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Sample records for brazil lab for synchrotron radiation

  1. Sirepo for Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-25

    Sirepo is an open source framework for cloud computing. The graphical user interface (GUI) for Sirepo, also known as the client, executes in any HTML5 compliant web browser on any computing platform, including tablets. The client is built in JavaScript, making use of the following open source libraries: Bootstrap, which is fundamental for cross-platform web applications; AngularJS, which provides a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture and GUI components; and D3.js, which provides interactive plots and data-driven transformations. The Sirepo server is built on the following Python technologies: Flask, which is a lightweight framework for web development; Jinja, which is a secure and widely used templating language; and Werkzeug, a utility library that is compliant with the WSGI standard. We use Nginx as the HTTP server and proxy, which provides a scalable event-driven architecture. The physics codes supported by Sirepo execute inside a Docker container. One of the codes supported by Sirepo is the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). SRW computes synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons in arbitrary magnetic fields and propagates the radiation wavefronts through optical beamlines. SRW is open source and is primarily supported by Dr. Oleg Chubar of NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  2. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal (Naperville, IL); Lewellen, John (Plainfield, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Vinokurov, Nikolai (Novosibirsk, RU)

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  3. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  4. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Paquin, R.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop{trademark}, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research.

  5. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  6. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  7. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  8. Imaging using synchrotron radiation for forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, F.; Carrato, S.; Mattei, A.; Jerian, M.; Benevoli, L.; Mancini, L.; Zanini, F.; Vaccari, L.; Perucchi, A.; Aquilanti, G.

    2011-03-01

    Forensic science is already taking benefits from synchrotron radiation (SR) sources in trace evidence analysis. In this contribution we show a multi-technique approach to study fingerprints from the morphological and chemical point of view using SR based techniques such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRMS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption structure (XAS), and phase contrast microradiography. Both uncontaminated and gunshot residue contaminated human fingerprints were deposited on lightly doped silicon wafers and on poly-ethylene-terephthalate foils. For the uncontaminated fingerprints an univariate approach of functional groups mapping to model FT-IRMS data was used to get the morphology and the organic compounds map. For the gunshot residue contaminated fingerprints, after a preliminary elemental analysis using XRF, microradiography just below and above the absorption edge of the elements of interest has been used to map the contaminants within the fingerprint. Finally, XAS allowed us to determine the chemical state of the different elements. The next step will be fusing the above information in order to produce an exhaustive and easily understandable evidence.

  9. Studies Of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation And Longitudinal Space Charge In The Jefferson Lab FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tsai, C.-Y. [Virginia Polytechnic University

    2014-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL Driver provides an ideal test bed for studying a variety of beam dynamical effects. Recent studies focused on characterizing the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with the goal of benchmarking measurements with simulation. Following measurements to characterize the beam, we quantitatively characterized energy extraction via CSR by measuring beam position at a dispersed location as a function of bunch compression. In addition to operating with the beam on the rising part of the linac RF waveform, measurements were also made while accelerating on the falling part. For each, the full compression point was moved along the backleg of the machine and the response of the beam (distribution, extracted energy) measured. Initial results of start-to-end simulations using a 1D CSR algorithm show remarkably good agreement with measurements. A subsequent experiment established lasing with the beam accelerated on the falling side of the RF waveform in conjunction with positive momentum compaction (R56) to compress the bunch. The success of this experiment motivated the design of a modified CEBAF-style arc with control of CSR and microbunching effects.

  10. Generic radiation safety design for SSRL synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C. [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)]. E-mail: james@slac.stanford.edu; Fasso, Alberto [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Khater, Hesham [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Prinz, Alyssa [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rokni, Sayed [Radiation Protection Department, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), MS 48, P.O. Box 20450, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    To allow for a conservative, simple, uniform, consistent, efficient radiation safety design for all SSRL beamlines, a generic approach has been developed, considering both synchrotron radiation (SR) and gas bremsstrahlung (GB) hazards. To develop the methodology and rules needed for generic beamline design, analytic models, the STAC8 code, and the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to pre-calculate sets of curves and tables that can be looked up for each beamline safety design. Conservative beam parameters and standard targets and geometries were used in the calculations. This paper presents the SPEAR3 beamline parameters that were considered in the design, the safety design considerations, and the main pre-calculated results that are needed for generic shielding design. In the end, the rules and practices for generic SSRL beamline design are summarized.

  11. Microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolfree, D.W.L. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    The realization of precision deep microstructures requires high-energy, intense parallel beams of x-rays from synchrotron radiation sources and novel process technology. Deep x-ray lithography with synchrotron radiation is basically a shadow printing process in which a two-dimensional pattern is accurately transferred from a mask into a resist material by chemical changes induced by the radiation. Subsequent electroforming and moulding processes are used to manufacture microstructures from metals, plastics and ceramics. This process, known as LIGA (LIthographie, Galvanoformung, and Abformung), first developed in Germany, is based on a combination of lithography, electroforming and replication processes. The development of the LIGA process for the fabrication of a wide range of precision microstructures has been stimulated by the increasing use of synchrotron radiation sources for lithography. Applications for microstructures exist in many sectors of industry. These include chemical and process engineering, biomedical instrumentation, automotive and aerospace technology, environmental monitoring and information technology. Emphasis is placed on three main areas, micromechanics, micro-optics and microfluidics, which are emerging with the widest range of industrial applications. This paper reviews the progress being made in microfabrication technology using x-ray beam lithography and the LIGA process. It includes a description of synchrotron radiation, storage ring sources, the fabrication processes, applications and potential markets. Reference is also made to European networks and R and D activity worldwide. (author)

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  13. HSC5: synchrotron radiation and neutrons for cultural heritage studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Anne [Institut Neel - CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Artioli, G. [Padova Univ. (Italy); Bleuet, P.; Cotte, M.; Tafforeau, P.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Dumas, P.; Somogyl, A. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cotte, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR171, 75 - Paris (France)]|[European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Kockelmann, W. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Lab. (United Kingdom); Kolar, J. [Ljubljana Univ., Morana RTD, Slovenia, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Areon, I. [Nova Gorica Univ. (Slovenia); Meden, A.; Strlie, M. [Ljubljana Univ., Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Slovenia); Pantos, M. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Vendrell, M. [Barcelona Univ., dept. of Crystallography and Mineralogy (Spain); Wess, T. [Cardiff Univ., School of Optometry and Institute of Vision (Ireland); Gunneweg, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron and neutron sources offer recent and additional insight into the records of our cultural past. Over the last years, there has been an increasing demand for access to synchrotron radiation- and neutron-based techniques, and their applications in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. The purpose of this Hercules Specialized Course is to give the participants an introduction to the basic principles of synchrotron radiation and neutron techniques (imaging, microscopy, diffraction, absorption and fluorescence, IR spectroscopy). The school provides cross-disciplinary examples illustrating the abilities of these techniques in a representative range of scientific cases concerning painting, archaeological artefacts, inks, pigments, fossils and the Dead Sea scrolls. This document gathers only the resumes of the lectures.

  14. CCD detectors for X-ray synchrotron radiation application

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, M G

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of the application of some types of CCDs for the study of fast processes (by recording an image formed by a short flash of synchrotron radiation) is considered. The first results of model experiments are also described.

  15. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  16. Putting synchrotron radiation to work for technology: Analytic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on: Advanced Light Source; Ultra-ESCA: Advanced Capabilities of XPS with High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation; High-Resolution (20 nm) XPS and XANES with the ALS; Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Industry: Current Capabilities, Needs, and Possible Roles for the ALS; Materials Analysis by Photoemission: Is This Practical at ALS?; Applications of Long-Wavelength X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry.

  17. Putting synchrotron radiation to work for technology: Analytic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on: Advanced Light Source; Ultra-ESCA: Advanced Capabilities of XPS with High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation; High-Resolution (20 nm) XPS and XANES with the ALS; Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Industry: Current Capabilities, Needs, and Possible Roles for the ALS; Materials Analysis by Photoemission: Is This Practical at ALS ; Applications of Long-Wavelength X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry.

  18. In situ electrochemical synchrotron radiation for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Tibebu; Wang, Fu Ming

    2018-01-01

    Observing the electronic structure, compositional change and morphological evolution of the surface and interface of a battery during operation provides essential information for developing new electrode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs); this is because such observations demonstrate the fundamental reactions occurring inside the electrode materials. Moreover, obtaining detailed data on chemical phase changes and distributions by analyzing an operating LIB is the most effective method for exploring the intercalation/de-intercalation process, kinetics and the relationship between phase change or phase distribution and battery performance, as well as for further optimizing the material synthesis routes for advanced battery materials. However, most conventional in situ electrochemical techniques (other than by using synchrotron radiation) cannot clearly or precisely demonstrate structural change, electron valence change and chemical mapping information. In situ electrochemical-synchrotron radiation techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and transmission X-ray microscopy can deliver accurate information regarding LIBs. This paper reviews studies regarding various applications of in situ electrochemical-synchrotron radiation such as crystallographic transformation, oxidation-state changes, characterization of the solid electrolyte interphase and Li-dendrite growth mechanism during the intercalation/de-intercalation process. The paper also presents the findings of previous review articles and the future direction of these methods.

  19. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Materlik, G.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray synchrotron radiation became a powerful tool for studies of condensed matter, and in view of that a proposal for the construction of a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) was elaborated in some detail by the European Synchrotron Radiation Project. The heart...... by a great flexibility and a small emittance (7×10−9 rad m) leading to a very high brilliance (1019 photons/(s mm2 mrad2) in a relative bandwidth of 0.1% in case of a 1 Å undulator). The overview, as seen from the users point of view, gives a brief account of the storage ring, emitted radiation...

  20. Synchrotron radiation backgrounds for the FCC-hh experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collamati, F.; Boscolo, M.; Burkhardt, H.; Kersevan, R.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the Synchrotron Radiation emitted by the 50 TeV protons of the FCC-hh in the last bending and quadrupole magnets upstream of the interaction region. We discuss the characteristics of this radiation in terms of power, flux, photon spectrum and fans with and without crossing angle for comparison. We mainly focus our study on the fraction of photons that may hit the detector, with a full tracking in GEANT4 that simulates the interaction within the central beam pipe.

  1. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distributions for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, G H I; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  3. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distribution for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, GHI; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  4. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1987-12-31

    1986 was another year of major advances for SSRL as the ultimate capabilities of PEP as a synchrotron radiation source became more apparent and a second PEP beam line was initiated, while effective development and utilization of SPEAR proceeded. Given these various PEP developments, SSRL abandoned its plans for a separate diffraction limited ring, as they abandoned their plans for a 6--7 GeV ring of the APS type last year. It has become increasingly apparent that SSRL should concentrate on developing SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources. Consequently, initial planning for a 3 GeV booster synchrotron injector for SPEAR was performed in 1986, with a proposal to the Department of Energy resulting. As described in Chapter 2, the New Rings Group and the Machine Physics Group were combined into one Accelerator Physics Group. This group is focusing mainly on the improvement of SPEAR`s operating conditions and on planning for the conversion of PEP into a fourth generation x-ray source. Considerable emphasis is also being given to the training of accelerator physics graduate students. At the same time, several improvements of SSRL`s existing facilities were made. These are described in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes new SSRL beam lines being commissioned. Chapter 5 discusses SSRL`s present construction projects. Chapter 6 discusses a number of projects presently underway in the engineering division. Chapter 7 describes SSRL`s advisory panels while Chapter 8 discusses SSRL`s overall organization. Chapter 9 describes the experimental progress reports.

  5. Synchrotron Radiation and Faraday Rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, George

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and its degree of linear polarization are powerful tracers of magnetic fields that are illuminated by cosmic ray electrons. Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized radiation is induced by intervening line-of-sight magnetic fields that are embedded in ionized plasmas. For

  6. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    For SSRL operations, 1988 was a year of stark contrasts. The first extended PEP parasitic running since the construction of our two beam lines on that storage ring took place in November and December. Four experiments discussed below, were performed and detailed operational procedures which allowed synchrotron radiation an high energy users to coexist were established. SSRL anticipates that there will be significant amounts of beam time when PEP is run again for high energy physics. On the other hand, activity on SPEAR consisted of brief parasitic running on the VUV lines in December when the ring was operated at 1.85 GeV for colliding beam experiments. There was no dedicated SPEAR running throughout the entire calendar year. This is the first time since dedicated SPEAR operation was initiated in 1980 that there was no such running. The decision was motivated by both cost and performance factors, as discussed in Section 1 of this report. Fortunately, SLAC and SSRL have reached an agreement on SPEAR and PEP dedicated time charges which eliminates the cost volatility which was so important in the cancellation of the June-July dedicated SPEAR run. As discussed in Section 2, the 3 GeV SPEAR injector construction is proceeding on budget and on schedule. The injector will overcome the difficulties associated with the SLC-era constraint of only two injections per day. SSR and SLAC have also embarked on a program to upgrade SPEAR to achieve high reliability and performance. As a consequence, SSRL`s users may anticipate a highly effective SPEAR by 1991, at the latest. At that time, SPEAR is expected to be fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research and operated by SSRL. Also contained in this report is a discussion of the improvements to SSRL`s experimental facilities and highlights of the experiments of the past year.

  7. Simple method for particle tracking with coherent synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borland

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR is of great interest to those designing accelerators as drivers for free-electron lasers (FELs. Although experimental evidence is incomplete, CSR is predicted to have potentially severe effects on the emittance of high-brightness electron beams. The performance of an FEL depends critically on the emittance, current, and energy spread of the beam. Attempts to increase the current through magnetic bunch compression can lead to increased emittance and energy spread due to CSR in the dipoles of such a compressor. The code elegant was used for design and simulation of the bunch compressor [M. Borland et al., in Proceedings of the 2000 Linear Accelerator Conference, Monterey, CA (SLAC, Menlo Park, CA, 2001, p. 863] for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL FEL [S. V. Milton et al., Phys. Rev. Let. 85, 988 (1999] at the Advanced Photon Source (APS. In order to facilitate this design, a fast algorithm was developed based on the 1D formalism of Saldin and co-workers [E. L. Saldin, E. A. Schneidmiller, and M. V. Yurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 398, 373 (1997]. In addition, a method of including CSR effects in drift spaces following the chicane magnets was developed and implemented. The algorithm is fast enough to permit running hundreds of tolerance simulations including CSR for 50 000 particles. This article describes the details of the implementation and shows results for the APS bunch compressor.

  8. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  9. Cadmium-zinc telluride detector arrays for synchrotron radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuno, Edson M.; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Siddons, D. P.

    2004-01-01

    We have begun a program to develop CZT-based detectors optimized for Synchrotron Radiation (SR) applications. SR provides high brightness beams of hard x-rays, typically in the range 5-100keV. Below 10keV, Peltier-cooled silicon detector arrays can provide high throughput with good spectroscopic resolution. At higher energies, only cryo-cooled germanium detectors or scintillation counters are available. Neither are easily available in large arrays, and scintillation counters lack energy resolution. CZT offers a solution to both these problems. Our development has focused on surface preparation and contact definition technologies which minimize device leakage currents while allowing high-definition contact patterns suitable for SR applications. We have used SR also for diagnostic purposes in these developments, both for detector testing and material characterization. X-ray diffraction, Infrared microscopy and photoemission are all relevant SR-based tools which we are using in our work. As an example, we have observed that bromine remains attached to the CZT surface after chemical etching, and is remarkably persistent in the face of surface cleaning and argon ion sputtering, as revealed by photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Multichannel FPGA-Based Data-Acquisition-System for Time-Resolved Synchrotron Radiation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Hyeokmin; Gorfman, Semen; Heidbrink, Stefan; Pietsch, Ullrich; Vogt, Marco; Winter, Jens; Ziolkowski, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this contribution is to describe our recent development of a novel compact field-programmable gatearray (FPGA)-based data acquisition (DAQ) system for use with multichannel X-ray detectors at synchrotron radiation facilities. The system is designed for time resolved counting of single photons arriving from several-currently 12-independent detector channels simultaneously. Detector signals of at least 2.8 ns duration are latched by asynchronous logic and then synchronized with the system clock of 100 MHz. The incoming signals are subsequently sorted out into 10 000 time-bins where they are counted. This occurs according to the arrival time of photons with respect to the trigger signal. Repeatable mode of triggered operation is used to achieve high statistic of accumulated counts. The time-bin width is adjustable from 10 ns to 1 ms. In addition, a special mode of operation with 2 ns time resolution is provided for two detector channels. The system is implemented in a pocketsize FPGA-based hardware of 10 cm × 10 cm × 3 cm and thus can easily be transported between synchrotron radiation facilities. For setup of operation and data read-out, the hardware is connected via USB interface to a portable control computer. DAQ applications are provided in both LabVIEW and MATLAB environments.

