high-resolution microscopy beamlines, are predicted by the simulations.

  6. Assessment of the national need for facilities dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The report begins with an introduction, followed by conclusions and recommendations. The scientific and technological impact of synchrotron radiation is described; a broad and significant impact is documented. An estimate of the present and future utilization of synchrotron radiation is made; it is shown that current U.S. facilities are not adequate to meet future needs. In an effort to lay the groundwork for decisions about existing and future storage ring sources, a review of the capabilities, design, and operation of storage rings is provided. It is recommended that an immediate commitment be made to construct new dedicated national facilities and to expand existing facilities so that optimized XUV and x-ray capabilities are provided. 13 figures, 6 tables. (RWR)

  7. Setup for measurements of partial ion yields at the Synchrotron Radiation Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, R.; Lukić, D.; Koncz, C.; Sellin, I. A.

    2002-03-01

    A new setup for measuring partial photoion yields was developed and built at the Synchrotron Radiation Center. The vacuum chamber, which accommodates an ion time-of-flight spectrometer, a metal vapor oven, and a liquid nitrogen cooled trap, consists mainly of a standard conflat 6 in. six-way cross and a 6 in. tee. A differential pumping stage separates the vacuum chamber from the beam line. First experiments with this apparatus were performed using neon, lithium, and beryllium.

  8. Paraxial Green's functions in Synchrotron Radiation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, G; Schneidmiller, E; Yurkov, M; Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2005-01-01

    This work contains a systematic treatment of single particle Synchrotron Radiation and some application to realistic beams with given cross section area, divergence and energy spread. Standard theory relies on several approximations whose applicability limits and accuracy are often forgotten. We begin remarking that on the one hand, a paraxial approximation can always be applied without loss of generality and with ultra relativistic accuracy. On the other hand, dominance of the acceleration field over the velocity part in the Lienard-Wiechert expressions is not always granted and constitutes a separate assumption, whose applicability is discussed. Treating Synchrotron Radiation in paraxial approximation we derive the equation for the slow varying envelope function of the Fourier components of the electric field vector. Calculations of Synchrotron Radiation properties performed by others showed that the phase of the Fourier components of the electric field vector differs from the phase of a virtual point sourc...

  9. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  10. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  11. Breast tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Montanari, Francesco; Longo, Renata; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico D.; Castelli, Edoardo

    2002-05-01

    A feasibility study of breast CT with synchrotron radiation is currently being carried on at Elettra, the Trieste synchrotron radiation facility. Breast CT cannot be implemented easily with conventional radiographic tubes, due to the high dose that would be delivered to the breast by a polychromatic X-ray spectrum. The possibility of tuning the beam energy, available at a synchrotron radiation beamline, allows a significant reduction in the delivered dose, and at the same time the use of monochromatic beams avoids beam hardening artifacts on the reconstructed image. Images of in vitro breast tissue samples have been acquired by means of a high efficiency linear array detector coupled to a VLSI single photon counting readout electronics. The pixel width, determining the pixel size of the reconstructed image, is 200 micrometers , while the pixel height, determining the CT slice thickness, is 300 micrometers . Tomograms have been reconstructed by means of standard filtered backprojection algorithms. Images of normal and pathologic breast tissue samples show a good visibility of glandular structure. The delivered dose was in all cases comparable to the one delivered in clinical planar mammography. Due to the promising results we obtained, in vivo studies are under evaluation.

  12. A fast method for computing 1-D wakefields due to coherent synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Chad E., E-mail: ChadMitchell@lbl.gov; Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.

    2013-07-01

    A method for computing the free-space longitudinal wakefield due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a one-dimensional model is developed using a fast integrated Green function approach. This approach accurately captures the short-range behavior of the CSR interaction and does not require the numerical differentiation of a noisy longitudinal charge density. The transient wakefields that occur near bend entry and exit are included. This method can also be generalized to include the effect of upstream radiation that propagates through multiple lattice elements before interacting with the bunch.

  13. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  15. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kentaro [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: kentaro.harada@kek.jp; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2009-06-11

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  16. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kentaro; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  17. A Far-infrared Undulator for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Free Electron Laser at Tohoku University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Hiroyuki; Hinode, Fujio; Kawai, Masayuki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Miyahara, Fusashi; Yasuda, Mafuyu

    2010-06-01

    In order to develop an intense far-infrared radiation source, a high quality electron beam has been studied at Tohoku University, Sendai. The bunch length of the beam expected is very much shorter than terahertz (THz) wavelength, so that coherent spontaneous emission of synchrotron radiation will be a promising high brilliant far-infrared source. An undulator consisting of permanent magnets has been designed in which optional free electron laser (FEL) will be operated in free space mode. Consequently the minimum gap of the undulator is decided to be 54 mm for 0.36 mm radiation to avoid diffraction loss, and then the period length of 10 cm is employed. The undulator may cover a wavelength range from 0.18 to 0.36 mm with the beam energy of 17 MeV. Property of coherent THz radiation from the undulator and possibility of novel pre-bunched THz FEL is discussed.

  18. A program in detector development for the US synchrotron radiation community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.; Mills, D.; Naday, S.; Gruner, S.; Siddons, P.; Arthur, J.; Wehlitz, R.; Padmore, H.

    2001-07-14

    There is a clear gulf between the capabilities of modern synchrotrons to deliver high photon fluxes, and the capabilities of detectors to measure the resulting photon, electron or ion signals. While a huge investment has been made in storage ring technology, there has not to date been a commensurate investment in detector systems. With appropriate detector technology, gains in data rates could be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude in some cases. The US community working in detector technology is under-funded and fragmented and works without the long term funding commitment required for development of the most advanced detector systems. It is becoming apparent that the US is falling behind its international competitors in provision of state-of-the-art detector technology for cutting edge synchrotron radiation based experiments.

  19. Method and apparatus for recirculation with control of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher

    2016-08-02

    A method for controlling beam quality degradation from ISR and CSR and stabilizing the microbunching instability (.mu.BI) in a high brightness electron beam. The method includes providing a super-periodic second order achromat line with each super period being individually linearly achromatic and isochronous, setting individual superperiod tunes to rational fractions of an integer (such as 4.sup.th or 6.sup.th integers), setting individual bend angles to be as small as practical to reduce driving terms due to dispersion and dispersive angle, and setting bend radii as large enough to suppress ISR but not negatively affect the radial dependence of CSR. The method includes setting the structure of the individual superperiods to minimize bend plane beam envelope values in the dipoles to reduce betatron response to a CSR event at a dispersed location, increasing beam angular divergence, and creating dispersion nodes in the dipoles to similarly reduce response to CSR events, and limit R.sub.56 modulation in order to mitigate .mu.BI.

  20. Polymer research and synchrotron radiation perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portale, Giuseppe; Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Bras, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The developments in synchrotron radiation based polymer research have been profound over the last two decades. Not only have many more beamlines suitable for soft condensed matter research become available since the pioneering days but also the technical developments with respect to X-ray beam quali

  1. Spatial Coherence of Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, S; Coisson, R

    2003-10-30

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) has been widely used since the 80's as a tool for many applications of UV, soft X rays and hard X rays in condensed matter physics, chemistry and biology. The evolution of SR sources towards higher brightness has led to the design of low-emittance electron storage rings (emittance is the product of beam size and divergence), and the development of special source magnetic structures, as undulators. This means that more and more photons are available on a narrow bandwidth and on a small collimated beam; in other words there is the possibility of getting a high power in a coherent beam. In most applications, a monochromator is used, and the temporal coherence of the light is given by the monochromator bandwidth. With smaller and smaller sources, even without the use of collimators, the spatial coherence of the light has become appreciable, first in the UV and soft X ray range, and then also with hard X rays. This has made possible new or improved experiments in interferometry, microscopy, holography, correlation spectroscopy, etc. In view of these recent possibilities and applications, it is useful to review some basic concepts about spatial coherence of SR, and its measurement and applications. In particular we show how the spatial coherence properties of the radiation in the far field can be calculated with simple operations from the single-electron amplitude and the electron beam angular and position spreads. The gaussian approximation will be studied in detail for a discussion of the properties of the far field mutual coherence and the estimate of the coherence widths, and the comparison with the VanCittert-Zernike limit.

  2. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  3. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  4. Analysis and calibration of stage axial vibration for synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Li, Chen; Liu, Zhenzhong

    2015-10-01

    Synchrotron radiation nanoscale computed tomography (SR nano-CT) is a powerful analysis tool and can be used to perform chemical identification, mapping, or speciation of carbon and other elements together with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) imaging. In practical applications, there are often challenges for SR nano-CT due to the misaligned geometry caused by the sample stage axial vibration. It occurs quite frequently because of experimental constraints from the mechanical error of manufacturing and assembly and the thermal expansion during the time-consuming scanning. The axial vibration will lead to the structure overlap among neighboring layers and degrade imaging results by imposing artifacts into the nano-CT images. It becomes worse for samples with complicated axial structure. In this work, we analyze the influence of axial vibration on nano-CT image by partial derivative. Then, an axial vibration calibration method for SR nano-CT is developed and investigated. It is based on the cross correlation of plane integral curves of the sample at different view angles. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with the full-field transmission X-ray microscope nano-CT setup at the beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results demonstrate that the presented method can handle the stage axial vibration. It can work for random axial vibration and needs neither calibration phantom nor additional calibration scanning. It will be helpful for the development and application of synchrotron radiation nano-CT systems.

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on applications of synchrotron radiation to trace impurity analysis for advanced silicon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laderman, S [Integrated Circuits Business Div., Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pianetta, P [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Wafer surface trace impurity analysis is essential for development of competitive Si circuit technologies. Today's grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence techniques with rotating anodes fall short of requirements for the future. Hewlett Packard/Toshiba experiments indicate that with second generation synchrotron sources such as SSRL, the techniques can be extended sufficiently to meet important needs of the leading edge Si circuit industry through nearly all of the 1990's. This workshop was held to identify people interested in use of synchrotron radiation-based methods and to document needs and concerns for further development. Viewgraphs are included for the following presentations: microcontamination needs in silicon technology (M. Liehr), analytical methods for wafer surface contamination (A. Schimazaki), trace impurity analysis of liquid drops using synchrotron radiation (D. Wherry), TRXRF using synchrotron sources (S. Laderman), potential role of synchrotron radiation TRXRF in Si process R D (M. Scott), potenital development of synchrotron radiation facilities (S. Brennan), and identification of goals, needs and concerns (M. Garner).

  6. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haris, K. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Singh, Param Jeet [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shastri, Aparna, E-mail: ashastri@barc.gov.in [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sunanda, K.; Babita, K.; Rao, S.V.N. Bhaskara [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2014-12-11

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 m off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ∼0.5 Å is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 Å. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection system is expected to greatly enhance the utilization of the HRVUV beamline as a number of spectroscopic experiments which require fast recording times combined with a good signal to noise ratio are now feasible. - Highlights: • Incorporation of an image plate detection system on HRVUV beamline at Indus-1. • Design and fabrication of mounting mechanisms, performance evaluation of new system. • Photoabsorption spectra of Xe, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O recorded in the region 1150–2300 Å. • Sensitivity, wavelength coverage, reproducibility and resolution of IP demonstrated. • First report of IP detector for VUV photoabsorption using synchrotron radiation.

  7. A Spectrometer for X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffraction using Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun Olsen, Janus; Buras, B; Gerward, Leif

    1981-01-01

    Describes a white-beam X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometer built for Hasylab in Hamburg, FRG, using the synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring DORIS. The following features of the instrument are discussed: horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment, ......, remote control of the goniometer, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH2 using a diamond anvil cell....

  8. Synchrotron radiation: a tool for chemical sciences investigation; Le rayonnement synchrotron au service des problematiques de la chimie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage-Simkin, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    After recalling briefly the principles of synchrotron radiation production and its remarkable properties, the main investigation techniques used by the chemical science community is described and illustrated by recent examples of applications: X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and diffusion, electron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy. All these techniques have seen an enhancement of their ultimate performances in terms of acquisition rate and resolution (time, spatial, and energy domains) thanks to the sources optimization and the progress in instrumentation. The experimental possibilities offered by the most recent European sources are listed, with the emphasis on SOLEIL and ESRF, together with a brief survey of the future opportunities provided by the so-called fourth generation sources. (author)

  9. Software development for studies of diffuse scattering using CCD-detectors and synchrotron radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paulmann, C; Bismayer, U

    2001-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface based software system was developed to cover advanced data processing requirements which arise from studies of diffuse scattering in disordered minerals using synchrotron radiation sources and CCD-detectors. The software includes interfaces to standard applications, procedures for numerical processing of large data sets, corrections for sample external scattering and detector-specific distortions, different scaling options to correct the data set against the varying primary beam intensity as well as procedures to reconstruct arbitrary slices in reciprocal space on a regular grid. The software system was successfully applied in studies of diffuse scattering in disordered REE-doped germanates, phase-transition studies of synthetic titanite and studies of the thermal recrystallization behaviour of radiation-damaged (metamict) minerals.

  10. Use of XR-QA2 radiochromic films for quantitative imaging of a synchrotron radiation beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lillo, F.; Dreossi, D.; Emiro, F.; Fedon, C.; Longo, R.; Mettivier, G.; Rigon, L.; Russo, P.; Tromba, G.

    2015-05-01

    In the framework of an ongoing project, promoted by INFN, at the SYRMEP beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy) for phase-contrast breast X-ray computed tomography, the assessment of the dose to the breast is one of the issues, requiring the determination of the distribution of X-ray incident photon fluence. This work investigates the use of XR-QA2 radiochromic films for quantitative imaging of the synchrotron radiation (SR) beam. XR-QA2 films were irradiated in a plane transverse to the beam axis, with a monochromatic beam of energy of 28, 35, 38 or 40 keV. The response of the radiochromic film was calibrated in terms of average air kerma measured with an ionization chamber. The net reflectance of the exposed film was then converted to photon fluence per unit air kerma (mm-2mGy-1). The SR beam profile was acquired also with a scintillator (GOS) based, fiber optic coupled CCD camera as well as with a scintillator based flat panel detector. Horizontal and vertical line profiles acquired with the radiochromic films show the 2D distribution of the beam intensity, with variations in the order of 15-20% in the horizontal direction. The response of the radiochromic film is comparable to that of the other imaging detectors, within less than 5% variation.

  11. Vertical synchrotron radiation beamline for proximity X-ray lithography: Theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukreeva, Inna N.; Kozhevnikov, Igor V.

    1997-02-01

    The general physical principles of operation of the vertical beamline of synchrotron radiation (SR) intended for proximity X-ray lithography are considered. An optical system provides a deflection of the SR beam to the vertical plane, a cutoff of the hard X-rays, a uniform illumination of a wafer, a normal incidence of X-ray beam onto a mask, and a small enough divergency of the radiation. A vertical SR beamline makes it possible to circumvent the expensive development of vertical-plane displacement steppers and to use the conventional horizontal ones, to exclude the scanning of the SR beam across the mask and to reduce the requirements imposed on the accuracy of alignment of a gap between the mask and the wafer.

  12. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, K.; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Sunanda, K.; Babita, K.; Rao, S. V. N. Bhaskara; Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A.

    2014-12-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 m off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ~0.5 Å is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 Å. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection system is expected to greatly enhance the utilization of the HRVUV beamline as a number of spectroscopic experiments which require fast recording times combined with a good signal to noise ratio are now feasible.

  13. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Haris, K; Shastri, Aparna; K., Sunanda; K., Babita; Rao, S V N Bhaskara; Ahmad, Shabbir; Tauheed, A

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 meter off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried out to evaluate the performance of the IP detection system. An FWHM of ~ 0.5 {\\AA} is achieved for the Xe atomic line at 1469.6 {\\AA}. Reproducibility of spectra is found to be within the experimental resolution. Compared to the PMT scanning system, the IP shows several advantages in terms of sensitivity, recording time and S/N ratio, which are highlighted in the paper. This is the first report of incorporation of an IP detection system in a VUV beamline using synchrotron radiation. Commissioning of the new detection sys...

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of ultra high vacuum and synchrotron radiation for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082330; Leonid, Rivkin

    With preparation of Hi-Lumi LHC fully underway, and the FCC machines under study, accelerators will reach unprecedented energies and along with it very large amount of synchrotron radiation (SR). This will desorb photoelectrons and molecules from accelerator walls, which contribute to electron cloud buildup and increase the residual pressure - both effects reducing the beam lifetime. In current accelerators these two effects are among the principal limiting factors, therefore precise calculation of synchrotron radiation and pressure properties are very important, desirably in the early design phase. This PhD project shows the modernization and a major upgrade of two codes, Molflow and Synrad, originally written by R. Kersevan in the 1990s, which are based on the test-particle Monte Carlo method and allow ultra-high vacuum and synchrotron radiation calculations. The new versions contain new physics, and are built as an all-in-one package - available to the public. Existing vacuum calculation methods are overvi...

  15. Infrared synchrotron radiation spectroscopy and microspectroscopy: new tools for interdisciplinary applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, whose number is steadily increasing, are undoubtedly the most powerful and brilliant sources in the X-ray range. Although the synchrotron emission covers with high brilliance also the infrared region, its use in this energy range has developed at a much slower rate. Nowadays, after a couple of decades of attempts, the aim of extending the unique performances of the synchrotron source to the infrared domain is achieved by several dedicated beamlines in different countries. With their high-brilliance, polarized and broad-band radiation one may perform experiments that are out of the range of conventional sources from the near-IR up to the far-IR range.

  16. Heat transfer studies for a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Sinha

    2009-04-01

    Heat load studies have been performed for the first crystal of a double crystal monochromator to be installed in a beamline of the 2·5 GeV synchrotron radiation source Indus-2. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to calculate the temperature distribution and the mechanical distortions on these crystals. Several cases of cooling schemes and heat loads have been studied. Based on these FEA results, the analytical relationships available in the literature have been modified. It is shown that modified analytical results compare well with the empirical results obtained from FEA. The optimisation of the cooling conditions can be achieved by doing FEA calculations for only one case. All other cases can then be calculated by using analytical relations proposed here. The proposed analytical equations are generic in nature and can be applied for any source—crystal combination and therefore would be useful for performance prediction of any new monochromator on a new synchrotron source without taking recourse to time consuming, computation-intensive FEA.

  17. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  18. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.;

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  19. Reversible Visualization for Synchrotron Radiation Using Photochromic Dye and Photostimulable Phosphor Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kinashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reported herein is undertaken to visualize reversibly synchrotron radiation by using a composite film comprised of two components: a photochromic SP with the conversion characteristics of UV-to-visible color and PSP BaFCl:Eu2+ particles with the conversion characteristics of X-rays-to-UV emission.

  20. Estimation of effective dose caused by stray radiations of photons, electrons and positrons around a small storage ring for a synchrotron radiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Y.; Oki, S.; Sugiyama, H.; Kobayakawa, H.

    2005-10-01

    The spatial distribution of the effective dose of photons, electrons and positrons caused by beam loss around a small electron storage ring in a synchrotron radiation source is calculated. We propose a simple formula applicable to calculate the effective dose for storage rings for beam energies ranging from 200 MeV to 5 GeV. The formula is derived from Monte Carlo calculations of radiation flux using the simulation code EGS4. We apply the formula to estimate the effective dose distribution in a small synchrotron radiation facility planned by the Nagoya University.

  1. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  2. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J. [Mining University, Dept. of Radipmetry, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Krakow (Poland); Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Krakow (Poland); Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of two neuro-degenerative diseases i.e, Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurons. As a preliminary study, the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikaryal parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control case. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous system tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level. (authors)

  3. Improved mid infrared detector for high spectral or spatial resolution and synchrotron radiation use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Mbaye; Bordessoule, Michel; Kanouté, Brahim; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    When using bright, small effective size sources, such as synchrotron radiation light beam, for broadband spectroscopy at spectral or spatial high resolution for mid-IR FTIR measurements, a marked detectivity improvement can be achieved by setting up a device matching the detector optical étendue to that of the source. Further improvement can be achieved by reducing the background unmodulated flux and other intrinsic noise sources using a lower temperature cryogen, such as liquid helium. By the combined use of cooled apertures, cold reimaging optics, filters and adapted detector polarization, and preamplification electronics, the sensitivity of a HgCdTe photoconductive IR detector can be improved by a significant factor with respect to standard commercial devices (more than one order of magnitude on average over 6-20 μm region) and the usable spectral range extended to longer wavelengths. The performances of such an optimized detector developed on the AILES Beamline at SOLEIL are presented here.

  4. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  5. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: An ART iterative reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography of diffraction enhanced imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Tian; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Kang, Ke-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Fang, Qiao-Guang; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2009-11-01

    X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) has extremely high sensitivity for weakly absorbing low-Z samples in medical and biological fields. In this paper, we propose an Algebra Reconstruction Technique (ART) iterative reconstruction algorithm for computed tomography of diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI-CT). An Ordered Subsets (OS) technique is used to accelerate the ART reconstruction. Few-view reconstruction is also studied, and a partial differential equation (PDE) type filter which has the ability of edge-preserving and denoising is used to improve the image quality and eliminate the artifacts. The proposed algorithm is validated with both the numerical simulations and the experiment at the Beijing synchrotron radiation facility (BSRF).

  6. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  7. Enhancement of threshold electric field for relativistic runaway electrons due to magnetic fluctuation and synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shucai; Wang, Lu; Chen, Zhongyong; Huang, Duwei; Tong, Ruihai

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of relativistic electrons are analyzed using the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation including deceleration due to synchrotron radiation (SR) and radial diffusion loss caused by magnetic fluctuation (MF). Threshold electric field for avalanche growth is enhanced, and the growth rate is reduced by the combined effect of MF and SR as compared to the case with only SR. The threshold electric field is determined by the time scales balance between momentum evolution and radial diffusion loss induced by MF, and increased with level of MF. More importantly, the hysteresis behavior of runaway pointed out by does not exist anymore. This is because the ``seed electrons'' cannot be sustained as a result of diffusion loss. This work was supported by NSFC Grant No. 11305071, and the Ministry of Science and technology of China, under Contract Nos. 2013GB112002, 2015GB111002 and 2015GB111001.

  8. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  9. Considerations for NSLS-II Synchrotron Radiation Protection When Operating Damping Wigglers at Low Machine Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.; Podobedov, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.

    2015-12-30

    The NSLS-II storage ring vacuum chamber, including frontends (FE) and beamlines (BL), is protected from possible damage from synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted from insertion devices (IDs) by a dedicated active interlock system (AIS). The system monitors electron beam position and angle and triggers a beam dump if the beam orbit is outside of the active interlock envelope (AIE). The AIE was calculated under the assumptions of 3 GeV beam energy and ID gaps set to their minimum operating values (i.e. “fully closed”). Recently it was proposed to perform machine studies that would ramp the stored beam energy significantly below the nominal operational value of 3 GeV. These studies may potentially include the use of NSLS-II damping wigglers (DWs) for electron beam emittance reduction and control.

  10. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography and histomorphometry for evaluation of chemotherapy effects in trabecular bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Almeida, A. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Braz, D.; Andrade, C. B. V.; Salata, C.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional microtomography has the potential to examine complete bones of small laboratory animals with very high resolution in a non-invasive way. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to bone changes. In the present work, the femur heads of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D histomorphometry using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur heads of rats in both analyzed groups.

  11. Solenoid and Synchrotron radiation effects in CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Dalena, B; Tomás, R; Angal-Kalinin, D

    2010-01-01

    The emission of Synchrotron Radiation in the CLIC BDS is one of the major limitations of the machine performance. An extensive revision of this phenomenon is presented with special emphasis on the Interaction point (IP) solenoid.

  12. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation: New possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) is a modern method of studying the structure and properties of condensed matter that can be implemented on third-generation synchrotrons. This method allows one to investigate local properties of media (including magnetic and electronic ones) and observe thermal vibrations, defects, and orbital and charge orderings. A brief review of the advance provided by SR resonant diffraction is presented, and the capabilities of this method for analyzing phase transitions are considered in more detail by the example of potassium dihydrogen phosphate and rubidium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. It is shown that the investigation of the temperature dependence of forbidden reflections not only makes it possible to observe the transition from para- to ferroelectric phase, but also gives information about the proton distribution at hydrogen bonds.

  13. Radiation reaction and the pitch angle changes for a charge undergoing synchrotron losses

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    In synchrotron radiation formulas it is always assumed that the pitch angle of a charged particle remains constant during the radiation process. The argument employed is that as the radiation is beamed along the instantaneous direction of motion of the charge, the momentum loss will also be along the direction of motion. Accordingly radiation reaction should not cause any change in the direction of the velocity vector, and the pitch angle of the charge would therefore remain constant during the radiation process. However, it turns out that this picture is not relativistically covariant and that in the case of synchrotron losses, the pitch angle in general varies. While the component of the velocity vector perpendicular to the magnetic field does reduce in magnitude due to radiative losses, the parallel component does not undergo any change during radiation. Therefore there is a change in the ratio of the two components, implying a change in the pitch angle. This apparent paradox gets resolved and one gets a c...

  14. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications; Interet du rayonnement synchrotron dans la therapie des tumeurs cerebrales: methodologie et applications precliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnard, P

    2007-12-15

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 {mu}m spacing irradiation, while a 100 {mu}m spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  15. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Bommel, Sebastian; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-04-01

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  16. Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Berman, Lonny; Chu, Yong S.; Fluerasu, Andrei; Hulbert, Steve; Idir, Mourad; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Shapiro, David; Shen, Qun; Baltser, Jana

    2011-09-01

    Partially-coherent wavefront propagation calculations have proven to be feasible and very beneficial in the design of beamlines for 3rd and 4th generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources. These types of calculations use the framework of classical electrodynamics for the description, on the same accuracy level, of the emission by relativistic electrons moving in magnetic fields of accelerators, and the propagation of the emitted radiation wavefronts through beamline optical elements. This enables accurate prediction of performance characteristics for beamlines exploiting high SR brightness and/or high spectral flux. Detailed analysis of radiation degree of coherence, offered by the partially-coherent wavefront propagation method, is of paramount importance for modern storage-ring based SR sources, which, thanks to extremely small sub-nanometer-level electron beam emittances, produce substantial portions of coherent flux in X-ray spectral range. We describe the general approach to partially-coherent SR wavefront propagation simulations and present examples of such simulations performed using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) code for the parameters of hard X-ray undulator based beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These examples illustrate general characteristics of partially-coherent undulator radiation beams in low-emittance SR sources, and demonstrate advantages of applying high-accuracy physical-optics simulations to the optimization and performance prediction of X-ray optical beamlines in these new sources.

  17. Time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakoff, E.D.

    1979-08-01

    Work performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is reported. The timing characteristics of the SPEAR beam (pulse width less than or equal to 0.4 nsec, pulse repetition period = 780 nsec) were exploited to determine dynamic behavior of atomic, molecular, excimeric, and photodissociative gas-phase species excited by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Fast fluorescence timing measurements were done to determine excited-state lifetimes of Kr and Xe. Pressure-dependent timing studies on Xe gas at higher concentrations demonstrated some of the problems associated with previous kinetic modeling of the Xe/sub 2/ system. It was found that even qualitative agreement of observed Xe/sub 2/ lifetimes as a function of pressure required the assumption that the radiative lifetime was a strong function of internuclear separation. The radiative decays of chemically unstable fragments, CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) and XeF* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/ and C/sup 2/ Pi/sub 3/2//), were studied by pulsed photodissociation of stable parent compounds, ICN and XeF/sub 2/. When the polarization of the CN* (B/sup 2/..sigma../sup +/) fragment fluorescence was measured, it was found to be non-zero and strongly dependent on excitation wavelength. This polarization is related to the symmetry of the photodissociative surface via a classical model, and the variations in the polarization with wavelength is attributed to symmetry and lifetime effects of a predissociating parent molecule. Despite the drawbacks of limited availability and low radiation flux, synchrotron radiation is definitely a useful spectroscopic tool for VUV studies of gas-phase systems.

  18. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  19. Ras Labs.-CASIS-ISS NL experiment for synthetic muscle: resistance to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Sandberg, Eric; Albers, Leila N.; Rodriguez, Simone; Gentile, Charles A.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Hitchner, Robert; Taylor, James; Hoffman, Dan; Cylinder, David; Moy, Leon; Mark, Patrick S.; Prillaman, Daniel L.; Nordarse, Robert; Menegus, Michael J.; Ratto, Jo Ann; Thellen, Christopher; Froio, Danielle; Furlong, Cosme; Razavi, Payam; Valenza, Logan; Hablani, Surbhi; Fuerst, Tyler; Gallucci, Sergio; Blocher, Whitney; Liffland, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    In anticipation of deep space travel, new materials are being explored to assist and relieve humans in dangerous environments, such as high radiation, extreme temperature, and extreme pressure. Ras Labs Synthetic Muscle - electroactive polymers (EAPs) that contract and expand at low voltages - which mimic the unique gentle-yet-strong nature of human tissue, is a potential asset to manned space travel through protective gear and human assist robotics and for unmanned space exploration through deep space. Generation 3 Synthetic Muscle was proven to be resistant to extreme temperatures, and there were indications that these materials may also be radiation resistant. The purpose of the Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS Experiment is to test the radiation resistivity of the third and fourth generation of these EAPs, as well as to make them even more radiation resistant or radiation hardened. On Earth, exposure of the Generation 3 and Generation 4 EAPs to a Cs-137 radiation source for 47.8 hours with a total dose of 305.931 kRad of gamma radiation was performed at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) at Princeton University, followed by pH, peroxide, Shore Hardness Durometry, and electroactivity testing to determine the inherent radiation resistivity of these contractile EAPs and to determine whether the EAPs could be made even more radiation resistant through the application of appropriate additives and coatings. The on Earth preliminary tests determined that selected Ras Labs EAPs were not only inherently radiation resistant, but with the appropriate coatings and additives, could be made even more radiation resistant. Gforce testing to over 10 G's was performed at US Army's ARDEC Labs, with excellent results, in preparation for space flight to the International Space Station National Laboratory (ISS-NL). Selected samples of Generation 3 and Generation 4 Synthetic Muscle™, with various additives and coatings, were launched to the ISS-NL on April

  20. Study of complex molecules of biological interest with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, K.C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bolognesi, P., E-mail: paola.bolognesi@cnr.it [CNR-ISM, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); Feyer, V. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Research Center Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plekan, O. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Avaldi, L. [CNR-ISM, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Synchrotron radiation and synchrotron based spectroscopic techniques have found important applications in the study of isolated molecular species of biological interest. In this paper, some examples of spectroscopic and dynamic studies of amino acids and small peptides, nucleobases and pharmaceuticals are reviewed. Opportunities offered by the advent of new radiation sources combined with novel methods for the production of beams of these molecules are also discussed.

  1. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B. B.; Holikatti, A. C.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Navathe, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8-18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 μm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  3. A laboratory experimental setup for photo-absorption studies using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, A; Saraswati, P; Sunanda, K

    2002-01-01

    The photophysics beamline, which is being installed at the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Indus-l, is a medium resolution beamline useful for a variety of experiments in the VUV region viz. 500-2000 A. One of the major applications of this beamline is gas-phase photo-absorption studies. An experimental set up to be used for these experiments was designed, developed and tested in our laboratory. The setup consists of a high vacuum absorption cell, 1/4 m monochromator and detection system. For the purpose of testing, xenon and tungsten continuum sources were used and absorption spectra were recorded in the UV region. This setup was used to record the absorption spectrum of a few molecules like acetone, ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in order to evaluate the performance of the experimental system which will subsequently be used with the photophysics beamline. Details of the design, fabrication and testing of the absorption cell and experimental procedures are presented in this repor...

  4. High spatial resolution dosimetric response maps for radiotherapy ionization chambers measured using kilovoltage synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D. J.; Stevenson, A. W.; Wright, T. E.; Harty, P. D.; Lehmann, J.; Livingstone, J.; Crosbie, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Small circular beams of synchrotron radiation (0.1 mm and 0.4 mm in diameter) were used to irradiate ionization chambers of the types commonly used in radiotherapy. By scanning the chamber through the beam and measuring the ionization current, a spatial map of the dosimetric response of the chamber was recorded. The technique is able to distinguish contributions to the large-field ionization current from the chamber walls, central electrode and chamber stem. Scans were recorded for the NE 2571 Farmer chamber, the PTW 30013, IBA FC65-G Farmer-type chambers, the NE 2611A and IBA CC13 thimble chambers, the PTW 31006 and 31014 pinpoint chambers, the PTW Roos and Advanced Markus plane-parallel chambers, and the PTW 23342 thin-window soft x-ray chamber. In all cases, large contributions to the response arise from areas where the incident beam grazes the cavity surfaces. Quantitative as well as qualitative information about the relative chamber response was extracted from the maps, including the relative contribution of the central electrode. Line scans using monochromatic beams show the effect of the photon energy on the chamber response. For Farmer-type chambers, a simple Monte Carlo model was in good agreement with the measured response.

  5. A Model for One-Dimensional Coherent Synchrotron Radiation including Short-Range Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ryne, Robert D; Qiang, Ji; Yampolsky, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    A new model is presented for simulating coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in one dimension. The method is based on convolving an integrated Green function (IGF) with the longitudinal charge density. Since it is based on an IGF, the accuracy of this approach is determined by how well one resolves the charge density and not by resolving the single particle wake function. Since short-range wakefield effects are included analytically, the approach can be much more efficient than ordinary (non-IGF) approaches in situations where the wake function and charge density have disparate spatial scales. Two cases are presented: one derived from the full wake including short-range effects, and one derived from the asymptotic wake. In the latter case the algorithm contains the same physics as others based on the asymptotic approximation, but requires only the line charge density and not its derivative. Examples are presented that illustrate the limitations of the asymptotic-wake approximation, and that illustrate how mic...

  6. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  7. A new method to suppress high-order harmonics for synchrotron radiation soft x-ray beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Tang, Kun; Han, Yong; Chen, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    A feasible and convenient method has been proposed to suppress higher-harmonics for varied-line-spacing (VLS) plane grating monochromator in soft x-ray region. Related calculations and experiments demonstrate that decreasing the included angle slightly by changing the parameter of exit arm length can significantly improve light purity. This method is suitable and has been used for experiments of detector calibration in beamline 4B7B at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).

  8. Preparation of solid-state samples of a transition metal coordination compound for synchrotron radiation photoemission studies

    CERN Document Server

    Crotti, C; Celestino, T; Fontana, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify a sample preparation method suitable for the study of transition metal complexes by photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the X-ray source, even in the case where the compound is not evaporable. Solid-phase samples of W(CO) sub 4 (dppe) [dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] were prepared according to different methods and their synchrotron radiation XPS spectra measured. The spectra acquired from samples prepared by spin coating show core level peaks only slightly broader than the spectrum recorded from UHV evaporated samples. Moreover, for these samples the reproducibility of the binding energy values is excellent. The dependence of the spin coating technique on parameters such as solvent and solution concentration, spinning speed and support material was studied. The same preparation method also allowed the acquisition of valence band spectra, the main peaks of which were clearly resolved. The results suggest that use of the spin coating techniqu...

  9. Photostimulated phosphor based image plate detection system for HRVUV beamline at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (HRVUV) beamline based on a 6.65 meter off-plane Eagle spectrometer is in operation at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source, RRCAT, Indore, India. To facilitate position sensitive detection and fast spectral recording, a new BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor based image plate (IP) detection system interchangeable with the existing photomultiplier (PMT) scanning system has been installed on this beamline. VUV photoabsorption studies on Xe, O2, N2O and SO2 are carried...

  10. Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, V G; Levin, A; Tlyachev, V B

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation of a charged particle in a constant uniform magnetic field and in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm solenoid field is studied in the frame of the relativistic quantum theory. First, to this end exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations are found. Using such solutions, all characteristics of one photon spontaneous irradiation, such as its intensity and angular distribution and polarization were calculated and analyzed. It is shown that usual spectrum of the synchrotron radiation is essentially affected by the presence of the solenoid (the Aharonov-Bohm effect). We believe that this deformation may be observed by spectroscopic methods of measurement. It is shown that

  11. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  12. Conditions for coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced microbunching suppression in multibend beam transport or recirculation arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Li, R.; Tennant, C.

    2017-02-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high-brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in beam phase space degradation. On one hand, CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beam line and possibly cause emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching instability. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Correspondingly, a few scenarios have been introduced to suppress CSR-induced microbunching instability, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching instability along transport or recirculation arcs. Examples are presented with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our developed semianalytical Vlasov solver [C.-Y. Tsai, D. Douglas, R. Li, and C. Tennant, Linear microbunching analysis for recirculation machines, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 19, 114401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.114401]. The example lattices include low-energy (˜100 MeV ) and high-energy (˜1 GeV ) recirculation arcs, and medium-energy compressor arcs. Our studies show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. Beam current dependences of maximal CSR microbunching gains are also demonstrated, which should help outline a beam line design for different scales of nominal currents. We expect this analysis can shed light on the lattice design approach that aims to control the CSR-induced microbunching.

  13. Laboratory source of synchrotron radiation: TROLL-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anevsky, S. I.; Vernyi, A. E.; Panasjuk, V. S.; Khromchenko, V. B.

    1987-11-01

    A laboratory synchrotron radiation (SR) source TROLL-2 is described. Its main parameters are as follows: the energy of the accelerated particles = 24 MeV; the orbit radius = 20 mm; the SR pulse half-width = 2 ms, the maximum spectral radiant power (at λ = 350 nm) = 1.2×10 6 W/m.

  14. Optimization on Synchrotron Radiation Lattice of BEPCⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yi-Peng; GAO Jie; GUO Zhi-Yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Beijing Electron and Positron Collider H (BEPCⅡ) is a double ring electron-positron collider, which can also be used as a synchrotron radiation (SR) light source. Since the BEPCⅡ will start commissioning with SR mode in November 2006, it is essential to have a satisfying SR lattice.

  15. Development of the microstrip silicon detector for imaging of fast processes at a synchrotron radiation beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, V.; Pruuel, E.; Shekhtman, L.; Ten, K.; Tolochko, B.; Zhulanov, V.

    2017-02-01

    In situ imaging of explosions allows to study material properties under very high pressures and temperatures. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is a powerful tool for such studies because of its unique time structure. Flashes of X-rays from individual bunches in a storage ring are so short that an object under study does not move more than 1-10 μm during exposure. If a detector is able to store images synchronously with bunches of an SR source the time resolution of such method will be determined by the duration of SR flash from individual bunch. New beam line at the VEPP-4M storage ring will allow to get X-Ray flux from each bunch close to 106 photons/channel where channel area is 0.05×0.5 mm2 and average beam energy is about 30 keV. Bunches in the machine can be grouped into trains with 20 ns time gap. In order to meet these requirements a new detector development was started based on Si microstrip technology. The detector with a new dedicated front-end chip will be able to record images with maximum signal equivalent to 106 photons/channel, with signal to noise ratio of ∼103, spatial resolution of 50 μm and maximum frame rate of 50 MHz. The detector has to drive very high peak and average currents without affecting the front-end chip, therefore a specific design of Si sensor should be developed. The front-end chip has to provide signal measurements with the dynamic range of about 104 or more and recording of the signal to an analogue memory with the rate of 50 MHz. The concept of such detector is discussed in the paper. The results of the simulations of the main detector parameters and the results of the first measurements with the prototype sensors are presented.

  16. ANKA - Service-oriented synchrotron radiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayan, Ruben Albert; Birkel, Ingrid; Buth, Gernot [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, ANKA Project Group, Karlsruhe (DE)] [and others

    1999-06-01

    ANKA is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility under construction at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. ANKA is based on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring injected from a 500 MeV booster synchrotron and a 50 MeV racetrack microtron. Nominal circulating electron current will be 400 mA. The facility is scheduled to become operational in fall 2000. ANKA will deliver photons predominantly in the hard X-ray range but it will also feature both XUV and infrared beamlines. So far, all beamlines will use bending magnets as sources, while provision is made to install appropriate insertion devices later on. ANKA has a novel mission which is characterised by giving preference to providing service to customers while maintaining a significant fraction of research work. ANKA will offer full service in X-ray lithography, mainly for micro- and nanofabrication, and in analysing and investigating non-destructively various structural, mechanical, chemical, electronic, magnetic, and molecular properties of samples and components. (author)

  17. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called `depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. I...

  18. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)

  19. Synchrotron radiation from a curved plasma channel laser wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Palastro, J P; Hafizi, B; Chen, Y -H; Johnson, L A; Penano, J R; Helle, M H; Mamonau, A A

    2016-01-01

    A laser pulse guided in a curved plasma channel can excite wakefields that steer electrons along an arched trajectory. As the electrons are accelerated along the curved channel, they emit synchrotron radiation. We present simple analytical models and simulations examining laser pulse guiding, wakefield generation, electron steering, and synchrotron emission in curved plasma channels. For experimentally realizable parameters, a ~2 GeV electron emits 0.1 photons per cm with an average photon energy of multiple keV.

  20. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC-LAB test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); “Tor Vergata” University, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Dabagov, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A. [Dipartimento SBAI Universitá di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, via Antonio Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Paroli, B. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zigler, A. [Racah Institute of Physics Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.

  1. A compact and low-weight sputtering unit for in situ investigations of thin film growth at synchrotron radiation beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P; Dippel, A-C; Pflaum, K; Wernecke, J; van den Hurk, J; Blume, J; Klemradt, U

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we report on a highly variable, compact, and light high-vacuum sputter deposition unit designed for in situ experiments using synchrotron radiation facilities. The chamber can be mounted at various synchrotron beamlines for scattering experiments in grazing incidence geometry. The sample position and the large exit window allow to perform x-ray experiments up to large q values. The sputtering unit is easy to mount on existing experimental setups and can be remote-controlled. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new sputtering chamber and present the installation of the apparatus at different 3rd generation light sources. Furthermore, we describe the different measurement options and present some selected results. The unit has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users at PETRA III at DESY.

  2. Characterization of a tungsten/gas multislit collimator for microbeam radiation therapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Bravin, A.; Zhang, L.; Siegbahn, E.; Stepanek, J.; Blattmann, H.; Slatkin, D. N.; Gebbers, J.-O.; Jasmin, M.; Laissue, J. A.

    2005-06-01

    Clinical microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) will require a multislit collimator with adjustable uniform slit widths to enable reliable Monte Carlo-based treatment planning. Such a collimator has been designed, fabricated of >99% tungsten [W] by Tecomet/Viasys (Woburn, Massachusetts, USA) and installed at the 6GeV electron-wiggler-generated hard x-ray ID17 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Its pair of 125 parallel, 8mm deep, 0.100mm wide radiolucent slits, 0.400mm on center, are perfused with nitrogen gas [N2] to dissipate heat during irradiation. Major improvements in uniformity of microbeam widths and good peak/valley dose ratios combined with a very high dose rate in targeted tissues have been achieved.

  3. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ({mu}-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  4. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry); Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ([mu]-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  5. Structural basis for supercooled liquid fragility established by synchrotron-radiation method and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Inoue, A. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Belosludov, R.; Kawazoe, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yavari, A. R. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); SIMAP-LTPCM, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, St-Martin-d' Heres Campus, Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38042, Grenoble (France); Georgarakis, K. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); SIMAP-LTPCM, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, St-Martin-d' Heres Campus, Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 (France); Vaughan, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38042, Grenoble (France); Egami, T. [Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Metallic melts above the liquidus temperature exhibit nearly Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of viscosity. On cooling below the equilibrium liquidus temperature metallic melts exhibit a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of viscosity characterized by liquid fragility phenomenon which origin is still not well understood. Structural changes and vitrification of the Pd{sub 42.5}Cu{sub 30}Ni{sub 7.5}P{sub 20} liquid alloy on cooling from above the equilibrium liquidus temperature are studied by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of first-principles calculations. Subsequent analysis of the atomic and electronic structure of the alloy in liquid and glassy states reveals formation of chemical short-range order in the temperature range corresponding to such a non-Arrhenius behavior. The first-principles calculations were applied to confirm the experimental findings.

  6. Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation Studies for Designer Materials, Sustainable Energy and Healthy Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-05-01

    Probably the most prolific use of large accelerators today is in the creation of bright beams of x-ray photons or neutrons. The number of scientific users of such sources in the US alone is approaching 10,000. I will describe the some of the major applications of synchrotron and neutron radiation and their impact on society. If you have AIDS, need a better IPOD or a more efficient car, or want to clean up a superfund site, you are benefitting from these accelerators. The design of new materials is becoming more and more dependent on structural information from these sources. I will identify the trends in applications which are demanding new sources with greater capabilities.

  7. Synchrotron radiation study of the uranium chemical species electrodeposited for alpha spectrometry sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burciaga V, D. C.; Mendez, C. G.; Esparza P, H.; Fuentes C, L.; Fuentes M, L.; Montero C, M. E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Beesley, A. M. [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Crespo, M. T., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.m [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Alpha spectrometry (As) with semiconductor detectors has applications in nuclear decay data measurements, environmental, geological and nuclear wastes studies and other works requiring determination of actinide and other alpha emitter contents. In order to obtain accurate measurements by producing good resolution alpha spectra, As sources must be thin and uniform. As sources produced by electrodeposition consist of a radioactive deposit onto a metallic substrate (cathode of the electrolytic cell). Natural U sources prepared by the Hallstadius method have co-deposited Pt, originated from the dissolution of the anode during the electrodeposition. A recent work published else-where has reported a study on the morphology and spatial distribution of the U/Pt deposits with the related chemical speciation of U, using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure. The purpose of this work is to explain the structure of the Pt/U deposits. We have obtained new spectra of the U L III edge X-ray absorption fine structure by total electron yield at Stanford Synchrotron radiation light source, Bl 2-3. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (Gi-XRD) patterns were obtained at Stanford Synchrotron radiation light source, Bl 11-3. Gi-XRD patterns show a bimodal distribution of grain sizes of Pt, with dimensions {approx} 5 and 20 nm; schoepite diffraction signals suggest grain dimensions of {approx} 5 nm, i.e. with low crystallization. X-ray absorption fine structure spectra were fitted assuming two different structures: uranyl hydroxide and schoepite, and results were compared. U-U path shows low intensity that also may be a result of low crystallization. (Author)

  8. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R. [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States); Zheng, Shao-Liang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States); Chen, Yu-Sheng [ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago c/o Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Clardy, Jon, E-mail: jon-clardy@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine

  9. NIKOS II--a system for noninvasive coronary angiography with synchrotron radiation (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, W.-R.; Graeff, W.; Heuer, J.; Engelke, K.; Jabs, H.; Kupper, W.; Stellmaschek, K. H.

    1989-07-01

    During the last years attempts have been underway at several synchrotron radiation laboratories1-4 to employ the abrupt change of absorption at the iodine K edge (33.17 keV) to the imaging of coronary arteries. The subtraction of two images taken with photon energies just above and below the edge strongly surpresses background contrast like bone and soft tissue and allows for amplification of iodinated structure contrast. At HASYLAB, for these studies, a beamline at a bending magnet was only available until 1987. At this beamline the system NIKOS I was tested to obtain information on its essential components like monochromator and detector by in-vivo investigations of dogs. The basic feature which differs from the approaches in other laboratoriesis simultaneous registration of two stationary beams in a two-line detector without any beam switching. Based on the experience with this system during the last year all its components have been improved and changed to dimensions capable of taking a 12-cm-wide image of the human heart. At present the new system NIKOS II is under testing at the new wiggler beamline HARWI. The new monochromator comprises two pairs of a thin Si Laue case crystal and a Ge Bragg crystal, each, with inherent focussing of the beam to a horizontal line focus of about 0.5 mm height and 12 cm width. The advantage of the Laue crystals which are optimized in thickness (30 μm) for maximum reflectivity, is the low heat absorption and the full use of the white beam in the production of two monochromatic beams. The crystals are cooled in a stream of helium. Compared to the NIKOS I version5 the detector was changed in the following points: The two detection lines are enlarged to 125 mm width and the phosphor at the entrance is exchangeable to be either made of powderlike Gd2O2S:Tb or of single crystals like CdWO4 or CaF2:Eu separated by thin walls for optimum spatial resolution. The numerical aperture of the glass fiber optics guiding the light via image

  10. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xin-Hu; YE Yun-Xiu; CHEN Jian-Ping; LU Hai-Jiang; ZHU Peng-Jia; JIANG Feng-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at the Jefferson Lab.Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for 12C elastic scattering simulation.The relative momentum ratio-Ap and 12C elastic cross section are compared without and with radiative energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation.The total energy loss distribution is obtained,showing a Landau shape for 12C elastic scattering.This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.

  11. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  12. Transfiguration of extracting mirror in synchrotron radiation system at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first extracting mirror is very important for synchrotron radiation monitor (SRM). The SRM system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) should extract the visible light with low optical distortion. The analysis of SR power spectrum and heat transfiguration based on Matlab is introduced in this paper, which will be used in calibration. One beryllium mirror with water-cooling is used to transmit X-ray and reflect visible light to satisfy the measurement request. The existing system suffers from a dynamic problem in some beam physics study. The system includes optics, image acquisition and interferometers. One of the instruments is a digital camera providing the image of the beam transverse profile. The hardware configuration will be summarized. The synchrotron radiation measurement system has been in operation in SSRF for more than one year.

  13. Physics design of SSRF synchrotron radiation security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    High brightness of SSRF brings about synchrotron radiation security problems,which will be solved in physics design.The main radiations are generated from bending magnets and insertion devices.Since the fact that radiation power and radiating area are different in these two kinds of synchrotron radiation,the arrangements of photon absorbers,diaphragms and other vacuum components need to be treated distinctively.In addition.SSRF interlock protection threshold is defined and the beam orbit in the straight line is limited.Hence.beam orbit in the bending magnets and IDs are also restricted by the threshold.The orbit restriction is calculated and helps us to arrange the vacuum components.In this paper,beam orbit distortion restricted by interlock protection threshold,radiation power,radiation angle and illuminating area are calculated.From the calculation results,the physics designs in manufacture and installation vacuum components are put forward.By commissioning,it is shown that physics requirements are met rigidly in the engineering process.

  14. 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”

    CERN Document Server

    Bulou, Hervé; Joly, Loic; Scheurer, Fabrice; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

    2013-01-01

     Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  15. A new method to suppress high-order harmonics for a synchrotron radiation soft X-ray beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ying; Xing, Hai-Ying; Hong, Cai-Hao; Tang, Kun; Han, Yong; Chen, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2015-04-01

    A feasible and convenient method is proposed to suppress higher-harmonics for a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator in the soft X-ray region. Related calculations and experiments demonstrate that decreasing the included angle slightly by changing the parameter of the exit arm length can significantly improve light purity. This method is suitable and has been used for experiments of detector calibration in beamline 4B7B at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375227, 61204008)

  16. X-ray detectors for diffraction studies and their use with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milch, J.

    1976-02-01

    All techniques for X-ray diffraction studies on biological materials exhibit certain limitations. The characteristics of several X-ray detection systems, namely film, multiwire proportional counter and image intensified TV, are discussed and compared for application to specific biological studies. For the high count-rate situation existing at a synchrotron, it is shown that film is a good choice, but that the image intensified TV exhibits significant advantages. The details of such a system now being used at Princeton with a low intensity source are given and current results presented.

  17. Combustion study with synchrotron radiation single photon ionization technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Rui; WANG Jing; HUANG Chaoqun; YANG Bin; WEI Lixia; SHAN Xiaobin; SHENG Liusi; ZHANG Yunwu; QI Fei

    2005-01-01

    Here we report a combustion endstation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) and some primary experimental results. Synchrotron radiation can provide the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon with the high intensity and the good collimation. VUV photoionization is a single-photon ionization process. Combined with molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), the VUV single-photon ionization can be applied to detect the combustion products, especially the intermediates and free radicals produced from combustion process. This method is proved to be a powerful tool for combustion study, which could be helpful for developing combustion kinetic models and understanding the mechanism of combustion reactions.

  18. Initial scientific uses of coherent synchrotron radiation inelectron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, D.N.; Feikes, J.; Fried, D.; Holldack, K.; Hubers, H.W.; Kuske, P.; Martin, M.C.; Pavlov, S.G.; Schade, U.; Singley, E.J.; Wustefeld, G.

    2004-11-23

    The production of stable, high power, coherent synchrotron radiation at sub-terahertz frequency at the electron storage ring BESSY opens a new region in the electromagnetic spectrum to explore physical properties of materials. Just as conventional synchrotron radiation has been a boon to x-ray science, coherent synchrotron radiation may lead to many new innovations and discoveries in THz physics. With this new accelerator-based radiation source we have been able to extend traditional infrared measurements down into the experimentally poorly accessible sub-THz frequency range. The feasibility of using the coherent synchrotron radiation in scientific applications was demonstrated in a series of experiments: We investigated shallow single acceptor transitions in stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga by means of photoconductance measurements below 1 THz. We have directly measured the Josephson plasma resonance in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} for the first time and finally we succeeded to confine the sub-THz radiation for spectral near-field imaging on biological samples such as leaves and human teeth.

  19. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Materlik, G.

    1986-01-01

    of the proposed Facility is a 5 GeV electron storage ring with a 100–200 mA electron current and a characteristic wavelength of 0.9 Å from bending magnets. The storage ring, 776 m in circumference, is able to accommodate up to 30 wavelength shifters, multipole wigglers and undulators. It is characterized...... by a great flexibility and a small emittance (7×10−9 rad m) leading to a very high brilliance (1019 photons/(s mm2 mrad2) in a relative bandwidth of 0.1% in case of a 1 Å undulator). The overview, as seen from the users point of view, gives a brief account of the storage ring, emitted radiation......, instrumentation and cost....

  20. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of the radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from the $L_{3}$ to M and to N shells for W, Re and Pb using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzi, E V

    2006-01-01

    The radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from L/sub 3/ to M shell, eta/sub L3/M(R) and L/sub 3/ to N shell, eta/sub L3/N(R), have been determined for W, Re and Pb. The pure elements samples were excited by monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The X-rays were generated by excitation of L/sub 3/ edge and measured using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The experimentally determined radiative vacancy transfer probabilities were compared with the theoretical values deduced using radiative X-ray emission rates based on the relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater (RDHS) model. In the case of Pb, the experimental data were compared as well with experimental values of Simsek. In both cases, a good agreement was found between the datasets.

  2. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  3. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so-called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross-section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. We exemplify this formalism in simple limiting cases. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in the literature.

  4. High spatial and temporal resolution photon/electron counting detector for synchrotron radiation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Lebedev, G. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y.; Guo, J. H.; Shen, Z. X.; Hussain, Z.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on the development of a high resolution electron/photon/ion imaging system which detects events with a timing accuracy of <160 ps FWHM and a two-dimensional spatial accuracy of ˜50 μm FWHM. The event counting detector uses microchannel plates for signal amplification and can sustain counting rates exceeding 1.5 MHz for evenly distributed events (0.4 MHz with 10% dead time for randomly distributed events). The detector combined with a time-of-flight angular resolved photoelectron energy analyzer was tested at a synchrotron beamline. The results of these measurements illustrate the unique capabilities of the analytical system, allowing simultaneous imaging of photoelectrons in momentum space and measurement of the energy spectrum, as well as filtering the data in user defined temporal and/or spatial windows.

  5. Reminder of the edge effect in Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H

    1998-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation in the LHC will be rather soft and weak, compared to high energy electron machines. Still it is expected to generate non negligible heating and photon-induced gas desorption. A summary of standard formulas and numbers for the LHC have been collected in this note, including a very rough discussion of the spectrum shift expected by the edge effect.

  6. Synchrotron radiation based beam diagnostics at the Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Thurman-Keup, R; Hahn, A; Hurh, P; Lorman, E; Lundberg, C; Meyer, T; Miller, D; Pordes, S; Valishev, A

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has been used for many years as a beam diagnostic at electron accelerators. It is not normally associated with proton accelerators as the intensity of the radiation is too weak to make detection practical. However, if one utilizes the radiation originating near the edge of a bending magnet, or from a short magnet, the rapidly changing magnetic field serves to enhance the wavelengths shorter than the cutoff wavelength, which for more recent high energy proton accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron, tends to be visible light. This paper discusses the implementation at the Tevatron of two devices. A transverse beam profile monitor images the synchrotron radiation coming from the proton and antiproton beams separately and provides profile data for each bunch. A second monitor measures the low-level intensity of beam in the abort gaps which poses a danger to both the accelerator's superconducting magnets and the silicon detectors of the high energy physics experiments. Comparisons of measur...

  7. Update on synchrotron radiation TXRF: New results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, S.; Pianetta, P.; Ghosh, S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.] [and others

    1998-12-31

    Synchrotron-based total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) has been developed as a leading technique for measuring wafer cleanliness. It holds advantages over other techniques in that it is non-destructive and allows mapping of the surface. The highest sensitivity observed thus far is 3 {times} 10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} ({approx} 3fg) for 1,000 second count time. Several applications of SR-TXRF are presented which take advantage of the energy tunability of the synchrotron source or the mapping capability.

  8. Real-time animation of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, Tsumoru E-mail: shintake@spring8.or.jp

    2003-07-11

    New mathematical method has been developed to compute radiation field from a moving charge in free space. It is not based on the retarded potential or its derivation [R.Y. Tsien, Picture of dynamic electric fields, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1972]. It solves conformal mapping of electric field lines based on the following two facts: (1) once a wave is emitted from a particle, it propagates as a spherical wave. The wavelet (a part of the wave-front) runs with speed of the light, and does not change its direction, (2) the initial direction of the wavelet is determined by the Lorentz transformation between the electron-rest-frame to the laboratory frame, which gives the light aberration effect. 2D radiation simulator has been developed based on this method, which simulates synchrotron, undulator and dipole radiation in time domain [T. Shintake, Simulation of field lines generated by a moving charge, private note 1984 March 19 at KEK, not published].

  9. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, G.

    1996-07-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented.

  10. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  11. A facility for the analysis of the electronic structures of solids and their surfaces by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesch, M; Kim, T K; Dudin, P; Wang, H; Scott, S; Harris, P; Patel, S; Matthews, M; Hawkins, D; Alcock, S G; Richter, T; Mudd, J J; Basham, M; Pratt, L; Leicester, P; Longhi, E C; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2017-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation beamline in the photon energy range of 18-240 eV and an electron spectroscopy end station have been constructed at the 3 GeV Diamond Light Source storage ring. The instrument features a variable polarisation undulator, a high resolution monochromator, a re-focussing system to form a beam spot of 50 × 50 μm(2), and an end station for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) including a 6-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample manipulator. The beamline design and its performance allow for a highly productive and precise use of the ARPES technique at an energy resolution of 10-15 meV for fast k-space mapping studies with a photon flux up to 2 ⋅ 10(13) ph/s and well below 3 meV for high resolution spectra.

  12. A facility for the analysis of the electronic structures of solids and their surfaces by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesch, M.; Kim, T. K.; Dudin, P.; Wang, H.; Scott, S.; Harris, P.; Patel, S.; Matthews, M.; Hawkins, D.; Alcock, S. G.; Richter, T.; Mudd, J. J.; Basham, M.; Pratt, L.; Leicester, P.; Longhi, E. C.; Tamai, A.; Baumberger, F.

    2017-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation beamline in the photon energy range of 18-240 eV and an electron spectroscopy end station have been constructed at the 3 GeV Diamond Light Source storage ring. The instrument features a variable polarisation undulator, a high resolution monochromator, a re-focussing system to form a beam spot of 50 × 50 μm2, and an end station for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) including a 6-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample manipulator. The beamline design and its performance allow for a highly productive and precise use of the ARPES technique at an energy resolution of 10-15 meV for fast k-space mapping studies with a photon flux up to 2 ṡ 1013 ph/s and well below 3 meV for high resolution spectra.

  13. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC_LAB test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Dabagov, S.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Marocchino, A.; Paroli, B.; Pompili, R.; Rossi, A. R.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC_LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation.

  14. Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition

    CERN Document Server

    Jeet, Justin; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 \\mbox{eV}$ and $8.8 \\mbox{eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2)\\mbox{s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600)\\mbox{s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  15. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy (229)Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-06-26

    We report the results of a direct search for the (229)Th (I(π)=3/2(+)←5/2(+)) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing (229)Th-doped LiSrAlF(6) crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s≲τ≲(2000-5600)  s. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  16. $YB_{66} a new soft X-ray monochromator for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, J; Rowen, M; Schäfers, F; Müller, B R; Rek, Z U

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol.A291, p.243-8, 1990. YB/sub 66/, a complex boron-rich man-made crystal, has been singled out as a potential monochromator material to disperse synchrotron soft X-rays in the 1-2 keV region. Results of a series of systematic property characterizations pertinent for this application are presented in this paper. These include Laue diffraction patterns and high-precision lattice-constant determination, etch rate, stoichiometry, thermal expansion, soft X-ray reflectivity and rocking-curve measurements, thermal load effects on monochromator performance, nature of intrinsic positive glitches and their reduction. The 004 reflection of YB/sub 66/ has a reflectance of ~3 in this spectral region. The width of the rocking curve varies from 0.25 eV at 1.1 keV to 1.0 eV at 2 keV, which is a factor of two better than that of beryl(1010) in the same energy range, and enables measurements of high-resolution XANES spectra at the Mg, Al and Si K- edges. The thermal bump on the...

  17. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-10-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  18. A simple external resistance heating diamond anvil cell and its application for synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dawei; Zhou, Wenge; Wei, Shuyi; Liu, Yonggang; Ma, Maining; Xie, Hongsen

    2010-05-01

    A simple external heating assemblage allowing diamond anvil cell experiments at pressures up to 34 GPa and temperatures up to 653 K was constructed. This cell can be connected to the synchrotron radiation conveniently. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for x-ray diffraction. Heating is carried out by using an external-heating system, which is made of NiCr resistance wire, and the temperature was measured by a NiCr-NiSi or PtRh-Pt thermocouple. We showed the performance of the new system by introducing the phase transition study of cinnabar (alpha-HgS) and thermal equation of state study of almandine at high pressure and temperature with this cell.

  19. Large-format imaging plate and weissenberg camera for accurate protein crystallographic data collection using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, K; Sasaki, K; Watanabe, N; Suzuki, M; Wang, Z G; Miyahara, J; Sakabe, N

    1997-05-01

    Off-line and on-line protein data-collection systems using an imaging plate as a detector are described and their components reported. The off-line scanner IPR4080 was developed for a large-format imaging plate ;BASIII' of dimensions 400 x 400 mm and 400 x 800 mm. The characteristics of this scanner are a dynamic range of 10(5) photons pixel(-1), low background noise and high sensitivity. A means of reducing electronic noise and a method for finding the origin of the noise are discussed in detail. A dedicated screenless Weissenberg camera matching IPR4080 with synchrotron radiation was developed and installed on beamline BL6B at the Photon Factory. This camera can attach one or two sheets of 400 x 800 mm large-format imaging plate inside the film cassette by evacuation. The positional reproducibility of the imaging plate on the cassette is so good that the data can be processed by batch job. Data of 93% completeness up to 1.6 A resolution were collected on a single axis rotation and the value of R(merge) becomes 4% from a tetragonal lysozyme crystal using a set of two imaging-plate sheets. Comparing two types of imaging plates, the signal-to-noise ratio of the ST-VIP-type imaging plate is 25% better than that of the BASIII-type imaging plate for protein data collection using 1.0 and 0.7 A X-rays. A new on-line protein data-collection system with imaging plates is specially designed to use synchrotron radiation X-rays at maximum efficiency.

  20. PREFACE: 17th Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Revesz, Peter; Arp, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the articles presented at the seventeenth Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013, held on the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), located in Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America, 19-21 June, 2013. SRI2013 was jointly hosted by the Cornell University Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), and the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) at NIST. This meeting's focus was clearly on instrumentation, thus fulfilling the intent of this SRI meeting series, which was initiated at NIST, then the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in 1979. SRI2013 hosted more than 150 delegates, despite the new US governmental travel restrictions. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the two and a half days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of reference as well as to the reviewers for their careful reading and constructive recommendations for improving the articles. Great thanks go to Robert Dragoset at NIST, for creating and maintaining the conference website and generating the conference logo. We are also thankful for the excellent support we received from the Conference Program at NIST, especially Kathy Kilmer and Angela Ellis. And we would like to dedicate these proceedings to the memory of Kathy Kilmer, who passed away on 15 October, 2013. NIST will not be the same without her. The Co-Editors: Uwe Arp (SURF/NIST) Peter Reversz (CHESS) Gwyn P Williams (Jefferson Lab)

  1. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  2. On the possibilities of polychromatic synchrotron radiation microtomography for visualization of internal structures of Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, G.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; Nogueira, L. P.; Soares, J.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    The recent years advancements in microtomography have increased the achievable resolution and contrast, making this relatively inexpensive and a widely available technology, potentially useful for studies of insect's internal morphology. Phase Contrast X-Ray Synchrotron Microtomography (SR-PhC-μCT) is a non-destructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations of Rhodnius prolixus, one of the most important insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. In Latin America, vector control is the most useful method to prevent Chagas' disease, and a detailed knowledge of R. prolixus' interior structures is crucial for a better understanding of their function and evolution. Traditionally, in both biological morphology and anatomy, the internal structures of whole organisms or parts of them are accessed by dissecting or histological serial sectioning; so studying the internal structures of R. prolixus' head using SR-PhC-μCT is of great importance in researches on vector control. In this work, volume-rendered SR-PhC-μCT images of the heads of selected R. prolixus were obtained using the new set-up available at the SYRMEP beamline of ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). In this new set-up, the outcoming beam from the ring is restrained before the monochromator and in a devoted end-station, absorption and phase contrast radiography and tomography set-up are available. The images obtained with polychromatic X-ray beam in phase contrast regimen and 2 μm resolution, showed details and organs of R. prolixus never seen before with SR-PhC-μCT.

  3. Efficiency of Synchrotron Radiation from Rotation-powered Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2017-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation is widely considered to be the origin of the pulsed non-thermal emissions from rotation-powered pulsars in optical and X-ray bands. In this paper, we study the synchrotron radiation emitted by the created electron and positron pairs in the pulsar magnetosphere to constrain the energy conversion efficiency from the Poynting flux to the particle energy flux. We model two pair creation processes, two-photon collision, which efficiently works in young γ-ray pulsars (≲106 year), and magnetic pair creation, which is the dominant process to supply pairs in old pulsars (≳106 year). Using the analytical model, we derive the maximum synchrotron luminosity as a function of the energy conversion efficiency. From the comparison with observations, we find that the energy conversion efficiency to the accelerated particles should be an order of unity in the magnetosphere, even though we make a number of the optimistic assumptions to enlarge the synchrotron luminosity. In order to explain the luminosity of the non-thermal X-ray/optical emission from pulsars with low spin-down luminosity L sd ≲ 1034 erg s‑1, non-dipole magnetic field components should be dominant at the emission region. For the γ-ray pulsars with L sd ≲ 1035 erg s‑1, observed γ-ray to X-ray and optical flux ratios are much higher than the flux ratio between curvature and the synchrotron radiations. We discuss some possibilities such as the coexistence of multiple accelerators in the magnetosphere as suggested from the recent numerical simulation results. The obtained maximum luminosity would be useful to select observational targets in X-ray and optical bands.