  11. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  12. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  13. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  14. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory activity report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.; Cantwell, K. [eds.

    1988-12-31

    During 1987, SSRL achieved many significant advances and reached several major milestones utilizing both SPEAR and PEP as synchrotron radiation sources as described in this report. Perhaps the following two are worthy of particular mention: (1) SPEAR reached an all time high of 4,190 delivered user-shifts during calendar year 1987, highlights of the many scientific results are given; (2) during a 12 day run in December of 1987, PEP was operated in a low emittance mode (calculated emittance 6.4 nanometer-radians) at 7.1 GeV with currents up to 33 mA. A second undulator beam line on PEP was commissioned during this run and used to record many spectra showing the extremely high brightness of the radiation. PEP is now by far the highest brightness synchrotron radiation source in the world. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) laboratory operations; (2) accelerator physics programs; (3) experimental facilities; (4) engineering division; (5) conferences and workshops; (6) SSRL organization; (7) experimental progress reports; (8) active proposals; (9) SSRL experiments and proposals by institution; and (10) SSRL publications.

  15. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

  16. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  17. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Activity report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The April, 1990 SPEAR synchrotron radiation run was one of the two or three best in SSRL`s history. High currents were accumulated, ramping went easily, lifetimes were long, beam dumps were infrequent and the average current was 42.9 milliamps. In the one month of operation, 63 different experiments involving 208 scientists from 50 institutions received beam. The end-of-run summary forms completed by the experimenters indicated high levels of user satisfaction with the beam quality and with the outstanding support received from the SSRL technical and scientific staffs. These fine experimental conditions result largely from the SPEAR repairs and improvements performed during the past year and described in Section I. Also quite significant was Max Cornacchia`s leadership of the SLAG staff. SPEAR`s performance this past April stands in marked contrast to that of the January-March, 1989 run which is also described in Section I. It is, we hope, a harbinger of the operation which will be provided in FY `91, when the SPEAR injector project is completed and SPEAR is fully dedicated to synchrotron radiation research. Over the coming years, SSRL intends to give highest priority to increasing the effectiveness of SPEAR and its various beam lines. The beam line and facility improvements performed during 1989 are described in Section III. In order to concentrate effort on SSRL`s three highest priorities prior to the March-April run: (1) to have a successful run, (2) to complete and commission the injector, and (3) to prepare to operate, maintain and improve the SPEAR/injector system, SSRL was reorganized. In the new organization, all the technical staff is contained in three groups: Accelerator Research and Operations Division, Injector Project and Photon Research and Operations Division, as described in Section IV. In spite of the limited effectiveness of the January-March, 1989 run, SSRL`s users made significant scientific progress, as described in Section V of this report.

  18. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing.

  19. Design of imaginary transition gamma booster synchrotron for the Jefferson Lab EIC (JLEIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Baseline design of the JLEIC booster synchrotron is presented. Its aim is to inject and accumulate heavy ions and protons at 285 MeV, to accelerate them to about 7 GeV, and finally to extract the beam into the ion collider ring. The Figure-8 ring features two 2600 achromatic arcs configured with negative momentum compaction optics, designed to avoid transition crossing for all ion species during the course of acceleration. The lattice also features a specialized high dispersion injection insert optimized to facilitate the transverse phase-space painting in both planes for multi-turn ion injection. Furthermore, the lattice has been optimized to ease chromaticity correction with two families of sextupoles in each plane. The booster ring is configured with super-ferric, 3 Tesla bends. We are presently launching optimization of the booster synchrotron design to operate in the extreme space-charge dominated regime.

  20. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization. (LEW)

  1. An assessment of research opportunities and the need for synchrotron radiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The workshop focused on six topics, all of which are areas of active research: (1) speciation, reactivity and mobility of contaminants in aqueous systems, (2) the role of surfaces and interfaces in molecular environmental science, (3) the role of solid phases in molecular environmental science, (4) molecular biological processes affecting speciation, reactivity, and mobility of contaminants in the environment, (5) molecular constraints on macroscopic- and field-scale processes, and (6) synchrotron radiation facilities and molecular environmental sciences. These topics span a range of important issues in molecular environmental science. They focus on the basic knowledge required for understanding contaminant transport and fate and for the development of science-based remediation and waste management technologies. Each topic was assigned to a working group charged with discussing recent research accomplishments, significant research opportunities, methods required for obtaining molecular-scale information on environmental contaminants and processes, and the value of synchrotron x-ray methods relative to other methods in providing this information. A special working group on synchrotron radiation facilities was convened to provide technical information about experimental facilities at the four DOE-supported synchrotron radiation sources in the US (NSLS, SSRL, AS and UPS) and synchrotron- based methods available for molecular environmental science research. Similar information on the NSF-funded Cornell High Energy synchrotron Source (CHESS) was obtained after the workshop was held.

  2. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  3. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  4. A single-photon counting “edge-on” silicon detector for synchrotron radiation mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, L.; Arfelli, F.; Astolfo, A.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dreossi, D.; Longo, R.; Menk, R.-H.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2009-09-01

    The Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn (PICASSO) project is developing an "edge-on" silicon microstrip detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation. The sensor is equipped with a fast single-photon counting electronics based on the Mythen-II application-specific integrated circuit. A first prototype has been assembled and tested at the SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline at Elettra in Trieste, Italy. The first results are presented in this study including evidence of high-rate single-photon counting with negligible losses up to 1.2×10 6 incident photons per pixel per second; spatial resolution consistent with the pixel aperture (0.3 mm×0.05 mm); high-quality imaging of test-objects, obtained with a dose comparable to the one delivered in modern full-field digital mammographic systems.

  5. Study of Synchrotron Radiation for the Electron Beam Polarimeter for the MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-06

    This is a look at the synchrotron radiation coming from the chicane in the electron beam line for the MEIC design. The power density on the beam pipe as well as transmission through the beam pipe is studied. The optics design is version 12.

  6. The First Pulse of the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A: A Test Lab for Synchrotron Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, R.; Burgess, J. Michael; von Kienlin, A.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Byrne, D.; Chaplin, V.; Cleveland, W.; Collazzi, A. C.; Connaughton, V.; Diekmann, A.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gibby, M.; Giles, M.; Goldstein, A.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Tierney, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Xiong, S.; Younes, G.; Yu, H.-F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Iyyani, S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sartori, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 seconds is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.

  7. The first pulse of the extremely bright GRB 130427A: a test lab for synchrotron shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, R; Burgess, J Michael; von Kienlin, A; Bhat, P N; Briggs, M S; Byrne, D; Chaplin, V; Cleveland, W; Collazzi, A C; Connaughton, V; Diekmann, A; Fitzpatrick, G; Foley, S; Gibby, M; Giles, M; Goldstein, A; Greiner, J; Gruber, D; Jenke, P; Kippen, R M; Kouveliotou, C; McBreen, S; Meegan, C; Paciesas, W S; Pelassa, V; Tierney, D; van der Horst, A J; Wilson-Hodge, C; Xiong, S; Younes, G; Yu, H-F; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bonamente, E; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Granot, J; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Iyyani, S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Kawano, T; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Nymark, T; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Racusin, J L; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sartori, A; Scargle, J D; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Zhu, S

    2014-01-03

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A is one of the most energetic GRBs ever observed. The initial pulse up to 2.5 seconds is possibly the brightest well-isolated pulse observed to date. A fine time resolution spectral analysis shows power-law decays of the peak energy from the onset of the pulse, consistent with models of internal synchrotron shock pulses. However, a strongly correlated power-law behavior is observed between the luminosity and the spectral peak energy that is inconsistent with curvature effects arising in the relativistic outflow. It is difficult for any of the existing models to account for all of the observed spectral and temporal behaviors simultaneously.

  8. Realistic Approach for Beam Dynamics Simulation with Synchrotron Radiation in High Energy Circular Lepton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Glukhov, S A

    2017-01-01

    In extremely high energy circular lepton colliders, correct consideration of synchrotron radiation is important for beam dynamics simulation. We developed a fast precise effective method to track particles in a realistic lattice when the radiation effects are distributed along the orbit. In the present paper we study an effect of decreasing dynamic aperture due to radiation from quadrupole lenses in the FCC-ee lepton collider.

  9. Extended one-dimensional method for coherent synchrotron radiation including shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sagan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coherent synchrotron radiation can severely limit the performance of accelerators designed for high brightness and short bunch length. Examples include light sources based on energy recovery LINAC or free-electron lasers, and bunch compressors for linear colliders. In order to better simulate coherent synchrotron radiation, a one-dimensional formalism due to Saldin, Schneidmiller, and Yurkov has been implemented in the general beam dynamics code Bmad. Wide vacuum chambers are simulated by means of vertical image charges. Results from Bmad are here compared to analytical approximations, to numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations, and to the simulation code elegant and the code of Agoh and Yokoya.

  10. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems.

  11. Precision Calibration of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, A A; Maslova, M V

    2003-01-01

    The technique of calibration of synchrotron radiation precision detectors on a tungsten source based on similarity (close similarity) of character of spectral distributions of synchrotron and thermal radiations is given. The characteristics of various commonly used lamps, used as "standard" ones, are given. The errors of measurements are analyzed. The detectors are intended for absolute measurements of the number of electrons in a ring-shaped bunch.

  12. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  13. Construction and Performance of Superconducting Magnets for Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ching-Shiang; Chang, Cheng-Kuo; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chen Chien Te; Chen Hui Huang; Chen, Jenny; Chen June Rong; Chien, Yuan-Chen; Fan, Tai-Ching; Hsiung, Gao-Yu; Hsu, Kuo-Tung; Hsu, Shen-Nung; Huang, Ming-Hsiung; Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Lin, Fu-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Two superconducting magnets, one wavelength shifter (SWLS) with a field of 5 T and one wiggler (SW6) with a field of 3.2 T, were constructed and routinely operated at NSRRC for generating synchrotron x-rays. In addition, three multipole wigglers (IASW) with fields of 3.1 T will be constructed and installed each in the three achromatic short straight sections. A warm beam duct of 20 mm inner gap and a 1.5 W GM type cryo-cooler were chosen for the SWLS to achieve cryogen-free operation. For the SW6, a cold beam duct of 11 mm inner gap was kept at 100 K temperature and no trim coil compensation is necessary for its operation. Meanwhile, no beam loss was observed when the SW6 was quenched. A cryogenic plant with cooling power of 450 W was constructed to supply the liquid helium for the four superconducting wigglers. The design concept, magnetic field quality, the commissioning results, and the operation performance of these magnets will be presented.

  14. A Furnace for Diffraction Studies using Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Lebech, Bente; Kofoed, W.

    1984-01-01

    A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation is described. The furnace can be operated between ambient temperature and 1 800 °C with a temperature stability better than 5 °C for temperatures above 300 °C. Kapton windows allow almost 360° access for the X-ray beam...

  15. Synchrotron radiation is brighter than ever

    CERN Document Server

    Cornuejols, D

    2000-01-01

    What began life as an unwanted energy loss has become a major research industry. Dominique Cornuejols of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble looks at the history and accomplishments of synchrotron radiation. (0 refs).

  16. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  17. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  18. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-07-18

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  19. Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Studies the effects of UV radiation and X rays on solids, and calibrates X-ray optics, detectors, and instruments.DESCRIPTION: Research focuses on applying...

  20. CdZnTe array detectors for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S S; Jennings, G; Montano, P A

    1998-11-01

    An X-ray linear-array detector was fabricated using high-pressure Bridgman-grown CdZnTe. The detector area was 175 x 800 microm and the pitch size was 250 microm. The measured dark current for the test 16-element detector was as low as 0.1 pA at 800 V cm(-1) with excellent uniformity. Energy spectra were measured using a 57Co radiation source. Both a small-pixel effect and charge sharing were observed. For the arrays, an average 5.8% full width at half-maximum (FWHM) at the 122 keV photopeak was obtained with a standard deviation of 0.2%. A large-area detector (1 x 1 cm) of the same material before fabrication exhibited a low-energy tail at the photopeak, which limits the photopeak FWHM to 8%, typically due to hole trapping. At energies below 60 keV, charge sharing between elements was observed. The charge sharing was greatly reduced by providing a path to ground for unwanted charges. A prototype readout electronic system for an eight-channel array detector was developed. A readout system intended for a multielement solid-state detector system was also used. The array detector will be used for high-energy diffraction and Compton scattering measurements at the Advanced Photon Source.

  1. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  2. Statistical optics approach to the design of beamlines for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we analyze the image formation problem for undulator radiation through an optical system, accounting for the influence of the electron beam emittance. On the one hand, image formation with Synchrotron Radiation is governed by the laws of Statistical Optics. On the other hand, the widely used Gaussian-Shell model cannot be applied to describe the coherence properties of X-ray beams from third generation Synchrotron Radiation sources. As a result, a more rigorous analysis of coherence properties is required. We propose a technique to explicitly calculate the cross-spectral density of an undulator source, that we subsequently propagate through an optical imaging system. At first we focus on the case of an ideal lens with a non-limiting pupil aperture. Our theory, which makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, also allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their applicability region. Particular emphasis is given to the asymptotic situation when the horizontal emittance is much larger than the radiation wavelength, which is relevant for third generation Synchrotron Radiation sources. First principle calculations of undulator radiation characteristics (i.e. ten-dimensional integrals) are then reduced to one-dimensional convolutions of analytical functions with universal functions specific for undulator radiation sources. We also consider the imaging problem for a non-ideal lens in presence of abberations and a limiting pupil aperture, which increases the dimension of the convolution from one to three. In particular we give emphasis to cases when the intensity at the observation plane can be presented as a convolution of an impulse response function and the intensity from an ideal lens. Our results may be used in practical cases as well as in benchmarks for numerical methods.

  3. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  4. Synchrotron Radiation in Life Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Northrup, Paul; Pietri, Ruth; Zhong, Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR) presents itself as a “play-ground” with a large range of methods and techniques suitable to unveil the mysteries of life. Here we attempt to present a few of these methods that complement those employed in the home laboratory. SR diffraction, spectroscopy and imaging methods relevant to the atomic structure determination and characterization of the properties and function of chemical compounds and macromolecules of biological relevance, are introduced.

  5. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Windowless transition between atmospheric pressure and high vacuum via differential pumping for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gog, T.; Casa, D. M.; Kuzmenko, I.; Krakora, R. J.; Bolin, T. B.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-07-01

    A differential pump assembly is introduced which can provide a windowless transition between the full atmospheric pressure of an in-air sample environment and the high-vacuum region of a synchrotron radiation beamline, while providing a clear aperture of approximately 1 mm to pass through the X-ray beam from a modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source. This novel pump assembly is meant to be used as a substitute for an exit vacuum window on synchrotron beamlines, where the existence of such a window would negatively impact the coherent nature of the X-ray beam or would introduce parasitic scattering, distorting weak scattering signals from samples under study. It is found that the length of beam pipe necessary to reduce atmospheric pressure to below 10 mbar is only about 130 mm, making the expected photon transmission for hard X-rays through this pipe competitive with that of a regular Be beamline window. This result is due to turbulent flow dominating the first pumping stage, providing a mechanism of strong gas conductance limitation, which is further enhanced by introducing artificial surface roughness in the pipe. Successive reduction of pressure through the transitional flow regime into the high-vacuum region is accomplished over a length of several meters, using beam pipes of increasing diameter. While the pump assembly has not been tested with X-rays, possible applications are discussed in the context of coherent and small-angle scattering.

  7. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kentaro; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  8. Orbit correction using an eigenvector method with constraints for synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kentaro [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: kentaro.harada@kek.jp; Obina, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukinori [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nakamura, Norio; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2009-06-11

    An eigenvector method with constraints (EVC) is proposed as a new orbit correction scheme for synchrotron light sources. EVC efficiently corrects the global orbit in a storage ring, and can simultaneously perform exact correction of local orbits without deterioration of the global orbit. To demonstrate the advantages of EVC over the ordinary eigenvector method (EV), we carried out experimental studies at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF-ring) and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The performance of EVC was systematically examined at PF-ring and PF-AR. The experimental results agreed well with the simulated ones. Consequently, we confirmed that EVC easily realized orbit correction for both global and local orbits, and that it was very effective for the beam stabilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources.

  9. Pulse picker for synchrotron radiation driven by a surface acoustic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Petsiuk, Andrei; Dolbnya, Igor; Sawhney, Kawal; Erko, Alexei

    2017-05-15

    A functional test for a pulse picker for synchrotron radiation was performed at Diamond Light Source. The purpose of a pulse picker is to select which pulse from the synchrotron hybrid-mode bunch pattern reaches the experiment. In the present work, the Bragg reflection on a Si/B4C multilayer was modified using surface acoustic wave (SAW) trains. Diffraction on the SAW alters the direction of the x rays and it can be used to modulate the intensity of the x rays that reach the experimental chamber. Using electronic modulation of the SAW amplitude, it is possible to obtain different scattering conditions for different x-ray pulses. To isolate the single bunch, the state of the SAW must be changed in the short time gap between the pulses. To achieve the necessary time resolution, the measurements have been performed in conical diffraction geometry. The achieved time resolution was 120 ns.

  10. Synchrotron radiation: its characteristics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J. P.; Chasman, R.; Green, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    It has been known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard X-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation have been appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. A brief history is presented of ''synchrotron radiation'' as it is now called. The basic properties of this radiation are described and the world-wide distribution is indicated of facilities for its production. Particular attention is given to the proposed facility at Brookhaven which will be the first major installation to be dedicated only to the production and use of synchrotron radiation. Finally, typical examples are given of applications in the areas of radiation absorption studies, techniques based on scattering of radiation, and advances based on X-ray lithography.

  11. Method and apparatus for recirculation with control of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher

    2016-08-02

    A method for controlling beam quality degradation from ISR and CSR and stabilizing the microbunching instability (.mu.BI) in a high brightness electron beam. The method includes providing a super-periodic second order achromat line with each super period being individually linearly achromatic and isochronous, setting individual superperiod tunes to rational fractions of an integer (such as 4.sup.th or 6.sup.th integers), setting individual bend angles to be as small as practical to reduce driving terms due to dispersion and dispersive angle, and setting bend radii as large enough to suppress ISR but not negatively affect the radial dependence of CSR. The method includes setting the structure of the individual superperiods to minimize bend plane beam envelope values in the dipoles to reduce betatron response to a CSR event at a dispersed location, increasing beam angular divergence, and creating dispersion nodes in the dipoles to similarly reduce response to CSR events, and limit R.sub.56 modulation in order to mitigate .mu.BI.

  12. Development of polishing methods for Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide mirrors for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, B.A.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Material properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide (CVD SiC) make it ideal for use in mirrors for synchrotron radiation experiments. We developed methods to grind and polish flat samples of CVD SiC down to measured surface roughness values as low as 1.1 Angstroms rms. We describe the processing details, including observations we made during trial runs with alternative processing recipes. We conclude that pitch polishing using progressively finer diamond abrasive, augmented with specific water based lubricants and additives, produces superior results. Using methods based on these results, a cylindrical and a toroidal mirror, each about 100 x 300mm, were respectively finished by Continental Optical and Frank Cooke, Incorporated. WYCO Interferometry shows these mirrors have surface roughness less than 5.7 Angstroms rms. These mirrors have been installed on the LLNL/UC X-ray Calibration and Standards Facility at the Stanford Synthrotron Radiation Laboratory.

  13. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  14. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  15. Biological applications of synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Augusto; Cricenti, Antonio; Kwiatek, Wojciech M; Petibois, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Extremely brilliant infrared (IR) beams provided by synchrotron radiation sources are now routinely used in many facilities with available commercial spectrometers coupled to IR microscopes. Using these intense non-thermal sources, a brilliance two or three order of magnitude higher than a conventional source is achievable through small pinholes (infrared biological imaging covers a wide range of fundamental issues and applied researches such as cell imaging or tissue imaging. Molecular maps with a spatial resolution down to the diffraction limit may be now obtained with a synchrotron radiation IR source also on thick samples. Moreover, changes of the protein structure are detectable in an IR spectrum and cellular molecular markers can be identified and used to recognize a pathological status of a tissue. Molecular structure and functions are strongly correlated and this aspect is particularly relevant for imaging. We will show that the brilliance of synchrotron radiation IR sources may enhance the sensitivity of a molecular signal obtained from small biosamples, e.g., a single cell, containing extremely small amounts of organic matter. We will also show that SR IR sources allow to study chemical composition and to identify the distribution of organic molecules in cells at submicron resolution is possible with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the recent availability of two-dimensional IR detectors promises to push forward imaging capabilities in the time domain. Indeed, with a high current synchrotron radiation facility and a Focal Plane Array the chemical imaging of individual cells can be obtained in a few minutes. Within this framework important results are expected in the next years using synchrotron radiation and Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources for spectro-microscopy and spectral-imaging, alone or in combination with Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy methods to study the molecular composition and dynamic changes in samples of biomedical interest

  16. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation as a Diagnostic Tool for the LCLS Longitudinal Feedback System

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL). To ensure the vitality of FEL lasing, a longitudinal feedback system is required together with other diagnostics. In this paper, we study the possibility of using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) from the chicane as the diagnostic tool for bunch length feedback. Calculations show that CSR is a good candidate, even for the non-Gaussian, double-horn longitudinal charge distribution. We further check the feasibility for low and high charge options, and also the possibility for detecting the microbunching.

  17. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  18. X-ray grating interferometer for biomedical imaging applications at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Kou, Binquan; Sun, Haohua; Qi, Juncheng; Sun, Jianqi; Mohr, Jürgen; Börner, Martin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Xiao, Tiqiao; Wang, Yujie

    2012-09-01

    An X-ray grating interferometer was installed at the BL13W beamline of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) for biomedical imaging applications. Compared with imaging results from conventional absorption-based micro-computed tomography, this set-up has shown much better soft tissue imaging capability. In particular, using the set-up, the carotid artery and the carotid vein in a formalin-fixed mouse can be visualized in situ without contrast agents, paving the way for future applications in cancer angiography studies. The overall results have demonstrated the broad prospects of the existing set-up for biomedical imaging applications at SSRF.

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on applications of synchrotron radiation to trace impurity analysis for advanced silicon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laderman, S [Integrated Circuits Business Div., Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pianetta, P [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Wafer surface trace impurity analysis is essential for development of competitive Si circuit technologies. Today's grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence techniques with rotating anodes fall short of requirements for the future. Hewlett Packard/Toshiba experiments indicate that with second generation synchrotron sources such as SSRL, the techniques can be extended sufficiently to meet important needs of the leading edge Si circuit industry through nearly all of the 1990's. This workshop was held to identify people interested in use of synchrotron radiation-based methods and to document needs and concerns for further development. Viewgraphs are included for the following presentations: microcontamination needs in silicon technology (M. Liehr), analytical methods for wafer surface contamination (A. Schimazaki), trace impurity analysis of liquid drops using synchrotron radiation (D. Wherry), TRXRF using synchrotron sources (S. Laderman), potential role of synchrotron radiation TRXRF in Si process R D (M. Scott), potenital development of synchrotron radiation facilities (S. Brennan), and identification of goals, needs and concerns (M. Garner).

  20. SURF III: A flexible synchrotron radiation source for radiometry and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, U., E-mail: uwe.arp@nist.gov [Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 100 Bureau Dr, MD 20899-8410 (United States); Clark, C.; Deng, L.; Faradzhev, N.; Farrell, A.; Furst, M.; Grantham, S.; Hagley, E.; Hill, S.; Lucatorto, T.; Shaw, P.-S.; Tarrio, C.; Vest, R. [Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 100 Bureau Dr, MD 20899-8410 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The calculability of synchrotron radiation (SR) makes electron storage rings wonderful light sources for radiometry. The broadband nature of SR allows coverage of the entire spectral region from the X-ray to the far-infrared. Compact low-energy storage rings like the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF III are perfect sources for radiometric applications, because the output spectrum can be custom-tailored to the user's needs: low current operations can simulate the solar spectrum, changes to the electron energy can address higher-order contributions of spectrometers and monochromators, and manipulation of the source size can increase the lifetime or change the radiation density. At large multi-user facilities these special operational conditions are generally not possible, since many users have to be satisfied simultaneously. At SURF III, NIST maintains one of the best SR-based infrared to soft X-ray calibration programs in the world: standard lamp calibrations, detector calibrations, and measurements of optical properties are routinely performed at SURF with great reliability and accuracy.

  1. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  2. A Spectrometer for X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Diffraction using Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun Olsen, Janus; Buras, B; Gerward, Leif

    1981-01-01

    Describes a white-beam X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometer built for Hasylab in Hamburg, FRG, using the synchrotron radiation from the electron storage ring DORIS. The following features of the instrument are discussed: horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment......, remote control of the goniometer, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH2 using a diamond anvil cell....

  3. Current status and perspectives of synchrotron radiation in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1996-11-01

    The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x-ray source for many medical applications. The present status of synchrotron angiography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy at laboratories around the world is reviewed and some future projections for these applications are addressed.

  4. Handbook on synchrotron radiation, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Volume 2 of this series concentrates on the use of synchrotron radiation which covers that region of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from about 10eV to 3keV in photon energy and is essentially the region where the radiation is strongly absorbed by atmospheric gases. It therefore has to make extensive use of a high vacuum to transport the radiation to the workstation where the presence of hard X-rays can cause extensive damage to both the optics and the targets used in the experimental rigs. The topics chosen for this volume have been limited to the disciplines of physics and chemi

  5. Third generation synchrotron radiation applied to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Yun, W.

    1993-11-01

    Utility of synchrotron radiation for characterization of materials and ramifications of availability of new third-generation, high-energy, high-intensity sources of synchrotron radiation are discussed. Examples are given of power of x-ray analysis techniques to be expected with these new machines.

  6. Monte Carlo simulations of ultra high vacuum and synchrotron radiation for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082330; Leonid, Rivkin

    With preparation of Hi-Lumi LHC fully underway, and the FCC machines under study, accelerators will reach unprecedented energies and along with it very large amount of synchrotron radiation (SR). This will desorb photoelectrons and molecules from accelerator walls, which contribute to electron cloud buildup and increase the residual pressure - both effects reducing the beam lifetime. In current accelerators these two effects are among the principal limiting factors, therefore precise calculation of synchrotron radiation and pressure properties are very important, desirably in the early design phase. This PhD project shows the modernization and a major upgrade of two codes, Molflow and Synrad, originally written by R. Kersevan in the 1990s, which are based on the test-particle Monte Carlo method and allow ultra-high vacuum and synchrotron radiation calculations. The new versions contain new physics, and are built as an all-in-one package - available to the public. Existing vacuum calculation methods are overvi...

  7. The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD)

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Baumgartner, S; Biland, A; Camps, C; Capell, M; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Fanchiang, Y J; Flügge, G; Grimm, O; Gunten, H P V; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Kan, R; Kenney, G; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Kuipers, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Ren, D; Ren, Z L; Röser, U; Ting, Samuel C C; Tiwari, A; Viertel, Gert M; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wang, T S; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The components of the PSRD, a detector to study the flux of X-rays and charged particles in the keV-MeV energy range in outer space, are described. The device is a precursor for the Synchrotron Radiation Detector, which is one of the detector components of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS02). The AMS02 will be operated for several years on the International Space Station.

  8. The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H.; Baetzner, D.; Baumgartner, S.; Biland, A.; Camps, C.; Capell, M.; Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L.; Fanchiang, Y.-J.; Fluegge, G.; Grimm, O.; Hangarter, K.; Hofer, H.; Kan, R.; Kenney, G.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Kuipers, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.-C.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.L.; Roeser, U.; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Tiwari, A.; Viertel, G.M. E-mail: gert.viertel@cern.ch; Gunten, H.P. von; Waldmeier Wicki, S.; Wang, T.-S.; Zimmermann, B

    2002-02-01

    The components of the PSRD, a detector to study the flux of X-rays and charged particles in the keV-MeV energy range in outer space, are described. The device is a precursor for the Synchrotron Radiation Detector, which is one of the detector components of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS02). The AMS02 will be operated for several years on the International Space Station.

  9. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  10. Calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation using mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Agoh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new method to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation numerically. It is based on the mesh calculation of the electromagnetic field in the frequency domain. We make an approximation in the Maxwell equation which allows a mesh size much larger than the relevant wavelength so that the computing time is tolerable. Using the equation, we can perform a mesh calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation in transient states with shielding effects by the vacuum chamber. The simulation results obtained by this method are compared with analytic solutions. Though, for the comparison with theories, we adopt simplifications such as longitudinal Gaussian distribution, zero-width transverse distribution, horizontal uniform bend, and a vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, the method is applicable to general cases.

  11. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  12. A novel approach to synchrotron radiation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Trad, G; Goldblatt, A; Mazzoni, S; Roncarolo, F

    2014-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to continuously monitor the transverse properties of the beams. Unfortunately the machine and beam parameters are such that the useful radiation emitted inside a separation dipole, chosen as source, is diffraction limited heavily affecting the accuracy of the measurement. In order to deconvolve the diffraction effects from the acquired beam images and in order to design an alternative monitor based on a double slit interferometer an extensive study of the synchrotron light source and of the optical propagation has been made. This study is based on simulations combining together several existing tools: SRW for the source, ZEMAX for the transport and MATLAB for the “glue” and analysis of the results. The resulting tool is very powerful and can be easily adapted to other synchrotron radiation problems. In this paper the simulation package and the way it is used will be described as well as the results obtained for the LHC and SPS.

  13. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  14. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  15. Evolution of synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy for various isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Makoto; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Hosokawa, Shuuich; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mibu, Ko

    2017-11-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy that yields absorption type Mössbauer spectra has been applied to various isotopes. This method enables the advanced measurement by using the excellent features of synchrotron radiation, such as Mössbauer spectroscopic measurement under high-pressures. Furthermore, energy selectivity of synchrotron radiation allows us to measure 40K Mössbauer spectra, of which observation is impossible by using ordinary radioactive sources because the first excited state of 40K is not populated by any radioactive parent nuclides. Moreover, this method has flexibility of the experimental setup that the measured sample can be used as a transmitter or a scatterer, depending on the sample conditions. To enhance the measurement efficiency of the spectroscopy, we developed a detection system in which a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector is combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect internal conversion electrons adding to X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. In particular, by selecting the emission from the scatterer sample, depth selective synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy is possible. Furthermore, limitation of the time window in the delayed components enables us to obtain narrow linewidth in Mössbauer spectra. Measurement system that records velocity dependent time spectra and energy information simultaneously realizes the depth selective and narrow linewidth measurement.