  4. Study on Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Excited by Synchrotron Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jia Guo; Wu-er Gan; Guo-bin Zhang; Qing-de Su

    2008-01-01

    A novel analysis approach using atomic fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation is presented. A system for synchrotron radiation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry is developed, and experimental conditions such as flow rate, analyte acidity, concentration of pre-reducing and hydrogenation system are optimized. The proposed method is successfully applied to get an excitation spectrum of arsenic. Seven of ten primary spectral lines, four of which have never been reported by means of atomic fluorescence spectrometry, agree well with the existing reports. The other three are proposed for the first time. Excitation potentials and possible transitions are investigated. Especially for the prominent line at 234.99 nm, the mechanism of generation is discussed and a model of energy transition processes is proposed.

  5. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefl y introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented.

  6. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Campinas City, Brazil Using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Bruna Fernanda; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    The problem of solid waste in most countries is on the rise as a result of rapid population growth, urbanization, industrial development and changes in consumption habits. Amongst the various forms of waste disposals, landfills are today the most viable for the Brazilian reality, both technically and economically. Proper landfill construction practices allow minimizing the effects of the two main sources of pollution from solid waste: landfill gas and slurry. However, minimizing is not synonymous with eliminating; consequently, the landfill alone cannot resolve all the problems with solid waste disposal. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the content of trace elements in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry arising from local solid waste disposals in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Samples were collected at the Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli landfills. At the Delta and Santa Barbara sites, values above the maximum permitted level established by CETESB for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Pb were observed in samples of groundwater, while at the Pirelli site, elements with concentrations above the permitted levels were Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb. At Delta, values above levels permitted by the CONAMA 357 legislation were still observed in surface water samples for Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu, whereas in slurry samples, values above the permitted levels were observed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Slurry samples were prepared in accordance with two extraction methodologies, EPA 3050B and EPA 200.8. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were higher than the limit established by CONAMA 357 for most samples collected at different periods (dry and rainy) and also for the two extraction methodologies employed.

  7. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  8. Separated high-energy electron beams using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, F J M; Picasso, Emilio

    1972-01-01

    Electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 GeV range may be separated from other particles by using their energy-loss due to synchrotron radiation in a high-field magnet. In this paper the associated fluctuations in energy and angle are shown to be small enough for the method to be useful. Detailed design formulae are presented for several magnet configurations. (7 refs).

  9. Experimental comparison between speckle and grating-based imaging technique using synchrotron radiation X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-08-08

    X-ray phase contrast and dark-field imaging techniques provide important and complementary information that is inaccessible to the conventional absorption contrast imaging. Both grating-based imaging (GBI) and speckle-based imaging (SBI) are able to retrieve multi-modal images using synchrotron as well as lab-based sources. However, no systematic comparison has been made between the two techniques so far. We present an experimental comparison between GBI and SBI techniques with synchrotron radiation X-ray source. Apart from the simple experimental setup, we find SBI does not suffer from the issue of phase unwrapping, which can often be problematic for GBI. In addition, SBI is also superior to GBI since two orthogonal differential phase gradients can be simultaneously extracted by one dimensional scan. The GBI has less stringent requirements for detector pixel size and transverse coherence length when a second or third grating can be used. This study provides the reference for choosing the most suitable technique for diverse imaging applications at synchrotron facility.

  10. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, R.; Baglin, V.; Schäfers, F.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic vacuum issues, etc. If experimentally fully validated, a highly reflecting beam screen surface will provide a viable and solid solution to be eligible as a baseline design in FCC-hh projects to come, rendering them more cost effective and sustainable.

  11. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084568; Baglin, Vincent; Schaefers, Franz

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic...

  12. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, R; Baglin, V; Schäfers, F

    2015-12-31

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic vacuum issues, etc. If experimentally fully validated, a highly reflecting beam screen surface will provide a viable and solid solution to be eligible as a baseline design in FCC-hh projects to come, rendering them more cost effective and sustainable.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation Lithography and MEMS Technique at NSRL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two beamlines and stations for soft X-ray lithography and hard X-ray lithography at NSRL are presented. Synchrotron radiation lithography (SRL) and mask techniques are developed, and the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques are also investigated at NSRL. In this paper, some results based on SRL and MEMS techniques are reported, and sub-micron and high aspect ratio microstructures are given. Some micro-devices, such as microreactors are fabricated at NSRL.

  14. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Benson, Stephen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Yves [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Krafft, Geoffrey [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Terzic, Balsa [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Tsai, Cheng [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  15. Calculation of the characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Maslova, M V; Maltsev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Subroutines for calculating the spectral and angular characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation are developed. Corresponding calculations are carried out for a number of proton and electron accelerators. The results obtained enable methods to be developed for beam diagnostics as well as highly sensitive detectors of infrared radiation for remote contactless nondestructive diagnostics and for investigating bunches and high-speed processes in ring-type (CERN /SEPS-LHC) and linear (GSI bunch target) accelerators, and also the thermal fields in nuclear power plants.

  16. Scaling behavior of circular colliders dominated by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The scaling formulas in this paper — many of which involve approximation — apply primarily to electron colliders like CEPC or FCC-ee. The more abstract “radiation dominated” phrase in the title is intended to encourage use of the formulas — though admittedly less precisely — to proton colliders like SPPC, for which synchrotron radiation begins to dominate the design in spite of the large proton mass. Optimizing a facility having an electron-positron Higgs factory, followed decades later by a p, p collider in the same tunnel, is a formidable task. The CEPC design study constitutes an initial “constrained parameter” collider design. Here the constrained parameters include tunnel circumference, cell lengths, phase advance per cell, etc. This approach is valuable, if the constrained parameters are self-consistent and close to optimal. Jumping directly to detailed design makes it possible to develop reliable, objective cost estimates on a rapid time scale. A scaling law formulation is intended to contribute to a “ground-up” stage in the design of future circular colliders. In this more abstract approach, scaling formulas can be used to investigate ways in which the design can be better optimized. Equally important, by solving the lattice matching equations in closed form, as contrasted with running computer programs such as MAD, one can obtain better intuition concerning the fundamental parametric dependencies. The ground-up approach is made especially appropriate by the seemingly impossible task of simultaneous optimization of tunnel circumference for both electrons and protons. The fact that both colliders will be radiation dominated actually simplifies the simultaneous optimization task. All GeV scale electron accelerators are “synchrotron radiation dominated”, meaning that all beam distributions evolve within a fraction of a second to an equilibrium state in which “heating” due to radiation fluctuations is canceled by the “cooling” in

  17. Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

    2005-01-01

    The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the

  18. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle $\\alpha \\sim 1/\\gamma$. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  19. Jet Quenching in High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions by QCD Synchrotron-like Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shuryak, E V

    2003-01-01

    We consider synchrotron-like radiation in QCD by generalizing Schwinger's treatment of quantum synchrotron radiation in QED to the case of a constant chromomagnetic field. We suggest a novel mechanism for {\\em jet quenching} in heavy ion collisions, whereby high-$p_t$ partons get depleted through strong (classical) color fields. The latters are encountered in the color glass condensate or in the form of expanding shells of exploding sphalerons. Unlike bremsstrahlung radiation through multiple soft rescattering, synchrotron radiation converts a jet into a wide shower of soft gluons. We estimate the energy loss through this mechanism and suggest that it contributes significantly to the unexpectedly strong jet quenching observed at RHIC.

  20. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of {sup 57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2{plus_minus}0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1{1/2} natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  1. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  2. Slow scan sit detector for x-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milch, J R

    1978-10-18

    A TV-type x-ray detector using a SIT vidicon has been used for biological diffraction studies at the EMBL outstation at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. The detector converts the two-dimensional diffraction pattern to a charge pattern on the vidicon target, which is read out in the slow-scan mode. This detector has high DOE, no count-rate limit, and is simple and inexpensive to construct. Radiation from the storage ring DORIS was used to study the structure of live muscle at various phases of contraction. Typically the count-rate on the detector was 10/sup 6/ x-rays/sec and a total exposure of a few seconds was needed to record the weak diffraction from muscle. This compares with usual exposure times of several hours using a rotating anode generator and film.

  3. Refraction-contrast bone imaging using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koichi; Sekine, Norio; Sato, Hitoshi; Shikano, Naoto [Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences, Ami (Japan); Shimao, Daisuke [Ibaraki Prefectural Univ. of Health Sciences, Ami (Japan). Graduate School of Health Sciences; Shiwaku, Hideaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan). Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Hyodo, Kazuyuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Org., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Material Structure Sciences; Oka, Hiroshi [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The X-ray refraction-contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation with some X-ray energies is successfully performed at B120B2 of SPring-8. The refraction-contrast images of bone samples such as human dried proximal phalanx, wrist, upper cervical vertebrae and sella turcica and as mouse proximal femur using the synchrotron X-ray are always better in image contrast and resolution than those of the absorption-contrast images using the synchrotron X-ray and/or the conventional X-ray tube. There is much likeness in the image contrast and resolution of trabeculae bone in the human dried proximal phalanx between X-ray energy of 30 keV at sample-to-film distance of 1 m and those of 40, 50 keV at those of 4,5 m, respectively. High-energy refraction-contrast imaging with suitable sample-to-film distance could reduce the exposure dose in human imaging. In the refraction-contrast imaging of human wrist, upper cervcal vertebrae, sella turcica and mouse proximal femur using the synchrotron X-ray, we can obtain better image contrast and resolution to correctly extract morphological information for diagnosis corresponding to each of the clinical field than those of the absorption-contrast images. (author)

  4. Application of a One-Dimensional Position Sensitive Chamber on Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huirong; Liu, Mei

    2014-02-01

    In the last few years, wire chambers have been frequently used for X-ray detection because of their low cost, large area and reliability. X-ray diffraction is an irreplaceable method for powder crystal lattice measurements. A one-dimensional single-wire chamber has been developed in our lab to provide high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments using synchrotron radiation. There are 200 readout strips of 0.5 mm width with a pitch of 1.0 mm in the X direction, and the working gas is a mixture of Ar and CO2 (90/10). The one-dimensional position of the original ionization point is determined by the adjacent strip's distribution information using the center of gravity method. Recently, a study of the detector's performance and diffraction image was completed at the 1W1B laboratory of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using a sample of SiO2. Most of the relative errors between the measured values of diffraction angles and existing data were less than 1%. The best position resolution achieved for the detector in the test was 71 μm (σ value) with a 20 μm slit collimator. Finally, by changing the detector height in incremental distances from the center of the sample, the one-dimensional detector achieved a two-dimensional diffraction imaging function, and the results are in good agreement with standard data.

  5. Dosimetric requirements and protocols for in vivo breast imaging with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesari, V.; Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Esposito, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali, Legnaro (Italy); De Nardo, L.; Tornielli, G. [Padova Univ., Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    The BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a cancer treatment technique which could be the best one for those skin tumours (melanomas) which are nowadays resistant to ordinary therapy. It makes use of thermal or epithermal neutrons to irradiate tumours previously loaded with {sup 10}B. Thermal neutron adsorption on the {sup 10}B nucleus gives rise to the production of two particles, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li, whose ranges in tissue are as short as the diameter of a cell nucleolus. Because of such short ranges, all the energy is released inside the tumour cell, which is killed with high probability, while the neighbouring cells are not damaged. However, dosimetry for BNCT is complex. The radiation field can be divided in two parts. The first one is caused by the products of the BNC reaction and depends on the concentration of {sup 10}B atoms in the irradiated cell and on the neutron thermal flux. The second part is due to residual fast neutrons, slow neutrons and gamma rays produced by the neutron source and by the moderating facility. Therefore it is necessary to perform an accurate monitoring providing the relative doses of all these components. The only instrument which can satisfy these needs with a single measurement is the TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter). Moreover TEPCs, loaded with and without {sup 10}B, can also used to estimate the thermal neutron flux and to predict the RBE for cells loaded with and without {sup 10}B.

  6. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y., E-mail: ykawashima@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, PS, Bldg. 817, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ego, H. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-02-11

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10{sup −12}, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10{sup −6}. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  7. Using Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation as a Probe into Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Thorne, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Jovian decimetric emission is caused by the combined emission of synchrotron radiation originating from the relativistic electrons trapped in Jupiter's 'Van Allen radiation belts' and thermal emission from the planet's atmosphere. Synchrotron radiation characteristics and variations (which provides insight into the physical properties of Jupiter's inner radiation belts) will be amplified and discussed.

  8. Synchrotrons for Hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullia, Marco G.

    Since 1990, when the world's first hospital-based proton therapy center opened in Loma Linda, California, interest in dedicated proton and carbon ion therapy facilities has been growing steadily. Today, many proton therapy centers are in operation, but the number of centers offering carbon ion therapy is still very low. This difference reflects the fact that protons are well accepted by the medical community, whereas radiotherapy with carbon ions is still experimental. Furthermore, accelerators for carbon ions are larger, more complicated and more expensive than those for protons only. This article describes the accelerator performance required for hadrontherapy and how this is realized, with particular emphasis on carbon ion synchrotrons.

  9. Synchrotron radiation of higher order soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, Rodislav; Efimov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate radiation mechanism exhibited by higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution higher order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in appearance of multipeak frequency comb like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is completely corroborated by numerical simulations. An analogy between this radiation and the radiation of moving charges is presented. For longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  10. Hard X-ray in-line outline imaging for blood vessels: first generation synchrotron radiation without contrast agents in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Phase-contrast X-ray imaging which reduces radiation exposure, is a promising technique for observing the inner structures of biological soft tissues without the aid of contrast agents.The present study intends to depict blood vessels of rabbits and human livers with hard X-ray in-line out line imaging without contrast agents using synchrotron radiation. Methods: All samples were fixed with formalin and sliced into 6 mm sections. The imaging experiments were performed with Fuji-IX80 films on the 4W1A light beam of the first generation synchrotron radiation in Beijing, China. The device of the ex periment, which supplies a maximum light spot size of 20× 10 mm was similar to that of in-line holography. The photon energy was set at 8 KeV and high quality imagines were obtained by altering the distance between the sample and the film. Results: The trees of rabbit-liver blood vessels and the curved vessels of the cirrhotic human liver were revealed on the images, where vessels < 20 μm in diameter were differentiated. Conclusion: These results show that the blood vessels of liver samples can be revealed by using hard X-ray in-line outline imaging with the first generation synchrotron radiation without contrast agents.

  11. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stellato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  12. Diffuse scattering measurements with synchrotron radiation: Instrumentation and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, E.; Georgopoulos, P.

    1985-12-01

    The analysis of diffuse scattering from single crystalline specimens in the reflection mode has generally been acknowledged as a very powerful means of obtaining structural information on local atomic arrangements in disordered alloys, intermetallics and ceramics. However, owing to the low intensities encountered and the large number of measurements required for such an analysis, experiments have been extremely time consuming and few have been attempted. Synchrotron radiation makes it possible to conduct such experiments in a matter of hours and much higher quality data can be obtained than in the laboratory. This paper describes the experimental procedures and methods applied to a study of Al-Cu age hardening alloys conducted at the Cornell Synchrotron Source (CHESS). (orig.).

  13. Large scale facilities for synchrotron radiation and neutrons. New possibilities for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidenhans' l, R

    2003-02-01

    New large-scale facilities for investigating the structure and dynamics of matter and biological systems are currently under construction or are being planned at many locations around Europe. These facilities are likely to have a large impact on the science landscape in Europe, and more locally, as some will be located in the immediate neighbourhood of Denmark. The facilities will enable new analytical capabilities of matter, which will push the frontiers of science and technology in many areas of research of importance for Denmark. This report provides an overview of the new facilities (including very rough funding estimates) of importance for Danish science, describes possible ways of engaging in the various projects and identifies potential user groups. The report also includes a summary of the status of the current use of existing facilities as a benchmark. This is done by showing different cross sections through this multiple parameter space of activities. The intention is that the report should serve as guideline for making a long-term national strategy for the exploitation of large-scale facilities in order to help to optimise their impact on science, education and industry within Denmark, and to safeguard the prominent internationally leading role that Denmark has in this area. (LN)

  14. Progress on a Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bassi, Gabriele; Warnock, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates (shielding). The time evolution of the phase space distribution is determined by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows the study of emittance degradation and microbunching in bunch compressors. We calculate the fields excited by the bunch in the lab frame using a formula simpler than that based on retarded potentials.* We have developed an algorithm for solving the Vlasov equation in the beam frame using arc length as the independent variable and our method of local characteristics (discretized Perron-Frobenius operator).We integrate in the interaction picture in the hope that we can adopt a fixed grid. The distribution function will be represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. The transformation between l...

  15. Manufacture and Test of the Prototype 5 T Superconducting Undulator for the LHC Synchrotron Radiation Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaferri, R; Tommasini, D; Venturini-Delsolaro, W

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting undulator wound with Nb-Ti based conductor, will be used in the LHC as a key part of the synchrotron radiation profile monitor system. Two undulators are needed, one per each circulating beam, providing 5 T in a 60 mm bore over two periods of 280 mm each. A full scale prototype has been designed and successfully tested in the end of 2004. In this paper, the electromagnetic and the mechanical design of the undulator are summarized. The fabrication of the prototype is described and the successful cold test results, both power test and magnetic flux density measurements, are reported.

  16. The radiative transfer of synchrotron radiation through a compressed random magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cawthorne, T V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the radiative transfer of synchrotron radiation in the presence of a magnetic field configuration resulting from the compression of a highly disordered magnetic field. It is shown that, provided Faraday rotation and circular polarization can be neglected, the radiative transfer equations for synchrotron radiation separate for this configuration, and the intensities and polarization values for sources that are uniform on large scales can be found straightforwardly in the case where opacity is significant. Although the emission and absorption coefficients must, in general, be obtained numerically, the process is much simpler than a full numerical solution to the transfer equations. Some illustrative results are given and an interesting effect, whereby the polarization increases while the magnetic field distribution becomes less strongly confined to the plane of compression, is discussed. The results are of importance for the interpretation of polarization near the edges of lobes in radio gal...

  17. Vavilov-Cherenkov and Synchrotron Radiation Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, G. N

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation observed by Cherenkov in 1934 was created by Tamm, Frank and Ginsburg who associated the observed blue light with the uniform charge motion of a charge at a velocity greater than the velocity of light in the medium. On the other hand, Vavilov, Cherenkov's teacher, attributed the observed blue light to the deceleration of electrons. This has given rise to the appearance of papers in which the radiation of a charge uniformly moving in a finite space interval was related to the Bremsstrahlung arising at the end points of the motion interval. This monograph is intended for students of the third year and higher, for postgraduates, for professional scientists (both experimentalists and theoreticians) dealing with Vavilov-Cherenkov and synchrotron radiation. An acquaintance with the three volumes of the Landau and Lifshitz course (Quantum Mechanics, Classical Field Theory and Macroscopic Electrodynamics) is sufficient for understanding the text.

  18. Dipole magnet of synchrotron source for national synchrotron centre of Ukraine

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P I; Muratov, V I; Peev, F A

    2001-01-01

    The paper contains the revised design of a dipole magnet for a synchrotron radiation source.Usage of such a magnet allows to reach the energy of electrons in a ring up to 1.2 GeV.In paper the result of simulation of a magnet for all modes of operations of a source are shown.The proposed variant of the dipole magnet considerably raises parameters of the synchrotron radiation source.

  19. The influence of the solid waste disposal areas in Campinas city, Sao Paulo state (Brazil) on water quality: determination of metals using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna F.F., E-mail: bffaria@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Moreira, Silvana; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    Among the many forms of waste disposal, landfills today are best suited to Brazilian conditions, this because their construction allows minimizing the negative effects of landfill gas and slurry produced. However, the confinement of pollutants from landfills is linked to its construction and operation and when the construction and/or is wrong they can endanger air, groundwater and surface waters qualities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry coming from solid waste disposal locations in the city of Campinas, SP - Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli Landfills. The samples were analyzed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF). In Pirelli Landfill, the highest concentrations were observed in one of the wells located to downstream of the Landfill (in relation to the groundwater flux) - the monitoring well PM04, exceeding the intervention value defined by CETESB. For Santa Barbara landfill in one upstream monitoring well the concentrations of Ni, Mn, Pb and Cr, surpassed the maximum permissive values. The manganese in Landfill Delta showed to be higher in wells located downstream and 50% of the wells analyzed exceeded the maximum permissive value for groundwater samples. In the case of surface waters located in the vicinity of landfill sites, the metals that surpassed the maximum permissive values according the legislation in most of the points analyzed were Mn, Cu and Pb. For slurry samples collected in Delta Landfill, the average concentrations for Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb not exceeded the maximum permissive values during the period studied. Moreover for Santa Barbara the average concentration of Mn, Cu and Zn surpassed the permissive limits, as was observed for Mn in the Pirelli Landfill. (author)

  20. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  1. Second Order Harmonics Suppression With Glass Filters for Synchrotron UV Radiation Calibration Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Burattini, E; Gambicorti, L; Malvezzi, F; Marcelli, A; Monti, F; Pace, E

    2005-01-01

    This development is the latest result of the cooperation between the National Laboratories of Frascati and the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence to improve the capabilities of the existing DXR-2 beam line at the DAΦNE-LIGHT laboratories. This collaboration has assessed a new facility in order to characterize optics and sensors in a wide spectral range (ranging from VUV to IR). Previous measurements [1] have highlighted some limitations in the present setup, as higher signal levels due to the diffracted radiation of the grating in the second order have to be removed to allow an accurate detection. In this work a glass filter is used to remove such spurious signal present in the spectral region with λ > 360 nm. The characteristics of the filter and its application to the optical system used to measure the sensitivity of a diamond-based photoconductor have been discussed.

  2. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  3. Variations in Jupiter's Radiation Belts and Synchrotron Radiation as a Result of the Impacts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy/9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.; Thorne, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Changes to Jupiter's synchrotron radiation following the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy/9 are reported. Also, the consequences are reported for three possible mechanisms that might have caused those changes.

  4. Multi-level synchrotron radiation-based microtomography of the dental alveolus and its consequences for orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, M; Cattaneo, P M; Laursen, M G; Beckmann, F; Melsen, B

    2015-03-18

    Multilevel synchrotron radiation-based microtomography has been performed on a human jaw segment obtained at autopsy by cutting increasingly smaller samples from the original segment. The focus of this study lay on the microstructure of the interface between root, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone in order to find an answer to the question why alveolar bone remodels during orthodontic loading, when the associated stress and strain levels calculated with finite element analyses are well below the established threshold levels for bone remodeling. While the inner surface of the alveolus appears to be rather smooth on the lower resolution scans, detailed scans of the root-PDL-bone interface reveal that on a microscopical scale it is actually quite rough and uneven with bony spiculae protruding into the PDL space. Any external (orthodontic) loading applied to the root, when transferred through the PDL to the alveolar bone, will cause stress concentrations in these spiculae, rather than be distributed over a "smooth surface". As osteocyte lacunae are shown to be present in these spiculae, the local amplified stresses and strain can well be registered by the mechano-sensory network of osteocytes. In addition, a second stress amplification mechanism, due to the very presence of the lacunae themselves, is evidence that stresses and strains calculated with FE analyses, based on macroscopical scale models of teeth and their supporting structures, grossly underestimate the actual mechanical loading of alveolar bone at tissue level. It is therefore hypothesized that remodeling of alveolar bone is subject to the same biological regulatory process as remodeling in other bones.

  5. Characterizing THz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at Femtosecond Linear Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xu-Ling; ZHANG Jian-Bing; LU YU; LUO Feng; LU Shan-Liang; YU Tie-Min; DAI Zhi-Min

    2009-01-01

    The generation and observation of coherent THz synchrotron radiation from femtosecond electron bunches in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics femtosecond accelerator device is reported.We describe the experiment setup and present the first result of THz radiation properties such as power and spectrum.

  6. Characterization of Medipix3 With Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Turecek, D; Ballabriga, R; Tartoni, N; Campbell, M; Llopart, X; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is the latest generation of photon counting readout chips of the Medipix family. With the same dimensions as Medipix2 (256 x 256 pixels of 55 mu m x 55 mu m pitch each), Medipix3 is however implemented in an 8-layer metallization 0.13 mu m CMOS technology which leads to an increase in the functionality associated with each pixel over Medipix2. One of the new operational modes implemented in the front-end architecture is the Charge Summing Mode (CSM). This mode consists of a charge reconstruction and hit allocation algorithm which eliminates event-by-event the low energy counts produced by charge-shared events between adjacent pixels. The present work focuses on the study of the CSM mode and compares it to the Single Pixel Mode (SPM) which is the conventional readout method for these kind of detectors and it is also implemented in Medipix3. Tests of a Medipix3 chip bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon photodiode sensor were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to evaluate the performan...

  7. γ-H2AX as a marker for dose deposition in the brain of wistar rats after synchrotron microbeam radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fernandez-Palomo

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation has shown high therapeutic potential in small animal models of malignant brain tumours. However, more studies are needed to understand the radiobiological effects caused by the delivery of high doses of spatially fractionated x-rays in tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of the γ-H2AX antibody as a marker for dose deposition in the brain of rats after synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT.Normal and tumour-bearing Wistar rats were exposed to 35, 70 or 350 Gy of MRT to their right cerebral hemisphere. The brains were extracted either at 4 or 8 hours after irradiation and immediately placed in formalin. Sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were incubated with anti γ-H2AX primary antibody.While the presence of the C6 glioma does not seem to modulate the formation of γ-H2AX in normal tissue, the irradiation dose and the recovery versus time are the most important factors affecting the development of γ-H2AX foci. Our results also suggest that doses of 350 Gy can trigger the release of bystander signals that significantly amplify the DNA damage caused by radiation and that the γ-H2AX biomarker does not only represent DNA damage produced by radiation, but also damage caused by bystander effects.In conclusion, we suggest that the γ-H2AX foci should be used as biomarker for targeted and non-targeted DNA damage after synchrotron radiation rather than a tool to measure the actual physical doses.

  8. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  9. The radiation measurement applied to beam lifetime study on the synchrotron radiation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxiong; Li, Juexin; Liu, Zuping; Cui, Yonggang; Gong, Guanghua; Shao, Beibei

    2003-06-01

    To collect beam loss information from an accelerator radiation field is helpful to machine study and operation. For a synchrotron radiation storage ring, shower electrons give a distinct clue to loss location and a BLM-XS model detector is suitable to detect them. Recently, we set up a new beam loss monitoring system by this method for National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) storage ring. It does not interfere with the vacuum chamber and machine operation. Different from other systems, the detectors are used in pairs, fixed on opposite sides of the chamber separately. Some interesting phenomena about beam lifetime were observed. We located exactly where an excessive beam loss took place during ramping process and solved the problem. It was proved that gas accumulated at the front ends of photo-beam lines strongly impacted the electron beam and led to beam lifetime decreases. The cause of beam lifetime decrease because of superconducting wiggler is discussed.

  10. Scaling Behavior of Circular Colliders Dominated by Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The quite low Higgs particle mass makes it natural for the next high energy facility to be a circular e+e- Higgs factory and, after that, a next-generation p,p collider in the same tunnel. Surveying the luminosity-limiting phenomena of synchrotron radiation power loss, beam-beam interaction limitations, and beamstrahlung, scaling laws are established that fix all parameters of the Higgs factory, as functions of assumed radius $r$, and RF power $P$. at least to a first approximation. Historically the accelerator formalisms of electron and hadron rings have been distinguished largely by the importance of synchrotron radiation for electrons, and its unimportance for protons. While electron beams equilibrate within seconds, proton beam distributions have survived largely intact for extended periods. For future hadron colliders, this distinction will no longer be valid. This will have a large impact on the design of the future FCC-pp proton collider whose parameters can be extrapolated using formulas previously ap...

  11. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe{sub 2} and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  12. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe[sub 2] and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  13. Design of bunch compressing system with suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation for ATF upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Yichao [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedurin, Mikhail [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    One of the operation modes for Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) upgrade is to provide high peak current, high quality electron beam for users. Such operation requires a bunch compressing system with a very large compression ratio. The CSR originating from the strong compressors generally could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for the entire bunch compressing system that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam’s quality. We discuss and detail the performance from the start to end simulation of such a compressor for ATF.

  14. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefly introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10875142, 11079040, and 11075175). The 4W2 beamline of BSRF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N20, KJCX2-SW-N03, and SYGNS04).

  15. Commissioning of a compact synchrotron radiation source at Hiroshima University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Andreyashkin, M.; Goto, K. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    A 700 MeV synchrotron radiation source is under commissioning at Hiroshima University. The ring is of a racetrack type with two undulators, linear and helical ones, at the long straight sections. The bending field, produced by normal conducting magnet, is as strong as 2.7 Tesla, which generates as high radiation power as compatible with the one from usual 1.6 GeV ring. 14 beam-ports from the bending sections together with two from the undulators are prepared. The injector is a 150 MeV racetrack microtron, which is used also for other purposes than the beam injection into the storage ring. As of March 1998, the stored current is typically 100 mA at start and the beam lifetime is three hours. We expect the beam lifetime will be extended to be eight hours after degassing operation for another few months. (author)

  16. Zirconia enriched dental adhesive: A solution for OCT contrast enhancement. Demonstrative study by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Rominu, M.; A. MANESCU; Sinescu, C; Negrutiu, M.L.; Topala, F.; Rominu, R.O.; Bradu, Adrian; Jackson, David A; Giuliani, A.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The major aim of this study was to prove the capability of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) method in visualizing the integrity of the adhesive fillings and of the interfaces between the adhesive, tooth structures and composite resin. As zirconium dioxide was added to the composition of the adhesive layer in order to strengthen the backscattered light in the OCT investigation, for a better visualization of the interfaces, the determination of a proper zirconia concentration wa...

  17. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  18. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umetani, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukushima, K. [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Hospital, Fujishirodai, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 {mu}m, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 {mu}m diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 {mu}m was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  19. A New Lecture-Tutorial for Teaching about Molecular Excitations and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Hornstein, Seth D.; Burns, Jack O.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Chambers, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Light and spectroscopy are among the most important and frequently taught topics in introductory college-level general education astronomy courses (hereafter Astro 101). This is due to the fact that the vast majority of observational data studied by astronomers arrives at Earth in the form of light. While there are many processes by which matter can emit and absorb light, Astro 101 courses typically limit their instruction to the Bohr model of the atom and electron energy level transitions. In this paper, we report on the development of a new Lecture-Tutorial to help students learn about other processes that are responsible for the emission and absorption of light, namely molecular rotations, molecular vibrations, and the acceleration of charged particles by magnetic fields. Note that this paper primarily focuses on describing the variety of representations and reasoning tasks designed for this Lecture-Tutorial; while the end of this paper highlights some data that are suggestive of the Lecture-Tutorial's effectiveness, our more comprehensive analysis of its efficacy will be presented in a future publication.

  20. A New Lecture-Tutorial for Teaching about Molecular Excitations and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Colin S; Hornstein, Seth D; Schlingman, Wayne M; Chambers, Timothy G; Burns, Jack O

    2015-01-01

    Light and spectroscopy are among the most important and frequently taught topics in introductory, college-level, general education astronomy courses. This is due to the fact that the vast majority of observational data studied by astronomers arrives at Earth in the form of light. While there are many processes by which matter can emit and absorb light, Astro 101 courses typically limit their instruction to the Bohr model of the atom and electron energy level transitions. In this paper, we report on the development of a new Lecture-Tutorial to help students learn about other processes that are responsible for the emission and absorption of light, namely molecular rotations, molecular vibrations, and the acceleration of charged particles by magnetic fields.

  1. Engineering at SLAC: Designing and constructing experimental devices for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, Austin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-22

    Thanks to the versatility of the beam lines at SSRL, research there is varied and benefits multiple fields. Each experiment requires a particular set of experiment equipment, which in turns requires its own particular assembly. As such, new engineering challenges arise from each new experiment. My role as an engineering intern has been to help solve these challenges, by designing and assembling experimental devices. My first project was to design a heated sample holder, which will be used to investigate the effect of temperature on a sample's x-ray diffraction pattern. My second project was to help set up an imaging test, which involved designing a cooled grating holder and assembling multiple positioning stages. My third project was designing a 3D-printed pencil holder for the SSRL workstations.

  2. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  3. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Tessier, A [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Vautrin, M; Benkebil, M [DOSIsoft, Cachan, Ile de France (France); Sihanath, R [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone- Alpes (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria.

  4. The new 1.5 GeV storage ring for synchrotron radiation: MAX II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Å.; Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.-J.; Röjsel, P.; Werin, S.

    1995-02-01

    The MAX laboratory at Lund University, Sweden, today operates an accelerator system consisting of a 100 MeV racetrack microtron and a 550 MeV storage ring (MAX I). At the moment (July 1994) a new storage ring MAX II is near completion and will start first injections within 2 months. This work gives an overview of the MAX II project including the first beamlines and a description of the accelerator system. MAX II is a 1.5 GeV third generation light source optimized for the VUV and soft-x-ray region. It consists of a ten cell double bend achromat lattice forming the 90 m circumference ring. Injection is done at 500 MeV from the existing storage ring MAX I, and ramping up to full energy will take place in MAX II. The straight sections have a length of 3.2 m and eight sections are free to house insertion devices. At start up the ring will be equipped with one 7.5 T superconducting wiggler and one 1.8 T multipole wiggler. Two more undulators are ordered and under construction. To be able to achieve the project a few shortcuts have been made in the design of the storage ring: (1) Nonzero dispersion is allowed in the straight sections, (2) chromaticity correction is built into the quadrupole magnets, and (3) the length of the straight sections is limited to 3.2 m. The project is progressing on time. Extraction of an electron beam from the MAX I storage ring has been achieved and has successfully been transported into the MAX II building. The MAX II ring is under assembly with most of the sections already mounted. First injection is planned to take place in August 1994.

  5. Photolysis of rac-leucine with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Meinert, Cornelia; Hoffmann, Søren V; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Nahon, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    Amino acids that pass the RNA machinery in living organisms occur in L-configuration. The question on the evolutionary origin of this biomolecular asymmetry remains unanswered to this day. Amino acids were detected in artificially produced interstellar ices, and L-enantiomer-enriched amino acids were identified in CM-type meteorites. This hints at a possible interstellar/circumstellar origin of the amino acids themselves as well as their stereochemical asymmetry. Based upon the current knowledge about the occurrence of circularly-polarized electromagnetic radiation in interstellar environments, we subjected rac-leucine to far-UV circularly-polarized synchrotron radiation. Asymmetric photolysis was followed by an analysis in an enantioselective GC/MS system. Here, we report on an advanced photolysis rate of more than 99% for leucine. The results indicate that high photolysis rates can occur under the chosen conditions, favoring enantioselective photolysis. In 2014, the obtained results will be reexamined by cometary mission Rosetta.

  6. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  7. Phase contrast imaging of breast tumours with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aolivo@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Rigon, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: rigon@ts.infn.it; Vinnicombe, S.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Bartholomews Hospital, Barts and the London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.vinnicombe@qmul.ac.uk; Cheung, K.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.cheung@dl.ac.uk; Ibison, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.ibison@dl.ac.uk; Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Even though the potential of phase contrast (PC) imaging has been demonstrated in a number of biological tissue samples, the availability of free-space propagation phase contrast images of real breast tumours is still limited. The aim of this study was to obtain phase contrast images of two different pathological breast specimens containing tumours of differing morphological type at two synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities, and to assess any qualitative improvements in the evaluation and characterisation of the masses through the use of phase contrast imaging. A second aim was to assess the effects of parameters such as detector resolution, beam energy and sample-to-detector distance on image quality using the same breast specimens, as to date these effects have been modelled and discussed only for geometric phantoms. At each synchrotron radiation facility a range of images was acquired with different detectors and by varying the above parameters. Images of the same samples were also acquired with the absorption-based approach to allow a direct comparison and estimation of the advantages specifically ascribable to the PC technique.

  8. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  9. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  10. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  11. Dosimetric systems developed in Brazil for the radiation processes quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galante, Ana Maria Sisti; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: sgalante@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to apply new technologies to the industrial processing of materials aiming economy, efficiency, speed and high quality, ionizing radiation has been used in medicine, archaeology, chemistry, food preservation and other areas. For this reason, the dosimetry area looks for improve current dosimeters and develop new materials for application on quality control of these processes. In Brazil, the research in the dosimetry area occurs with great speed providing many different dosimetric systems. The chemical dosimetry is the most used technique in routine dosimetry, which requires fast and accurate responses. This technique involves determination of absorbed dose by measuring chemical changes radiation induced in the materials. Different dosimetric systems were developed at IPEN for application on radiation process quality and all of them present excellent results; the low cost of these materials allows a more effective dose control, therefore, a larger area or volume can be monitored. (author).

  12. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION XRF MICROPROBE STUDY OF HUMAN BONE TUMOR SLICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analysis at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) is described Using the bovine liver as the standard reference.the minimum detection limit(MDL) of trace element was measured to determine the capability of biological sample analysis by synchrotron radiation XRF microprobe.The relative change of the content of the major or trace element in the normal and tumor part of human bone tissue slice was investigated The experimental result relation to the clinical medicine was also discussed.

  13. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  14. Theory of electromagnetic insertion devices and the corresponding synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumail, Muhammad; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-07-01

    Permanent magnet insertion devices (IDs), which are the main radiation generating devices in synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers, use a time-invariant but space-periodic magnetic field to wiggle relativistic electrons for short-wavelength radiation generation. Recently, a high power microwave based undulator has also been successfully demonstrated at SLAC which promises the advantage of dynamic tunability of radiation spectrum and polarization. Such IDs employ transverse elecromagnetic fields which are periodic in both space and time to undulate the electrons. In this paper we develop a detailed theory of the principle of electromagnetic IDs from first principles for both linear and circular polarization modes. The electromagnetic equivalent definitions of undulator period (λu) and undulator deflection parameter (K ) are derived. In the inertial frame where the average momentum of the electron is zero, we obtain the figure-8-like trajectory for the linear polarization mode and the circular trajectory for the circular polarization mode. The corresponding radiation spectra and the intensity of harmonics is also calculated.

  15. Pushing the Frontiers of Science with Synchrotron Radiation: BESAC Panel on DOE Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgeneau, Robert J.

    1998-04-01

    During 1997 a panel empowered by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee and chaired by the speaker carried out a comprehensive review of the four DOE synchrotron sources, the ALS, APS, NSLS and SSRL^1.(Report of Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Panel on DOE Synchrotron Radiation Sources and Science, November 1997) We also reviewed the science and technology, past and present, carried out at these facilities. This included the areas of materials research, surface science, polymers and other forms of soft condensed matter, atomic, optical, and molecular physics and chemistry, molecular environmental science, the geosciences and structural biology. We also considered more cursorily ongoing and proposed research on fourth generation sources. The most straightforward and most important conclusion of this study is that over the past 20 years in the United States synchrotron radiation research has evolved from an esoteric endeavor practiced by a small number of scientists primarily from the fields of solid state physics and surface science to a mainstream activity which provides essential information in all of the above fields. The user community at U.S. synchrotron facilities continues to grow exponentially, having reached more than 4000 on-site users annually in FY97. The research carried out at the four DOE synchrotron sources is both very broad and often exceptionally deep. We will review the results of this study with emphasis on the current science and anticipated future research carried out at modern synchrotron sources.

  16. Application of silicon carbide to synchrotron-radiation mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Hursman, T.L.; Williams, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Damage to conventional mirror materials exposed to the harsh synchrotron radiation (SR) environment has prompted the SR user community to search for more suitable materials. Next-generation insertion devices, with their attendant flux increases, will make the problem of mirror design even more difficult. A parallel effort in searching for better materials has been underway within the laser community for several years. The technology for dealing with high thermal loads is highly developed among laser manufacturers. Performance requirements for laser heat exchangers are remarkably similar to SR mirror requirements. We report on the application of laser heat exchanger technology to the solution of typical SR mirror design problems. The superior performance of silicon carbide for laser applications is illustrated by various material trades studies, and its superior performance for SR applications is illustrated by means of model calculations.

  17. A new method of depth profile determination by synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, K.; Midy, P.; Brissaud, I.; Chevallierr, P.

    1992-08-01

    We propose a new method of depth profile determination using X-ray fluorescence analysis induced by synchrotron radiation. We show that uncertainties introduced in the solution of the system can be overcome using a calculation techniques based on a singular value decomposition of the matrix. This method may also apply to many other problems dealing with poorly conditioned systems.

  18. Synchrotron Radiation in eRHIC Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Montag, Christoph; Rondeau, Daniel J; Surrow, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC currently under study at BNL consists of an electron storage ring added to the existing RHIC complex. The interaction region of this facility has to provide the required low-beta focusing while accommodating the synchrotron radiation generated by beam separation close to the interaction point. In the current design, the synchrotron radiation caused by 10GeV electrons bent by low-beta triplet magnets will be guided through the interaction region and dumped 5m downstream. However, it is unavoidable to stop a fraction of the photons at the septum where the electron and ion vacuum system are separated. In order to protect the septum and minimize the backward scattering of the synchrotron radiation, an absorber and collimation system will be employed. In this paper, we first present the overview of the current design of the eRHIC interaction region with special emphasis on the synchrotron radiation. Then the initial design of the absorber and collimation system, including their geometrical and physical p...

  19. Moessbauer optics of synchrotron radiation at an isotope interface

    CERN Document Server

    Belyakov, V A

    2000-01-01

    Coherent inelastic Moessbauer scattering (CIMS) of synchrotron radiation (SR) at an isotope interface (plane interface between two regions differing only in the concentration of the Moessbauer isotope) is investigated theoretically. Main attention is paid to the CIMS component resulting from SR quanta absorption by Moessbauer nuclei accompanied by creation or annihilation of the phonons in sample and following recoilless reemission of Moessbauer quanta.

  20. Optical synchrotron radiation beam imaging with a digital mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fiorito, Ralph [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shkvarunets, Anatoly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tian, Kai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, Alan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mok, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392nC). Each injection pulse contains only 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during User operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by re-imaging visible synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera makes it is possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  1. Dose enhancement by synchrotron radiation and heavy atoms for the treatment of gliomas; Renforcement de la dose par rayonnement synchrotron et atomes lourds dans le cadre du traitement des gliomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyk, L.

    2010-11-15

    High grade gliomas are brain tumors of bad prognosis. The standard therapeutic treatment combines surgery, radiotherapy and sometimes use of temozolomide (chemotherapy agent). Healthy tissues radio-sensitivity is a major limitation for radiotherapy treatment. The stereotactic radiotherapy by synchrotron radiation is an innovative technique which combines a low energy radiation (lower 100 keV) with the presence of heavy atoms in the tumoral zone. Such an approach is used to increase the differential of dose deposited in the tumor compared to surrounding healthy tissues. In this study, several compounds containing heavy atoms such as chemotherapy agents: cisplatin/carbo-platin, a DNA base analog: 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) and gold nano-particles were considered. The dose enhancement factor induced by the presence of these compounds located for some of them in the extracellular medium or inside the cells for others, was determined using in vitro studies. Thereafter, in vivo studies on rats bearing gliomas, were performed to study the toxicity, the kinetic of distribution and the localization of these compounds together with their potential efficacy of treatment combining intracerebral injection with low energy radiation. (author)

  2. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  3. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  4. Synchrotron radiation-based experimental determination of the optimal energy for cell radiotoxicity enhancement following photoelectric effect on stable iodinated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corde, S; Joubert, A; Adam, J F; Charvet, A M; Le Bas, J F; Estève, F; Elleaume, H; Balosso, J

    2004-08-01

    This study was designed to experimentally evaluate the optimal X-ray energy for increasing the radiation energy absorbed in tumours loaded with iodinated compounds, using the photoelectric effect. SQ20B human cells were irradiated with synchrotron monochromatic beam tuned at 32.8, 33.5, 50 and 70 keV. Two cell treatments were compared to the control: cells suspended in 10 mg ml(-1) of iodine radiological contrast agent or cells pre-exposed with 10 microM of iodo-desoxyuridine (IUdR) for 48 h. Our radiobiological end point was clonogenic cell survival. Cells irradiated with both iodine compounds exhibited a radiation sensitisation enhancement. Moreover, it was energy dependent, with a maximum at 50 keV. At this energy, the sensitisation calculated at 10% survival was equal to 2.03 for cells suspended in iodinated contrast agent and 2.60 for IUdR. Cells pretreated with IUdR had higher sensitisation factors over the energy range than for those suspended in iodine contrast agent. Also, their survival curves presented no shoulder, suggesting complex lethal damages from Auger electrons. Our results confirm the existence of the 50 keV energy optimum for a binary therapeutic irradiation based on the presence of stable iodine in tumours and an external irradiation. Monochromatic synchrotron radiotherapy concept is hence proposed for increasing the differential effect between healthy and cancerous tissue irradiation.

  5. New Analytical Methods for the Surface/ Interface and the Micro-Structures in Advanced Nanocomposite Materials by Synchrotron Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakamae

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods of surface/interface structure and micro-structure in advanced nanocomposite materials by using the synchrotron radiation are introduced. Recent results obtained by the energy-tunable and highly collimated brilliant X-rays, in-situ wide angle/small angle X-ray diffraction with high accuracy are reviewed. It is shown that small angle X-ray scattering is one of the best methods to characterize nanoparticle dispersibility, filler aggregate/agglomerate structures and in-situ observation of hierarchical structure deformation in filled rubber under cyclic stretch. Grazing Incidence(small and wide angle X-ray Scattering are powerful to analyze the sintering process of metal nanoparticle by in-situ observation as well as the orientation of polymer molecules and crystalline orientation at very thin surface layer (ca 7nm of polymer film. While the interaction and conformation of adsorbed molecule at interface can be investigated by using high energy X-ray XPS with Enough deep position (ca 9 micron m.

  6. Characteristics of a miniature parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber for measuring the intensity of synchrotron radiation from an undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariyama, Nobuteru

    2004-09-01

    In order to develop an absolute intensity monitor for synchrotron radiation from an undulator, the characteristics of a parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber with a plate separation of 4.2 mm, which was considered to be as narrow as possible, were investigated using 8-30 keV monoenergetic photons at SPring-8. Using a Si-PIN photodiode as the reference monitor, saturation was confirmed at 8-30 keV at a photon intensity of an order of 1013 photons/s. The collection efficiency became almost unity at 8 and 10 keV within 3.8% and 1.1%, respectively, which gradually decreased with increasing energy and attained 0.52 at 30 keV because some of the high-energy electrons escaped from the sensitive volume. When the pair of electrodes was transferred from the upper and lower sides to the left and right sides of the beam axis in order to investigate the influence of linear polarization of synchrotron radiation, a decrease in the collection efficiency was observed. Monte Carlo simulations considering linear polarization showed that the plate separation required for no electron loss was 26, 14, and 8 mm for 30, 20, and 15 keV photons, respectively. For 20 keV photons, saturation characteristics were investigated using an ionization chamber with 14 mm plate separation.

  7. Efficient computation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Robert L.; Bizzozero, David A.

    2016-09-01

    We study coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a perfectly conducting vacuum chamber of rectangular cross section, in a formalism allowing an arbitrary sequence of bends and straight sections. We apply the paraxial method in the frequency domain, with a Fourier development in the vertical coordinate but with no other mode expansions. A line charge source is handled numerically by a new method that rids the equations of singularities through a change of dependent variable. The resulting algorithm is fast compared to earlier methods, works for short bunches with complicated structure, and yields all six field components at any space-time point. As an example we compute the tangential magnetic field at the walls. From that one can make a perturbative treatment of the Poynting flux to estimate the energy deposited in resistive walls. The calculation was motivated by a design issue for LCLS-II, the question of how much wall heating from CSR occurs in the last bend of a bunch compressor and the following straight section. Working with a realistic longitudinal bunch form of r.m.s. length 10.4 μ m and a charge of 100 pC we conclude that the radiated power is quite small (28 W at a 1 MHz repetition rate), and all radiated energy is absorbed in the walls within 7 m along the straight section.

  8. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  9. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  10. Applications of synchrotron radiation techniques to materials science 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mini, S.M. [ed.] [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stock, S.R. [ed.] [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Perry, D.L. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Terminello, L.J. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As more synchrotron facilities are constructed and go online both in the US and in other countries, even more applications of synchrotron radiation will be realized. Both basic and applied research possibilities are manifold, including studies of materials mentioned below and those that are yet to be discovered. Also, the combination of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques with ever increasing high-resolution microscopy allows researchers to study very small domains of materials in an attempt to understand their chemical and electronic properties. This is especially important in the areas of composites and other related materials involving material bonding interfaces. The topics covered in this symposium include surfaces, interfaces, electronic materials, metal oxides, solar cells, thin films, carbides, polymers, alloys, nanoparticles, and graphitic materials. Results reported at this symposium relate recent advances in X-ray absorption and scattering, imaging, tomography, microscopy, and topography methods.

  11. Producing Terahertz Conherent Synchrotron Radiation Based On Hefei Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    De-Rong, Xu; Yan, Shao

    2014-01-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an ac sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the ac sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. We calculate the radiation spectral distribution from the wavy bunch in Hefei Light Source(HLS). If we reduce electron energy to 400MeV, it can produce extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation(CSR) at 0.115THz.

  12. Synchrotron radiation-based far-infrared spectroscopic ellipsometer with full Mueller-matrix capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavchuk, T N; Kang, T D; Rogers, P D; Standard, E C; Basistyy, R; Kotelyanskii, A M; Nita, G; Zhou, T; Carr, G L; Kotelyanskii, M; Sirenko, A A

    2013-02-01

    We developed far-IR spectroscopic ellipsometer at the U4IR beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory. This ellipsometer is able to measure both, rotating analyzer and full-Mueller matrix spectra using rotating retarders, and wire-grid linear polarizers. We utilize exceptional brightness of synchrotron radiation in the broad spectral range between about 20 and 4000 cm(-1). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer is used for multi-wavelength data acquisition. The sample stage has temperature variation between 4.2 and 450 K, wide range of θ-2θ angular rotation, χ tilt angle adjustment, and X-Y-Z translation. A LabVIEW-based software controls the motors, sample temperature, and FT-IR spectrometer and also allows to run fully automated experiments with pre-programmed measurement schedules. Data analysis is based on Berreman's 4 × 4 propagation matrix formalism to calculate the Mueller matrix parameters of anisotropic samples with magnetic permeability μ ≠ 1. A nonlinear regression of the rotating analyzer ellipsometry and∕or Mueller matrix (MM) spectra, which are usually acquired at variable angles of incidence and sample crystallographic orientations, allows extraction of dielectric constant and magnetic permeability tensors for bulk and thin-film samples. Applications of this ellipsometer setup for multiferroic and ferrimagnetic materials with μ ≠ 1 are illustrated with experimental results and simulations for TbMnO3 and Dy3Fe5O12 single crystals. We demonstrate how magnetic and electric dipoles, such as magnons and phonons, can be distinguished from a single MM measurement without adducing any modeling arguments. The parameters of magnetoelectric components of electromagnon excitations are determined using MM spectra of TbMnO3.

  13. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2007-01-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book.

  14. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: jcorsini@lin.ufrj.br [Nuclear Laboratory Instrumentation/COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  15. Elemental concentrations in skin of patients with fibroeptelial polip using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Júlio C. A. C. R.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/São Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them.

  16. Synchrotron radiation of self-collimating relativistic MHD jets

    CERN Document Server

    Porth, Oliver; Meliani, Zakaria; Vaidya, Bhargav

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000^2 Schwarzschild radii allowing to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of 8 and is collimated to 1 degree. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet, emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive VLBI radio and (sub-) mm diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra and Faraday rotation measure (RM), directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate...

  17. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  18. Estimation of presampling modulation transfer function in synchrotron radiation microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution achieved by recent synchrotron radiation microtomographs should be estimated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the micrometer scale. Step response functions of a synchrotron radiation microtomograph were determined by the slanted edge method by using high-precision surfaces of diamond crystal and ion-milled aluminum wire. Tilted reconstruction was introduced to enable any edge to be used as the slanted edge by defining the reconstruction pixel matrix in an arbitrary orientation. MTFs were estimated from the step response functions of the slanted edges. The obtained MTFs coincided with MTF values estimated from square-wave patterns milled on the aluminum surface. Although x-ray refraction influences should be taken into account to evaluate MTFs, any flat surfaces with nanometer roughness can be used to determine the spatial resolutions of microtomographs.

  19. Formation of relativistic jets. Magnetohydrodynamics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, Oliver Joachim Georg

    2011-11-09

    In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor Γ>or similar 8 and half-opening angles below 1 are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic

  20. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  1. Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Gati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9 µm3, a complete data set to 3.0 Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals.

  2. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, G.; Accardo, A.; Benseny-Cases, N.; Burghammer, M.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Cotte, M.; Dante, S.; De Angelis, F.; Di Cola, E.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Hauser, C.; Riekel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments.

  4. [Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dulce Maria; Portella, Jean Cristtus; Bianchi e Silva, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this experience report is to present the Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions (Laboratório de Estudos Semióticos nas Interações de Cuidado - LESIC). The lab was set up at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil in 2010. It has the purpose of providing didactic and pedagogical updates, based on the Theory developed by the Paris School of Semiotics, that enable the increase of knowledge and interactive/observational skills regarding the nature and mastery of human care.

  5. Multipurpose monochromator for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source x-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M. A.; Knapp, G. S.; Jennings, G.; Cowan, P. L.; Montano, P. A.

    1995-02-01

    The Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) will construct x-ray beamlines at two sectors of the Advanced Photon Source facility. In most of the beamlines the first optical element will be a monochromator, so that a standard design for this critical component is advantageous. The monochromator is a double-crystal, fixed exit scheme with a constant offset designed for ultrahigh vacuum windowless operation. In this design, the crystals are mounted on a turntable with the first crystal at the center of rotation. Mechanical linkages are used to correctly position the second crystal and maintain a constant offset. The main drive for the rotary motion is provided by a vacuum compatible Huber goniometer isolated from the main vacuum chamber. The design of the monochromator is such that it can accommodate water, gallium, or liquid-nitrogen cooling for the crystal optics.

  6. Absorbed dose distributions in a tissue-equivalent absorber for Bremsstrahlung produced at the beamlines of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharody, M; Berkvens, P; Colomp, P

    2000-01-01

    The absorbed-dose distributions for Bremsstrahlung, incident on a tissue-equivalent phantom, were measured with LiF : Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters at two insertion device beamlines of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The measurements were carried out for two different electron beam energies of 4 and 6 GeV. The corresponding Bremsstrahlung spectra and power were measured using a high-resolution lead glass total absorption calorimeter. The results are compared with similar measurements carried out at other facilities. The normalized Bremsstrahlung absorbed dose in a cross-sectional area of 100 mm sup sup 2 , at a depth of 150 mm of the phantom, was measured as 6.1 and 3.6 kGy h sup sup - sup sup 1 W sup sup - sup sup 1 for the corresponding Bremsstrahlung spectra of 4 and 6 GeV.

  7. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-10-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  8. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure.

  9. The estimation of the possibilities of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescent analysis and atomic specrometry for the bone's elemental composition determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, A. M.; Kolmogorov, U. P.; Gladkikh, E. A.; Shuvaeva, O. V.; Beisel, N. F.; Kolosova, N. G.

    2005-05-01

    Possibilities of multielemental highly sensitive techniques of analysis have been studied: synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR XFA), and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively bound plasma (ISP) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame (air-acetylene) atomization for assay of element composition of bone tissue with minimal preparation procedure. Results of comparative studies of elemental composition of bone tissue samples from experimental animals with inherited accelerated aging (rats of OXYS strain) using the SR XFA, ISP and AAS techniques are presented. It is shown that there exists in principle a possibility of assay of 22 biologically important essential macro- and trace elements within the range of 1.0-100,000 μg/g with a mean square analysis error of no more them 10-15% when using SR XFA.

  10. Measurement of L X-ray fluorescence cross-sections for elements with 45 {<=} Z {<=} 50 using synchrotron radiation at 8 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzi, Edgardo V., E-mail: bonzie@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria - 5010, Cordoba (Argentina); Badiger, Nagappa M. [Departments of Physics, Karnataka University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka (India); Grad, Gabriela B. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria - 5010, Cordoba (Argentina); Barrea, Raul A. [The Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT), Department of Biological Chemical, and Physical Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Figueroa, Rodolfo G. [Departamento de Cs. Fisicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    The L shell fluorescence cross-sections of the elements in range 45 {<=} Z {<=} 50 have been determined at 8 keV using Synchrotron radiation. The individual L X-ray photons, Ll, L{alpha}, L{beta}{sub I}, L{beta}{sub II}, L{gamma}{sub I} and L{gamma}{sub II} produced in the target were measured with high resolution Si(Li) detector. The experimental set-up provided a low background by using linearly polarized monoenergetic photon beam, improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental cross-sections obtained in this work were compared with available experimental data from Scofield Krause and Scofield and Puri et al. . These experimental values closely agree with the theoretical values calculated using Scofield and Krause data, except for the case of L{gamma}, where values measured of this work are slighter higher.

  11. Analysis of cortical bone porosity using synchrotron radiation microtomography to evaluate the effects of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Salata, C.; Mantuano, A.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    Microporosities play important biologic and mechanical roles on health. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to cortical bone changes. In the present work, the femur diaphysis of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D morphometric parameters using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur diaphysis of rats.

  12. Analysis of melting and solidification behaviour of glass-forming alloys by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baser, T.A.; Baricco, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino (Italy); NIS, Torino (Italy); Bostrom, M. [The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, (ESRF), Grenoble (France); Stoica, M. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkorper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (Germany); Yavari, A.R. [Laboratorie de Thermodynamique et Physico-chimie Metallurgique (LTPCM-UMR 5614), Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, CNRS (France)

    2007-06-15

    This paper aims to study the melting and solidification behaviour of Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6 and Cu50Zr50 glass-forming alloys by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction from data obtained at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Melting and solidification behaviour for both alloys were measured by high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (HTDSC). The phase identification was performed by Rietveld refinement of diffraction patterns collected as a function of temperature. The phase mixture on melting and solidification has been clarified, confirming that in-situ X-ray diffraction by synchrotron radiation is a powerful technique for the study of phase transformations in alloys. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Optical Synchrotron Radiation Beam Imaging with a Digital Mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorito, R. B. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Zhang, H. D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, W. J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. S. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mok, W. Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Shkvarunets, A. G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We have applied a new imaging/optical masking technique, which employs a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) and optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), to perform high dynamic range (DR) beam imaging at the JLAB Energy Recovery Linac and the SLAC/SPEAR3 Synchrotron Light Source. The OSR from the beam is first focused onto the DMD to produce a primary image; selected areas of this image are spatially filtered by controlling the state of individual micro-mirrors; and finally, the filtered image is refocused onto a CCD camera. At JLAB this technique has been used successfully to view the beam halo with a DR ~ 105. At SPEAR3 the DMD was used to filter out the bright core of the stored beam to study the turn-by-turn dynamics of the 10-3 weaker injected beam. We describe the optical performance, present limitations and our plans to improve the DR of both experimental systems.

  14. Diffraction-enhanced imaging at the UK synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibison, M. [Liverpool University, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cheung, K.C. [C.L.R.C. Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Siu, K. [Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hall, C.J. [C.L.R.C. Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.j.hall@dl.ac.uk; Lewis, R.A. [Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hufton, A. [Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S.J. [Cranfield University, R.M.C.S., Shrivenham (United Kingdom); Rogers, K.D. [Cranfield University, R.M.C.S., Shrivenham (United Kingdom); Round, A. [C.L.R.C. Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-11

    The Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging (DEI) system, which shares access to Beamline 7.6 on the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), is now in its third year of existence. The system was developed under a European Commission grant PHase Analyser SYstem (PHASY), won during the Fourth Framework. Typical applications continue to be the imaging of small biological specimens, using a beam of 12-17 keV after monochromation and up to 40 mm in width and 1-2 mm in height, although it is planned to investigate other materials as opportunity permits and time becomes available for more routine scientific use. Recent improvements have been made to the optical alignment procedure for setting up the station before imaging: a small laser device can now be set up to send a beam down the X-ray path through the four crystals, and a small photodiode, which has much better signal-to-noise characteristics than the ion chamber normally used for alignment, has been trailed successfully. A 3-D tomographic reconstruction capability has recently been developed and tested for DEI projection image sets, and will be applied to future imaging work on the SRS, in conjunction with volume visualization software. The next generation of DEI system, planned to operate at up to 60 keV on an SRS wiggler station, is in its design stage; it will feature much improved mechanics and mountings, especially for angular control, and a simplified alignment procedure to facilitate the necessary sharing of the SRS station.

  15. Diffraction-enhanced imaging at the UK synchrotron radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibison, M.; Cheung, K. C.; Siu, K.; Hall, C. J.; Lewis, R. A.; Hufton, A.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Round, A.

    2005-08-01

    The Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging (DEI) system, which shares access to Beamline 7.6 on the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), is now in its third year of existence. The system was developed under a European Commission grant PHase Analyser SYstem (PHASY), won during the Fourth Framework. Typical applications continue to be the imaging of small biological specimens, using a beam of 12-17 keV after monochromation and up to 40 mm in width and 1-2 mm in height, although it is planned to investigate other materials as opportunity permits and time becomes available for more routine scientific use. Recent improvements have been made to the optical alignment procedure for setting up the station before imaging: a small laser device can now be set up to send a beam down the X-ray path through the four crystals, and a small photodiode, which has much better signal-to-noise characteristics than the ion chamber normally used for alignment, has been trailed successfully. A 3-D tomographic reconstruction capability has recently been developed and tested for DEI projection image sets, and will be applied to future imaging work on the SRS, in conjunction with volume visualization software. The next generation of DEI system, planned to operate at up to 60 keV on an SRS wiggler station, is in its design stage; it will feature much improved mechanics and mountings, especially for angular control, and a simplified alignment procedure to facilitate the necessary sharing of the SRS station.

  16. A spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for the provision of polarised synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range 20-200 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finetti, P.; Holland, D.M.P. E-mail: d.m.p.holland@dl.ac.uk; Latimer, C.J.; Binns, C.; Quinn, F.M.; Bowler, M.A.; Grant, A.F.; Mythen, C.S

    2001-12-01

    The design and performance of a spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for experiments requiring polarised radiation are described. The beamline is mounted on a bending magnet source at the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, and the monochromator incorporates three gratings to cover the photon energy range 20-200 eV. The relative first- and higher-order grating efficiencies have been measured by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and have been compared to theoretical predictions. A movable aperture, placed in the optical path between the source and the first mirror, defines the photon emission directions of the beam entering the beamline. The polarisation of the radiation leaving the beamline is determined both by the vertical position of this aperture and by the modifications introduced by the beamline geometry and the optical components. The modification to the polarisation is difficult to calculate analytically, and a satisfactory quantitative assessment can only be accomplished through a combination of reflectivity and ray-tracing analysis. A reflection polarimeter has been used to obtain a full characterisation of the polarisation in the energy range 20-40 eV. These measurements have enabled the Stokes parameters to be deduced. The degree of linear polarisation has also been investigated through angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  17. [Clinical applications of synchrotron radiation X-ray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, C

    1994-09-01

    Synchrotron Radiation X-ray (SR X-ray) is an extremely strong X-ray source with a photon number more than 10(4) compared with that of the current X-ray tube. X-rays obtained by monochromatizing SR X-ray have been applied to new techniques for medical diagnosis. Several studies are now being conducted at the beam site for medical use at the Accumulation Ring of the High Energy Physics Research Institute, Tsukuba. Applications being studied include (1) energy subtraction coronary angiography. (2) microdetection of metas in samples excised from subjects. (3) monochromatic X-ray computed tomography and so on. Energy subtraction coronary angiography might have a safety advantage over the current selective coronary angiography. Microdetection of mandatory metals and poisonous heavy metals in in vivo samples contributes to the development of pathologic knowledge and clinical treatment of cancer and heavy metal toxications. Monochromatic X-ray CT is expected to detect diseases in the early stage due to increased accuracy in CT values.

  18. Synchrotron radiation macromolecular crystallography: science and spin-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Helliwell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A current overview of synchrotron radiation (SR in macromolecular crystallography (MX instrumentation, methods and applications is presented. Automation has been and remains a central development in the last decade, as have the rise of remote access and of industrial service provision. Results include a high number of Protein Data Bank depositions, with an increasing emphasis on the successful use of microcrystals. One future emphasis involves pushing the frontiers of using higher and lower photon energies. With the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers, closely linked to SR developments, the use of ever smaller samples such as nanocrystals, nanoclusters and single molecules is anticipated, as well as the opening up of femtosecond time-resolved diffraction structural studies. At SR sources, a very high-throughput assessment for the best crystal samples and the ability to tackle just a few micron and sub-micron crystals will become widespread. With higher speeds and larger detectors, diffraction data volumes are becoming long-term storage and archiving issues; the implications for today and the future are discussed. Together with the rise of the storage ring to its current pre-eminence in MX data provision, the growing tendency of central facility sites to offer other centralized facilities complementary to crystallography, such as cryo-electron microscopy and NMR, is a welcome development.

  19. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Kristoffer K; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Ballestrero, S

    2012-01-01

    The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi = \\gamma B/B_0 \\simeq 1$ quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the $$ axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from the regime where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely r...

  20. X-ray phase contrast imaging of biological specimens with tabletop synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kneip, S; Dollar, F; Bloom, M S; Chvykov, V; Kalintchenko, G; Krushelnick, K; Maksimchuk, A; Mangles, S P D; Matsuoka, T; Najmudin, Z; Palmer, C A J; Schreiber, J; Schumaker, W; Thomas, A G R; Yanovsky, V

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery in 1896, x-rays have had a profound impact on science, medicine and technology. Here we show that the x-rays from a novel tabletop source of bright coherent synchrotron radiation can be applied to phase contrast imaging of biological specimens, yielding superior image quality and avoiding the need for scarce or expensive conventional sources.

  1. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr [lead editors

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  2. Reflectivity studies on a synchrotron radiation mirror in the hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, P. E-mail: pkeil@uni-wuppertal.de; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Novikov, D.V.; Hahn, U.; Frahm, R

    2001-07-21

    The optical performance and roughness parameters of an X-ray mirror that was used for several years in a synchrotron radiation beamline are determined by studying its X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering behavior. These values are compared to the data derived from topographic measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM)

  3. Reflectivity studies on a synchrotron radiation mirror in the hard X-ray regime

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, P; Novikov, D V; Hahn, U; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    The optical performance and roughness parameters of an X-ray mirror that was used for several years in a synchrotron radiation beamline are determined by studying its X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering behavior. These values are compared to the data derived from topographic measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM).