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  17. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  18. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J. [Mining University, Dept. of Radipmetry, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Krakow (Poland); Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Krakow (Poland); Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of two neuro-degenerative diseases i.e, Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurons. As a preliminary study, the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikaryal parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control case. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous system tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level. (authors)

  19. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  20. Inclined-incidence quasi-Fresnel lens for prefocusing of synchrotron radiation x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, Yasushi; Takano, Hidekazu; Takeda, Shingo

    2012-10-01

    An inclined-incidence quasi-Fresnel lens made of acrylic resin has been developed for prefocusing in synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines. By inclining the lens, the grating aspect ratio is large enough for x-ray use. As it operates in transmission mode with negligible beam deflection and offset, little additional equipment is needed to introduce it into existing beamlines. It is fabricated by sheet-press forming, enabling inexpensive mass production. The prototype was able to focus a 730-μm-wide beam to a width of 80 μm with a photon flux density gain of 5.6 at an x-ray energy of 10 keV.

  1. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manowitz, B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  2. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal`s photo multiplier tube (PMT).

  3. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications; Interet du rayonnement synchrotron dans la therapie des tumeurs cerebrales: methodologie et applications precliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnard, P

    2007-12-15

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 {mu}m spacing irradiation, while a 100 {mu}m spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  4. Fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, J I; Kikutani, T

    2003-01-01

    Topics of fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation are explained. There are only three synchrotron radiation facilities in the world, SPring-8 (Super Photon ring-8) in Japan, APS (Advanced Photon Source) in U.S.A. and ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) in France. Online measurement of melt spinning process of PET and Nylon6 is explained in detail. Polypropylene and PBO (poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) was measured by WAXD (Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction)/SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) at the same time. Some examples of measure of drawing process of fiber are described. The structure formation process of spider's thread was measured. Micro beam of X-ray of synchrotron facility was improved and it attained to 65nm small angle resolving power by 10 mu m beamsize. (S.Y.)

  5. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  6. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doehrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Roth, Stephan V. [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Bommel, Sebastian [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien, Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  7. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Bommel, Sebastian; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-04-01

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  8. Undulators as sources of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    At the present time the first generation of facilities having electron storage rings designed for and dedicated to synchrotron radiation research are beginning operations in the US, Europe and Japan. The use of wigglers and undulators as enhanced sources of synchrotron radiation plays an important role at all these facilities. Moreover, recently there has been much activity in the design of the next generation machines, which will place even greater, and perhaps exclusive, emphasis on the use of wigglers and undulators. The operation of these insertion devices has been made even more attractive by advances in the design and construction of permanent magnet wigglers and undulators. This reliable and economical technology eliminates the need for more complex superconducting magnets, except to achieve very high magnetic fields for the production of hard photons from relatively low energy rings. We review the spectral properties of the radiation, emphasizing the complementary aspects of time- and frequency-domain analyses. We next study the brightness of the undulator source. Finally, we consider some limitations associated with operating an undulator in a storage ring.

  9. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  10. Geological applications of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. M. B.; Cressey, G.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron-based, Earth sciences research carried out over the last 5 years is reviewed with special attention being given to X-ray absorption studies; X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence microprobe applications are considered more briefly. A comprehensive bibliography is included. The main part of the paper summarizes recent work carried out at the Daresbury SRS. K-edge XAS studies of glasses as models for silicate melts provide information on the local structural environments of Si, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+. By analogy with synthetic "leucites" which contain Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in tetrahedral framework sites, it seems that many model glasses also contain both oxidation states of Fe in the network, rather than as network modifiers. The structural sites occupied by the minor elements Mn, Zn and Ti in staurolite have been identified using XAFS; Mn and Zn substitute for Fe 2+ in the tetrahedral T2 site, while Ti occupies the distorted M2 octahedral site. L-edge spectroscopy is used to identify the valencies and electronic structures of Mn and Fe in minerals and the Fe 2+:Fe 3+ ratio in a natural spinel is determined. The polarized nature of the synchrotron beam is exploited in determining the Fe X-ray absorption anisotropy in single crystal tourmaline and epidote. XRD powder studies include Rietveld-refinement structure determination and compressibility studies. Synthetic "leucites" having the stoichiometry K 2MgSi 5O 12 have distinctly different structures. The dry-synthesized form is cubic Ia3d with Si and Mg fully disordered on tetrahedral framework sites, while the hydrothermally-synthesized polymorph is monoclinic P2 1/c with Si and Mg fully disordered on, respectively, 10 and 2 tetrahedral sites. The reversible tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition in gillespite (BaFeSi 4O 10) has been studied in a diamond anvil cell using ED detection and found to occur at 1.2 ± 0.1 GPa. The anomalous compressibility observed has been interpreted in terms of ferroelastic and

  11. Study of complex molecules of biological interest with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, K.C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Bolognesi, P., E-mail: paola.bolognesi@cnr.it [CNR-ISM, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); Feyer, V. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Research Center Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Plekan, O. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14–km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Avaldi, L. [CNR-ISM, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Synchrotron radiation and synchrotron based spectroscopic techniques have found important applications in the study of isolated molecular species of biological interest. In this paper, some examples of spectroscopic and dynamic studies of amino acids and small peptides, nucleobases and pharmaceuticals are reviewed. Opportunities offered by the advent of new radiation sources combined with novel methods for the production of beams of these molecules are also discussed.

  12. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  13. A laboratory experimental setup for photo-absorption studies using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, A; Saraswati, P; Sunanda, K

    2002-01-01

    The photophysics beamline, which is being installed at the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Indus-l, is a medium resolution beamline useful for a variety of experiments in the VUV region viz. 500-2000 A. One of the major applications of this beamline is gas-phase photo-absorption studies. An experimental set up to be used for these experiments was designed, developed and tested in our laboratory. The setup consists of a high vacuum absorption cell, 1/4 m monochromator and detection system. For the purpose of testing, xenon and tungsten continuum sources were used and absorption spectra were recorded in the UV region. This setup was used to record the absorption spectrum of a few molecules like acetone, ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in order to evaluate the performance of the experimental system which will subsequently be used with the photophysics beamline. Details of the design, fabrication and testing of the absorption cell and experimental procedures are presented in this repor...

  14. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  15. Probing biolabels for high throughput biosensing via synchrotron radiation SEIRA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornemann, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.hornemann@ptb.de; Hoehl, Arne, E-mail: arne.hoehl@ptb.de; Ulm, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.ulm@ptb.de; Beckhoff, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.beckhoff@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Eichert, Diane, E-mail: diane.eichert@elettra.eu [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Flemig, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.flemig@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Richard-Willstätter-Str.10, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    Bio-diagnostic assays of high complexity rely on nanoscaled assay recognition elements that can provide unique selectivity and design-enhanced sensitivity features. High throughput performance requires the simultaneous detection of various analytes combined with appropriate bioassay components. Nanoparticle induced sensitivity enhancement, and subsequent multiplexed capability Surface-Enhanced InfraRed Absorption (SEIRA) assay formats are fitting well these purposes. SEIRA constitutes an ideal platform to isolate the vibrational signatures of targeted bioassay and active molecules. The potential of several targeted biolabels, here fluorophore-labeled antibody conjugates, chemisorbed onto low-cost biocompatible gold nano-aggregates substrates have been explored for their use in assay platforms. Dried films were analyzed by synchrotron radiation based FTIR/SEIRA spectro-microscopy and the resulting complex hyperspectral datasets were submitted to automated statistical analysis, namely Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The relationships between molecular fingerprints were put in evidence to highlight their spectral discrimination capabilities. We demonstrate that robust spectral encoding via SEIRA fingerprints opens up new opportunities for fast, reliable and multiplexed high-end screening not only in biodiagnostics but also in vitro biochemical imaging.

  16. Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F. C.; Rigon, L.; Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2011-12-01

    A single-photon counting detector read-out system for mammography with synchrotron radiation has been developed with the aim to meet the needs of the mammographic imaging station of the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. The system called PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) is a modular detector that implements a read-out system with MYTHEN II ASICs, an embedded Linux-based controller board and a Scientific Linux acquisition workstation. The system architecture and characteristics are herein presented. The system was tested at the SYRMEP beamline and achieved a frame rate of 33 Hz for 8448 channels at 24-bit dynamic range, and it is capable of continuously acquiring up to 2000 frames. Standard mammographic phantoms were imaged and good quality images were obtained at doses comparable with what is delivered in conventional full field mammographic systems.

  17. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  18. Conditions for coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced microbunching suppression in multibend beam transport or recirculation arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.-Y.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Li, R.; Tennant, C.

    2017-02-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high-brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in beam phase space degradation. On one hand, CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beam line and possibly cause emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching instability. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Correspondingly, a few scenarios have been introduced to suppress CSR-induced microbunching instability, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching instability along transport or recirculation arcs. Examples are presented with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our developed semianalytical Vlasov solver [C.-Y. Tsai, D. Douglas, R. Li, and C. Tennant, Linear microbunching analysis for recirculation machines, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 19, 114401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.114401]. The example lattices include low-energy (˜100 MeV ) and high-energy (˜1 GeV ) recirculation arcs, and medium-energy compressor arcs. Our studies show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. Beam current dependences of maximal CSR microbunching gains are also demonstrated, which should help outline a beam line design for different scales of nominal currents. We expect this analysis can shed light on the lattice design approach that aims to control the CSR-induced microbunching.

  19. Infrared synchrotron radiation instrumentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmugl, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) is a blossoming field which has three working beamlines, U41R at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, and two at the Institute of Molecular Sciences in Okasaki, Japan, with extensive research projects. There are also several new beamlines in the planning and development stages, both in the United States and abroad. IRSR offers a unique way to access the far infrared (30 μm to ˜ 1mm), which is a notoriously difficult region to work in. In particular, experiments that demand high brightness are well suited to IRSR just as they are in the X-ray region. The central issue in all of the experiments to date has been good signal to noise, which has been the focus of the instrumentation improvements at the U41R beamline. A commercial Fourier transform instrument was the chosen spectrometer. Then modifications were made in order to expand the usable region of the existing experiments, in both the far and near infrared. As an example of the performance of this beamline, I will focus on the reflection absorption spectroscopy results for adsorbates on clean surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum.

  20. Spatial resolution measurement of triple-GEM detector and diffraction imaging test at synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Qi, H. R.; Wen, Z. W.; Wang, H. Y.; Ouyang, Q.; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, J.; Hu, B. T.

    2017-04-01

    A triple-GEM detector with two-dimensional readout is developed. The detector provides high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments at synchrotron radiation. Spatial resolution of the detector is measured in the lab using a 55Fe X-ray source. A resolution of about 110 μm FWHM is achieved. The energy resolution is better than 27% for 5.9 keV X-rays. The detector's validity under illumination of photons in particular energy range is verified using a Cu X-ray tube. Imaging of the head of a wire stripper with X-ray tube demonstrates its imaging ability. A diffraction imaging experiment using the sample of powder SiO2 is successfully carried out at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Different diffraction rings are clearly seen under various X-ray energies.

  1. 2D Synchrotron Radiation Interferometer for Measuring the Transverse Dimensions of an Electron Beam in a Circular Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokshonov, A. I.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kube, G.

    2017-08-01

    In the majority of cases, modern systems for measuring the transverse profile of the electron beam in storage rings of synchrotron type work in the x-ray range in order to overcome the resolution limit imposed by diffraction. In conjunction with devices of this type, use is frequently made of a synchrotron radiation interferometer operating in the visible wavelength range. With the help of such an interferometer, consisting of a screen with two slits (1D interferometer), it is possible to measure the transverse dimension down to a few micrometers. 1D interferometers are widely used in circular accelerators throughout the world, including a PETRA III (DESY) storage ring, where such an interferometer is used to determine the vertical dimension of the beam. It is proposed to use a 2D interferometer, consisting of a screen with four circular holes, making it possible to measure the vertical and horizontal dimensions simultaneously.

  2. ALICE—An advanced reflectometer for static and dynamic experiments in magnetism at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrudan, R; Brüssing, F; Salikhov, R; Meermann, J; Radu, I; Ryll, H; Radu, F; Zabel, H

    2015-06-01

    We report on significant developments of a high vacuum reflectometer (diffractometer) and spectrometer for soft x-ray synchrotron experiments which allows conducting a wide range of static and dynamic experiments. Although the chamber named ALICE was designed for the analysis of magnetic hetero- and nanostructures via resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, the instrument is not limited to this technique. The versatility of the instrument was testified by a series of pilot experiments. Static measurements involve the possibility to use scattering and spectroscopy synchrotron based techniques (photon-in photon-out, photon-in electron-out, and coherent scattering). Dynamic experiments require either laser or magnetic field pulses to excite the spin system followed by x-ray probe in the time domain from nano- to femtosecond delay times. In this temporal range, the demagnetization/remagnetization dynamics and magnetization precession in a number of magnetic materials (metals, alloys, and magnetic multilayers) can be probed in an element specific manner. We demonstrate here the capabilities of the system to host a variety of experiments, featuring ALICE as one of the most versatile and demanded instruments at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin-BESSY II synchrotron center in Berlin, Germany.

  3. ALICE—An advanced reflectometer for static and dynamic experiments in magnetism at synchrotron radiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrudan, R. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin for Materials and Energy, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Brüssing, F.; Salikhov, R.; Meermann, J.; Zabel, H. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Radu, I.; Ryll, H.; Radu, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin for Materials and Energy, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We report on significant developments of a high vacuum reflectometer (diffractometer) and spectrometer for soft x-ray synchrotron experiments which allows conducting a wide range of static and dynamic experiments. Although the chamber named ALICE was designed for the analysis of magnetic hetero- and nanostructures via resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, the instrument is not limited to this technique. The versatility of the instrument was testified by a series of pilot experiments. Static measurements involve the possibility to use scattering and spectroscopy synchrotron based techniques (photon-in photon-out, photon-in electron-out, and coherent scattering). Dynamic experiments require either laser or magnetic field pulses to excite the spin system followed by x-ray probe in the time domain from nano- to femtosecond delay times. In this temporal range, the demagnetization/remagnetization dynamics and magnetization precession in a number of magnetic materials (metals, alloys, and magnetic multilayers) can be probed in an element specific manner. We demonstrate here the capabilities of the system to host a variety of experiments, featuring ALICE as one of the most versatile and demanded instruments at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin-BESSY II synchrotron center in Berlin, Germany.

  4. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R. [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States); Zheng, Shao-Liang [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States); Chen, Yu-Sheng [ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago c/o Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Clardy, Jon, E-mail: jon-clardy@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine

  5. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  6. Transfiguration of extracting mirror in synchrotron radiation system at SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Huang, GuoQing; Zhou, WeiMin; Ye, KaiRong; Leng, YongBin

    2011-12-01

    The first extracting mirror is very important for synchrotron radiation monitor (SRM). The SRM system of SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) should extract the visible light with low optical distortion. The analysis of SR power spectrum and heat transfiguration based on Matlab is introduced in this paper, which will be used in calibration. One beryllium mirror with water-cooling is used to transmit X-ray and reflect visible light to satisfy the measurement request. The existing system suffers from a dynamic problem in some beam physics study. The system includes optics, image acquisition and interferometers. One of the instruments is a digital camera providing the image of the beam transverse profile. The hardware configuration will be summarized. The synchrotron radiation measurement system has been in operation in SSRF for more than one year.

  7. 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”

    CERN Document Server

    Bulou, Hervé; Joly, Loic; Scheurer, Fabrice; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

    2013-01-01

     Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  8. Initial scientific uses of coherent synchrotron radiation inelectron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, D.N.; Feikes, J.; Fried, D.; Holldack, K.; Hubers, H.W.; Kuske, P.; Martin, M.C.; Pavlov, S.G.; Schade, U.; Singley, E.J.; Wustefeld, G.

    2004-11-23

    The production of stable, high power, coherent synchrotron radiation at sub-terahertz frequency at the electron storage ring BESSY opens a new region in the electromagnetic spectrum to explore physical properties of materials. Just as conventional synchrotron radiation has been a boon to x-ray science, coherent synchrotron radiation may lead to many new innovations and discoveries in THz physics. With this new accelerator-based radiation source we have been able to extend traditional infrared measurements down into the experimentally poorly accessible sub-THz frequency range. The feasibility of using the coherent synchrotron radiation in scientific applications was demonstrated in a series of experiments: We investigated shallow single acceptor transitions in stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga by means of photoconductance measurements below 1 THz. We have directly measured the Josephson plasma resonance in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} for the first time and finally we succeeded to confine the sub-THz radiation for spectral near-field imaging on biological samples such as leaves and human teeth.

  9. The synchrotron radiation angiography program at the national synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.; Gmuer, N.

    1987-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) angiography program is under development. The program is a collaboration between the Stanford University Angiography Project and the NSLS. A 180 m/sup 2/ clinical facility has been built. A beam line is being constructed to utilize a superconducting wiggler radiation source. Projected start-up date for the NSLS program is Summer 1988.

  10. Synchrotron Radiation Therapy from a Medical Physics point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezado, Y.; Adam, J. F.; Berkvens, P.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Fois, G.; Thengumpallil, S.; Edouard, M.; Vautrin, M.; Deman, P.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Renier, M.; Elleaume, H.; Estève, F.; Bravin, A.

    2010-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) therapy is a promising alternative to treat brain tumors, whose management is limited due to the high morbidity of the surrounding healthy tissues. Several approaches are being explored by using SR at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where three techniques are under development Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT), Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) and Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT). The sucess of the preclinical studies on SSRT and MRT has paved the way to clinical trials currently in preparation at the ESRF. With this aim, different dosimetric aspects from both theoretical and experimental points of view have been assessed. In particular, the definition of safe irradiation protocols, the beam energy providing the best balance between tumor treatment and healthy tissue sparing in MRT and MBRT, the special dosimetric considerations for small field dosimetry, etc will be described. In addition, for the clinical trials, the definition of appropiate dosimetry protocols for patients according to the well established European Medical Physics recommendations will be discussed. Finally, the state of the art of the MBRT technical developments at the ESRF will be presented. In 2006 A. Dilmanian and collaborators proposed the use of thicker microbeams (0.36-0.68 mm). This new type of radiotherapy is the most recently implemented technique at the ESRF and it has been called MBRT. The main advantage of MBRT with respect to MRT is that it does not require high dose rates. Therefore it can be more easily applied and extended outside synchrotron sources in the future.

  11. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  12. Synchrotron radiation from a runaway electron distribution in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Landreman, M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Papp, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Hollmann, E. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The synchrotron radiation emitted by runaway electrons in a fusion plasma provides information regarding the particle momenta and pitch-angles of the runaway electron population through the strong dependence of the synchrotron spectrum on these parameters. Information about the runaway density and its spatial distribution, as well as the time evolution of the above quantities, can also be deduced. In this paper, we present the synchrotron radiation spectra for typical avalanching runaway electron distributions. Spectra obtained for a distribution of electrons are compared with the emission of mono-energetic electrons with a prescribed pitch-angle. We also examine the effects of magnetic field curvature and analyse the sensitivity of the resulting spectrum to perturbations to the runaway distribution. The implications for the deduced runaway electron parameters are discussed. We compare our calculations to experimental data from DIII-D and estimate the maximum observed runaway energy.

  13. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high

  14. Energy spectra considerations for synchrotron radiotherapy trials on the ID17 bio-medical beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Fournier, Pauline; Bartzsch, Stefan; Donzelli, Mattia; Cornelius, Iwan; Stevenson, Andrew W; Requardt, Herwig; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the kilovoltage X-ray energy spectrum on the ID17 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The purpose of such validation was to provide an accurate energy spectrum as the input to a computerized treatment planning system, which will be used in synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy trials at the ESRF. Calculated and measured energy spectra on ID17 have been reported previously but recent additions and safety modifications to the beamline for veterinary trials warranted a fresh investigation. The authors used an established methodology to compare X-ray attenuation measurements in copper sheets (referred to as half value layer measurements in the radiotherapy field) with the predictions of a theoretical model. A cylindrical ionization chamber in air was used to record the relative attenuation of the X-ray beam intensity by increasing thicknesses of high-purity copper sheets. The authors measured the half value layers in copper for two beamline configurations, which corresponded to differing spectral conditions. The authors obtained good agreement between the measured and predicted half value layers for the two beamline configurations. The measured first half value layer was 1.754 ± 0.035 mm Cu and 1.962 ± 0.039 mm Cu for the two spectral conditions, compared with theoretical predictions of 1.763 ± 0.039 mm Cu and 1.984 ± 0.044 mm Cu, respectively. The calculated mean energies for the two conditions were 105 keV and 110 keV and there was not a substantial difference in the calculated percentage depth dose curves in water between the different spectral conditions. The authors observed a difference between their calculated energy spectra and the spectra previously reported by other authors, particularly at energies greater than 100 keV. The validation of the beam spectrum by the copper half value layer measurements means the authors can provide an accurate spectrum as an input to a treatment

  15. Measurement of the radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from the $L_{3}$ to M and to N shells for W, Re and Pb using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzi, E V

    2006-01-01

    The radiative vacancy transfer probabilities from L/sub 3/ to M shell, eta/sub L3/M(R) and L/sub 3/ to N shell, eta/sub L3/N(R), have been determined for W, Re and Pb. The pure elements samples were excited by monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The X-rays were generated by excitation of L/sub 3/ edge and measured using a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The experimentally determined radiative vacancy transfer probabilities were compared with the theoretical values deduced using radiative X-ray emission rates based on the relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater (RDHS) model. In the case of Pb, the experimental data were compared as well with experimental values of Simsek. In both cases, a good agreement was found between the datasets.

  16. Putting synchrotron radiation to work: New opportunities for industrial R D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the basic categories of experimental techniques that have been successfully exploited at existing synchrotron facilities or, in some cases, that are expected to join the research armamentarium at the next-generation synchrotron sources now under construction, such as the ALS. In each case, a selection of typical industrial applications is noted.

  17. Coronary angiography in rats using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)]. E-mail: shomatsu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Hyodo, K. [Instutute of Medical Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan); Akishima, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sato, F. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Imazuru, T. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Noma, M. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Hiramatsu, Y. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Shigeta, O. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakakibara, Y. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-08-11

    Monochromatic X-rays obtained from synchrotron radiation (SR), provide a high-quality tool for medical imaging including, coronary angiography. To pursue higher resolution in experimental coronary angiography, a smaller visual field had seemed to be inevitable. However, there are cases in which whole coronary angiography is preferable in order to investigate such vasomotor activities as coronary vasospasm. To meet these requirements, we are trying to develop a new type of SR coronary angiography using Langendorff excised rat hearts. Experiments were performed at Photon Factory Accelerator Ring (PF-AR), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan. SR was obtained from a 6.5 GeV electron beam. The energy of the monochromatic X-rays was 33.3 keV, which is just above the K-edge energy of iodine. Iodine (35%) was infused as a contrast material to the aorta at the rate of 1 ml/min for 1 s. In the image obtained from coronary angiography, the resolution was 13 {mu}m and the width of the visual field 26 mmx26 mm. Whole heart coronary vasculature identifying small arteries down to those 100 {mu}m in diameter was obtained in beating hearts. Arteries as small as 50 {mu}m were identified in arrested hearts. This method of SR coronary angiography is useful for the investigation of whole coronary configurations simultaneously in one visual field to the level of microvasculature.

  18. 1994 activity report: Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K.; Dunn, L. [eds.

    1994-01-01

    The SSRL facility delivered 89% of the scheduled user beam to 25 experimental stations during 6.5 months of user running. Users from private industry were involved in 31% of these experiments. The SPEAR accelerator ran very well with no major component failures and an unscheduled down time of only 2.9%. In addition to this increased reliability, there was a significant improvement in the stability of the beam. The enhancements to the SPEAR orbit as part of a concerted three-year program were particularly noticeable to users. The standard deviation of beam movement (both planes) in the last part of the run was 80 microns, major progress toward the ultimate goal of 50-micron stability. This was a significant improvement from the previous year when the movement was 400 microns in the horizontal and 200 microns in the vertical. A new accelerator Personal Protection System (PPS), built with full redundancy and providing protection from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards, was installed in 1994. It is not possible to describe in this summary all of the scientific experimentation which was performed during the run. However, the flavor of current research projects and the many significant accomplishments can be realized by the following highlights: A multinational collaboration performed several experiments involving x-ray scattering from nuclear resonances; Studies related to nuclear waste remediation by groups from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratories continued in 1994; Diffraction data sets for a number of important protein crystals were obtained; During the past two years a collaboration consisting of groups from Hewlett Packard, Intel, Fisons Instruments and SSRL has been exploring the utility of synchrotron radiation for total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXRF); and High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments have continued to generate exciting new results from highly correlated and magnetic materials.

  19. Design and construction of the prototype synchrotron radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H.; Bates, J.R.; Baetzner, D.; Baumgartner, S.; Biland, A.; Camps, C.; Capell, M.; Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L.; Fanchiang, Y.-J.; Fluegge, G.; Fritschi, M.; Grimm, O.; Hangarter, K.; Hofer, H.; Horisberger, U.; Kan, R.; Kaestli, W.; Kenney, G.P.; Kim, G.N.; Kim, K.S.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Kuipers, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, S.-C.; Lewis, R.; Lustermann, W.; Pauss, F.; Rauber, T.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.L.; Roeser, U.; Son, D.; Ting, S.C.C.; Tiwari, A.N.; Viertel, G.M. E-mail: viertel@particle.phys.ethz.ch; Gunten, H. von; Wicki, S. Waldmeier; Wang, T.-S.; Yang, J.; Zimmermann, B

    2002-09-21

    The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) is a small-scale experiment designed to measure the rate of low-energy charged particles and photons in near the Earth's orbit. It is a precursor to the Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), a proposed addition to the upgraded version of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). The SRD will use the Earth's magnetic field to identify the charge sign of electrons and positrons with energies above 1 TeV by detecting the synchrotron radiation they emit in this field. The differential energy spectrum of these particles is astrophysically interesting and not well covered by the remaining components of AMS-02. Precise measurements of this spectrum offer the possibility to gain information on the acceleration mechanism and characteristics of all cosmic rays in our galactic neighbourhood. The SRD will discriminate against protons as they radiate only weakly. Both the number and energy of the synchrotron photons that the SRD needs to detect are small. The identification is complicated by the presence of a large particle and photon background. Existing measurements of these backgrounds are insufficient for the construction of the large-scale SRD, so a measurement in space was indispensable. The PSRD was designed to fly as a Space Shuttle secondary payload, within the Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The flight on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour took place from 5 to 17 December 2001. The scientific goal, hardware and the flight of the PSRD are described in this report.

  20. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections.

  1. Synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectrometry of laser ablated species

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Ruiz, Jesus; Casu, A.; Coreno, M.; De Simone, M.; Hoyos Campos, L.M.; Juarez-Reyes, A.M.; Kivimäki, A.; Orlando, S.; Sanz, M.; Spezzani, C.; Stankiewicz, M; Trucchi, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental apparatus suitable to create and study free clusters by combining laser ablation and synchrotron radiation. First tests on sulfur samples, S, showed the production, through laser ablation, of neutral Sn clusters (n = 1–8). These clusters were ionized using synchrotron radiation at photon energies from 160 eV to 175 eV, across the S 2p core edge. The feasibility of such combined ablation–synchrotron radiation experiments is demonstrated, opening new ...

  2. Betatron radiation based diagnostics for plasma wakefield accelerated electron beams at the SPARC-LAB test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpakov, V.; Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); “Tor Vergata” University, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Dabagov, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU “MEPhI”, Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marocchino, A. [Dipartimento SBAI Universitá di Roma ‘La Sapienza’, via Antonio Scarpa 14/16, 00161 Rome (Italy); Paroli, B. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rossi, A.R. [INFN - MI, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zigler, A. [Racah Institute of Physics Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-09-01

    Recent progress with wake-field acceleration has shown a great potential in providing high gradient acceleration fields, while the quality of the beams remains relatively poor. Precise knowledge of the beam size at the exit from the plasma and matching conditions for the externally injected beams are the key for improvement of beam quality. Betatron radiation emitted by the beam during acceleration in the plasma is a powerful tool for the transverse beam size measurement, being also non-intercepting. In this work we report on the technical solutions chosen at SPARC-LAB for such diagnostics tool, along with expected parameters of betatron radiation. - Highlights: • The betatron radiation parameters in SPARC-LAB wakefiled experiments were studied. • The differences with betatron radiation in other wake-field experiments were highlighted. • The solution for betatron radiation detection was investigated.

  3. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  4. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  5. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  6. Synchrotron Radiation From Plasmas with Sub-Relativistic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necas, Ales; Putvinski, Sergei; Ryutov, Dmitri; Yushmanov, Peter; TAE Team

    2017-10-01

    A simple expression for power radiated by synchrotron radiation from plasmas with electron temperatures between 50 - 200 keV is developed. We shall start by re-deriving a general expression for power radiated in vacuum from an individual cyclotron harmonic. Adding up power radiated from individual harmonics shows an asymptotic approach to the power radiated from all harmonics. In a case of Te =50 keV, summing the first 10 harmonics well represents radiation from all harmonics. However, for Te =150 keV, we require to sum over 60 harmonics to adequately represent the total radiation. This is computationally demanding. What follows is a derivation of a simple expression for high harmonic power radiation in vacuum. It is of interested that this expression proofs to be reasonable even for low harmonic numbers. Next we shall present the derivation of the relativistic frequency spectra. A discussion of cut-off for the electromagnetic O-wave and X-wave follows as well as re-emission of synchrotron radiation. Wave propagation close to perpendicular to B field is assumed.

  7. Transverse beam profile reconstruction using synchrotron radiation interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Torino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transverse beam size measurements in new generation of synchrotron light sources is a challenging task due to their characteristic small beam emittances and low couplings. Since the late 1990s, synchrotron radiation interferometry (SRI has been used in many accelerators to measure the beam size through the analysis of the spatial coherence of the synchrotron light. However, the standard SRI using a double-aperture system provides the beam size projection in a given direction. For this reason, the beam shape is not fully characterized because information about possible transverse beam tilts is not determined. In this report, we describe a technique to fully reconstruct the transverse beam profile based on a rotating double-pinhole mask, together with experimental results obtained at ALBA under different beam couplings. We also discuss how this method allows us to infer ultrasmall beam sizes in case of limitations of the standard SRI.

  8. Transvenous coronary angiography in humans with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1994-10-01

    The transvenous coronary angiography project at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is presently undergoing a significant upgrade to the hardware and software in the synchrotron medical facility. When completed, the project will have reached a level of maturity in the imaging technology which will allow the research team to begin to concentrate on medical research programs. This paper will review the status of the project and imaging technology and will discuss the current upgrades and future advanced technology initiatives. The advantages of using the radiation from a synchrotron, over that from a standard x-ray source, were the motivation for the project. A total of 23 human imaging sessions have been carried out with in the project. The primary goals have been to establish the imaging parameters and protocol necessary to obtain clinically useful images.

  9. Deflection gating for time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism-photoemission electron microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemann, C.; Kaiser, A. M.; Cramm, S. [Peter Gruenberg Institut PGI-6 ' Electronic Properties' , Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Gruenberg Institut PGI-6 ' Electronic Properties' , Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, we present a newly developed gating technique for a time-resolving photoemission microscope. The technique makes use of an electrostatic deflector within the microscope's electron optical system for fast switching between two electron-optical paths, one of which is used for imaging, while the other is blocked by an aperture stop. The system can be operated with a switching time of 20 ns and shows superior dark current rejection. We report on the application of this new gating technique to exploit the time structure in the injection bunch pattern of the synchrotron radiation source BESSY II at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for time-resolved measurements in the picosecond regime.