  4. Synchrotron Radiation Based Study of X-Ray Absorption of Flame Generated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    induced ionization of nanoparticles, a proposal was prepared for submission to the French Government sponsored Programme Nationale du Physico- Chimie du...by the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and by the French Programme Nationale du Physico- Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire. Special thanks are due

  5. Quantitative analysis by synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence at lure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, P.; Brissaud, I.; Wang, J. X.

    1990-04-01

    The main features that makes synchrotron radiation an ideal source for X-ray fluorescence analysis are emphasized. Examples of quantitative analysis are given and a new type of spectrometer taking advantage of the focusing properties of a flat mosaic crystal and a position sensitive detector is described.

  6. Characterization of dry globular proteins and protein fibrils by synchrotron radiation vacuum UV circular dichroism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Lise W.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Andersen, Christian Beyschau

    2008-01-01

    Circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation (SRCD) can extend the spectral range down to approximately 130 nm for dry proteins, potentially providing new structural information. Using a selection of dried model proteins, including alpha-helical, beta-sheet, and mixed-structure proteins, we obs...

  7. Development of 125Te synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Kitao, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Saito, Makina; Masuda, Ryo; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    The Mössbauer spectra of the 35.49 keV excited state of 125Te were observed in the energy domain using synchrotron radiation for the first time. The obtained isomer shifts and Debye temperature agree with previous experiments. These results show that this method will be applicable to various compounds.

  8. Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

    1993-05-01

    In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

  9. Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

    1993-05-01

    In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL`s Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

  10. The pitch angle paradox and radiative life times in a synchrotron source

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    In synchrotron radiation there is a paradox whether or not the pitch angle of a radiating charge varies. The conventional wisdom is that the pitch angle does not change during the radiation process. The argument is based on Larmor's radiation formula, where in a synchrotron case the radiation power is along the instantaneous direction of motion of the charge. Then the momentum loss will also be parallel to that direction and therefore the pitch angle of the charge would remain unaffected. The accordingly derived formulas for energy losses of synchrotron electrons in radio galaxies are the standard text-book material for the last 50 years. However, if we use the momentum transformation laws from special relativity, then we find that the pitch angle of a radiating charge varies. While the velocity component parallel to the magnetic field remains unaffected, the perpendicular component does reduce in magnitude due to radiative losses, implying a change in the pitch angle. This apparent paradox is resolved when e...

  11. Synchrotron radiation and structure biology. From the instrumentation view point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakabe, N. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Applied Biochemistry

    1996-12-31

    Structure Biology is based on a three dimensional macromolecule structures, the most of which are studied by x-ray crystal structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation X-rays are quite strong, tunable, very parallel and pico-second order bunch and are very suitable for diffraction data collection of macromolecular crystals. To collect accurate data at high resolution from large unit cell protein crystals using SR, we made screenless large Weissenberg cameras with imaging plates at the PF. 146 research projects using this data collection system were running in 1995. They include 51 projects from 11 overseas countries. Recently we have developed user-friendly type Weissenberg camera for the structure biology project of TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance), and installed it at BL6B of the PF. Cylindrical cassette radius of this new camera is 575.7mm and two large format (400x800mm) imaging plates (IP) can be fixed into the cassette by suction from back side. However, the system is not automatic and manual tasks to be performed are heavy. Therefore an automation of the system is very urgent to maintain accuracy and resolution. We are now developing a high accuracy, high resolution and high speed automated data collection system. This fully automated system consists of a camera, an IP reader equipped with 8 reading heads, an IP eraser, and a cassette transportation mechanism. In the new system, one imaging plate is fixed inside of a movable cylindrical cassette. The cassette presenting 16 rectangular holes, direct beam injection of i.e. 1.0A X-rays would produce 8 images of data at 2.6A resolutions. As 2 cassettes can be used simultaneously on the cassette transportation system, one cassette is being read while the other one is being exposed, therefore completely removing the reading bottleneck problem. This system therefore permits to use the radiation with the maximum of efficiency, and reduce the manpower necessary for data recording. (author)

  12. Report on Synchrotron Radiation Source Indus-2

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Vinod C

    2005-01-01

    The 2.5 GeV electron SRS, Indus-2 being built at CAT, Indore (India) is now at the final installation and integration stage. The storage ring with a circumference of 172.47m, has eight super periods and eight 4.5m long straight sections of which five are meant for insertion devices. Major sub-systems like, magnets, vacuum chambers, SIP/TSP pumps, RF power system, magnet power supplies, beam diagnostics devices etc. have been fabricated indigenously and qualified. Most of the systems are now located in the ring and their final alignment is on. Barring unforeseen problems cropping up, commissioning of the system will start with Transferlin·10-3

  13. Cancellation of coherent synchrotron radiation kicks with optics balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S; Cornacchia, M; Spampinati, S

    2013-01-01

    Minimizing transverse emittance is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Emission of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), as a contributing factor to emittance degradation, is an important phenomenon to this respect. A manner in which to cancel this perturbation by imposing certain symmetric conditions on the electron transport system has been suggested.We first expand on this idea by quantitatively relating the beam Courant-Snyder parameters to the emittance growth and by providing a general scheme of CSR suppression with asymmetric optics, provided it is properly balanced along the line. We present the first experimental evidence of this cancellation with the resultant optics balance of multiple CSR kicks: the transverse emittance of a 500 pC, sub-picosecond, high brightness electron beam is being preserved after the passage through the achromatic transfer line of the FERMI@Elettra free electron laser, and emittance growth is observed when the optics balance is intentionally broken. We finally show the agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental results. This study holds the promise of compact dispersive lines with relatively large bending angles, thus reducing costs for future electron facilities.

  14. Observation of relativistic runaway electrons by synchrotron radiation in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, R.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Schueller, F.C. (FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands)); Finken, K.H.; Mank, G.; Rusbueldt, D.; Hoenen, F. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Boedo, J. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research)

    1992-01-01

    Runaway electrons are a promising tool to study magnetic turbulence in tokamak plasma. Recently, several studies have been devoted to this issue. In these studies hard X-rays, created when runaways hit the limiter, have been analysed. This paper also addresses the question of confinement of runaways. Here, however, not the runaways leaving the plasma are studied, but the runaways in the interior. They were diagnosed by means of the infrared synchrotron radiation which relativistic runaways (> 10 MeV) emit, as shown by Finken et al. With this tool information can be obtained about runaway - confinement times, energy, birth-rate, dimensions of the runaway beam and perhaps about their energy distribution. In this paper, at first a presentation of the measurements is given and the energy and pitch angle is deduced from the data. Then a comparison of the runaway confinement in low density plasmas (n[sub e](0) < 0.8 10[sup 19] m[sup -3]) is made for three different conditions; normal ohmic discharge, discharge with a gas puff and one with neutral beam injection (NBI). (author) 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Synchrotron radiation lithography system in an atmospheric environment (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, K.; Kouno, E.; Nomura, E.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Iwata, J.; Kawase, Y.

    1989-07-01

    The atmospheric environmental exposure system for synchrotron radiation (SR) lithography has been integrated using the Photon Factory storage ring (2.5 GeV). The system, composed of a highly reliable beamline, an SR extracting chamber and a prototype SR stepper, aims at attaining higher accuracy and throughput. Based on a fail-safe mechanism notion, a double-vacuum protection system, in which two sets of a fast closing valve and acoustic delay line are installed in the main beamline and branch beamline, respectively, has been organized. Vacuum breakdown tests indicated that any vacuum breakdown, a beryllium (Be) window rupture in the worst case, exerts little influence on the storage ring ultrahigh vacuum. The SR extracting chamber, equipped with a Be window and an extraction window, is filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. Particularly, the 50-μm-thick, 35-mm-diam Be window, vacuum-sealed by a Viton O-ring, was preliminarily employed and, so far, has operated successfully, giving a 25-mm square exposure area. In terms of practical availability and simplicity, the SR stepper in an atmospheric environment has been constructed. A novel differential mode linear Fresnel zone plate alignment method, which can detect an alignment error between a mask and a wafer during exposure, was developed.

  16. In situ study on dendrite growth of metallic alloy by a synchrotron radiation imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study was trying to observe the real-time dendrite growth of Sn-Bi and Sn-Pb binary alloys by a synchrotron radiation imaging technology.The imaging system includes an intense and high brightness synchrotron radiation source,a high-resolution and fast-readout charge coupled device camera,an alloy sample and a Bridgman solidification system.The imaging experiments were done at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility with an updated synchrotron radiation imaging technique,diffraction-enhanced imaging,which was firstly used to study the dendrite growth of metallic alloy.A series of growth behavior and morphology evolution of dendrite have been in situ observed,such as columnar-to-equiaxed transition,dendrite competition,dendrite fragmentation and floating,etc.,which can offer the direct proofs to verify or improve the solidification theories of metallic alloy.This research opens a novel window for the study of alloy solidification and enables the unambiguous understanding of solidification processes in optically opaque,metallic alloys.

  17. Archimedes Remote Lab for Secondary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Zubia, J.; Angulo Martinez, I.; Martinez Pieper, G.; Lopez de Ipina Gonzalez de Artaza, D.; Hernandez Jayo, U.; Orduna Fernandez, P.; Dziabenko, O.; Rodriguez Gil, L.; Riesen, van S.A.N.; Anjewierden, A.A.; Kamp, E.; Jong, de A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a remote lab designed for teaching the Archimedes’ principle to secondary school students, as well as an online virtual lab on the general domain of buoyancy. The Archimedes remote lab is integrated into WebLab-Deusto. Both labs are promoted for usage in frame of the Go-Lab Europ

  18. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  19. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  20. In situ ALD experiments with synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2012-07-01

    In this contribution, we describe some features of atomic layer deposition (ALD) investigated by means of synchrotron radiation photoelemission spectroscopy (SR-PES). In particular, we show how the surface sensitivity of SR-PES combined with the in situ nature of our investigations can point out interactions between the substrate and ALD precursors. We observed changes on all substrates investigated, included Si, GaAs, Ru and their surface oxides. These interactions are extremely important during the first ALD cycles and induce modifications in the substrate, which might lead to its functionality enhancement.

  1. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...

  2. Performance of the undulator based ultraviolet and soft x-ray beamline for catalysis and surface science at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liangliang; Du, Xuewei; Wei, Shen; Li, Chaoyang; Pan, Congyuan; Ju, Huanxin; Wang, Qiuping; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-12-01

    The undulator based ultraviolet and soft x-ray beamline BL11U for catalysis and surface science at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) has been under opteration for months and the present performance is described. This beamline utilizes radiation from an in-vacuum undulator, which has 30 magnetic periods with the period length of 40 mm. A varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator is employed tto cover the photon energy region of 20-600 eV by two gratings with nominal groove densities of 400 llmm and 1200 l/mm respectively. The energy resolution power E/ΔE is measured with a gas ionization chamber and the photon flux is measured by a photodiode. Results show that the resolution power is better than 10,000 at a photon energy of 29.2 eV. And the flux is higher than 1×1010 phs/s under 300 mA ring beam current for most of the covered photon energy.

  3. High density resolution synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) for quantitative 3D-morphometrics in zoological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Michael; Hammel, Jörg U.; Herzen, Julia; Bullinger, Eric; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Zoological sciences widely rely on morphological data to reconstruct and understand body structures of animals. The best suitable methods like tomography allow for a direct representation of 3D-structures. In recent years, synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) placed high resolutions to the disposal of morphologists. With the development of highly brilliant and collimated third generation synchrotron sources, phase contrast SR μCT became widely available. A number of scientific contributions stressed the superiority of phase contrast over absorption contrast. However, here we demonstrate the power of high density resolution methods based on absorption-contrast SRμCT for quantitative 3D-measurements of tissues and other delicate bio-structures in zoological sciences. We used beamline BW2 at DORIS III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) to perform microtomography on tissue and mineral skeletons of marine sponges (Porifera) which were shock frozen and/or fixed in a glutamate osmium tetroxide solution, followed by critical point drying. High density resolution tomographic reconstructions allowed running quantitative 3D-image analyses in Matlab and ImageJ. By applying contrast and shape rule based algorithms we semi-automatically extracted and measured sponge body structures like mineral spicules, elements of the canal system or tissue structures. This lead to a better understanding of sponge biology: from skeleton functional morphology and internal water flow regimes to body contractility. Our high density resolution based quantitative approach can be applied to a wide variety of biological structures. However, two prerequisites apply: (1) maximum density resolution is necessary; (2) edge effects as seen for example in phase outline contrast SR μCT must not be present. As a consequence, to allow biological sciences to fully exploit the power of SR μCT further increase of density resolution in absorption contrast methods is desirable.

  4. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  5. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A., E-mail: alexandre.giuliani@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jamme, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Rouam, V.; Wien, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laprevote, O. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, ICSN-CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Chimie-Toxicologie Analytique et cellulaire, IFR 71, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Refregiers, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  6. Synchrotron and Smith-Purcell radiations from a charge rotating around a cylindrical grating

    CERN Document Server

    Saharian, A A; Mkrtchyan, A R; Khachatryan, B V

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the radiation from a charge rotating around conductors with cylindrical symmetry. First the problem is considered with a charge rotating around a conducting cylinder immersed in a homogeneous medium. The surface charge and current densities induced on the cylinder surface are evaluated. A formula is derived for the spectral-angular density of the radiation intensity. In the second part, we study the radiation for a charge rotating around a diffraction grating on a cylindrical surface with metallic strips parallel to the cylinder axis. The effect of the grating on the radiation intensity is approximated by the surface currents induced on the strips by the field of the rotating charge. The expressions are derived for the electric and magnetic fields and for the angular density of the radiation intensity on a given harmonic. We show that the interference between the synchrotron and Smith-Purcell radiations may lead to interesting features. In particular, the behavior of the radiation intensity on ...

  7. Time-resolved GRB spectra in the complex radiation of synchrotron and Compton processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. G.; Hu, S. M.; Chen, X.; Li, K.; Guo, D. F.; Li, Y. T.; Li, H. Z.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Lin, H. N.; Chang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Under the steady-state condition, the spectrum of electrons is investigated by solving the continuity equation under the complex radiation of both the synchrotron and Compton processes. The resulted gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectrum is a broken power law in both the fast and slow cooling phases. On the basis of this electron spectrum, the spectral indices of the Band function in four different phases are presented. In the complex radiation frame, the detail investigation on physical parameters reveals that three models can answer the α ˜ -1 problem, which are the synchrotron plus synchrotron self-Compton in the internal and the external shock models, and the synchrotron plus the external Compton processes in the external shock model. A possible marginal to fast cooling phase transition in GRB 080916C is discussed. The time-resolved spectra in different main pulses of GRB 100724B, GRB 100826A and GRB 130606B are investigated. We found that the flux is proportional to the peak energy in almost all main pulses. A significant (5σ) correlation for Fp ˜ Ep is evident the first main pulse of GRB 100826A, and three marginally significant (3σ) correlations Fp ˜ Ep are found in main pulses of GRB 100826A and GRB 130606B. The correlation between spectral index and Ep at 3 ˜ 4σ level are observed in the first main pulse of GRB 100826A. Such correlations are possible explained in the complex radiation scenario.

  8. Electronic Structure of Germanium Nanocrystal Films Probed with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, C

    2002-05-01

    The fundamental structure--property relationship of semiconductor quantum dots has been investigated. For deposited germanium nanocrystals strong quantum confinement effects have been determined with synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption and photoemission techniques. The nanocrystals are condensed out of the gas phase with a narrow size distribution and subsequently deposited in situ onto various substrates. The particles are crystalline in the cubic phase with a structurally disordered surface shell and the resulting film morphology depends strongly on the substrate material and condition. The disordered surface region has an impact on the overall electronic structure of the particles. In a size-dependent study, the conduction and valence band edge of germanium nanocrystals have been measured for the first time and compared to the bulk crystal. The band edges move to higher energies as the particle size is decreased, consistent with quantum confinement theory. To obtain a more accurate analysis of confinement effects in the empty states, a novel analysis method utilizing an effective particle size for the x-ray absorption experiment, which allows a deconvolution of absorption edge broadening effects, has been introduced. Comparison of the present study to earlier studies on silicon reveals that germanium exhibits stronger quantum confinement effects than silicon. Below a critical particle size of 2.3 {+-} 0.7 nm, the band gap of germanium becomes larger than that of silicon--even if it is the opposite for bulk materials. This result agrees phenomenologically with effective mass and tight binding theories but contradicts the findings of recent pseudopotential calculations. The discrepancy between theory and experiments is attributed to the differences in the theoretical models and experimental systems. The experimentally observed structural disorder of the particle surface has to be included in the theoretical models.

  9. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation—influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serduc, Raphaël; Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean A.; Spiga, Jenny; Sarun, Sukhéna; Bravin, Alberto; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc; Boutonnat, Jean; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Estève, François; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2009-11-01

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 µm) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 µm wide microbeams, all spaced 211 µm on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 µm wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of ~50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 µm width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 µm or 25 µm widths when used with a 211 µm on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are kept constant in all groups. The use of

  10. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation-influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition (France); Bouchet, Audrey; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Sarun, Sukhena; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F38043 Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean A [Institute of Pathology, University of Bern (Switzerland); Spiga, Jenny [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, s.p. Monserrato-Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) 09042 (Italy); Boutonnat, Jean [TIMC lab, UMR CNRS 5525, Univ Joseph Fourier, CHU, Grenoble (France); Siegbahn, Erik Albert [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Esteve, Francois [INSERM U836, Equipe 6, Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: raph.serduc@gmail.com

    2009-11-07

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 {mu}m) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 {mu}m wide microbeams, all spaced 211 {mu}m on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 {mu}m wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of {approx}50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 {mu}m width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 {mu}m or 25 {mu}m widths when used with a 211 {mu}m on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are kept constant in

  11. SU-E-QI-13: Predictable Models for Radio-Sensitizing Agent Kinetics: Application to Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Schmitt, M; Esteve, F; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, RHONE-ALPES (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the time course of iodine in the tumors. A prolonged CT scanning (∼30 min) is required to follow-up iodine kinetics for recruited patients. This protocol could lead to substantial radiation dose to the patient. A novel method is proposed to reduce the acquisition time. Methods: 12 patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent, followed by a steady-state infusion to ensure stable intra-tumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations (IC) were derived from 40 multi-slice dynamic conventional CT images of the brain. The impulse response function (IRF) to the bolus was estimated using the adiabatic approximation of the Johnson and Wilson's model. The arterial input function (AIF) of the steady-state infusion was fitted with several models: Gamma, Gamma with recirculation and hybrid. Estimated IC were calculated by convolving the IRF with the modeled AIF and were compared to the measured data. Results: The gamma variate function was not relevant to model the AIF due to high differences with the measured AIF. The hybrid and the gamma with recirculation models provided differences below 8% during the whole acquisition time. The absolute difference between the measured and the estimated IC was lower than 0.5 mg/ml, which corresponds to 5% of dose enhancement error. Conclusion: The proposed method allows a good estimation of the iodine time course with reduced scanning delays (3 instead of 30 min) and dose to the patient. The results suggest that the dose errors may stay within the radiotherapy standards.

  12. Clay pigment structure characterisation as a guide for provenance determination--a comparison between laboratory powder micro-XRD and synchrotron radiation XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Žižak, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Application of X-ray diffraction (XRD)-based techniques in the analysis of painted artworks is not only beneficial for indisputable identification of crystal constituents in colour layers, but it can also bring insight in material crystal structure, which can be affected by their geological formation, manufacturing procedure or secondary changes. This knowledge might be helpful for art historic evaluation of an artwork as well as for its conservation. By way of example of kaolinite, we show that classification of its crystal structure order based on XRD data is useful for estimation of its provenance. We found kaolinite in the preparation layer of a Gothic wall painting in a Czech church situated near Karlovy Vary, where there are important kaolin deposits. Comparing reference kaolin materials from eight various Czech deposits, we found that these can be differentiated just according to the kaolinite crystallinity. Within this study, we compared laboratory powder X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) with synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysing the same real sample. We found that both techniques led to the same results.

  13. In situ 3D topographic and shape analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography for crystal form identification in polymorphic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods.

  14. Fatigue Micromechanism Characterization in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers Using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0002 Fatigue micromechanism characterization in carbon fibre reinforced polymers using synchrotron radiation computed...SUBTITLE Fatigue micromechanism characterization in carbon fibre reinforced polymers using synchrotron radiation computed tomography 5a. CONTRACT...particularly within the aerospace sector due to their high specific stiffness and strength. CFRPs are widely identified as being very fatigue resistant, but

  15. Synchrotron Radiation micro-XRD analysis of thin cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    Molas Pous, Bernat

    2015-01-01

    The object is the identification of the micro-crystalline precipitates appearing in historical painting layers produced during the production and also due to the reactivity of the various compounds. For this reason different procedures of preparation of the samples (polishing over glass a substratum or micro-tomming of the samples previously embodied in resin. Each has specific instrumental setups which will be developed in two experiments in the Alba Synchrotron, one in BL04-MSPD beamline (n...

  16. Coupled Simulations of the Synchrotron Radiation and Induced Desorption Pressure Profiles for the HL-LHC Triplet Area and Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R; Bregliozzi, G

    2014-01-01

    The HiLumi-LHC machine upgrade has officially started as an approved LHC project (see dedicated presentations at this conference on the subject). One important feature of the upgrade is the installation of very high-gradient triplet magnets for focusing the beams at the collision points of the two high-luminosity detectors ATLAS and CMS. Other important topics are new superconducting D1 and D2 magnets, installation of crab cavities and new tertiary collimators, and re-shuffling of the dispersion suppression area. Based on the current magnetic lattice set-up and beam orbits, a detailed study of the emission of synchrotron radiation (SR) and related photon-induced desorption (PID) has been carried out. A significant amount of SR photons are generated by the two off-axis beams in the common vacuum chamber of the triplet area, about 57 m in length. Ray-tracing Montecarlo codes Synrad+ and Molflow+ have been employed in this study. The related PID pressure profiles are shown, together with simulations using the co...

  17. Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements in Conjunction With Synchrotron Radiation to the Conditions of the Earth's Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Kung, J.; Liebermann, R. C.; Weidner, D. J.; Uchida, T.; Wang, Y.

    2002-12-01

    In conjunction with synchrotron radiation, our capabilities in ultrasonic experiments have been greatly increased in multiple dimensions. The experimental set-up installed at X17B1 of NSLS at Brookhaven National Lab enables us to conduct simultaneous studies of sound wave velocity using ultrasonic interferomtery and crystal structure refinement using X-ray diffraction at the conditions of the Earth's mantle. In these experiments, a complete characterization of the sample, such as sample length and stress at high pressure and high temperature, can be quantitatively addressed. The stress is measured using multi-element/multi-position detectors mounted at fixed diffraction angle, while the sample length is recorded using X-ray imaging techniques. Measurements at high pressure and high temperature not only provide the determination of pressure derivatives of the elastic moduli without using secondary pressure standard, but also can be used to establish the absolute pressure scale. Higher order elastic constants can also be investigate with the current experimental set-up. We have successfully applied these advanced techniques to the study of the elastic properties of unquenchable mantle phases (Calcium silicate perovskite) and materials undergone phase transitions (pyroxenes), melting, plastic deformation, and multi-phase aggregate (KLB-1) at high pressure and temperature, in which the sample length can not be retrieved from other techniques. More over, the utilization of digital equipment provides fast data collection, enabling us to capture instant variation or the time dependence of the elastic properties under above circumstances. These new developments will bring us high quality elasticity data for mantle phases at Earth's mantle conditions, providing crucial information in interpreting seismic observations and constraining the composition of the Earth's interior.

  18. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  19. X-ray magnetic diffraction of ferromagnets with synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2002-01-01

    X-ray magnetic diffraction experiment of ferromagnets that utilizes elliptically polarized synchrotron radiation is presented. First we have reviewed shortly historical backgrounds and theoretical aspects of the experiment. We have presented how the magnetic form factors are measured and are separated into the spin-moment component and the orbital-moment component in this experiment. Peculiar features of the polarization factor of this experiment have been explained. We have introduced two examples of the experiment. One is the measurement of the spin-magnetic form factor of SmAl sub 2 with white X-rays from a bending magnet at the Photon Factory. The other is the measurement of the orbital-magnetic form factor of Holmium Iron Garnets with monochromatic X-rays from an undulator at the SPring-8. Finally we summarize the article and show some future prospects of this experiment. (author)

  20. Investigation of Diamonds defects with Synchrotron Radiation Faculty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuWanli; TIANYulian

    2001-01-01

    Infrared absorption measurements showed that the samples belong to type Ia variety of diamond and contained varying concentrations of A and B froms of nitrogen aggregates as well as platelets.The synchrotron radiation was employed to study the structure of these specimens.Growth bands are observed near the center of the crystals situated within(001)and (010) planes in high crystalline quality diamonds and the growth bads parallel to (100)and (010) cyrstalline plane.In the imperfect cystals low-angle boundaries are observed and the angles were determined to be larger than 2.5 degrees,The perfection of diamond crystals has no obvious relationship with the concentration of nitrogen.

  1. High density THz frequency comb produced by coherent synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tammaro, S; Roy, P; Lampin, J -F; Ducournau, G; Cuisset, A; Hindle, F; Mouret, G

    2014-01-01

    Frequency combs (FC) have radically changed the landscape of frequency metrology and high-resolution spectroscopy investigations extending tremendously the achievable resolution while increasing signal to noise ratio. Initially developed in the visible and near-IR spectral regions, the use of FC has been expanded to mid-IR, extreme ultra-violet and X-ray. Significant effort is presently dedicated to the generation of FC at THz frequencies. One solution based on converting a stabilized optical frequency comb using a photoconductive terahertz emitter, remains hampered by the low available THz power. Another approach is based on active mode locked THz quantum-cascade-lasers providing intense FC over a relatively limited spectral extension. Alternatively, here we show that dense powerful THz FC is generated over one decade of frequency by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). In this mode, the entire ring behaves in a similar fashion to a THz resonator wherein electron bunches emit powerful THz pulses quasi-synch...

  2. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Helge; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev;

    2012-01-01

    The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi = ......-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely related process - may limit the achievable luminosity....

  3. Reduction of energy chirp by the wake of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    When an energy-chirped bunch is undercompressed in a magnetic chicane, the compressed bunch also has an energy chirp. The chirp may be decreased by sending the bunch through bending magnets, since the largest energy loss from the wake of coherent synchrotron radiation occurs in the tail of a typical bunch. We obtain formulas for the dechirping of a rectangular bunch by short magnets, and apply this dechirping technique in a design for a free-electron laser.

  4. Nuclear motion in molecular ions studied with synchrotron radiation and multicoincidence momentum imaging spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Laksman, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    A momentum imaging spectrometer optimized for photoionization experiments with synchrotron radiation was built in 2008. The spectrometer is equipped with an electrostatic lens, that focuses the charged dissociation products on to a position-sensitive multi-hit delay line anode. The possibility of focusing is essential for most applications, where fragment momentum is to be extracted. The apparatus is equipped with a micro-channel-plate detector opposite to the delay line anode, enabl...

  5. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristoffer; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev

    The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field of 4.414*109 T. When the Lorentz factor times the mag......-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely related process - may limit the achievable luminosity....

  6. Segmentation of Synchrotron Radiation micro-Computed Tomography Images using Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Anderson A.M. [Federal University of Western Para (Brazil); Physics Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Giusti, Alessandro [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Almeida, Andre P. de, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.com [Physics Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nogueira, Liebert; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos E. de [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil); Barroso, Regina C. [Physics Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The research on applications of segmentation algorithms to Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray micro-Computed Tomography (SR-{mu}CT) is an open problem, due to the interesting and well-known characteristics of SR images, such as the phase contrast effect. The Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts (EMvGC) algorithm represents state-of-art segmentation algorithm, presenting an enormous potential of application in SR-{mu}CT imaging. We describe the application of the algorithm EMvGC with swap move for the segmentation of bone images acquired at the ELETTRA Laboratory (Trieste, Italy). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures of Wistar rats' ribs are investigated with Synchrotron Radiation {mu}CT imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present work is part of a research on the effects of radiotherapy on the thoracic region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of the Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts algorithm for segmentation is described.

  7. Short-time Variability of Blazars via Non-linear, Time-dependent Synchrotron-Self Compton Radiative Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Röken, Christian; Schöneberg, Sebastian; Schuppan, Florian

    2016-01-01

    A leptonic one-zone model accounting for the radiation emission of blazars is presented. This model describes multiple successive injections of mono-energetic, ultra-relativistic, interacting electron populations, which are subjected to synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiative losses. The electron number density is computed analytically by solving a time-dependent, relativistic transport equation. Moreover, the synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton intensities as well as the corresponding total fluences are explicitly calculated. The lightcurves and fluences are plotted for realistic parameter values, showing that the model can simultaneously explain both the specific short-time variability in the flaring of blazars and the characteristic broad-band fluence behavior.

  8. High-speed single photon counting read out electronics for a digital detection system for clinical synchrotron radiation mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Rigon, L.; Vallazza, E.; Venanzi, C.; Castelli, E.

    2004-02-01

    The SYRMEP beam line is currently in the upgrading phase for mammographic examinations on patients at Elettra in Trieste. At the same time, a digital detection system, suitable for in -vivo breast imaging, is under development; it consists of a silicon laminar detector array operating in single photon counting mode. The duration of a clinical examination should not exceed a few seconds. Fast read out electronics is therefore necessary with the aim of avoiding losses in image contrast in presence of high counting rates. A custom ASIC working with 100% efficiency for rates up to 100 kHz per pixel has been designed and tested, and other solutions based on commercially available ASICs are currently under test. Several detector prototypes have been assembled, and images of mammographic test objects have been acquired. Image quality, efficiency and contrast losses have been evaluated in all cases as a function of the counting rate.

  9. Evaluation of osteoporotic bone structure through synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, T.U.; Correa da Costa, V.M. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The abnormal accumulation or deficiency of trace elements may theoretically impair the formation of bone and contribute to osteoporosis. In this context, the knowledge of major and trace elements is very important in order to clarify many issues regarding diseases of the bone, such as osteoporosis, that remain unresolved. Several kinds of imaging techniques can be useful to access morphology and the minerals present in osteoporotic bones. In this work, synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence was used as an X-ray imaging technique to investigate bone structures. Therefore, this research aims to improve the knowledge about some aspects of bone quality. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory Light Laboratory, in Brazil. A white beam with an energy range of 4-23 keV, a 45 deg./45 deg. geometry and a capillary optics were used. It was demonstrated that bone quality can and must be evaluated not only by considering the architecture of bones but also by taking into account the concentration and the distribution of minerals. Our results showed that the elemental distributions in bone zones on a micron scale were very helpful to understand functions in those structures.

  10. High-resolution texture imaging with hard synchrotron radiation in the moving area detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Klein, H; Garbe, U; Schneider, J R

    2003-01-01

    The orientation distribution of crystallites in polycrystalline materials (called texture) is usually measured by polycrystal X-ray diffraction by 'step-scanning' the sample in angular intervals in the order of 1 deg. This technique is not suited to fully exploit the low angular divergence of hard synchrotron radiation in the order of 'milliradian'. Hence, step-scanning was replaced by a continuous 'sweeping' technique using a continuously shifted area detector. In order to avoid overlapping from different reflections (hkl) a Bragg-angle slit was introduced. The 'moving-detector' technique can be applied to obtain images of orientation as well as of location distributions of crystallites in polycrystalline samples. It is suitable for imaging continuous 'orientation density' distribution functions as well as of 'grain-resolved' textures. The excellent features of high-energy synchrotron radiation combined with the moving area detector technique will be illustrated with several examples including very sharp def...

  11. Study of thin oxide films by electron, ion and synchrotron radiation beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sammelselg, V; Tarre, A; Asari, J; Rauhala, E; Arstila, K; Seppaelae, A; Zakharov, A; Aarik, J; Karlis, J; Martinson, Indrek

    2002-01-01

    Titanium oxide and zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) and scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM). The composition and mass thickness of the films were determined and the results of different methods compared. lt was revealed that the synchrotron radiation used for SPEM studies caused considerable modification of zirconia films grown at low temperatures. (author)

  12. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  13. Estimation of the lead thickness required to shield scattered radiation from synchrotron radiation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In the enclosure of synchrotron radiation experiments using a monochromatic beam, secondary radiation arises from two effects, namely fluorescence and scattering. While fluorescence can be regarded as isotropic, the angular dependence of Compton scattering has to be taken into account if the shielding shall not become unreasonably thick. The scope of this paper is to clarify how the different factors starting from the spectral properties of the source and the attenuation coefficient of the shielding, over the spectral and angular distribution of the scattered radiation and the geometry of the experiment influence the thickness of lead required to keep the dose rate outside the enclosure below the desired threshold.

  14. Measurement, analysis and correction of the closed orbit distortion in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Riyasat Husain; A D Ghodke; Surendra Yadav; A C Holikatti; R P Yadav; P Fatnani; T A Puntambekar; P R Hannurkar

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents the measurement, analysis and correction of closed orbit distortion (COD) in Indus-2 at 550 MeV injection energy and 2 GeV synchrotron radiation user run energy. The measured COD was analysed and fitted to understand major sources of errors in terms of the effective quadrupole misalignments. The rms COD was corrected down to less than 0.6 mm in both horizontal and vertical planes. A golden orbit was set for the operating synchrotron radiation beamlines. With COD correction, the injection efficiency at 550 MeV was improved by ∼ 50% and the beam lifetime at 2 GeV was increased by ∼8 h. In this paper, the method of global COD correction based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the orbit response matrix is described. Results for the COD correction in both horizontal and vertical planes at 550 MeV injection energy and at 2 GeV synchrotron radiation user run energy are discussed.