  10. A facility for the analysis of the electronic structures of solids and their surfaces by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesch, M.; Kim, T. K.; Dudin, P.; Wang, H.; Scott, S.; Harris, P.; Patel, S.; Matthews, M.; Hawkins, D.; Alcock, S. G.; Richter, T.; Mudd, J. J.; Basham, M.; Pratt, L.; Leicester, P.; Longhi, E. C.; Tamai, A.; Baumberger, F.

    2017-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation beamline in the photon energy range of 18-240 eV and an electron spectroscopy end station have been constructed at the 3 GeV Diamond Light Source storage ring. The instrument features a variable polarisation undulator, a high resolution monochromator, a re-focussing system to form a beam spot of 50 × 50 μm2, and an end station for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) including a 6-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample manipulator. The beamline design and its performance allow for a highly productive and precise use of the ARPES technique at an energy resolution of 10-15 meV for fast k-space mapping studies with a photon flux up to 2 ṡ 1013 ph/s and well below 3 meV for high resolution spectra.

  11. A facility for the analysis of the electronic structures of solids and their surfaces by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesch, M; Kim, T K; Dudin, P; Wang, H; Scott, S; Harris, P; Patel, S; Matthews, M; Hawkins, D; Alcock, S G; Richter, T; Mudd, J J; Basham, M; Pratt, L; Leicester, P; Longhi, E C; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2017-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation beamline in the photon energy range of 18-240 eV and an electron spectroscopy end station have been constructed at the 3 GeV Diamond Light Source storage ring. The instrument features a variable polarisation undulator, a high resolution monochromator, a re-focussing system to form a beam spot of 50 × 50 μm 2 , and an end station for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) including a 6-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample manipulator. The beamline design and its performance allow for a highly productive and precise use of the ARPES technique at an energy resolution of 10-15 meV for fast k-space mapping studies with a photon flux up to 2 ⋅ 10 13 ph/s and well below 3 meV for high resolution spectra.

  12. Simulating synchrotron radiation in accelerators including diffuse and specular reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dugan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate calculation of the synchrotron radiation flux within the vacuum chamber of an accelerator is needed for a number of applications. These include simulations of electron cloud effects and the design of radiation masking systems. To properly simulate the synchrotron radiation, it is important to include the scattering of the radiation at the vacuum chamber walls. To this end, a program called synrad3d has been developed which simulates the production and propagation of synchrotron radiation using a collection of photons. Photons generated by a charged particle beam are tracked from birth until they strike the vacuum chamber wall where the photon is either absorbed or scattered. Both specular and diffuse scattering is simulated. If a photon is scattered, it is further tracked through multiple encounters with the wall until it is finally absorbed. This paper describes the synrad3d program, with a focus on the details of its scattering model, and presents some examples of the program’s use.

  13. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy (229)Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-06-26

    We report the results of a direct search for the (229)Th (I(π)=3/2(+)←5/2(+)) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing (229)Th-doped LiSrAlF(6) crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s≲τ≲(2000-5600)  s. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  14. Investigation of high thermal contact conductance at low contact pressure for high-heat-load optical elements of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S.

    2013-09-01

    We measured the thermal-contact-conductance (TCC) of indirect cooling components in synchrotron radiation beamlines. To reduce the strain on the optical element, we explored conditions for insertion materials with a high TCC in region with low contact pressures of 0.1-1.0 MPa. We examined the TCC at the interface between oxygen-free copper (OFC) and insertion materials such as indium, graphite, and gold foil. The TCC depended on the hardness and thickness of the insertion material. Thin indium (20 μm thick) showed the highest TCC. Nickel and gold passivation on the OFC surface reduced the TCC to 30% of that for the bare OFC. Future work will involve exploring the passivation conditions of OFC for higher TCC is and measuring the TCC under cryogenic-cooling conditions.

  15. $YB_{66} a new soft X-ray monochromator for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, J; Rowen, M; Schäfers, F; Müller, B R; Rek, Z U

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol.A291, p.243-8, 1990. YB/sub 66/, a complex boron-rich man-made crystal, has been singled out as a potential monochromator material to disperse synchrotron soft X-rays in the 1-2 keV region. Results of a series of systematic property characterizations pertinent for this application are presented in this paper. These include Laue diffraction patterns and high-precision lattice-constant determination, etch rate, stoichiometry, thermal expansion, soft X-ray reflectivity and rocking-curve measurements, thermal load effects on monochromator performance, nature of intrinsic positive glitches and their reduction. The 004 reflection of YB/sub 66/ has a reflectance of ~3 in this spectral region. The width of the rocking curve varies from 0.25 eV at 1.1 keV to 1.0 eV at 2 keV, which is a factor of two better than that of beryl(1010) in the same energy range, and enables measurements of high-resolution XANES spectra at the Mg, Al and Si K- edges. The thermal bump on the...

  16. Survey and adjustment methods applied on an 11 axes high performance reflectometer for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggenstein, F., E-mail: Frank.Eggenstein@helmholtz-berlin.de; Bischoff, P.; Schäfers, F.; Schroeter, T.; Senf, F.; Sokolov, A.; Zeschke, T.; Erko, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, Berlin, Germany, D-12489 (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    At BESSY-II a new UV-and XUV optics beamline [1] has recently been setup with an in-house developed versatile reflectometer [2], [3], [4] for at-wavelength metrology on reflective and diffractive optical elements up to 4 kg mass. High precision measurements of the reflection and polarization properties are feasible by a 360° azimuthal rotation of the sample around the beam of light, where samples can be adjusted reproducibly with a novel UHV-Tripod within arc sec and μm precision. The azimuthal rotation requires an extremely high precision adjustment of the goniometer axis with respect to the incident light beam. Here we describe sophisticated methods with which we achieve nearly perfect agreement of the azimuthal rotation axis and the synchrotron beam in the 30 arc sec range. By using geodetic instruments (lasertracker, theodolite, autocollimator) the quality of the reflectometer UHV-mechanics has been characterized with respect to stiffness and radial run out with highest precision [5].

  17. Current-horn suppression for reduced coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth in strong bunch compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, T. K.; Paganin, D. M.; Latina, A.; Boland, M. J.; Dowd, R. T.

    2017-03-01

    Control of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR)-induced emittance growth is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Extreme current values at the head and tail of the electron bunch, resulting from strong bunch compression, are responsible for large CSR production leading to significant transverse projected emittance growth. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) truncates the head and tail current spikes which greatly improves free electron laser (FEL) performance. Here we consider the underlying dynamics that lead to formation of current spikes (also referred to as current horns), which has been identified as caustics forming in electron trajectories. We present a method to analytically determine conditions required to avoid the caustic formation and therefore prevent the current spikes from forming. These required conditions can be easily met, without increasing the transverse slice emittance, through inclusion of an octupole magnet in the middle of a bunch compressor.

  18. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  19. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  20. Heat transfer studies for a crystal in a synchrotron radiation beamline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 14 August 2007; revised 11 November 2008. Abstract. Heat load studies have been performed for the first crystal of a double crystal monochromator to be installed in a beamline of the 2·5 GeV syn- chrotron radiation source Indus-2. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to calculate the temperature ...

  1. On the possibilities of polychromatic synchrotron radiation microtomography for visualization of internal structures of Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, G.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; Nogueira, L. P.; Soares, J.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    The recent years advancements in microtomography have increased the achievable resolution and contrast, making this relatively inexpensive and a widely available technology, potentially useful for studies of insect's internal morphology. Phase Contrast X-Ray Synchrotron Microtomography (SR-PhC-μCT) is a non-destructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations of Rhodnius prolixus, one of the most important insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. In Latin America, vector control is the most useful method to prevent Chagas' disease, and a detailed knowledge of R. prolixus' interior structures is crucial for a better understanding of their function and evolution. Traditionally, in both biological morphology and anatomy, the internal structures of whole organisms or parts of them are accessed by dissecting or histological serial sectioning; so studying the internal structures of R. prolixus' head using SR-PhC-μCT is of great importance in researches on vector control. In this work, volume-rendered SR-PhC-μCT images of the heads of selected R. prolixus were obtained using the new set-up available at the SYRMEP beamline of ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). In this new set-up, the outcoming beam from the ring is restrained before the monochromator and in a devoted end-station, absorption and phase contrast radiography and tomography set-up are available. The images obtained with polychromatic X-ray beam in phase contrast regimen and 2 μm resolution, showed details and organs of R. prolixus never seen before with SR-PhC-μCT.

  2. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  3. Study of spear as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerino, J.; Golde, A.; Hastings, J.; Lindau, I.; Salsburg, B.; Winick, H.; Lee, M.; Morton, P.; Garren, A.

    1977-11-01

    A study was made of the potential of SPEAR as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation, based on the expectation that SPEAR will become increasingly available for this purpose as PEP, the 18-GeV colliding-beam storage ring now under construction by LBL and SLAC, becomes operational. A synchrotron radiation research program has been underway since May, 1974. Two beam ports capable of serving 9 simultaneous users are now operational. In single-beam multi-bunch operation high currents are possible (225 mA has been achieved and > approximately 300 mA is expected) and the electron beam emittance can be made smaller, resulting in higher source point brightness. Descriptions are given of SPEAR capabilities and of plans to expand the research capability by adding beam runs and by inserting wiggler magnets in SPEAR straight sections.

  4. Study of SPEAR as dedicated source of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerino, J. (Stanford Univ., CA); Golde, A.; Hastings, J.; Lindau, I.; Salsburg, B.; Winick, H.; Lee, M.; Morton, P.; Garren, A.

    1977-06-01

    The potential of SPEAR as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation was studied, based on the expectation that SPEAR will become increasingly available for this purpose as PEP, the 18-GeV colliding-beam storage ring now under construction by LBL and SLAC, becomes operational. A synchrotron radiation research program has been underway since May, 1974. Two beam ports capable of serving nine simultaneous users are now operational. In single-beam multi-bunch operation high currents are possible (225 mA has been achieved and greater than or approximately equal to 300 mA is expected) and the electron beam emittance can be made smaller, resulting in higher source point brightness. Descriptions are given of SPEAR capabilities and of plans to expand the research capability by adding beam runs and by inserting wiggler magnets in SPEAR straight sections.

  5. Investigating spintronics thin film systems with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.M. [Institut f. Festkoerperforschung IFF-9, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA-Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: c.m.schneider@fz-juelich.de; Krug, I.; Mueller, M.; Matthes, F.; Kaiser, A.; Wiemann, C.; Cramm, S. [Institut f. Festkoerperforschung IFF-9, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA-Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Elmers, H.-J.; Wegelin, F.; Krasyuk, A.; Nepijko, S.A.; Schoenhense, G. [Inst. f. Physik, Joh.-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Spintronics is a research field involving a wide variety of different magnetic materials. Synchrotron radiation in the VUV and soft X-ray regime is ideally suited to investigate the relationships between magnetic properties and electronic structure of spintronics thin film stacks. Complex layered structures and nanomagnets are the main building blocks for current and future spintronics applications. In this contribution we describe the study of spintronics model systems with respect to the static and dynamic behavior with an emphasis on interfaces.

  6. Calculation of the characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Maslova, M V; Maltsev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Subroutines for calculating the spectral and angular characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation are developed. Corresponding calculations are carried out for a number of proton and electron accelerators. The results obtained enable methods to be developed for beam diagnostics as well as highly sensitive detectors of infrared radiation for remote contactless nondestructive diagnostics and for investigating bunches and high-speed processes in ring-type (CERN /SEPS-LHC) and linear (GSI bunch target) accelerators, and also the thermal fields in nuclear power plants.

  7. Coherent synchrotron radiation and bunch stability in a compactstorage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Marco; Warnock, Robert; Ruth, Ronald; Ellison, James A.

    2004-04-09

    We examine the effect of the collective force due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in an electron storage ring with small bending radius. In a computation based on time-domain integration of the nonlinear Vlasov equation, we find the threshold current for a longitudinal microwave instability induced by CSR alone. The model accounts for suppression of radiation at long wave lengths due to shielding by the vacuum chamber. In a calculation just above threshold, small ripples in the charge distribution build up over a fraction of a synchrotron period, but then die out to yield a relatively smooth but altered distribution with eventual oscillations in bunch length. The instability evolves from small noise on an initial smooth bunch of r.m.s.length much greater than the shielding cutoff. The paper includes a derivation and extensive analysis of the complete impedance function Z for synchrotron radiation with parallel plate shielding. We find corrections to the lowest approximation to the coherent force which involve ''off-diagonal'' values of Z, that is, fields with phase velocity not equal to the particle velocity.

  8. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084568; Baglin, Vincent; Schaefers, Franz

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic...

  9. L-shell radiative transition rates by selective synchrotron ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetto, R D [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge J. Ronco, CONICET-UNLP, Calle 47 No. 257-Cc 59 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Carreras, A C [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y FIsica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria (5000) Cordoba (Argentina); Trincavelli, J [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y FIsica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria (5000) Cordoba (Argentina); Castellano, G [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y FIsica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria (5000) Cordoba (Argentina)

    2004-04-14

    Relative L-shell radiative transition rates were obtained for a number of decays in Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta and Re by means of a method for refining atomic and experimental parameters involved in the spectral analysis of x-ray irradiated samples. For this purpose, pure samples were bombarded with monochromatic synchrotron radiation tuning the incident x-ray energy in order to allow selective ionization of the different atomic shells. The results presented are compared to experimental and theoretical values published by other authors. A good general agreement was found and some particular discrepancies are discussed.

  10. First application of computed radiology to mammography with synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quai, E; Longo, R; Zanconati, F; Jaconelli, G; Tonutti, M; Abrami, A; Arfelli, F; Dreossi, D; Tromba, G; Cova, M A

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of phase-contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation using a high-resolution computed radiology (CR) system devoted to mammography. The study was performed at the Synchrotron Radiation for Medical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline of the Elettra synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in Trieste (Italy); X-ray beams were in the range 16-22 keV with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence. The CR system evaluated is the FCR Profect CS by Fujifilm Global. The first images were obtained from test objects and surgical breast specimens. Images obtained using SR and both screen-film and the CR system were compared with images of the same samples acquired with digital mammography equipment. In view of the good quality of the results obtained, the CR system was used in two mammographic examinations with SR. Images acquired using SR and both screen-film and CR were obtained with the same level of delivered dose. Image quality obtained with CR was similar or superior to that of screen-film images. Moreover, the digital images obtained with SR were always better than those acquired using the digital mammography system. Phase-contrast mammography with SR using the studied CR system is a feasible option.

  11. Simple modification of Compton polarimeter to redirect synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Benesch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation produced as an electron beam passes through a bending magnet is a significant source of background in many experiments. Using modeling, we show that simple modifications of the magnet geometry can reduce this background by orders of magnitude in some circumstances. Specifically, we examine possible modifications of the four dipole magnets used in Jefferson Lab’s Hall A Compton polarimeter chicane. This Compton polarimeter has been a crucial part of experiments with polarized beams and the next generation of experiments will utilize increased beam energies, up to 11 GeV, requiring a corresponding increase in Compton dipole field to 1.5 T. In consequence, the synchrotron radiation (SR from the dipole chicane will be greatly increased. Three possible modifications of the chicane dipoles are studied; each design moves about 2% of the integrated bending field to provide a gentle bend in critical regions along the beam trajectory which, in turn, greatly reduces the synchrotron radiation within the acceptance of the Compton polarimeter photon detector. Each of the modifications studied also softens the SR energy spectrum at the detector sufficiently to allow shielding with 5 mm of lead. Simulations show that these designs are each capable of reducing the background signal due to SR by three orders of magnitude. The three designs considered vary in their need for vacuum vessel changes and in their effectiveness.

  12. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dennis Eugene [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 11/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  13. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Campinas City, Brazil Using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Bruna Fernanda; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    The problem of solid waste in most countries is on the rise as a result of rapid population growth, urbanization, industrial development and changes in consumption habits. Amongst the various forms of waste disposals, landfills are today the most viable for the Brazilian reality, both technically and economically. Proper landfill construction practices allow minimizing the effects of the two main sources of pollution from solid waste: landfill gas and slurry. However, minimizing is not synonymous with eliminating; consequently, the landfill alone cannot resolve all the problems with solid waste disposal. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the content of trace elements in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry arising from local solid waste disposals in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Samples were collected at the Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli landfills. At the Delta and Santa Barbara sites, values above the maximum permitted level established by CETESB for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Pb were observed in samples of groundwater, while at the Pirelli site, elements with concentrations above the permitted levels were Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb. At Delta, values above levels permitted by the CONAMA 357 legislation were still observed in surface water samples for Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu, whereas in slurry samples, values above the permitted levels were observed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Slurry samples were prepared in accordance with two extraction methodologies, EPA 3050B and EPA 200.8. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were higher than the limit established by CONAMA 357 for most samples collected at different periods (dry and rainy) and also for the two extraction methodologies employed.

  14. Using Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation as a Probe into Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Thorne, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Jovian decimetric emission is caused by the combined emission of synchrotron radiation originating from the relativistic electrons trapped in Jupiter's 'Van Allen radiation belts' and thermal emission from the planet's atmosphere. Synchrotron radiation characteristics and variations (which provides insight into the physical properties of Jupiter's inner radiation belts) will be amplified and discussed.

  15. Targets emitting transition radiation for performing X-ray lithography by the tabletop synchrotron MIRRORCLE-20SX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, D. [21st Century COE SLLS, East Wing Building, Room 3113-0, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: minkov@se.ritsumei.ac.jp; Morita, M. [PPL Company, BKC Incubator, Room 209, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nihira, H. [Ritsumeikan University, West Wing Building, Room 2337-0, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yamada, H. [21st Century COE SLLS, East Wing Building, Room 3113-0, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); PPL Company, BKC Incubator, Room 209, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Ritsumeikan University, West Wing Building, Room 2337-0, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-shi, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2008-06-01

    The tabletop storage ring synchrotron (SRS) MIRRORCLE-20SX is a powerful source of soft X-rays emitted from transition radiation (TR) targets. SRS can be used as a source for performing X-ray lithography (XRL) when it emits TR power P{sub XRL}{>=}50-100 mW of photons having energy in the range 490-1860 eV. One-foil targets in SRS can emit a high TR power, and the electron beam geometry of MIRRORCLE-20SX requires using TR strip targets with a width {approx_equal}3 mm. P{sub XRL} emitted by one-foil strip TR targets is estimated for several foil materials, and varying foil thickness d. These results show that a target containing one C foil with d{approx_equal}260 nm can be used for performing XRL. Target made of one collodion foil with d{approx_equal}290 nm, and target of one Al foil with d{approx_equal}200 nm emit less, but could also be used for XRL. We manufactured such targets by depositing layers of these materials on slide glass, using Teepol as a releasing agent, and subsequently floating them on a water surface. The C layer is prepared by a horizontal resistance thermal evaporation, and supported by a 270-300 nm thick collodion layer, formed onto the Teepol film. The Al layer is thermally evaporated.

  16. Room-temperature macromolecular serial crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Stellato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for collecting data from many hundreds of thousands of microcrystals using X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser has recently been developed. Referred to as serial crystallography, diffraction patterns are recorded at a constant rate as a suspension of protein crystals flows across the path of an X-ray beam. Events that by chance contain single-crystal diffraction patterns are retained, then indexed and merged to form a three-dimensional set of reflection intensities for structure determination. This approach relies upon several innovations: an intense X-ray beam; a fast detector system; a means to rapidly flow a suspension of crystals across the X-ray beam; and the computational infrastructure to process the large volume of data. Originally conceived for radiation-damage-free measurements with ultrafast X-ray pulses, the same methods can be employed with synchrotron radiation. As in powder diffraction, the averaging of thousands of observations per Bragg peak may improve the ratio of signal to noise of low-dose exposures. Here, it is shown that this paradigm can be implemented for room-temperature data collection using synchrotron radiation and exposure times of less than 3 ms. Using lysozyme microcrystals as a model system, over 40 000 single-crystal diffraction patterns were obtained and merged to produce a structural model that could be refined to 2.1 Å resolution. The resulting electron density is in excellent agreement with that obtained using standard X-ray data collection techniques. With further improvements the method is well suited for even shorter exposures at future and upgraded synchrotron radiation facilities that may deliver beams with 1000 times higher brightness than they currently produce.

  17. X-ray optics developments at the APS for the third generation of high-energy synchrotron radiation sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D M

    1997-05-01

    Third-generation hard-X-ray synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new short-wavelength optical components. The high power and power densities of the insertion-device-produced X-ray beams have forced researchers to consider what may seem like exotic approaches, such as cryogenically cooled silicon and highly perfect diamond crystals, to mitigate thermal distortions in the first optical components. Once the power has been successfully filtered while maintaining the high beam brilliance, additional specialized optical components can be inserted into the monochromatic beam that take advantage of that brilliance. This paper reviews the performance of such optical components that have been designed, fabricated and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high-heat-load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices, such as an meV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high-energy X-ray phase retarder and a phase-zone plate with submicrometer focusing capability.

  18. Shielding Design Aspects of SR Beamlines for 3-GeV And 8-GeV Class Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-09-24

    Differences in synchrotron radiation beamline shielding design between the facilities of 3 GeV class and 8 GeV class are discussed with regard to SLAC SSRL and SPring-8 beamlines. Requirements of beamline shielding as well as the accelerator shielding depend on the stored electron energy, and here some factors in beamline shielding depending on the stored energy in particular, are clarified, namely the effect of build up, the effect of double scattering of photons at branch beamlines, and the spread of gas bremsstrahlung.

  19. Vavilov-Cherenkov and Synchrotron Radiation Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, G. N

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation observed by Cherenkov in 1934 was created by Tamm, Frank and Ginsburg who associated the observed blue light with the uniform charge motion of a charge at a velocity greater than the velocity of light in the medium. On the other hand, Vavilov, Cherenkov's teacher, attributed the observed blue light to the deceleration of electrons. This has given rise to the appearance of papers in which the radiation of a charge uniformly moving in a finite space interval was related to the Bremsstrahlung arising at the end points of the motion interval. This monograph is intended for students of the third year and higher, for postgraduates, for professional scientists (both experimentalists and theoreticians) dealing with Vavilov-Cherenkov and synchrotron radiation. An acquaintance with the three volumes of the Landau and Lifshitz course (Quantum Mechanics, Classical Field Theory and Macroscopic Electrodynamics) is sufficient for understanding the text.

  20. Large scale facilities for synchrotron radiation and neutrons. New possibilities for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidenhans' l, R

    2003-02-01

    New large-scale facilities for investigating the structure and dynamics of matter and biological systems are currently under construction or are being planned at many locations around Europe. These facilities are likely to have a large impact on the science landscape in Europe, and more locally, as some will be located in the immediate neighbourhood of Denmark. The facilities will enable new analytical capabilities of matter, which will push the frontiers of science and technology in many areas of research of importance for Denmark. This report provides an overview of the new facilities (including very rough funding estimates) of importance for Danish science, describes possible ways of engaging in the various projects and identifies potential user groups. The report also includes a summary of the status of the current use of existing facilities as a benchmark. This is done by showing different cross sections through this multiple parameter space of activities. The intention is that the report should serve as guideline for making a long-term national strategy for the exploitation of large-scale facilities in order to help to optimise their impact on science, education and industry within Denmark, and to safeguard the prominent internationally leading role that Denmark has in this area. (LN)

  1. Progress on a Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bassi, Gabriele; Warnock, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates (shielding). The time evolution of the phase space distribution is determined by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows the study of emittance degradation and microbunching in bunch compressors. We calculate the fields excited by the bunch in the lab frame using a formula simpler than that based on retarded potentials.* We have developed an algorithm for solving the Vlasov equation in the beam frame using arc length as the independent variable and our method of local characteristics (discretized Perron-Frobenius operator).We integrate in the interaction picture in the hope that we can adopt a fixed grid. The distribution function will be represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. The transformation between l...

  2. Medical physics aspects of the synchrotron radiation therapies: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Adam, Jean-Francois; Alagoz, Enver; Bartzsch, Stefan; Crosbie, Jeff; DeWagter, Carlos; Dipuglia, Andrew; Donzelli, Mattia; Doran, Simon; Fournier, Pauline; Kalef-Ezra, John; Kock, Angela; Lerch, Michael; McErlean, Ciara; Oelfke, Uwe; Olko, Pawel; Petasecca, Marco; Povoli, Marco; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Siegbahn, Erik A; Sporea, Dan; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy (SSRT) and Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) are both novel approaches to treat brain tumor and potentially other tumors using synchrotron radiation. Although the techniques differ by their principles, SSRT and MRT share certain common aspects with the possibility of combining their advantages in the future. For MRT, the technique uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams between 50 and 600 keV. Important features of highly brilliant Synchrotron sources are a very small beam divergence and an extremely high dose rate. The minimal beam divergence allows the insertion of so called Multi Slit Collimators (MSC) to produce spatially fractionated beams of typically ∼25-75 micron-wide microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns center-to-center(ctc)) spaces with a very sharp penumbra. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are extremely well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time provide a higher therapeutic index for various tumor models in rodents. The hypothesis of a selective radio-vulnerability of the tumor vasculature versus normal blood vessels by MRT was recently more solidified. SSRT (Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiotherapy) is based on a local drug uptake of high-Z elements in tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with 80 keV photons to enhance the dose deposition only within the tumor. With SSRT already in its clinical trial stage at the ESRF, most medical physics problems are already solved and the implemented solutions are briefly described, while the medical physics aspects in MRT will be discussed in more detail in this paper. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  4. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  5. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Helge; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev

    2012-01-01

    = \\gamma B/B_0 \\simeq 1$ quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the $\\langle110\\rangle$ axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from the regime......The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi...... where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong...

  6. Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center - An outline and scientific activities

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, M

    2003-01-01

    High energy-resolution and low-temperature photoemission spectroscopies (DELTA E=4.5-20 meV and T=6-300 K) have been started on undulator beamlines at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center with a compact light source. Beamlines for high energy-resolution photoemission spectroscopy and their application to direct observation of pseudogap formation in Kondo systems (CeRhAs, CeRhSb, CePtSn and CeNiSn, LaNiSn) are presented.

  7. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristoffer; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev

    the magnetic field is comparable to the critical field, quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from......The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field of 4.414*109 T. When the Lorentz factor times...... the regime where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong...

  8. Second Order Harmonics Suppression With Glass Filters for Synchrotron UV Radiation Calibration Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Burattini, E; Gambicorti, L; Malvezzi, F; Marcelli, A; Monti, F; Pace, E

    2005-01-01

    This development is the latest result of the cooperation between the National Laboratories of Frascati and the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence to improve the capabilities of the existing DXR-2 beam line at the DAΦNE-LIGHT laboratories. This collaboration has assessed a new facility in order to characterize optics and sensors in a wide spectral range (ranging from VUV to IR). Previous measurements [1] have highlighted some limitations in the present setup, as higher signal levels due to the diffracted radiation of the grating in the second order have to be removed to allow an accurate detection. In this work a glass filter is used to remove such spurious signal present in the spectral region with λ > 360 nm. The characteristics of the filter and its application to the optical system used to measure the sensitivity of a diamond-based photoconductor have been discussed.

  9. An experimental method for investigating phase transformations in the heat affected zone of welds using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Froba, M.; Waide, P.A.; Larson, E.M.

    1995-05-26

    Although welding is an established technology used in many industrial settings, it is least understand terms of the phases that actually exist, the variation of their spatial disposition with time, and the rate of transformation from one phase to another at various thermal coordinates in the vicinity of the weld. With the availability of high flux and, more recently, high brightness synchrotron x-radiation sources, a number of diffraction and spectroscopic methods have been developed for structural characterization with improved spatial and temporal resolutions to enable in-situ measurements of phases under extreme temperature, pressure and other processing conditions not readily accessible with conventional sources. This paper describes the application of spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) for in-situ investigations of phase transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of fusion welds. Results are presented for gas tungsten (GTA) welds in commercially pure titanium that show the existence of the high temperature bcc {beta}-phase in a 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm wide HA band adjacent to the liquid weld pool. Phase concentration profiles derived from the SRXRD data further show the co-existence of both the low temperature hcp ({alpha}-phase and the {beta}-phase in the partially, transformed region of the HA. These results represent the first direct observations of solid state phase transformations and mapping of phase boundaries in fusion welds. SRXRD experiments of this type are needed as experimental input for modeling of kinetics of phase transformations and microstructural evolution under the highly non-isothermal conditions produced during welding.

  10. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F. [CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Labrador, A. [LLS, BM16-ESRF, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pradell, T. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10{mu}m for FT-IR and 30 to 50 {mu}m squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  11. Synchrotron radiation vacuum chamber installation and beam size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shleifer, M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of storage ring vacuum chamber placement and its effect on the synchrotron radiation fan obtainable. We consider only horizonal errors and thus treat the problem two-dimensionally. Specifically, we describe the correlation between the parameters of the chamber and its position in the magnet and the size of the fan of radiation emerging from a port.

  12. Multi-level synchrotron radiation-based microtomography of the dental alveolus and its consequences for orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstra, M; Cattaneo, P M; Laursen, M G; Beckmann, F; Melsen, B

    2015-03-18

    Multilevel synchrotron radiation-based microtomography has been performed on a human jaw segment obtained at autopsy by cutting increasingly smaller samples from the original segment. The focus of this study lay on the microstructure of the interface between root, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone in order to find an answer to the question why alveolar bone remodels during orthodontic loading, when the associated stress and strain levels calculated with finite element analyses are well below the established threshold levels for bone remodeling. While the inner surface of the alveolus appears to be rather smooth on the lower resolution scans, detailed scans of the root-PDL-bone interface reveal that on a microscopical scale it is actually quite rough and uneven with bony spiculae protruding into the PDL space. Any external (orthodontic) loading applied to the root, when transferred through the PDL to the alveolar bone, will cause stress concentrations in these spiculae, rather than be distributed over a "smooth surface". As osteocyte lacunae are shown to be present in these spiculae, the local amplified stresses and strain can well be registered by the mechano-sensory network of osteocytes. In addition, a second stress amplification mechanism, due to the very presence of the lacunae themselves, is evidence that stresses and strains calculated with FE analyses, based on macroscopical scale models of teeth and their supporting structures, grossly underestimate the actual mechanical loading of alveolar bone at tissue level. It is therefore hypothesized that remodeling of alveolar bone is subject to the same biological regulatory process as remodeling in other bones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Medipix3 With Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Turecek, D; Ballabriga, R; Tartoni, N; Campbell, M; Llopart, X; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is the latest generation of photon counting readout chips of the Medipix family. With the same dimensions as Medipix2 (256 x 256 pixels of 55 mu m x 55 mu m pitch each), Medipix3 is however implemented in an 8-layer metallization 0.13 mu m CMOS technology which leads to an increase in the functionality associated with each pixel over Medipix2. One of the new operational modes implemented in the front-end architecture is the Charge Summing Mode (CSM). This mode consists of a charge reconstruction and hit allocation algorithm which eliminates event-by-event the low energy counts produced by charge-shared events between adjacent pixels. The present work focuses on the study of the CSM mode and compares it to the Single Pixel Mode (SPM) which is the conventional readout method for these kind of detectors and it is also implemented in Medipix3. Tests of a Medipix3 chip bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon photodiode sensor were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to evaluate the performan...