  15. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin

    2016-04-01

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.

  16. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Stupakov, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to the situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked agains numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.

  17. Synchrotron radiation micro-CT at the micrometer scale for the analysis of the three-dimensional morphology of microcracks in human trabecular bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Larrue

    Full Text Available Bone quality is an important concept to explain bone fragility in addition to bone mass. Among bone quality factors, microdamage which appears in daily life is thought to have a marked impact on bone strength and plays a major role in the repair process. The starting point for all studies designed to further our understanding of how bone microdamage initiate or dissipate energy, or to investigate the impact of age, gender or disease, remains reliable observation and measurement of microdamage. In this study, 3D Synchrotron Radiation (SR micro-CT at the micrometric scale was coupled to image analysis for the three-dimensional characterization of bone microdamage in human trabecular bone specimens taken from femoral heads. Specimens were imaged by 3D SR micro-CT with a voxel size of 1.4 µm. A new tailored 3D image analysis technique was developed to segment and quantify microcracks. Microcracks from human trabecular bone were observed in different tomographic sections as well as from 3D renderings. New 3D quantitative measurements on the microcrack density and morphology are reported on five specimens. The 3D microcrack density was found between 3.1 and 9.4/mm3 corresponding to a 2D density between 0.55 and 0.76 /mm2. The microcrack length and width measured in 3D on five selected microcrack ranged respectively from 164 µm to 209 µm and 100 µm to 120 µm. This is the first time that various microcracks in unloaded human trabecular bone--from the simplest linear crack to more complex cross-hatch cracks--have been examined and quantified by 3D imaging at this scale. The suspected complex morphology of microcracks is here considerably more evident than in the 2D observations. In conclusion, this technique opens new perspective for the 3D investigation of microcracks and the impact of age, disease or treatment.

  18. Design of slow extraction system for therapy synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Based on the optimized design of the lattice for therapy synchrotron and considering the requirement of radiation therapy,the third order resonant extraction is adopted.Using the momentum-amplitude selection method,the extraction system is designed and optimized.An extraction efficiency of more than 97%and a momentum spread less than 0.11%are obtained.

  19. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  20. Oscillation photography of radiation-sensitive crystals using a synchrotron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossmann, M.G.; Erickson, J.W. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    A method is described to determine the accurate setting of a crystal placed in an unknown orientation on an oscillation camera. This avoids time-consuming setting operations during which the crystal is subject to continuous radiation damage initiated by the first setting photograph. It also ensures maximal use of synchrotron radiation time as there is no need for any prior setting and developing periods. The method is dependent on measuring the lengths and orientations of the major axes of the ellipses on two, preferably approximately orthogonal, 'still' photographs. The method is applied to five different rhinovirus (common cold) crystals.

  1. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, T. E-mail: murmur@itn1.itn.pt; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P

    1999-09-02

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 {mu}m and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity.

  2. New developments in the application of synchrotron radiation to material science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-04-21

    Recent developments in the application of synchrotrons radiation to materials science are discussed, using techniques which exploit the high brilliance of the newer synchrotrons sources, such as microbeam techniques and correlation spectroscopy. These include studies of environmental systems, residual stress, slow dynamics of condensed matter systems and studies of liquid surfaces and thin magnetic films.

  3. 3D histomorphometric quantification of trabecular bones by computed microtomography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L P; Braz, D; Barroso, R C; Oliveira, L F; Pinheiro, C J G; Dreossi, D; Tromba, G

    2010-12-01

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a non-invasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify the bone structure at different skeletal sites as well as to investigate the effects of bone diseases on quantitative understanding of bone architecture. The images were obtained at Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility, Italy. Concerning the obtained results for normal and pathological bones from same skeletal sites and individuals, from our results, a certain declining bone volume fraction was achieved. The results obtained could be used in forming the basis for comparison of the bone microarchitecture and can be a valuable tool for predicting bone fragility.

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm{sup 3} and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm{sup 3}) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Pb and 0.02 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Zn. (author)

  5. Light flux density threshold at which protein denaturation is induced by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A J; Janes, Robert W; Brown, A; Clarke, D T; Sutherland, J C; Tao, Y; Wallace, B A; Hoffmann, S V

    2008-07-01

    New high-flux synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) beamlines are providing important information for structural biology, but can potentially cause denaturation of the protein samples under investigation. This effect has been studied at the new CD1 dedicated SRCD beamline at ISA in Denmark, where radiation-induced thermal damage effects were observed, depending not only on the radiation flux but also on the focal spot size of the light. Comparisons with similar studies at other SRCD facilities worldwide has lead to the estimation of a flux density threshold under which SRCD beamlines should be operated when samples are to be exposed to low-wavelength vacuum ultraviolet radiation for extended periods of time.

  6. Microtomography using synchrotron radiation at DESY: current status and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Felix; Donath, Tilman; Dose, Thomas; Lippmann, Thomas; Martins, Rene V.; Metge, Joachim; Schreyer, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    The X-ray microtomography system which is operated at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB of the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY in Hamburg, Germany, is presented. At the DORIS storage ring synchrotron radiation at the wiggler beamlines BW2, W2, and BW5 was used to run the microtomography apparatus as a user experiment. The development of tomography scanning techniques to investigate samples which are larger than the field of view of the X-ray detector is demonstrated for dental implants using the photon energy of 90 keV at the high energy beamline BW5. In cooperation with DESY the GKSS Research Center is setting up the high energy beamline HARWI-2 at the DORIS storage ring of DESY. This beamline will allow for tomography experiments using monochromatic X-rays from 20 to 200 keV with a beam size of 70×10 mm2. Furthermore the GKSS is operating a neutron radiography facility GENRA at the research reactor Geesthacht FRG, Geesthacht, Germany. It is intended to extend this facility by a tomography station. The combination of synchrotron radiation based microtomography with neutron tomography will allow for the development of new techniques to give new insight in the 3-dim. behavior of samples especially in materials science.

  7. Assessment of the image contrast improvement and dose reduction in mammography with synchrotron radiation compared to standard units

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckli, R; Fiedler, S; Pachoud, M; Hessler, C; Meuli, R; Valley, J F

    2001-01-01

    An objective method was used to evaluate image quality and dose in mammography with synchrotron radiation and to compare them to standard units. It was performed systematically in the energy range of interest for mammography through the evaluation of the contrast and the measurement of the mean glandular dose. Synchrotron radiation measurements were performed at the ESRF and a slit was placed between the test object and the screen-film system in order to reduce scatter. The conventional films were obtained on mammography units with an anti-scatter grid. In a recent paper, it was shown that the use of synchrotron radiation leads to a noticeable improvement of the image quality-dose relationship (Moeckli et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 45(12)3509). The reason of that enhancement is partly due to the monochromaticity of the synchrotron beam and partly due to the use of a slit instead of a grid. The dose reduction with synchrotron radiation can be attributed to a better X-ray total transmission of the slit and the contra...

  8. Study of structural model of biological membranes by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, L P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to study, from the structural point of view, the process of incorporation of various types of hydrophobic compounds into the lamellar phase of liposomes and multilayers of the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation, have been used to monitor changes of several bilayer systems. Thermotropic phase transitions as well as the order of the lamellar packing were studied in situ experiments. The behavior of the L beta' and L alpha phases was followed as a function of the water content in dispersions of DPPC multi lamellar vesicles with the addition of the alkaloid Ellipticine in several concentrations. The results showed a decrease in the temperature of the pre-transition as well as that of the main transition (P beta' ->L alpha). The decrease of the lamellar spacing as a function of temperature in the liquid crystalline phase leads to the description of the thermal compression coefficient in the L alpha phase. It wa...

  9. GaAs clean up studied with synchrotron radiation photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Massimo; Adelmann, Christoph; Delabie, Annelies; van Elshocht, Sven; Caymax, Matty; Schmeisser, Dieter

    2012-12-01

    In this contribution we describe the chemical changes at the surface of GaAs upon adsorption of tri-methyl-aluminum (TMA). TMA is used to grow Al2O3 with atomic layer deposition (ALD) usually using H2O as oxygen source. Recently, it was pointed out that the adsorption of TMA on various III-V surfaces reduces the native oxide, allowing the growth of an abrupt III-V/High-K interface with reduced density of defects. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) is a powerful method to characterize surfaces and interfaces of many materials, as it is capable to determine their chemical composition as well as the electronic properties. We performed in-situ SR-PES measurements after exposing a GaAs surface to TMA pulses at about 250°C. Upon using the possibility of tuning the incident photon energy we compared the Ga3d spectra at 41 eV, 71 eV, 91 eV and 121 eV, as well as the As3d at 71 eV and 91 eV. Finally, we show that using SR-PES allows a further understanding of the surface composition, which is usually not accessible with other techniques.

  10. Observation of Wakefields and Resonances in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Billinghurst, B E; Baribeau, C; Batten, T; Dallin, L; May, T E; Vogt, J M; Wurtz, W A; Warnock, R; Bizzizero, D A; Kramer, S

    2015-01-01

    We report on high resolution measurements of resonances in the spectrum of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at the Canadian Light Source (CLS). The resonances permeate the spectrum at wavenumber intervals of $0.074 ~\\textrm{cm}^{-1}$, and are highly stable under changes in the machine setup (energy, bucket filling pattern, CSR in bursting or continuous mode). Analogous resonances were predicted long ago in an idealized theory as eigenmodes of a smooth toroidal vacuum chamber driven by a bunched beam moving on a circular orbit. A corollary of peaks in the spectrum is the presence of pulses in the wakefield of the bunch at well defined spatial intervals. Through experiments and further calculations we elucidate the resonance and wakefield mechanisms in the CLS vacuum chamber, which has a fluted form much different from a smooth torus. The wakefield is observed directly in the 30-110 GHz range by RF diodes, and indirectly by an interferometer in the THz range. The wake pulse sequence found by diodes is less ...

  11. Synchrotron radiation VUV double photoionization of some small molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yu-Jie; Shan Xiao-Bin; Sheng Liu-Si; Wang Zhen-Ya; Zhang Jie; Yu Chun-Ri

    2011-01-01

    The VUV double photoionizations of small molecules(NO, CO, CO2, CS2, OSC and NH3)were investigated with photoionization mass spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The double ionization energies of molecules were determined with photoionization efficiency spectroscopy. The total energies of these molecules and their parent dications (NO2+, CO2+, CO2+2,CS2+2,OS2+C and NH2+3)were calculated using the Gaussian 03 program and Gaussian 2calculations. Then, the adiabatic double ionization energies of the molecules were predicated by using high accuracy energy mode. The experimental double ionization energies of these small molecules were all in reasonable agreement with their respective calculated adiabatic double ionization energies. The mechanisms of double photoionization of these molecules were discussed based on a comparison of our experimental results with those predicted theoretically. The equilibrium geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of molecules and their parent dications were calculated by using the MP2(full)method. The differences in configurations between these molecules and their parent dications were also discussed on the basis of theoretical calculations.

  12. Control of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Micro-Bunching Effects During Transport of High Brightness Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, D R; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Neil, G R; Roblin, Y; Tennant, C D; Tsai, C -Y

    2014-01-01

    Beam quality preservation during transport of high-brightness electron beams is of general concern in the design of modern accelerators. Methods to manage incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR) have been in place for decades; as beam brightness has improved coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and the microbunching instability (uBI) have emerged as performance limitations. We apply the compensation analysis of diMitri, Cornacchia, and Spampinati - as previously used by Borland - to the design of transport systems for use with low-emittance beams, and find that appropriately configured second order achromats will suppress transverse emittance growth due to CSR and appear to limit uBI gain.

  13. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy; Fundamentos fisicos y efectos biologicos de la radioterapia con radiacion sincrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SR T). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESR F), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (Ssr), microbeam radiation therapy (MR T) and mini beam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  14. Synchrotron radiation and long path cryogenic cells: New tools and results for modelling SF6 absorption in the 10μm atmospheric window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Mbaye; Boudon, Vincent; Loete, Michel; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    substantially improved the previous global fit [3] of SF6 parameters. [1] F. Kwabia Tchana, F. Willaert, X. Landsheere, J.- M. Flaud, L. Lago, M. Chapuis, P. Roy, L. Manceron. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-IR to THz Spectroscopy and Synchrotron Radiation Use. Rev. Sci. Inst. 84, 093101, (2013). [2] C. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov, and J.-P. Champion, 'XTDS and SPVIEW: Graphical tools for Analysis and Simulation of High Resolution Molecular Spectra', J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251, 102 (2008). [3] M. Faye, A. Le Ven, V. Boudon, L. Manceron, P. Asselin, P. Soulard, F. Kwabia Tchana, P. Roy, High-Resolution spectroscopy of difference and combination bands of SF6 to elucidate the ν3 + ν1 - ν1 and ν3+ ν2 - ν2hot band structures in the ν3 region, Mol. Phys. 112, 909059 (2014).

  15. Search for X-ray induced decay of the 31-yr isomer of 178Hf using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Bredeweg, T A; Cooper, J R; Gemmell, D S; Kraemer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Palmer, P; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2004-09-13

    Isomeric {sup 178}Hf (t{sub 1/2} = 31 yr, E{sub x} = 2.446 MeV, J{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}) was bombarded by a white beam of x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A search was made for x-ray induced decay of the isomer by detecting prompt and delayed {gamma} rays associated with the decay. No induced decay was observed. Upper limits for such a process for x-ray energies between 7-100 keV were set. The limits between 7 and 30 keV are below {approx} 3 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that bypasses the 4-s isomer and {approx} 5 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that is delayed through this isomer, orders of magnitude below values at which induced decay was reported previously. These limits are consistent with what is known about the properties of atomic nuclei.

  16. Estimations of neutron yield from beryllium target irradiated by SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Plokhoi, V V

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of creating a neutron source based on ''SPring-8'' synchrotron radiation interaction with beryllium targets is discussed. The possible neutron yield is estimated to be of order 10 sup 1 sup 2 s sup - sup 1 .

  17. The case for synchrotron radiation studies of two-electron ions, atoms, and molecules at the ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, M. S.

    1995-05-01

    The theoretical description of two-electron systems has remained one of the most vexing problems in atomic physics since Bohr first introduced the concept of the quantized atom in 1913. Despite the diversity in approach, a degree of orthodoxy developed over the course of many years for characterizing and clasifying the discrete spectrum of two-electron states and for describing the features of the near-threshold double continuum. The last four years have seen this orthodoxy challenged both theoretically and experimentally. As a result, a strong need exists for additional experimental investigations of two-electron systems. We will first examine the long-held orthodox views and the recent challenges to them. We will then review the details and status of a new program at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that has been developed by the NAU8 Collaboration to address this need.

  18. Dynamics of GaAs photocarriers probed with pulsed infrared synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, G L

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a source of high brightness, pulsed infrared light that is well suited to the study of materials by pump-probe spectroscopy. A synchronized laser produces pump pulses and synchrotron infrared pulses serve as the probe. This method has been used for a number of time-resolved investigations, including a study of the frequency-dependent conductivity of photocarrier relaxation in GaAs. For this material, a Drude model gives a good description of the photoconductivity, but requires that the average carrier scattering rate change from electron like to hole like during the decay process (a few nanoseconds). This behavior suggests the rapid trapping of electrons, as may occur near a surface with defect states.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/{Delta}E{approx}-10{sup 6} in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  20. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-infrared to terahertz spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Willaert, Fabrice; Landsheere, Xavier; Flaud, Jean-Marie [LISA, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC) et Université Paris-Diderot (UPD), 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Lago, Leatitia; Chapuis, Mylène; Herbeaux, Christian; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent [High Vacuum Group and Beamline AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-15

    A new cell has been designed for accurate spectroscopic measurements in the 80–400 K temperature range with variable path lengths from 3 to more than 141 m. The spectral coverage at these temperatures ranges from the visible to less than 10 cm{sup −1}, thanks to the use of diamond windows. The design of the cryostat and vacuum setups allows vibration-free operation. The equipment provides temperature homogeneity and pressure control to better than 2% over the 100–400 K and the 0.1–1000 mbar ranges. Remote-controlled opto-mechanical systems enable in situ adjustments as well as changes of the optical path length within half an hour, in order to optimize measurement time in an open user facility. It allows then to meet the specific requirements of high resolution measurements on the Far-Infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL as well at the LISA facility, in Créteil, in the mid-IR. This new instrument opens up the way for many experiments in the field of high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy, in particular, in quantitative spectroscopy for atmospheric applications: measurements of absorption line parameters (absolute intensities, cross sections, and pressure-induced widths) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The design and performance of the equipment are briefly presented and illustrated on spectroscopic examples.

  1. Search for X-Ray Induced Acceleration of the Decay of the 31-yr Isomer 178Hf Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Kraemer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2002-05-09

    Releasing the energy stored in an isomeric nuclear state in a controlled way with an atomic or electromagnetic trigger is an attractive speculation: the energy gain may be on the order of the ratio of nuclear/atomic energies - MeV/keV. (Nuclear isomers are loosely defined as excited nuclear states with lifetimes longer than 10{sup -9} s.) Nuclear isomers, therefore, represent an opportunity for a stand-alone energy source if suitable schemes for trigger and control of the energy release can be found. Potential applications include space drive, as well as very bright {gamma}-ray sources. The nucleus {sup 178}Hf has a nuclear isomer with excitation energy E{sub x} = 2.447 MeV. The 2.447-MeV isomeric state decays slowly (t{sub 1/2} = 31 y) to the nearby state at 2.433 MeV. The J{sup {pi}} = 13{sup -} state loses energy in a rapid (t {approx} 10{sup -12} s) {gamma}-ray cascade ending at the 8{sup -} rotational band head which in turn decays via the ground-state rotational band cascade. The {gamma}-ray cascade is delayed at the 8{sup -} state at 1.147 MeV, since the 8{sup -} state is also isomeric, with t{sub 1/2} = 4 s. Very scarce quantities of the 16{sup +}, 31-yr isomer are available for research ({approx} 10{sup 15} atoms). Reports of triggered decay of the {sup 178}Hf isomer induced by x-rays delivered by a dental x-ray machine have been made [2,3]. Enhancements of {approx} 1 - 2% in the isomer decay rate (dN/dt = - (1 + {var_epsilon})N/{tau}) had been reported for various {gamma}-rays in the cascade (distinguished by red and vertical lines in Figure 1). The reported integrated cross section for triggering the decay is cm{sup 2} keV, so large as to demand new physics. We have sought to verify these reports taking advantage of the intense photon flux available at the Advanced Photon Source.

  2. Feasibility study of silicon PN photodiodes as X-ray intensity monitors for high flux X-ray beam with synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K

    1999-01-01

    The basic properties of silicon PN photodiodes as X-ray detectors with synchrotron radiation and their application to XAFS measurements have been investigated. The effects of diffraction peaks due to the crystalline structure of the photodiodes have been eliminated by mounting the scintillators on the photodiodes; (1) CsI(Tl) crystal as a X-ray total absorption detection medium and (2) plastic scintillator as a non-crystalline solid state X-ray detection medium. An accurate comparison between XAFS signals detected by ionization chambers and silicon PN photodiodes is presented. It is shown that good quality XAFS measurements with silicon PN photodiodes are possible by eliminating the diffraction effects with scintillator photodiode configurations.

  3. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyvenko, O F [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buonassisi, T [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Istratov, A A [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weber, E R [University of California, LBNL, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kittler, M [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Seifert, W [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2002-12-09

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  4. Search for X-Ray Induced Acceleration of the Decay of the 31-yr Isomer 178Hf Using Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, I; Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Krämer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2002-01-01

    Releasing the energy stored in an isomeric nuclear state in a controlled way with an atomic or electromagnetic trigger is an attractive speculation: the energy gain may be on the order of the ratio of nuclear/atomic energies - MeV/keV. (Nuclear isomers are loosely defined as excited nuclear states with lifetimes longer than 10 sup - sup 9 s.) Nuclear isomers, therefore, represent an opportunity for a stand-alone energy source if suitable schemes for trigger and control of the energy release can be found. Potential applications include space drive, as well as very bright gamma-ray sources. The nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 Hf has a nuclear isomer with excitation energy E sub x = 2.447 MeV. The 2.447-MeV isomeric state decays slowly (t sub 1 sub / sub 2 = 31 y) to the nearby state at 2.433 MeV. The J suppi = 13 sup - state loses energy in a rapid (t approx 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s) gamma-ray cascade ending at the 8 sup - rotational band head which in turn decays via the ground-state rotational band cascade. The gamma...

  5. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  6. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through X-ray radiolysis using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akinobu; Okada, Ikuo; Fukuoka, Takao; Sakurai, Ikuya; Utsumi, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    The potential to fabricate metallic nanoparticles directly on silicon substrates from liquid solutions is ideal for three-dimensional lithography systems, drug delivery materials, and sensing applications. Here, we report the successful synthesis of Au, Cu, and Fe nanoparticles from the corresponding liquid solutions [gold(I) trisodium disulphite, copper(II) sulfate, and potassium ferricyanide] by synchrotron (SR) X-ray irradiation. The deposition of gold nanoparticles in the gold(I) trisodium disulphite solution was performed by monochromatic X-ray exposure from synchrotron radiation. The use of ethanol as an additive enabled the nucleation and growth of Cu particles, while no Cu particles were produced in the copper sulfate solution without ethanol with polychromatic SR X-ray irradiation. Fe particles were generated by direct polychromatic SR X-ray irradiation. These results demonstrate the behavior of three-dimensional printers, enabling us to build composite material structures with metallic and plastic materials.

  7. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  8. Acquisition of powder diffraction data with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.E.; Toby, B.H.; Eddy, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    During the past year, a dedicated triple-axis powder diffractometer has been in routine operation at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source as a user-oriented facility. The diffractometer is designed to allow easy interchange between energy-dispersive and monochromatic beam experiments. In the latter mode of operation, high resolution data have been collected for a variety of samples with the use of the crystal-analyzer technique, and in several cases these data sets have been used successfully for structure solution and Rietveld refinement. Several aspects of data acquisition at a synchrotron beam-line are described, and some of the different types of scattering geometry which have been used are discussed. Simple expressions are given for the instrumental resolution function expressed as the angular variation of peak widths for each of these. The peak shapes observed for a reference sample of Si on the present triple-axis instrument are well-described by the convolution of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions, and the angular dependence of the Gaussian component is in excellent agreement with the corresponding calculated instrumental function. One of the most important considerations for each type of experiment is the necessary compromise between intensity and resolution over a wide range of scattering angles, and some of the available options will be discussed. In particular, the use of Ge(440) and LiF(400) analyzer crystals gives a focussing minimum at relatively high angles (2 THETA approx. = 50/sup 0/ at 1.54A), a highly desirable feature for Rietveld analysis of complex structures. Absolute intensities from reference samples of Si and CeO/sub 2/ are calculated for these and several other scattering configurations involving both flat-plate and capillary geometry to illustrate this compromise. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Synchrotron radiation and diffusive shock acceleration - A short review and GRB perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlica, Mile, E-mail: mile.karlica@icranet.org [La Sapienza University of Rome - ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00189 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In this talk we present the sponge” model and its possible implications on the GRB afterglow light curves. “Sponge” model describes source of GRB afterglow radiation as fragmented GRB ejecta where bubbles move through the rarefied medium. In the first part of the talk a short introduction to synchrotron radiation and Fermi acceleration was presented. In the assumption that X-ray luminosity of GRB afterglow phase comes from the kinetic energy losses of clouds in ejecta medium radiated as synchrotron radiation we solved currently very simple equation of motion to find which combination of cloud and medium regime describes the afterglow light curve the best. We proposed for the first step to watch simple combinations of expansion regimes for both bubbles and surrounding medium. The closest case to the numerical fit of GRB 150403A with time power law index k = 1.38 is the combination of constant bubbles and Sedov like expanding medium with time power law index k = 1.25. Of course the question of possible mixture of variuos regime combinations is still open within this model.

  10. Galactic synchrotron radiation from radio to microwaves, and its relation to cosmic-ray propagation models: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Galactic synchrotron radiation observed from radio to microwaves is produced by cosmic-ray (CR) electrons propagating in magnetic fields (B-fields). The low-frequency foreground component separated maps by WMAP and Planck depend on the assumed synchrotron spectrum. The synchrotron spectrum varies for different line of sights as a result of changes on the CR spectrum due to propagation effects and source distributions. Our present knowledge of the CR spectrum at different locations in the Galaxy is not sufficient to distinguish various possibilities in the modeling. As a consequence uncertainties on synchrotron emission models complicate the foreground component separation analysis with Planck and future microwave telescopes. Hence, any advancement in synchrotron modeling is important for separating the different foreground components.The first step towards a more comprehensive understanding of degeneracy and correlation among the synchrotron model parameters is outlined in our Strong et al. 2011 and Orlando et al. 2013 papers. In the latter the conclusion was that CR spectrum, propagation models, B-fields, and foreground component separation analysis need to be studied simultaneously in order to properly obtain and interpret the synchrotron foreground. Indeed for the officially released Planck maps, we use only the best spectral model from our above paper for the component separation analysis.Here we present a collections of our latest results on synchrotron, CRs and B-fields in the context of CR propagation, showing also our recent work on B-fields within the Planck Collaboration. We underline also the importance of using the constraints on CRs that we obtain from gamma ray observations. Methods and perspectives for further studies on the synchrotron foreground will be addressed.

  11. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source; AILES: la ligne infrarouge et THz sur rayonnement synchrotron SOLEIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F. [Synchrotron Soleil, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Manceron, L. [Paris-6 Univ., Lab. de Dynamique Interactions et Reactivite (LADIR), 75 (France)

    2008-03-15

    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  12. X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation on the G.I.L.D.A. beam line at the E.S.R.F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balerna, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Meneghini, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)]|[INFM, Genoa (Italy); Bordoni, S. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Mobilio, S. [Rome Univ. III (Italy). Dip. di Fisica `E. Amaldi`

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this lecture is to make a short introduction on Synchrotron radiation, its history and main properties. The main components of a synchrotron radiation beam line will be described. The Italian beam line, General purpose Italian beam line Line for Diffraction and Absorption (G.I.L.D.A.) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (E.S.R.F.) in Grenoble will be used as an example. The G.I.L.D.A. diffractometer will be described in detail reporting also some experimental results.

  13. NanoESCA, a new nanospectroscopy tool with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, Marten; Wiemann, Carsten; Krug, Ingo; Schneider, Claus Michael [PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Escher, Matthias; Weber, Nils; Merkel, Michael [Focus GmbH, Huenstetten (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology and nanoscience are developing more and more to smaller length scales. We face the need for the characterization of surface electronic and magnetic states in these reduced dimensions with a new energy-filtered photoelectron emission microscope (PEEM), which we have recently installed at the ELETTRA synchrotron facility (Italy). The instrument features a novel electrostatic lens system with 30 kV extraction voltage, enabling spatially resolved photoelectron imaging with a lateral resolution smaller than 100 nm and combines it with a double-hemispherical energy filter, a single-event counting detector unit and a liquid helium cooled sample manipulator with five degrees of freedom. A second operation mode provides the mapping of the angular distribution (k-space microscopy) of the photoelectrons. We discuss the capabilities and the performance of the instrument with respect to its lateral and energy resolution, sensitivity and signal-to-noise-ratio.

  14. Synchrotron radiation-based multi-analytical approach for studying underglaze color: The microstructure of Chinese Qinghua blue decors (Ming dynasty)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. [CEMES, CNRS, Toulouse University, Toulouse (France); Zhu, T.Q., E-mail: zhutq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Sociology and Anthropology of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Feng, Z.Y. [School of Sociology and Anthropology of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Fayard, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS – UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France); Pouyet, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cotte, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Laboratoire d' archéologie moléculaire et structurale (LAMS), 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); De Nolf, W.; Salomé, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Sciau, Ph., E-mail: philippe.sciau@cemes.fr [CEMES, CNRS, Toulouse University, Toulouse (France)

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we develop a methodological approach combining macro-X-ray fluorescence and synchrotron radiation-based techniques (μXRF, full-field XANES and μXRD) to determine the composition and microstructure of underglaze decors of Qinghua porcelains (Ming dynasty). Various transition metal elements (Fe, Mn, Co) are present in the blue decoration of these ceramics and the approach proposed allows for establishing the feature of each. Thus it shows that Fe ions are distributed homogeneously over the whole glaze without any significant difference in blue and white parts. They do not play a significant role in the color. In contrast, Co ions exhibit a heterogeneous distribution with CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles close to the body/glaze interphase. These particles play a key role in the blue color and, the hue variations seem in greater part to link to their density and repartition. Co dispersed in the glassy matrix is also bivalent and mainly in tetragonal coordination, leading also to a blue color. Mn ion distribution is similar to the one of Co but without presenting local high concentrations associated to Mn based particles. Mn affects the darkness of the color and for the sample without CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle; it is the main color contribution. The presence of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals was confirmed by μXRD, which revealed, in addition, a variation of cell parameters certainly linking to a Co partial substitution. - Highlights: • A new methodological approach to describe and determine the underglaze porcelain decors is proposed. • SR-μXRF and FF-XANES allow identifying the speciation of colorant ions and mapping their distribution. • Co in tetragonal coordination is the main cause of blue color of Qinghua porcelains. • The density and the repartition of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles define the density of blue color. • Mn ions have an influence on the color darkness.

  15. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  16. Top-Off Injection and Higher Currents at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Johannes M.; Liu, James C.; Prinz, Alyssa A.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a 234 m circumference storage ring for 3 GeV electrons with its synchrotron radiation serving currently 13 beamlines with about 27 experimental stations. It operated for long time with 100 mA peak current provided by usually three injections per day. In July 2009, the maximum beam current was raised to 200 mA. Over the period from June 2009 to March 2010, Top-Off operation started at every beamline. Top-Off, i.e., the injection of electrons into the storage ring with injection stoppers open, is necessary for SSRL to reach its design current of 500 mA. In the future, the maximal power of the injection current will also soon be raised from currently 1.5 W to 5 W. The Radiation Protection Department at SLAC worked with SSRL on the specifications for the safety systems for operation with Top-Off injection and higher beam currents.

  17. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  18. Irradiation damage to frog inner ear during synchrotron radiation tomographic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boistel, Renaud [Equipe Communications Acoustiques, NAMC, CNRS UMR 8620, F-91405 Orsay (France); CNRS UMR 7179 ' Mecanismes adaptatifs: des organismes aux communautes' , Departement ' Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite' , Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, case postale 55, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Univ Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: boistel@mnhn.fr; Pollet, Nicolas [Univ Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); CNRS UMR 8080, F-91405 Orsay (France); Epigenomics Project, Genopole, Univ Evry Val d' Essonne, 91034 Evry Cedex (France); Tinevez, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie Curie, CNRS UMR 168, Institut Curie Recherche, 26, Rue d' Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cloetens, Peter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Schlenker, Michel [Institut Neel, CNRS, and Grenoble Institute of Technology, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-03-15

    Unexpectedly severe radiation damage, showing up through deformation of the saccule, was encountered during a synchrotron radiation high-resolution (700 nm pixel size) tomographic observation of an inner ear, fixed in a formaldehyde solution, of the frog Rana esculenta. The visible displacement of the edge of the otoconia-filled part of the saccule amounted to about 100 {mu}m after an irradiation with 20.5 keV X-ray photons corresponding to a dose of 1.5 kGy for the protein matrix. The close-knit coexistence of organic and mineral components in the biological tissue may be linked to the dramatic increase of radiation dosage sensitivity.

  19. Structural and elemental X-ray microanalysis with synchrotron radiation in confocal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, Carlos M. [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Sánchez, H. Jorge [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Pérez, Carlos A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron – LNLS, POB 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Perez, Roberto D., E-mail: danperez@famaf.unc.edu.ar [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2014-01-15

    A spectrometer for 3D structural and multielemental X-ray microanalysis with synchrotron radiation is presented in this work. It is based on the combination of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and diffraction with polycapillary optics. The 3D spatial resolution was achieved by the superposition of the foci of two lenses arranged in confocal geometry. The parameters that affect the performance of the spectrometer were study in detail giving rise to a simplified calibration method for depth profile analysis. Two specific examples were included to illustrate the use of the spectrometer in order to identify their possible application fields.

  20. Nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation in pulsed high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, C; Van der Linden, P; Rüffer, R

    2010-02-26

    We report the demonstration of nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation from 57Fe in ferromagnetic alpha iron in pulsed high magnetic fields up to 30 T. The observed magnetic hyperfine field follows the calculated high field bulk magnetization within 1%, establishing the technique as a precise tool for the study of magnetic solids in very high magnetic fields. To perform these experiments in pulsed fields, we have developed a detection scheme for fully time resolved nuclear forward scattering applicable to other pump probe experiments.

  1. Low Temperature Epitaxial Growth of Semiconductors Using Synchrotron Radiation as a Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qixin GUO; Mitsuhiro NISHIO; Hiroshi OGAWA

    2000-01-01

    Results of our recent experiments relating to the synchrotron radiation (SR) excited growth of Ⅱ-V compounds using metalorganic sources are described. We discuss mainly the growth characteristics of films in addition to the characterization of the deposited films. ZnTe epitaxial layer without carbon and oxygen contamination is attainable even at room temperature using SR as a light source. The quantum yield for forming ZnTe molecules was estimated to be higher than 3%. Through these experiments, we propose that the SR-excited growth is a powerful technique for a novel low temperature growth of compounds.

  2. A medium-resolution monochromator for 73 keV x-rays - Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation from 193-Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Pavel; Wille, Hans-Christian; Sergeev, Ilya; Herlitschke, Marcus; Leupold, Olaf; McMorrow, Desmond F; Röhlsberger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a medium resolution monochromator for synchrotron-based hyperfine spectroscopy at the 73 keV nuclear resonance of 193-Ir. The device provides high throughput of 6*10^8 ph/s in an energy bandwidth of 300(20) meV. We excited the nuclear resonance in 193-Ir at 73.04 keV and observed nuclear fluorescence of 193-Ir in Iridium metal. The monochromator allows for Nuclear Forward Scattering spectroscopy on Ir and its compounds.

  3. Beaming of particles and synchrotron radiation in relativistic magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Daniel; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic reconnection has been invoked as a mechanism for particle acceleration in numerous astrophysical systems. According to idealised analytical models reconnection produces a bulk relativistic outflow emerging from the reconnection sites (X-points). The resulting radiation is therefore highly beamed. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we investigate particle and radiation beaming, finding a very different picture. Instead of having a relativistic average bulk motion with isotropic electron velocity distribution in its rest frame, we find that the bulk motion of particles in X-points is similar to their Lorentz factor gamma, and the particles are beamed within about 5/gamma. On the way from the X-point to the magnetic islands, particles turn in the magnetic field, forming a fan confined to the current sheet. Once they reach the islands they isotropise after completing a full Larmor gyration and their radiation is not strongly beamed anymore. The radiation pattern at a given freq...

  4. SKA studies of in-situ synchrotron radiation from molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Clive; Crocker, R; Crutcher, R M; Davies, R D; Ferriere, K; Fuller, G; Jaffe, T; Jones, D I; Leahy, J P; Murphy, E J; Peel, M W; Orlando, E; Porter, T; Protheroe, R J; Robishaw, T; Strong, A W; Watson, R A; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the properties of dense molecular clouds are critical in understanding the process of star-formation. One of the most important, but least understood, is the role of the magnetic fields. We discuss the possibility of using high-resolution, high-sensitivity radio observations with the SKA to measure for the first time the in-situ synchrotron radiation from these molecular clouds. If the cosmic-ray (CR) particles penetrate clouds as expected, then we can measure the B-field strength directly using radio data. So far, this signature has never been detected from the collapsing clouds themselves and would be a unique probe of the magnetic field. Dense cores are typically ~0.05 pc in size, corresponding to ~arcsec at ~kpc distances, and flux density estimates are ~mJy at 1 GHz. The SKA should be able to readily detect directly, for the first time, along lines-of-sight that are not contaminated by thermal emission or complex foreground/background synchrotron emission. Polarised synchrotron may also b...

  5. Setup for in situ WAXS/SAXS studies of the formation and growth of Bi nanodroplets and the melting of Bi nanocrystals using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, G; Neuenschwander, R; Plivelic, T S

    2003-01-01

    The setup was designed for in situ studies of structural transformations in materials at high temperatures. It makes possible simultaneous recording of wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) spectra from room temperature up to 1000 deg. C. The setup was installed in the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory SAXS beamline. It was applied to in situ studies of several structural transformations such as the formation and growth of liquid Bi nanodroplets embedded in a B sub 2 O sub 3 -Na sub 2 O glass and the melting of Bi nanocrystals dispersed in the same glass matrix.

  6. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  7. The present status of high-pressure research at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Li, Y C

    2002-01-01

    The present status of high-pressure research at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility is reported. A ten-poles wiggler beamline provides a white beam for investigating samples using a diamond anvil cell. In situ energy-dispersive diffraction is used to determine the pressure-induced phase transitions and equations of state. High pressure can be stably applied by a stepper-motorized loading system with a strain sensor. Some megabar experiments have been carried out without damage on diamonds. Improved beam collimation reduces the background and eliminates gasket scatter. Some research and future developments are also presented.

  8. Partial coherence and imperfect optics at a synchrotron radiation source modeled by wavefront propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alcock, Simon G.; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.; Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    A full wave propagation of X-rays from source to sample at a storage ring beamline requires simulation of the electron beam source and optical elements in the beamline. The finite emittance source causes the appearance of partial coherence in the wave field. Consequently, the wavefront cannot be treated exactly with fully coherent wave propagation or fully incoherent ray tracing. We have used the wavefront code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) to perform partially coherent wavefront propagation using a parallel computing cluster at the Diamond Light Source. Measured mirror profiles have been used to correct the wavefront for surface errors.

  9. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Haohua; Kou Bingquan; Xi Yan; Qi Juncheng; Sun Jianqi; Mohr, Juergen; Boerner, Martin; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao Tiqiao; Wang Yujie [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Hermannvon-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  10. An x-ray fluorescence study of lake sediments from ancient Turkey using synchrotron radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatas, A.; Alp, E. E.; Friedman, E. S.; Jennings, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Lai, B.; Mini, S. M.; Sato, Y.; Wilkinson, T. J.; Yener, K. A.

    1999-03-10

    Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotrons radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over time with selected elements serving as proxies for environmental change. Increases in Ca and Sr suggest soil formation during a dry period, from ca. 4500 BC to ca. 200 AD at which point K, Rb, Zr, Ti, and Y increase, indicating the return of a wet environment. Soil erosion, represented by Cr and Ni, increases ca. 7000 BC, probably as a consequence of environmental change, prior to suggested exploitation of natural resources by the newly urbanized society of the third millennium BC.

  11. Synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) investigation of the electronictransitions of quinizarin, chrysazin, and anthrarufin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning;

    2010-01-01

    The electronic transitions of the three , (alpha), (alphaPrime) -dihydroxy derivatives of anthraquinone, 1,4-dihydroxy-, 1,8-dihydroxy-, and 1,5-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (quinizarin, chrysazin, and anthrarufin), were investigated by synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy...... the investigated region (15,000-58,000cm-1), essentially similar wavenumbers, intensities, and transition moment directions were determined for chrysazin and anthrarufin, while the spectrum of quinizarin deviated significantly. The results of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were...

  12. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  13. Resonant electron diffusion as a saturation process of the synchrotron maser instability. [of auroral kilometric radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Kuo, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of resonant electron diffusion as an effective saturation process of the auroral kilometric radiation has been formulated. The auroral kilometric radiation is assumed to be amplified by the synchrotron maser instability that is driven by an electron distribution of the loss-cone type. The calculated intensity of the saturated radiation is found to have a significantly lower value in comparison with that caused by the quasi-linear diffusion process as an alternative saturation process. This indicates that resonant electron diffusion dominates over quasi-linear diffusion in saturating the synchrotron maser instability.

  14. Synchrotron radiation as a light source in confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Oord, C.J.R.; Gerritsen, H.C.; Levine, Y.K. (University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)); Myring, W.J.; Jones, G.R.; Munro, I.H. (Daresbury Laboratory (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The optical properties of a confocal scanning microscope that was designed to utilize a synchrotron as light source are presented. The usable spectral range is from 200 nm up to 700 nm. Using 325-nm laser light, it is shown that the lateral resolution is about 125 nm, and the axial resolution better than 250 nm. After transport of the microscope from Utrecht to the Daresbury Synchrotron Source, 200-nm excitation can be applied, and the lateral resolution will drop to below 100 nm.

  15. Methods for lipid nanostructure investigation at neutron and synchrotron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    A lipid membrane is a main component of biological membranes. Contemporary bionanotechnologies use phospholipids and ceramides as basic components of drugs and cosmetic preparations. Phospholipids-based nanoparticles are used as drug carriers. Effective development of bionanotechnologies in Russia calls for creation of physical methods to diagnose the particle nanostructure which would be promising for application in pharmacology. Radiation with wavelengths of 1-10 Å is an adequate instrument for detecting the nanostructure of lipid bi- and monolayers. The review deals with methods that apply neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation for studying nanostructures of lipid membranes, phospholipid nanoparticles, and phospholipid monolayers on a water surface by techniques of diffraction, small-angle scattering, and reflectometry. The importance of the mutually complementary application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for solving urgent problems of membrane biophysics, microbiology, dermapharmacology, and bionanotechnologies is demonstrated by particular examples of studies of phospholipid membranes and ceramide-based membranes. The efficiency of development and application of new methods for solving urgent problems of biophysics is shown. The review is written on the basis of results obtained over the period of 1999-2010 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Laboratory of Neutron Physics in collaboration with the Pharmaceutical Departments of universities of France (Paris-Sud, Chatenay Malabry) and Germany (Martin Luther University, Halle). The experiments were performed at various European and Russian neutron and synchrotron sources.

  16. Synchrotron radiation stimulated etching of SiO sub 2 thin films with a Co contact mask for the area-selective deposition of self-assembled monolayer

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C

    2003-01-01

    The area-selective deposition of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was demonstrated on a pattern structure fabricated by synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated etching of a SiO sub 2 thin film on the Si substrate. The etching was conducted by irradiating the SiO sub 2 thin film with SR through a Co contact mask and using a mixture of SF sub 6 + O sub 2 as the reaction gas. The SR etching stopped completely at the SiO sub 2 /Si interface. After the SR etching, the Si surface and the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask were evaluated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A dodecene SAM was deposited on the Si surface, and trichlorosilane-derived SAMs (octadecyltrichlorosilane, and octenyltrichlorosilane) were deposited on the SiO sub 2 surface beneath the Co mask. The structure of the deposited SAMs showed a densely packed and well-ordered molecular architecture, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. (author)

  17. Sample Environment in Experiments using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B

    1984-01-01

    Modern electron (positron) storage rings are able to emit very intense X-ray radiation with a continuous spectrum extending to 0.1 A, from bending magnets and insertion devices (wavelength shifters and multipole wigglers). It can be used directly for white beam experiments and/or for monochromati...

  18. Raster microdiffraction with synchrotron radiation of hydrated biopolymers with nanometre step-resolution: case study of starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekel, C., E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr; Burghammer, M.; Davies, R. J.; Di Cola, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); König, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Bioenergy and Catalysis Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lemke, H.T. [Centre for Molecular Movies, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Putaux, J.-L. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP 53, F 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schöder, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Radiation damage propagation was examined in starch granules by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-diffraction techniques from cryo- to room temperatures. Careful dose limitation allowed raster-diffraction experiments with 500 nm step resolution to be performed. X-ray radiation damage propagation is explored for hydrated starch granules in order to reduce the step resolution in raster-microdiffraction experiments to the nanometre range. Radiation damage was induced by synchrotron radiation microbeams of 5, 1 and 0.3 µm size with ∼0.1 nm wavelength in B-type potato, Canna edulis and Phajus grandifolius starch granules. A total loss of crystallinity of granules immersed in water was found at a dose of ∼1.3 photons nm{sup −3}. The temperature dependence of radiation damage suggests that primary radiation damage prevails up to about 120 K while secondary radiation damage becomes effective at higher temperatures. Primary radiation damage remains confined to the beam track at 100 K. Propagation of radiation damage beyond the beam track at room temperature is assumed to be due to reactive species generated principally by water radiolysis induced by photoelectrons. By careful dose selection during data collection, raster scans with 500 nm step-resolution could be performed for granules immersed in water.

  19. Recent results and future prospects of dynamic intravenous coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Sadanori [Cardio Vascular Div., Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    We have developed a dynamic intravenous coronary angiography (IVCAG) by using synchrotron radiation (SR) as a less invasive and more easy examination in place of CAG. Twelve patients suspected to have angina pectoris underwent IVCAG at the clinic in the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The patients received an intravenous injection of 40m/of contrast agent, and then irradiation was performed with a wide (130 mm x 80 mm) and monochromatic (35 KeV) X-ray beam. Images were acquired with an image intensifier and recorded with a digital fluorography system as dynamic angiography at 30 or 10 images/sec. IVCAG was repeated in 2 or 3 projections. In all patients, the dynamic images permitted clear visualization of the coronary arteries and enabled evaluation of coronary anatomy. Two patients were diagnosed to have coronary stenosis by IVCAG and were confirmed by conventional CAG. The total irradiation doses used for IVCAG were less than those for conventional angiography. Although the image definition obtained with dynamic IVCAG was somewhat less than that of conventional CAG and needs to be improved, the IVCAG can be easily used for the evaluation of coronary arteries and may be clinically used for screening and follow-up of coronary artery disease. In future, the improvement of imaging system, such as increased intensity of synchrotron radiation and high sensitivity in imaging detector, will make more advance in image quality. (author)

  20. Synchrotron radiation measurement of multiphase fluid saturations in porous media: Experimental technique and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, David M.; Bierck, Barnes R.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    1998-06-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is an important research topic. In situ, nondestructive experimental methods for studying multiphase flow are important for improving our understanding and the theory. Rapid changes in fluid saturation, characteristic of immiscible displacement, are difficult to measure accurately using gamma rays due to practical restrictions on source strength. Our objective is to describe a synchrotron radiation technique for rapid, nondestructive saturation measurements of multiple fluids in porous media, and to present a precision and accuracy analysis of the technique. Synchrotron radiation provides a high intensity, inherently collimated photon beam of tunable energy which can yield accurate measurements of fluid saturation in just one second. Measurements were obtained with precision of ±0.01 or better for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a 2.5 cm thick glass-bead porous medium using a counting time of 1 s. The normal distribution was shown to provide acceptable confidence limits for PCE saturation changes. Sources of error include heat load on the monochromator, periodic movement of the source beam, and errors in stepping-motor positioning system. Hypodermic needles pushed into the medium to inject PCE changed porosity in a region approximately ±1 mm of the injection point. Improved mass balance between the known and measured PCE injection volumes was obtained when appropriate corrections were applied to calibration values near the injection point.

  1. Dazzling new light source opens at Stanford synchrotron radiation laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SPEAR3, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring, was formally opened at a dedication ceremony at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on Jan. 29. It incorporates the latest technology to make it competitive with the best synchrotron sources in the world (1/2 page)

  2. Optical and luminescence studies of ZnMoO 4 using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailik, V. B.; Kraus, H.; Wahl, D.; Ehrenberg, H.; Mykhaylyk, M. S.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper we present a characterisation of ZnMoO 4 using spectroscopic techniques. Reflection, luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra were measured over the temperature range 8-295 K using VUV synchrotron radiation. The emission spectrum of the crystal exhibits a broad band with a maximum around 1.95 eV at 80 K that is attributed to the radiative transitions within MO 42- oxyanion complex. An interpretation of the observed features of the electronic excitations in the crystal is given based on present knowledge of the electronic structure and emission properties of molybdate crystals. The results of this study suggest that ZnMoO 4 is a suitable candidate for further testing for implementation as a target material in cryogenic scintillation searches for rare events.

  3. Optical and luminescence studies of ZnMoO{sub 4} using vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailik, V.B. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: vmikhai@hotmail.com; Kraus, H. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Wahl, D. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ehrenberg, H. [Material Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, Darmstadt 64287 (Germany); Mykhaylyk, M.S. [Physics Department, Lviv National University, 8 Kyryla and Mefodiya str., Lviv, 79005 (Ukraine)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper we present a characterisation of ZnMoO{sub 4} using spectroscopic techniques. Reflection, luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra were measured over the temperature range 8-295 K using VUV synchrotron radiation. The emission spectrum of the crystal exhibits a broad band with a maximum around 1.95 eV at 80 K that is attributed to the radiative transitions within MO{sub 4} {sup 2-} oxyanion complex. An interpretation of the observed features of the electronic excitations in the crystal is given based on present knowledge of the electronic structure and emission properties of molybdate crystals. The results of this study suggest that ZnMoO{sub 4} is a suitable candidate for further testing for implementation as a target material in cryogenic scintillation searches for rare events.

  4. Applications of photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy with third-generation, synchrotron-radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Mother nature's finest test probe; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources; anisotropy and polarization of x-ray emission from atoms and molecules; valence-hole fluorescence from molecular photoions as a probe of shape-resonance ionization: progress and prospects; structural biophysics on third-generation synchrotron sources; ultra-soft x-ray fluorescence-yield XAFS: an in situ photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy; and x-ray microprobe: an analytical tool for imaging elemental composition and microstructure.

  5. Applications of photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy with third-generation, synchrotron-radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: Mother nature`s finest test probe; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources; anisotropy and polarization of x-ray emission from atoms and molecules; valence-hole fluorescence from molecular photoions as a probe of shape-resonance ionization: progress and prospects; structural biophysics on third-generation synchrotron sources; ultra-soft x-ray fluorescence-yield XAFS: an in situ photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy; and x-ray microprobe: an analytical tool for imaging elemental composition and microstructure.

  6. MxCuBE: a synchrotron beamline control environment customized for macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadinho, José; Beteva, Antonia; Guijarro, Matias; Rey-Bakaikoa, Vicente; Spruce, Darren; Bowler, Matthew W; Brockhauser, Sandor; Flot, David; Gordon, Elspeth J; Hall, David R; Lavault, Bernard; McCarthy, Andrew A; McCarthy, Joanne; Mitchell, Edward; Monaco, Stéphanie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Nurizzo, Didier; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Thibault, Xavier; Walsh, Martin A; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean M

    2010-09-01

    The design and features of a beamline control software system for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. This system, MxCuBE, allows users to easily and simply interact with beamline hardware components and provides automated routines for common tasks in the operation of a synchrotron beamline dedicated to experiments in MX. Additional functionality is provided through intuitive interfaces that enable the assessment of the diffraction characteristics of samples, experiment planning, automatic data collection and the on-line collection and analysis of X-ray emission spectra. The software can be run in a tandem client-server mode that allows for remote control and relevant experimental parameters and results are automatically logged in a relational database, ISPyB. MxCuBE is modular, flexible and extensible and is currently deployed on eight macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the ESRF. Additionally, the software is installed at MAX-lab beamline I911-3 and at BESSY beamline BL14.1.

  7. Elemental concentration analysis in brain of young, adult and old wistar rats by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The mainly goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentrations with different postnatal ages (2, 8, 20, 48 and 72 weeks) at three different regions of the rat brain, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus by X-Ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The advantages for this analytical multielemental technique are: low background, linear relation in the quantification analysis and low detection limit (ngg{sup -1}). The fluorescence measurements were carried out at XRF beamline at the Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). It was possible to determine the following elements: Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr (at trace level) and P, S, Cl, K and Ca (at major levels) were determined in the brain. In general, Fe levels were more pronounced in entorhinal cortex. There was also observed that the hippocampus of the old female rat presented the highest concentrations for Al, P, S, K, and Zn. In contrast to this, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex presented the less levels for Al and K in the young animals. On the other hand, Cl levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex of the oldest male animal studied. (author)

  8. Neutrons and synchrotron radiation in engineering materials science from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schreyer, Andreas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2017-01-01

    Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods. As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure-property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization. The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to probl...

  9. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  10. Atomic and Molecular Photoelectron and Auger Electron SpectroscopyStudies Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were a 130 measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra o f the ejected electrons. The ''a double-angle-TOF'' method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collect ion efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. Several results were obtained for Xe using photon energies in the range hv {approx_equal} 60-190 eV, where excitation and ionization of the inner-subshell 4d electrons dominates. The 4d asymmetry parameter {beta} exhibits strong oscillations with energy, in agreement with several theoretical calculations. As predicted, the 5p asymmetry parameter was observed to deviate strongly from that calculated using the independent-electron model, due to intershell correlation with the 4d electrons.

  11. Beam test of a one-dimensional position sensitive chamber on synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Liu; Hui-Rong, Qi; Bao-An, Zhuang; Jian, Zhang; Rong-Guang, Liu; Qi-Ming, Zhu; Qun, Ouyang; Yuan-Bo, Chen; Xiao-Shan, Jiang; Ya-Jie, Wang; Peng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Chang

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional single-wire chamber was developed to provide high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation. A diffraction test using the sample of SiO2 has been accomplished at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Source. The data of beam test were analyzed and some diffraction angles were obtained. The experimental results were in good agreement with standard data from ICDD powder diffraction file. The precision of diffraction angles was 1% to 4.7%. Most of relative errors between measured values of diffraction angles and existing data were less than 1%. As for the detector, the best position resolution in the test was 138 um (sigma value) with an X-ray tube. Finally, discussions of the results were given. The major factor that affected the precision of measurement was deviation from the flat structure of detector. The effect was analyzed and it came to a conclusion that it would be the optimal measurement scheme when the distance between the powder sample...

  12. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Mekaru, H; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the p...

  13. Synchrotron radiation and absence of linear polarization in the colliding wind binary WR 146

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, C A; del Palacio, S; Romero, G E; Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Several massive early-type binaries exhibit non-thermal emission which has been attributed to synchrotron radiation from particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in the wind-collision region (WCR). If the magnetic field in the strong shocks is ordered, its component parallel to the shock front should be enhanced, and the resultant synchrotron radiation would be polarized. However, such polarization has never been measured. We performed spatially-unresolved radio continuum observations of WR 146, a well known a WC6+O8 system, at 5 cm and 20 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. No linearly polarized radio emission was detected. The data constrain the fractional linear polarization to less than 0.6% between 1 to 8 GHz. This is compatible with a high level of turbulence and a dominant random component in the magnetic field. In this case the relativistic particles could be produced by turbulent magnetic reconnection (MR). In order for this scenario to satisfy the required non-thermal ene...

  14. Development of intense terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at KU-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sei, Norihiro, E-mail: sei.n@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zen, Heishun; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute for Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We produced intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz (THz) region using an S-band linac at the Kyoto University Free Electron Laser (KU-FEL), which is a mid-infrared free-electron laser facility. The CSR beam was emitted from short-pulse electron bunches compressed by a 180° arc, and was transferred to air at a large solid angle of 0.10 rad. The measured CSR energy was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse, and KU-FEL was one of the most powerful CSR sources in normal conducting linear accelerator facilities. The CSR spectra were measured using an uncooled pyroelectric detector and a Michelson-type interferometer designed specifically for the KU-FEL electron beam, and had a maximum at a frequency of 0.11 THz. We found that adjusting the energy slit enhanced the CSR energy and shortened the electron beam bunch length in the CSR spectra measurements. Our results demonstrated that the efficient use of the energy slit can help improve the characteristics of CSR. - Highlights: • We have developed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at KU-FEL. • The elevation angle of the CSR was correctly measured by a new technique. • The CSR power extracted to the air was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse. • It was demonstrated that an energy slit was effective to improve the CSR properties.

  15. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of ex situ and in situ time-resolved SR-XRPD in hydrogen storage materials, are reviewed in detail. Future trends and proposals in the applications of the advanced XRPD techniques in hydrogen storage materials are also discussed.

  16. Evaluation of growth tree rings of Tipuana Tipu as biomonitoring of environmental pollution by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The bioindicators, plants or animals capable to present qualitative and/or quantitative answers, when exposed to pollutant substances. Trees record and incorporate in their log, developed year after year, the impressions of the environment, becoming possible the study of the different environmental changes, including contamination, that have occurred over the life of these trees. The selected species, Tipuana Tipu, of the Leguminosae family, is native of Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant. It is one of the most common trees in the urban landscaping in Sao Paulo city. The present project has as main objective the determination of the content of potentially toxic elements in samples of growth the tree rings of Tipuana Tipu, previously dated, collected in strategically locations of Sao Paulo, using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. Samples were also collected in the Piracicaba (SP), local of little access and small flow traffic. The SR-TXRF analysis was carried out in the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, located in Campinas city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In this paper the highest value for Pb was 123.54 μg.g{sup -1} considered as threshold value was observed for the period 1998 to 2000 for University of Sao Paulo, Butanta site. For the same period excessive level was also observed for samples collected in Piracicaba city. In Sao Paulo city, sample collected in the campus of University of Sao Paulo (Butanta), showed the highest toxicity, with concentration above the tolerable limit for Ti, Cr and Cu. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb exceeding the toxicity limits. (author)

  17. Powder diffractometry on polychromatic synchrotron radiation (approach to a problem)

    CERN Document Server

    Matjushin, A M

    2001-01-01

    The method of the determination of interplanar spaces and relative intensities for polycrystalline samples from the X-ray patterns that have been taken in polychromatic radiation is offered. The method is based on the construction of a model X-ray pattern and minimization of the difference between it and the experimental curve. It is shown by model experiments for SrO sub 2 , Cu and Al that the method is proof against experimental errors and that errors of definition of parameters are of the same order as those for X-rays pattern obtained in monochromatic radiation. The influence of absorption edges of elements being a part of the sample on the X-ray pattern and the possibility of using them for improvement of experiment quality are discussed.

  18. Study of the dynamics of nanoparticle sizes in trinitrotoluene detonation using the VEPP-4M synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, I. A.; Ten, K. A.; Pruuel, E. R.; Kashkarov, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    Here we present experimental data on measuring condensed carbon nanoparticle sizes in trinitrotoluene (TNT) detonation. Nanoparticle sizes were determined from measured distributions of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The work was carried out at the VEPP- 4M (BINP) accelerator complex. In this work, we also carried out a SAXS simulation with a real spectrum on the SYRAFEEMA (Synchrotron Radiation Facility for Exploring Energetic Materials) station (wiggler radiation, TNT absorption, absorption of the DIMEX-3 detector). Comparison of the calculated and measured SAXS distribution allows one to obtain the dynamics of the average sizes of carbon nanoparticles behind the detonation front using a pink synchrotron radiation (SR) beam. The measured particle sizes in the chemical reaction zone are ≈ 2 nm. Carbon nanoparticles with a maximum size of ≈ 4-5 nm are found outside the chemical reaction zone.

  19. Radio galaxies radiation transfer, dynamics, stability and evolution of a synchrotron plasmon

    CERN Document Server

    Pacholczyk, A G

    1977-01-01

    Radio Galaxies: Radiation Transfer, Dynamics, Stability and Evolution of a Synchrotron Plasmon deals with the physics of a region in space containing magnetic field and thermal and relativistic particles (a plasmon). The synchrotron emission and absorption of this region are discussed, along with the properties of its spectrum; its linear and circular polarization; transfer of radiation through such a region; its dynamics and expansion; and interaction with external medium.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume explores the stability, turbulence, and acceleration of particles in a synchrotro

  20. Experimental Studies on Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at an Emittance Exchange Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Santucci, J.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to experimentally investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy chirped beam.

  1. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Paul; Susini, Jean

    2013-03-01

    These proceedings are a recollection of the articles presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI22012), held in Lyon (France), on 9-13 July 2012. SRI2012, co-organized by ESRF and SOLEIL, was the eleventh in a series of conferences bringing together the foremost x-ray scientists from around the world. This triennial conference is the prime forum to highlight connections between synchrotron radiation instrumentation, science, and society. SRI2012 hosted more than 1000 delegates, including 72 exhibitors. The 2012 edition has seen the emergence of new avenues in the synchrotron technique and in related research areas, and has emphasized the complementarities between synchrotron centers and new x-ray sources such as Free Electron Lasers. The program was structured around 20 topics, and each of the articles in these proceedings refers to one of these topics namely, Instrumentation for Macromolecular Crystallography, Biomedical Experiments, Insertion Device Developments, Storage Ring Performances and Limits on Beam Stability, Advances in Hard X-ray Optics, New Developments in Area Detectors, New Facilities, New Developments in Spectroscopy Detectors, Time-Resolved Applications, Magnetism, SR Experiments under Extreme Conditions, VUV Instrumentation and Applications, Advances in Materials Science Experiments, IR and THz Generation and Applications, Advances in Soft-X-ray Optics, Modelling Tools and Optical Design, Scattering Experiments, High Energy Application, X-ray Microscopy and Nanoprobes, X-ray Imaging Techniques and, Instrumentation and Enabling Technologies. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the 4 days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of

  2. X-Ray Polarization Optics and Coherent Nuclear Resonance Scattering Using Synchrotron Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Sarvjit Devdat

    1995-01-01

    Two projects, both involving X-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation, are presented in this dissertation. (1) A system of diffracting perfect crystals for the generation of variable, elliptically polarized X-rays was tested at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source under the conditions of a standard undulator source. The phase retarding optical component was a 4-bounce, Ge(220) Bragg reflection channel -cut crystal. The full polarization state (density matrix) of the output beam, including the circular polarization purity P_3, was determined using the multiple-beam Bragg diffraction technique with a GaAs crystal polarimeter and was found to agree with calculations. In addition to measuring the optics' efficiency, the ability to scan the system in energy, while frequently reversing the circular helicity, was demonstrated at the vicinity of the Fe K-edge at 7.1 keV. The setup was applied to a circular magnetic X-ray dichroism measurement. (2) The time distribution of delayed photons from resonant forward scattering of 14.4 keV synchrotron radiation pulses by ^{57}Fe nuclei was investigated over the temperature range from 9 K to just above the Curie point at 1043 K, with particular attention to precise measurements of the Lamb-Mossbauer factor f_{LM } ~ e^{- } , whose change was determined from its influence on the "speed-up" of coherent decay. Apart from its importance in Mossbauer effect studies, knowing the temperature dependence of f_{LM} can be valuable for studies of lattice dynamics and structural phase transitions. The change in the nuclear hyperfine splitting was also measured. The synchrotron technique has precision-enhancing advantages over conventional Mossbauer spectroscopy methods employing radioactive sources because dealing with source effects and absolute intensity measurements is eliminated. The results also straightforwardly illustrate an interesting principle concerning the temperature dependence of scattering --that for "slow" resonance

  3. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  4. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire A; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J; Baker, Annabelle R; Thompson, Stephen P; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G; Yang, Sihai; Tang, Chiu C

    2017-02-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world's first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation.

  5. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire A.; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J.; Baker, Annabelle R.; Thompson, Stephen P.; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G.; Tang, Chiu C.

    2017-01-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world’s first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation. PMID:28190992

  6. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and biological applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Lopes; I Lima; G R Pereira; C A Perez

    2011-02-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to study bone sites of human and animal samples with and without bone disorders.

  7. A vacuum ultraviolet filtering monochromator for synchrotron-based spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Marin, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, characterization, and implementation of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator for use in filtering stray and scattered light from the principal monochromator output of the Stainless Steel Seya VUV synchrotron beam line at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison. We demonstrate a reduction of three orders of magnitude of stray and scattered light over the wavelength range 1400-2000 Å with minimal loss of light intensity, allowing for over six orders of magnitude of dynamic range in light detection. We suggest that a similar filtering scheme can be utilized in any variety of spectroscopic applications where a large dynamic range and low amount of background signal are of import, such as in transmittance experiments with very high optical density.

  8. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  9. The status of the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Bowler, Matthew W.; Carpentier, Philippe; Flot, David; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Nanao, Max H.; Nurizzo, Didier; Pernot, Petra; Popov, Alexander; Round, Adam; Royant, Antoine; de Sanctis, Daniele; von Stetten, David; Leonard, Gordon A.

    2015-04-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is the oldest and most powerful 3rd generation synchrotron in Europe, providing X-rays to more than 40 experimental stations welcoming several thousand researchers per year. A major success story has been the ESRF's facilities for macromolecular crystallography (MX). These are grouped around 3 straight sections: On ID23 canted undulators accommodate ID23-1, a mini-focus tuneable energy end station and ID23-2, the world's first micro-focus beamline dedicated to MX; ID29 houses a single, mini-focus, tuneable energy end station; ID30 will provide three end stations for MX due in operation from mid-2014 to early 2015. Here, one branch of a canted X-ray source feeds two fixed-energy end stations (MASSIF-1, MASSIF-3). The second feeds ID30B, a variable focus, tuneable energy beamline. MASSIF-1 is optimised for automatic high-throughput experiments requiring a relatively large beam size at the sample position, MASSIF-3 is a high-intensity, micro-focus facility designed to complement ID23-2. All end stations are highly automated, equipped with sample mounting robots and large area, fast-readout photon-counting detectors. Experiment control and tracking is achieved via a combination of the MXCuBE2 graphical user interface and the ISPyB database, the former allowing user-friendly control of all beamline components, the latter providing data tracking before, after and during experiments.

  10. Measurement of L X-ray fluorescence cross-sections for 74W at excitation energies 12, 14, 15 and 16.5 keV with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Rani, A.; Singh, R. M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Ll, Lα, Lβ and Lγ1 X-ray fluorescence cross-sections for 74W have been measured at excitation energies of 12, 14, 15 and 16.5 keV using synchrotron radiations. A Peltier cooled Vortex solid state detector (SII Nano Technology, USA) with an energy resolution of 138 eV at 5.96 keV X-rays was employed for analysis. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical estimates of Krause (1979), Campbell (2003) and Puri et al. (1993) and also compared with existing experimental results (Barrea and Bonzi, 2001b) of L XRF cross sections at the excitation energy of 12 and 14 keV. Present results were found to be closer to the Puri's data in comparison to existing experimental results. For the first time, to our knowledge, L XRF cross section for 74W at energies 15 and 16.5 keV are also being reported here.

  11. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  12. Determination of Arsenic Poisoning and Metabolism in Hair by Synchrotron Radiation: The Case of Phar Lap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot A. (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia)

    2010-08-26

    Fresh physical evidence about the demise of the racehorse Phar Lap (see photograph) has been gathered from the study of mane hair samples by synchrotron radiation analysis with high resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The results are indicative of arsenic ingestion and metabolism, and show that the racing champion died from arsenic poisoning.

  13. Progress in high pressure EDXD system and research at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation from a new wiggler of BEPC has been used to high pressure research. Upgraded DAC apparatus and EDXD system have been operated to determine the pressure-induced phase transition of materials at BSRF since June 1998. The improved performance of the system and the preliminary results of the research were described.

  14. Synchrotron Radiation and High Pressure: New Light on Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, Russell

    2005-03-01

    Current technological advances now make it possible to perform experiments on materials subjected to static or sustained conditions up to multimegabar pressures (>300 GPa) and from cryogenic temperatures to several thousand degrees (˜0.5 eV range). With these techniques, densities of condensed matter can be increased over an order of magnitude, causing numerous transformations and new physical and chemical phenomena to occur. Growth in this area largely been made possible by accelerating developments in diamond-anvil cell methods coupled with new synchrotron radiation techniques. Significant advances have occurred in x-ray diffraction, spectroscopy, inelastic scattering, radiography, and infrared spectroscopy. With recent developments, structure refinements based on polycrystalline data up to multimegabar pressures have been possible. Single-crystal methods have been extended to megabar pressure, with the prospect of full crystallographic refinements. `Three- dimensional' diffraction data can be collected for determining strength, deformation, and elastic tensors at high P-T conditions. Studies carried out during the past three years provide numerous breakthroughs in high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy and a broad range of inelastic scattering methods. Other experiments have exploited the use of x-ray radiography over a range of pressures. Finally, synchrotron infrared measurements have revealed a wealth of high-pressure phenomena, particularly for molecular systems. Examples to be discussed include investigations of dense hydrogen; transformations in molecular materials; novel ceramics; new types of superconductors, electronic, and magnetic materials; and liquids and amorphous materials.

  15. On the sagittal focusing of synchrotron radiation with a double crystal monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Quintana, J.P.; Georgopoulos, P. (DUNU Synchrotron Research Center, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1993-05-01

    A method to avoid the anticlastic bending of the second crystal in a two-crystal monochromator for synchrotron radiation is proposed. It is analytically shown that the anticlastic curvature is zero at the center of the crystal for a simply supported isotropic crystal loaded with a constant moment provided that the crystal's aspect ratio is equal to a 'golden value' dependent on the Poisson coefficient [nu]. For [nu]=0.262 (equal to [nu] in the Si(111) plane) this ratio is 2.360. Finite element results are presented on the case of the clamped crystal and show that there is a similar 'golden value' approximately equal to 1.42 for [nu]=0.262. (orig.).

  16. Characterization and quantification of cerebral edema induced by synchrotron x-ray microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serduc, Raphaël; van de Looij, Yohan; Francony, Gilles; Verdonck, Olivier; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Bravin, Alberto; Prezado, Yolanda; Segebarth, Christoph; Rémy, Chantal; Lahrech, Hana

    2008-03-01

    Cerebral edema is one of the main acute complications arising after irradiation of brain tumors. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique using spatially fractionated synchrotron x-rays, has been shown to spare radiosensitive tissues such as mammal brains. The aim of this study was to determine if cerebral edema occurs after MRT using diffusion-weighted MRI and microgravimetry. Prone Swiss nude mice's heads were positioned horizontally in the synchrotron x-ray beam and the upper part of the left hemisphere was irradiated in the antero-posterior direction by an array of 18 planar microbeams (25 mm wide, on-center spacing 211 mm, height 4 mm, entrance dose 312 Gy or 1000 Gy). An apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured at 7 T 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. Eventually, the cerebral water content (CWC) was determined by microgravimetry. The ADC and CWC in the irradiated (312 Gy or 1000 Gy) and in the contralateral non-irradiated hemispheres were not significantly different at all measurement times, with two exceptions: (1) a 9% ADC decrease (p disappear within a week after microbeam exposure which may confirm the normal tissue sparing effect of MRT. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org

  17. A first-order matrix approach to the analysis of electron beam emittance growth caused by coherent synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R

    2003-01-01

    A first-order transform matrix is proposed for calculating electron beam emittance dilution arising from coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in a next-generation light source based on an energy-recovery linac. The matrix approach enables us to scan numerous parameters for the design of achromatic cells of minimum emittance dilution. The emittance dilution can be minimized when the envelope of CSR wake dispersion matches the betatron function envelope at the achromatic cell exit. (author)

  18. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectrum study on K3C60 film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏年; 徐亚伯; 鲍世宁; 李海洋; 何丕模; 钱海杰; 刘风琴; 奎热西·易卜拉欣

    2000-01-01

    K3C60 single crystal film was prepared on the cleaved (111) surface of C60 single crystal. Synchrotron radiation angle-resolved photoemission spectra were measured at normal emission with sample temperature at - 150K. Up to four subpeaks of LUMO-derived band were observed. These sub-peaks exhibit distinct energy dispersions which resemble in general the theoretical ones calculated for K3C60 at low temperature with the so-called one-dimensional disordered structure. But there is large deviation of experimental sub-band intervals from the theoretical values. This result is meaningful for the studies of the physical properties of alkali-doped C60 solids, e.g. the mechanism for superconductivity.

  19. Synchrotron radiation study of the molecular xenon fluorescence around 2000 à

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutuit, O.; Castex, M. C.; Le Calvé, J.; Lavollée, M.

    1980-10-01

    Time-gated fluorescence spectra have been obtained in xenon excited by synchrotron radiation around the first resonance line. Evidence of the emission from the left turning point of the Xe2 excited Ou+ (3P1) potential curve is obtained between 2000 and 2100 Å for different excitation wavelengths. From our results, we propose an experimental potential curve for the Ou+ state with an equilibrium distance Re of 3.25 Å and a well depth De of 5000 cm-1. Franck-Condon factors have been calculated with this curve for the bound-free transitions between different vibrational levels of the Ou+ excited state and the Og+ ground state. They are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  20. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  1. Observation of intense terahertz-wave coherent synchrotron radiation at LEBRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Norihiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nakao, Keisuke; Sakai, Takeshi; Nogami, Kyoko; Inagaki, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    We observed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz region using an S-band linac at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application at Nihon University. The evolution of the CSR power was measured, and the CSR reflected in the vacuum chamber of the bending magnet could be extracted through the quartz window for a few tens of picoseconds. The long wave packet of the delayed CSR in the autocorrelation suggests that the delayed CSR was the non-resonant ring-down of the vacuum chamber of the bending magnet. To design a high-energy accelerator, it is necessary to decrease high-energy photons resulting from Compton backscattering with intense CSR.

  2. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  3. High purity 100 GeV electron identification with synchrotron radiation arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Depero, E.; Burtsev, V.; Chumakov, A.; Cooke, D.; Dermenev, A.V.; Donskov, S.V.; Dubinin, F.; Dusaev, R.R.; Emmenegger, S.; Fabich, A.; Frolov, V.N.; Gardikiotis, A.; Gninenko, S.N.; Hösgen, M.; Karneyeu, A.E.; Ketzer, B.; Kirsanov, M.M.; Konorov, I.V.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Kuleshov, S.V.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Lysan, V.; Matveev, V.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Myalkovskiy, V.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Polyakov, V.A.; Radics, B.; Rubbia, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tlisov, D.A.; Toropin, A.N.; Vasilishin, B.; Vasquez Arenas, G.; Ulloa, P.; Crivelli, P.

    In high energy experiments such as active beam dump searches for rare decays and missing energy events, the beam purity is a crucial parameter. In this paper we present a technique to reject heavy charged particle contamination in the 100 GeV electron beam of the H4 beam line at CERN SPS. The method is based on the detection with BGO scintillators of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the electrons passing through a bending dipole magnet. A 100 GeV $\\pi^-$ beam is used to test the method in the NA64 experiment resulting in a suppression factor of $10^{-5}$ while the efficiency for electron detection is $\\sim$95%. The spectra and the rejection factors are in very good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. The reported suppression factors are significantly better than previously achieved.

  4. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-11

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  5. A new experiment station on beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Zhao, Y. D.; Tang, K.; Ma, C. Y.; Hong, C. H.; Han, Y.; Cui, M. Q.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2014-11-01

    A new experiment station was installed on beamline 4B7A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), making it possible to record X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum in three modes over an energy range from 1750 eV to 6000 eV. A 13-element Si(Li) array detector and a single-element SDD detector were used to acquire data in partial fluorescence yield (PFY) mode. Two low-pressure noble gas ion chambers were adopted for measuring XAFS in transmission mode. In total electron yield (TEY) mode the current of sample is recorded. Solid, wet and liquid samples were suitable for this experimental station. Some representative results obtained from this station were shown and discussed.

  6. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  7. Mid infrared throughput with 5 mu m aperture for H sub 2 O determination of an andesitic glass. Comparison of synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8 with conventional light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T; Kagi, H; Handa, T; Yamashita, S; Ikemoto, Y; Moriwaki, T; Kimura, H

    2003-01-01

    Mid infrared throughput using 5 mu m apertures was investigate using micro-FTIR spectrometers with conventional light sources at two laboratories and the synchrotron radiation infrared (SR-IR) light source at SPring-8. With both the light sources micro-FTIR microscopy can analyze the fundamental O-H vibration in andesitic glass with 1 weight % H sub 2 O through 5 mu m apertures. Spectra obtained at SPring-8 show better relative standard deviations due to the brighter and more highly collimated nature of SR-IR compared to conventional light sources. The spectra with 100 and 1000 scans at SPring-8 have similar relative standard deviations to those with 1000 and 10200 scans, respectively, at laboratories. The successful analysis with 5 mu m apertures using both light sources shows the potential for an improvement in the spatial resolution of micro-FTIR analyses. (author)

  8. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  9. Design of a triple-bend isochronous achromat with minimum coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M.

    2016-06-01

    Using a 1D steady-state free-space coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) model, we identify a special design setting for a triple-bend isochronous achromat that yields vanishing emittance growth from CSR. When a more refined CSR model with transient effects is included in the analysis, numerical simulations show that the main effect of the transients is to shift the emittance growth minimum slightly, with the minimum changing only modestly.

  10. High-Resolution X-Ray Scattering Topography Using Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaura, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Kii, Hideki

    1994-02-01

    Although spatial resolution is the most essential factor determining the function of X-ray topography, it has not been improved in 30 years in spite of increasing requirements for highly-resolvable topography in materials science. X-ray scattering topography using a microbeam is a method capable of overcoming this resolution problem. Because the maximum resolution of an apparatus using a sealed-off tube is limited to 20 µ m, we designed and constructed scattering topography equipment using a synchrotron radiation microbeam. In the experiment, the slit system forms the microbeam 7 µ m in diameter. We observed a cellulose distribution in bamboo as a testing material. When the scanning step was 2 µ m, we attained spatial resolution less than 5 µ m.

  11. Microstructure analysis of the pulmonary acinus using a synchrotron radiation CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Y.; Minami, K.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Sakai, H.; Ohmatsu, H.; Itoh, H.

    2015-03-01

    Conversion of images at micro level of normal and with very early stage disease of the lung and quantitative analysis of morphology on CT image can contribute to the chest image diagnosis to the next generation. Previous, anatomy and pathology analysis of pulmonary lobule have been conducted to better understand the CT image of peripheral lung tissue disease. However, it is difficult to figure out three-dimensional (3D) conformation because of analyzing at the slice image. The purpose of this study is a 3D microstructual and quantitative analyses of pulmonary acinus with spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using a synchrotron radiation micro CT (SRμCT). In this paper, we present a semi-automatic method for segmenting the secondary pulmonary lobule into acinus or subacinus and extracting small vessel in human acinus imaged by the SRμCT.

  12. Application of a conic glass monocapillary in Beijing synchrotron radiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yude, E-mail: liyude@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fei; Liu, Shigang; He, JinLong; Zhao, Weilin; Sun, Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Zheng, Lirong; Gao, Zengqiang; Chang, Guangcai [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-08-01

    A conic glass monocapillary was developed and used at the Biological Macromolecules Station (BMS) in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The structure and transmission property of this optics is reported here in details. The experiments have shown that the value of full width at the half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray beams transmitted through this optics was nearly unchanged within a short distance. This is very convenient for further measurement of samples. The power diffraction experiments of CeO{sub 2} revealed that the Debye rings are much clearer in the case of applying this optics. The ratio of error in the diffraction peak position is reduced significantly to the value as less as 0.042%.

  13. Physical properties and biocompatibility of UHMWPE-derived materials modified by synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Iu; Weinhardt, V; Kashkarova, A; Lebedev, S; Baumbach, T; Pichugin, V; Zaitsev, K; Khlusov, I

    2014-08-01

    The applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) in medical imaging have become of great use, particularly in angiography, bronchography, mammography, computed tomography, and X-ray microscopy. Thanks to recently developed phase contrast imaging techniques non-destructive preclinical testing of low absorbing materials such as polymers has become possible. The focus of the present work is characterization and examination of UHMWPE-derived materials widely used in medicine, before and after their exposure to SR during such testing. Physical properties, such as wettability, surface energy, IR-spectroscopy, roughness, optical microscopy, microhardness measurements of UHMWPE samples were studied before and after SR. The relationship between a growth of UHMWPE surface hydrophilicity after SR and surface colonization by stromal cells was studied in vitro. Obtained results demonstrate that SR may be used as prospective direction to examine bulk (porous) structure of polymer materials and/or to modify polymer surface and volume for tissue engineering.

  14. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  15. Viewing the early stage of metal foam formation by computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfen, L. [Fraunhofer IZFP, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Baumbach, T. [Fraunhofer IZFP, D-01326 Dresden (Germany); Stanzick, H. [Fraunhofer IFAM, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Banhart, J. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Elmoutaouakkil, A.; Cloetens, P. [European Synchrotron Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2002-10-01

    Foamed aluminium alloy containing 7 wt.-% of Si is investigated by {mu}m-resolved X-ray computed tomography (CT) using synchrotron radiation. The foam is fabricated employing a powder metallurgical route. The evolution of foam microstructure is characterized by studying a series of samples representing different stages of foam expansion obtained by interrupting the foaming process for each sample at different foaming times. The computer tomographic reconstruction provides a 3D image of the pore structure as well as the spatial distribution of blowing agent particles. A statistical evaluation allows to determine the size distribution of the blowing agent and of the pores at different foaming stages. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Beam-machine interaction at TLEP : first evaluation and mitigation of the synchrotron radiation impact

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Ferrari, A; Mereghetti, A

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of post-LHC accelerator studies, TLEP is a proposed high-luminosity circular e+e- collider, aimed at measuring the properties of the Higgs boson H(126) with unprecedented accuracy, as well as those of the W boson, the Z boson and the top quark. In order to calculate the impact of synchrotron radiation, the latter has been implemented in the FLUKA code as new source term. A first account of escaping power as a function of the vacuum chamber shielding thickness, photoneutron production, and activation has been obtained for the 80 km circumference 175 GeV (beam energy) TLEP option. Starting from a preliminary layout of the FODO cell and a possible dipole design, energy deposition simulations have been carried out, investigating the effectiveness of absorbers in the interconnections. The results provide inputs to improve the cell design and to support mechanical integration studies

  17. Vacuum system design of the third generation synchrotron radiation source PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boespflug, R; Boster, J; Giesske, W; Keese, D; Koehler, R; Mildner, N; Nagorny, B; Naujoks, U; Remde, H; Schulz, E; Seidel, M; Tiessen, J; Wedekind, H P; Zapfe, K [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: boris.nagorny@desy.de

    2008-03-01

    Within the next two years the 2.3 km long storage ring PETRA will be rebuild into one of the most brilliant x-ray sources worldwide (PETRA III). The large bending radius and the use of damping wigglers allow to achieve small beam emittances and extremely brilliant x-ray beams. In this paper we describe the design and the expected performance of the vacuum system for the storage ring. It consists of standard arc sections, an experimental octant which is equipped with undulators and several straight sections that include the damping wigglers. Because of the long length of the storage ring a cost effective solution had to be found. Besides the requirement to quickly provide acceptable residual gas pressures the technical challenges of the system include the provision of high thermal stability with respect to magnets and BPM's, and the design of thin walled insertion device chambers as well as high power synchrotron radiation absorbers.

  18. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by coherent synchrotron radiation in triple-bend achromat

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiyang; Cui, Xiaohao; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect at a bending path plays an important role in transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders, where the electron beams are of short bunch length and of high peak current. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is essential and critical to preserve the beam quality and to help improve the machine performance. To evaluate the CSR effect analytically, we have proposed a novel method, which enabled us to obtain generic conditions of cancelling the CSR linear effect in a two-dipole achromat. In this paper, it illustrates that with this method the CSR-cancellation condition can be obtained for a TBA with symmetric layout, which is independent of concrete element parameters, and to a large extent, the initial beam distribution. Implementation of found condition in concrete optics design of a TBA is discussed, and the proposed condition is verified through numerical simulations.

  19. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenglin, Liu, E-mail: lclyctc@163.com [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang [Anatomy Department of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat.

  20. High frequency dynamics of BMG determined by synchrotron radiation: A microscopic picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Jorge, E-mail: jserrano@fa.upc.ed [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, Castelldefels (Spain); Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, EPSC, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Pineda, Eloi [Dept. de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Bruna, Pere [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, EPSC, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Labrador, Ana [LLS, BM16-ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Le Tacon, Mathieu; Krisch, Michael; Monaco, Giulio [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Crespo, Daniel [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada, EPSC, Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal Olimpic 15, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain)

    2010-04-16

    Mechanical properties are becoming the focus in research on bulk metallic glasses (BMG), as they are the limiting factor for structural applications. A wide range of experimental techniques gives complementary macroscopic data that are often difficult to correlate with the microscopic structural knowledge of the same materials. Recently, high resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) was applied to determine the high frequency dynamics of BMG [T. Scopigno, J.-B. Suck, R. Angelini, F. Albergamo, G. Ruocco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 135501]. This technique offers a new approach to the mechanic properties helping to bridge the gap between the microscopic and the macroscopic picture. Here we will present results of IXS experiments on bulk metallic glasses with different fragility values, obtained at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France).

  1. Application of a conic glass monocapillary in Beijing synchrotron radiation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fei; Liu, Shigang; He, JinLong; Zhao, Weilin; Sun, Tianxi; Zheng, Lirong; Gao, Zengqiang; Chang, Guangcai

    2014-08-01

    A conic glass monocapillary was developed and used at the Biological Macromolecules Station (BMS) in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The structure and transmission property of this optics is reported here in details. The experiments have shown that the value of full width at the half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray beams transmitted through this optics was nearly unchanged within a short distance. This is very convenient for further measurement of samples. The power diffraction experiments of CeO2 revealed that the Debye rings are much clearer in the case of applying this optics. The ratio of error in the diffraction peak position is reduced significantly to the value as less as 0.042%.

  2. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  3. Design report on the SSCL prototype 80 K Synchrotron Radiation Liner System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Q.S.; Barts, T.; Chou, W. [and others

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the effort to develop a viable design for an SSC prototype 80 K Synchrotron Radiation Liner System. This liner is designed to be tested in the Superconducting Super Collider Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility. The liner is one method under consideration to minimize the presence of photodesorbed gases in the particle beam line vacuum environment. Secondly, the liner is aimed at improving the Collider cryogenic thermal efficiency which would allow a potential luminosity upgrade. The SSC Collider is the first proton superconducting accelerator designed to operate at an energy of 20 TeV (each beam) and a beam current of 72 mA. The Collider will produce a synchrotron power of 0.14 W/m and a total of 18 kW into 4.2 K for the two rings. This radiated power may trigger a serious impact of photodesorbed gases on the operational availability of the Collider. The interaction between beam particle and photodesorbed gases may greatly reduce the beam lifetime and the scattered beam power may lead to quenching of the superconducting magnets. Collider availability may be unacceptable if this concern is not properly addressed. The liner is one method under consideration to minimize the presence of photodesorbed gases in the particle beam line vacuum. Secondly, the liner is aimed improving the Collider`s cryogenic thermal efficiency which would allow a potential luminosity upgrade. The ultimate goal is to require no more than one machine warm up per year for vacuum maintenance during operation of the SSC Collider.

  4. Using Synchrotron Radiation Microtomography to Investigate Multi-scale Three-dimensional Microelectronic Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Holly D; Elmer, John W; Li, Yan; Pacheco, Mario; Goyal, Deepak; Parkinson, Dilworth Y; MacDowell, Alastair A

    2016-04-13

    Synchrotron radiation micro-tomography (SRµT) is a non-destructive three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique that offers high flux for fast data acquisition times with high spatial resolution. In the electronics industry there is serious interest in performing failure analysis on 3D microelectronic packages, many which contain multiple levels of high-density interconnections. Often in tomography there is a trade-off between image resolution and the volume of a sample that can be imaged. This inverse relationship limits the usefulness of conventional computed tomography (CT) systems since a microelectronic package is often large in cross sectional area 100-3,600 mm(2), but has important features on the micron scale. The micro-tomography beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), in Berkeley, CA USA, has a setup which is adaptable and can be tailored to a sample's properties, i.e., density, thickness, etc., with a maximum allowable cross-section of 36 x 36 mm. This setup also has the option of being either monochromatic in the energy range ~7-43 keV or operating with maximum flux in white light mode using a polychromatic beam. Presented here are details of the experimental steps taken to image an entire 16 x 16 mm system within a package, in order to obtain 3D images of the system with a spatial resolution of 8.7 µm all within a scan time of less than 3 min. Also shown are results from packages scanned in different orientations and a sectioned package for higher resolution imaging. In contrast a conventional CT system would take hours to record data with potentially poorer resolution. Indeed, the ratio of field-of-view to throughput time is much higher when using the synchrotron radiation tomography setup. The description below of the experimental setup can be implemented and adapted for use with many other multi-materials.

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs were discussed.

  6. Evaluation of the degradation behavior of resorbable metal implants for in vivo osteosynthesis by synchrotron radiation based x-ray tomography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Silvia; Hammel, Jörg U.; Herzen, Julia; Damm, Timo; Jimbo, Ryo; Beckmann, Felix; Wennerberg, Ann; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium(Mg)-alloys are promising candidates as temporary implants for orthopedic and cranio-facial applications. They can sustain tissues during healing, thanks to favorable mechanical properties, and then they slowly degrade into biocompatible products, avoiding the need of a second surgery for implant removal. They have the potential to benefit a vast number of patients, especially children and elderly patients. However, to be able to tailor their degradation to match the speed of tissue regeneration it is crucial to understand how they actually degrade in the living organism. We utilized high-resolution synchrotron-based tomography at the beamline P05 operated by HZG at the storage ring PETRA III at DESY to study the degradation of 3 novel Mg-alloys in rat bone and the consequent bone response. On threedimensional reconstructions of the bone-implant explants we were able to follow the dynamic transformation that the materials underwent at different healing times and on the basis of absorption coefficients we could distinguish and quantify the amount of remaining implants, the corrosion layers and the new bone. This was a great advantage compared to laboratory CT, for which the limitation in contrast and in resolution made impossible to discriminate between original alloy, degradation products and bone, leading to inaccurate determination of the materials degradation rates. The same samples imaged by tomography were used for non-decalcified histology. The combination of histological and tomographical images provided new insight on the nature of the bone-to-implant interface and of the degradation products, which appeared to have great similarities to the host bone.

  7. X-ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J.; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Adler, Helmar G.

    2002-10-01

    We will report results from the imaging of Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge lamps using synchrotron radiation and digital detectors. These measurements extend previous work on x-ray absorption imaging in arc lamps using an x-ray tube and a passive phosphor image plate detector^i. The large x-ray flux obtained from the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) combined with the electronic gating capabilities of an intensified charge-coupled device detector have allowed us to obtain time-resolved Hg distributions with high spatial resolution. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation improves the accuracy over what can be obtained with quasi-continuum radiation from an x-ray tube source. ^iJ. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, Journal of Applied Physics 84, 3066 (1998).

  8. Study of the Synchrotron Radiation Emission from the NRL Modified Betatron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tab Jay

    1990-01-01

    Incoherent synchrotron radiation from a relativistic electron beam circulating in the magnetic field configuration of the NRL modified betatron accelerator has been studied numerically and experimentally. Numerical studies show that, for relativistic electron energies up to approximately 2 MeV, the single particle spectrum of radiation is dominated by a peak in the intensity distribution at the Doppler -shifted cyclotron frequency about the toroidal field. This intensity distribution very closely approximates the distribution for a linear helical electron trajectory with relativistic velocity along the axis of the helix. The radiated electric field oscillations, however, are 'modulated' due to the curvature of the major radius. As the electrons accelerate above an energy of a few MeV, the modulation width becomes so narrow that even the fast gyro-oscillation about the toroidal field produces no significant variation in the total radiated fields. Thus, the amplitude, polarization, and frequency content in the spectrum approaches that of a purely circular orbit. Experimental studies of the radiation have been conducted by monitoring the temporal evolution of radiated power during acceleration using fixed-frequency heterodyne receivers. Radiation was measured for electron beam energies in the range of 0.5 MeV to about 10 MeV, trapped beam currents up to approximately 500 A, and for values of toroidal guide field in the range of approximately 1900 to 3500 Gauss. At electron energies less than about 2 MeV, the polarization, amplitude, scaling with trapped beam current, and the temporal evolution of measured radiation during acceleration are in very good agreement with the predicted single particle spectrum. Furthermore, there is no evidence of collective emission at least within the frequency ranges 8 to 12 GHz and 26 to 40 GHz. The only significant discrepancy between the experimental and predicted results is the apparent absence of the horizontally polarized radiation

  9. Elemental distribution in brain of wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Oliveira, Luis F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Correa Junior, Jose D.; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the changes in the elemental distribution in brain rats, due the knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues have great importance since trace elements are involved in many biological functions of living organisms. For perform this research, Wistar rats with different ages (3, 48 and 72 weeks) were used. The microfluorescence measurements were carried out in a standard geometry of 45 deg/45 deg, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The following elements were studied: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn. Among these elements, Fe and Zn are related with Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, respectively. By the elemental maps, we can observe that the distribution of zinc was more pronounced in the hippocampus area, the distribution of iron was more conspicuous in the cortical region and bellows the thalamus and, moreover potassium and chlorine distributions were more present in the cortical area. Although, the small statistic, we can view that almost all measured elements are present in lower intensity in brains of rats with 3 weeks, and are usually the same for the other ages studied. (author)

  10. Facilities for small-molecule crystallography at synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Sarah A; Nowell, Harriott; Warren, Mark R; Wilcox, Andrian; Allan, David R

    2016-01-01

    Although macromolecular crystallography is a widely supported technique at synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world, there are, in comparison, only very few beamlines dedicated to small-molecule crystallography. This limited provision is despite the increasing demand for beamtime from the chemical crystallography community and the ever greater overlap between systems that can be classed as either small macromolecules or large small molecules. In this article, a very brief overview of beamlines that support small-molecule single-crystal diffraction techniques will be given along with a more detailed description of beamline I19, a dedicated facility for small-molecule crystallography at Diamond Light Source.

  11. EXAFS spectra using synchrotron radiation of Cu (II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninama, Samrath; Mishra, A.

    2016-10-01

    EXAFS analysis of Cu (II) complex as a ligand of 2-methyl-3-[(bis-aniline(R) phenyl]- 3H-1, 5 benzodiazepine. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have been recorded at the K-edge of Cu (II) using the energy dispersive EXAFS beam line at 2.5GeV Indus - 2 synchrotron source at RRCAT, Indore, India. A theoretical EXAFS data analysis is also carried out by Fourier analysis of experimental EXAFS data of the copper (II) complexes. This analysis includes details of the Fourier transform of the data and the extraction of metal-ligand bond length. Bond lengths determined from data analysis methods are compared with the bond lengths obtained from several other known techniques, namely, Levy's, Lytle's and Lytle, Sayers and Stern's (LSS) methods. These data have also been calibrated by derivative method and bond lengths have also been obtained from Fourier transformation method and the results have been compared with the each other. The EXAFS data have been analyzed using the computer software Athena.

  12. Elemental mapping by synchrotron radiation X-Ray microfluorescence in cellular spheroid of prostate tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R.G.; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Santos, C.A.N. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Palumbo Junior, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Nasciutti, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Pereira, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos, Corrosao e Soldagem

    2013-08-15

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and the third most common in males in Western industrialized countries. Cellular spheroid serves as excellent physiologic tumor models as they mimic avascular tumors and micrometastases. Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. They are capable of affecting human health by competing with essential elements for available binding sites and by the activation or inhibition of reactions between metabolic enzymes. It is well known that zinc levels in the peripheral zone of dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate are almost 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Prostate tumor cells were isolated of the prostate tissue samples that were collected from patients submitted to surgery. The measurements were performed in XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. The results showed that all elements were heterogeneously distributed in different areas of the spheroids analyzed. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed while K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution. In all spheroids analyzed, Zn presented more intense distributions in the central region of the spheroid. The relationship between the function of Zn in the secretory epithelial cells and the carcinogenic process suggests that more studies on elemental mapping in spheroids are necessary. (author)

  13. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Synchrotron and small bio-molecules in gas phase and liquid environment: new opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naves de Brito, A. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Two techniques are critically related to the photoelectric law, namely: photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy. Both are strongly used now a day within synchrotron laboratories. Our group is employing both to investigate fragmentation of bio-molecules in gas phase such as amino acids and DNA basis using V UV and soft x-ray photons. In the near future lager scale instruments developed in Brazil will allow unique opportunities to apply these two spectroscopic methods to molecules immersed in liquids such as water. We will present details from this advanced x-ray source and experimental stations with capabilities not present in other places in the world. Experiments connected to the molecular origin of live will be shown. Among them an experiment where we mimic the atmosphere at Titan moon producing bio- molecules will discussed. Another experiment will be presented where we test the Panspermia viability using special bacteria. We will also present experiments where frozen simple molecules connected to pre-biotic mate- rial are bombardment by UV photons and energetic particles showing interesting trends. Spectroscopic studies of gas phase photo-fragmentation of bio-molecules may be critical to understand in the future these molecules immersed in liquids. We plan to spend some time showing our recent results in this area. (author)

  15. Beam Diagnostics for the J-PARC Main Ring Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Toyama, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Naoki; Kishiro, Junichi; Lee, Seishu; Miura, Takako; Muto, Suguru; Toyokawa, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Beam diagnostics: beam intensity monitors (DCCT, SCT, FCT, WCM), beam position monitors (ESM), beam loss monitors (proportional chamber, air ion chamber), beam profile monitors (secondary electron emission, gas-sheet) have been designed, tested, and will be installed for the Main Ring synchrotron of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This paper describes the basic design principle and specification of each monitor, with a stress on how to cope with high power beam (average circulation current of ~12 A) and low beam loss operation (less than 1 W/m except a collimator region). Some results of preliminary performance test using present beams and a radiation source will be reported.

  16. [Investigation of characteristic microstructures of adhesive interface in wood/bamboo composite material by synchrotron radiation X-ray phase contrast microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guan-Yun; Wang, Yu-Rong; Ren, Hai-Qing; Yang, Shu-Min; Ma, Hong-Xia; Xie, Hong-Lan; Deng, Biao; Du, Guo-Hao; Xiao, Ti-Qiao

    2013-03-01

    Third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray phase-contrast microscopy(XPCM)can be used for obtaining image with edge enhancement, and achieve the high contrast imaging of low-Z materials with the spatial coherence peculiarity of X-rays. In the present paper, the characteristic microstructures of adhesive at the interface and their penetration in wood/bamboo composite material were investigated systematically by XPCM at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). And the effect of several processing techniques was analyzed for the adhesive penetration in wood/bamboo materials. The results show that the synchrotron radiation XPCM is expected to be one of the important precision detection methods for wood-based panels.

  17. Status and future trends of radiation processing in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Andrade, E.; Silva, L. G.

    1998-06-01

    Electron-beam and gamma irradiation of polymers are widely applied in Brazil today. The main applications are: - radio-induced crosslinking of wire and cable for automobile and appliance industry; - heat shrinkable tubes for appliance, automobile and electronic; - heat shrinkable packing for food processing industry; - sterilization of medical supplies and so on. Nevertheless, there are only a few industrial facilities about 20 years old in full operation at present and there are some new low energy machines for food packing. The reason for such absence of investment in this area was studied and the relation between automobile and appliance production with radiation processing was fully demonstrated for Brazil case. In conclusion, it was shown that the industry of radiation processing of polymers is likely to experience a strong growth based on the continuous increase in the production of automobiles and appliances. The R&D activities of IPEN are an important support for developing the necessary technology and developing the necessary confidence in the radiation as tool for economical and social growth.

  18. Sub-nanosecond, time-resolved, broadband infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, R; Reitze, D H; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L

    2001-01-01

    A facility for sub-nanosecond time-resolved (pump-probe) infrared spectroscopy has been developed at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. A mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser produces 2 ps duration, tunable near-IR pump pulses synchronized to probe pulses from a synchrotron storage ring. The facility is unique on account of the broadband infrared from the synchrotron, which allows the entire spectral range from 2 cm-1 (0.25 meV) to 20,000 cm-1 (2.5 eV) to be probed. A temporal resolution of 200 ps, limited by the infrared synchrotron-pulse duration, is achieved. A maximum time delay of 170 ns is available without gating the infrared detector. To illustrate the performance of the facility, a measurement of electron-hole recombination dynamics for an HgCdTe semiconductor film in the far- and mid infrared range is presented.

  19. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  20. Photoelectron and photodissociation studies of free atoms and molecules, using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhurst, L.J.

    1991-11-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation and Zero-Kinetic-Energy Photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study two-electron transitions in atomic systems at their ionization thresholds. Using this same technique the core-ionized mainline and satellite states of N{sub 2} and CO were studied with vibrational resolution. Vibrationally resolved synchrotron radiation was used to study the dissociation of N{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and CH{sub 3}Cl near the N 1s and C 1s thresholds. The photoelectron satellites of the argon 3s, krypton 4s and xenon 4d subshells were studied with zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy at their ionization thresholds. In all of these cases, satellites with lower binding energies are enhanced at their thresholds while those closer to the double ionization threshold are suppressed relative to their intensities at high incident light energies.