  14. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  15. γ-H2AX as a marker for dose deposition in the brain of wistar rats after synchrotron microbeam radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fernandez-Palomo

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation has shown high therapeutic potential in small animal models of malignant brain tumours. However, more studies are needed to understand the radiobiological effects caused by the delivery of high doses of spatially fractionated x-rays in tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of the γ-H2AX antibody as a marker for dose deposition in the brain of rats after synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT.Normal and tumour-bearing Wistar rats were exposed to 35, 70 or 350 Gy of MRT to their right cerebral hemisphere. The brains were extracted either at 4 or 8 hours after irradiation and immediately placed in formalin. Sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were incubated with anti γ-H2AX primary antibody.While the presence of the C6 glioma does not seem to modulate the formation of γ-H2AX in normal tissue, the irradiation dose and the recovery versus time are the most important factors affecting the development of γ-H2AX foci. Our results also suggest that doses of 350 Gy can trigger the release of bystander signals that significantly amplify the DNA damage caused by radiation and that the γ-H2AX biomarker does not only represent DNA damage produced by radiation, but also damage caused by bystander effects.In conclusion, we suggest that the γ-H2AX foci should be used as biomarker for targeted and non-targeted DNA damage after synchrotron radiation rather than a tool to measure the actual physical doses.

  16. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe{sub 2} and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  17. Synchrotron radiation in transactinium research report of the workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics. The advanced light source U8 undulator beamline, 20--300 eV; gas-phase actinide studies with synchrotron radiation; atomic structure calculations for heavy atoms; flux growth of single crystal uranium intermetallics: Extension to transuranics; x-ray absorption near-edge structure studies of actinide compounds; surface as a new stage for studying actinides: Theoretical study of the surface electronic structure of uranium; magnetic x-ray scattering experiments at resonant energies; beamline instruments for radioactive materials; the search for x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in actinide materials: preliminary experiments using UFe[sub 2] and U-S; the laser plasma laboratory light source: a source of preliminary transuranic data; electron spectroscopy of heavy fermion actinide materials; study of thin layers of actinides. Present status and future use of synchrotron radiation; electronic structure and correlated-electron theory for actinide materials; and heavy fermion and kondo phenomena in actinide materials.

  18. The influence of the solid waste disposal areas in Campinas city, Sao Paulo state (Brazil) on water quality: determination of metals using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna F.F., E-mail: bffaria@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Moreira, Silvana; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    Among the many forms of waste disposal, landfills today are best suited to Brazilian conditions, this because their construction allows minimizing the negative effects of landfill gas and slurry produced. However, the confinement of pollutants from landfills is linked to its construction and operation and when the construction and/or is wrong they can endanger air, groundwater and surface waters qualities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry coming from solid waste disposal locations in the city of Campinas, SP - Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli Landfills. The samples were analyzed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF). In Pirelli Landfill, the highest concentrations were observed in one of the wells located to downstream of the Landfill (in relation to the groundwater flux) - the monitoring well PM04, exceeding the intervention value defined by CETESB. For Santa Barbara landfill in one upstream monitoring well the concentrations of Ni, Mn, Pb and Cr, surpassed the maximum permissive values. The manganese in Landfill Delta showed to be higher in wells located downstream and 50% of the wells analyzed exceeded the maximum permissive value for groundwater samples. In the case of surface waters located in the vicinity of landfill sites, the metals that surpassed the maximum permissive values according the legislation in most of the points analyzed were Mn, Cu and Pb. For slurry samples collected in Delta Landfill, the average concentrations for Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb not exceeded the maximum permissive values during the period studied. Moreover for Santa Barbara the average concentration of Mn, Cu and Zn surpassed the permissive limits, as was observed for Mn in the Pirelli Landfill. (author)

  19. Morphological breast imaging: tomography and digital mammography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Renata E-mail: renata.longo@ts.infn.it; Pani, Silvia; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Olivo, Alessandro; Poropat, Paolo; Quaia, Emilio; Rigon, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico Dalla; Castelli, Edoardo

    2003-01-21

    A synchrotron radiation-based X-ray source offers a powerful tool for mammography due to the energy spectrum properties and the peculiar laminar beam geometry. Significant improvements in image quality have been achieved by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) collaboration, which has designed and built a beamline devoted to medical physics at the SR facility Elettra in Trieste (Italy). The detection system developed for digital mammography consists of a silicon pixel detector with 200x300 {mu}m{sup 2} pixel size and high conversion efficiency. The detector is equipped with a low noise read-out electronics working in single photon counting mode. Mammographic phantoms and in vitro full breast samples have been investigated: the digital images show higher contrast resolution and lower absorbed dose than the images of the same samples obtained at the clinical mammographic unit.The SYRMEP collaboration is carrying out a breast tomography feasibility study to evaluate the image quality and the delivered dose. The SYRMEP beam is an ideal tool for tomography due to the laminar and monochromatic beam with negligible divergence. The experimental set-up and the acquisition protocol have been studied and the tomographic images of full breast samples acquired in the energy range 20-28 keV indicate that good quality images can be obtained with delivered doses comparable to conventional mammography.

  20. Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS NL experiment for synthetic muscle returned to Earth: resistance to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Albers, Leila N.; Rodriguez, Simone; Gentile, Charles; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Hitchner, Robert; Taylor, James; Hoffman, Dan; Cylinder, David; Gaza, Ramona; Moy, Leon; Mark, Patrick S.; Prillaman, Daniel L.; Nodarse, Robert; Menegus, Michael J.; Ratto, Jo Ann; Thellen, Christopher T.; Froio, Danielle; Valenza, Logan; Poirier, Catherine; Sinkler, Charles; Corl, Dylan; Hablani, Surbhi; Fuerst, Tyler; Gallucci, Sergio; Blocher, Whitney; Liffland, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    In anticipation of deep space travel, new materials are being explored to assist and relieve humans in dangerous environments, such as high radiation, extreme temperature, and extreme pressure. Ras Labs Synthetic Muscle™ - electroactive polymers (EAPs) that contract and expand at low voltages - which mimic the unique gentle-yet-strong nature of human tissue, is a potential asset to manned space travel through protective gear and human assist robotics and for unmanned space exploration through deep space. Gen 3 Synthetic Muscle™ was proven to be resistant to extreme temperatures, and there were indications that these materials would also be radiation resistant. The purpose of the Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS Experiment was to test the radiation resistivity of the third and fourth generation of these EAPs, as well as to make them even more radiation resistant. On Earth, exposure of the Generation 3 and Generation 4 EAPs to a Cs-137 radiation source for 47.8 hours with a total dose of 305.931 kRad of gamma radiation was performed at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) at Princeton University, followed by pH, peroxide, Shore Hardness durometer, and electroactivity testing to determine the inherent radiation resistivity of these contractile EAPs, and to determine whether the EAPs could be made even more radiation resistant through the application of appropriate additives and coatings. The on Earth preliminary tests determined that selected Ras Labs EAPs were not only inherently radiation resistant, but with the appropriate coatings and additives, could be made even more radiation resistant. G-force testing to over 10 G's was performed at US Army's ARDEC Labs, with excellent results, in preparation for space flight to the International Space Station National Laboratory (ISS-NL). Selected samples of Generation 3 and Generation 4 Synthetic Muscle™, with various additives and coatings, were launched to the ISS-NL on April 14, 2015 on the

  1. Phase contrast imaging of breast tumours with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aolivo@medphys.ucl.ac.uk; Rigon, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Area Science Park, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: rigon@ts.infn.it; Vinnicombe, S.J. [Department of Radiology, St. Bartholomews Hospital, Barts and the London NHS Trust, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.vinnicombe@qmul.ac.uk; Cheung, K.C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.cheung@dl.ac.uk; Ibison, M. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.ibison@dl.ac.uk; Speller, R.D. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rspeller@medphys.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Even though the potential of phase contrast (PC) imaging has been demonstrated in a number of biological tissue samples, the availability of free-space propagation phase contrast images of real breast tumours is still limited. The aim of this study was to obtain phase contrast images of two different pathological breast specimens containing tumours of differing morphological type at two synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities, and to assess any qualitative improvements in the evaluation and characterisation of the masses through the use of phase contrast imaging. A second aim was to assess the effects of parameters such as detector resolution, beam energy and sample-to-detector distance on image quality using the same breast specimens, as to date these effects have been modelled and discussed only for geometric phantoms. At each synchrotron radiation facility a range of images was acquired with different detectors and by varying the above parameters. Images of the same samples were also acquired with the absorption-based approach to allow a direct comparison and estimation of the advantages specifically ascribable to the PC technique.

  2. Effect of scatter on image quality in synchrotron radiation mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeckli, Raphael; Verdun, Francis R.; Fiedler, Stefan; Pachoud, Marc; Schnyder, Pierre; Valley, Jean-Francois

    2001-06-01

    The display of low-contrast structures and fine microcalcifications is essential for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In order to achieve a high image quality level with a minimum amount of radiation delivered to the patient, the use of different spectra (Mo or Rh anode and filters) was introduced. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is able to produce a monochromatic beam with a high photon flux. It is thus a powerful tool to study the effect of beam energy on image quality and dose in mammography. Our image quality assessment is based on the calculation of the size of the smallest microcalcification detectable on a radiograph, derived from the statistical decision theory. The mean glandular dose is simultaneously measured. Compared with conventional mammography units, the monochromaticity of synchrotron beams improves contrast and the use of a slit instead of an anti-scatter grid leads to a higher primary beam transmission. The relative contribution of these two effects on image quality and dose is discussed.

  3. Design of bunch compressing system with suppression of coherent synchrotron radiation for ATF upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Yichao [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedurin, Mikhail [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    One of the operation modes for Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) upgrade is to provide high peak current, high quality electron beam for users. Such operation requires a bunch compressing system with a very large compression ratio. The CSR originating from the strong compressors generally could greatly degrade the quality of the electron beam. In this paper, we present our design for the entire bunch compressing system that will limit the effect of CSR on the e-beam’s quality. We discuss and detail the performance from the start to end simulation of such a compressor for ATF.

  4. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  5. Characterization of silica distribution in rice husk using Synchrotron Radiation µCT and its implications for archaeological interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Yang, Yimin; Xiao, Tiqiao; Gu, Zhou; Hill, David V; Wang, Changsui

    2014-10-01

    This article reports the results of a pilot project using Synchrotron Radiation µCT (computer-aided tomography) to examine the distribution of silica within phytoliths from rice husks. Experiments indicate that computed tomography can be used to show how silica accumulates and is distributed in a distinctive zigzag pattern of long epidermal cells that are characteristic of phytoliths from rice husks. This method will help us to understand why the dry ashing method produced much more zigzag pattern of long cells phytoliths from rice husk than did the acid extraction method. Besides, the zigzag morphological pattern exhibited by long epidermal cells is characteristic of this species which makes it useful in the identification of rice husks from archaeological contexts and indicating heating process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preliminary results from the prototype synchrotron radiation detector on space shuttle mission STS-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H.; Bates, J.R.; Baetzner, D.; Baumgartner, S.; Biland, A. E-mail: biland@particle.phys.ethz.ch; Camps, C.; Capell, M.; Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L.; Fanchiang, Y.-J.; Fluegge, G.; Fritschi, M.; Grimm, O.; Hangarter, K.; Hofer, H.; Horisberger, U.; Kan, R.; Kaestli, W.; Kenney, G.P.; Kim, G.N.; Kim, K.S.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Kuipers, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, S.-C.; Lewis, R.; Lustermann, W.; Pauss, F.; Rauber, T.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.L.; Roeser, U.; Son, D.; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Tiwari, A.N.; Viertel, G.M.; Gunten, H. von; Wicki, S. Waldmeier; Wang, T.-S.; Yang, J.; Zimmermann, B

    2002-12-01

    A Synchrotron Radiation Detector measures synchrotron radiation emitted by high energetic particles in the earth magnetic field. This allows to identify cosmic ray electrons and positrons with energies in the TeV region. One possibility for such a detector outside the atmosphere uses YAP crystals to measure synchrotron photons with energies in the keV range. As such a detector can not distinguish between photons and electrons, the main problems are the diffuse cosmic ray gamma background and low energetic electrons in the vicinity of the earth. While the intensity of the diffuse gamma rays is known quite well, there exists limited knowledge about keV-electrons in low earth orbits. To measure these electrons a Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) was flown with Space Shuttle mission STS-108 (Dec.2001) and preliminary analysis of the data show very favorable results.

  7. X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetani, K.; Fukushima, K.

    2013-03-01

    An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 μm, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 μm diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 μm was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct

  8. A New Lecture-Tutorial for Teaching about Molecular Excitations and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Hornstein, Seth D.; Burns, Jack O.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Chambers, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Light and spectroscopy are among the most important and frequently taught topics in introductory college-level general education astronomy courses (hereafter Astro 101). This is due to the fact that the vast majority of observational data studied by astronomers arrives at Earth in the form of light. While there are many processes by which matter can emit and absorb light, Astro 101 courses typically limit their instruction to the Bohr model of the atom and electron energy level transitions. In this paper, we report on the development of a new Lecture-Tutorial to help students learn about other processes that are responsible for the emission and absorption of light, namely molecular rotations, molecular vibrations, and the acceleration of charged particles by magnetic fields. Note that this paper primarily focuses on describing the variety of representations and reasoning tasks designed for this Lecture-Tutorial; while the end of this paper highlights some data that are suggestive of the Lecture-Tutorial's effectiveness, our more comprehensive analysis of its efficacy will be presented in a future publication.

  9. Engineering at SLAC: Designing and constructing experimental devices for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, Austin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-22

    Thanks to the versatility of the beam lines at SSRL, research there is varied and benefits multiple fields. Each experiment requires a particular set of experiment equipment, which in turns requires its own particular assembly. As such, new engineering challenges arise from each new experiment. My role as an engineering intern has been to help solve these challenges, by designing and assembling experimental devices. My first project was to design a heated sample holder, which will be used to investigate the effect of temperature on a sample's x-ray diffraction pattern. My second project was to help set up an imaging test, which involved designing a cooled grating holder and assembling multiple positioning stages. My third project was designing a 3D-printed pencil holder for the SSRL workstations.

  10. A New Lecture-Tutorial for Teaching about Molecular Excitations and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Colin S; Hornstein, Seth D; Schlingman, Wayne M; Chambers, Timothy G; Burns, Jack O

    2015-01-01

    Light and spectroscopy are among the most important and frequently taught topics in introductory, college-level, general education astronomy courses. This is due to the fact that the vast majority of observational data studied by astronomers arrives at Earth in the form of light. While there are many processes by which matter can emit and absorb light, Astro 101 courses typically limit their instruction to the Bohr model of the atom and electron energy level transitions. In this paper, we report on the development of a new Lecture-Tutorial to help students learn about other processes that are responsible for the emission and absorption of light, namely molecular rotations, molecular vibrations, and the acceleration of charged particles by magnetic fields.

  11. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Tessier, A [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Vautrin, M; Benkebil, M [DOSIsoft, Cachan, Ile de France (France); Sihanath, R [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone- Alpes (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria.

  12. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  13. Brief historical aspects of the synchrotron radiation development in France; Bref historique du developpement du rayonnement synchrotron en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farge, Y. [Academie des Technologies, Grand Palais des Champs elysees, Porte C, Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt, F-75008 Paris (France)

    2011-07-01

    France has played a major role in the development of synchrotron radiation. In 1971, a group of physicists and photo-chemists have created the LURE laboratory in Orsay (France) to exploit the radiation emitted by a small storage ring (ACO). In this ring, the radiation was emitted in curvature segments which gave to electrons a circular trajectory and a centripetal acceleration. Rapidly, the electrons have been submitted to others forms of acceleration. The source brilliancy has been improved to. In 1986 has been built the ESRF in Grenoble. For 2007, SOLEIL, a third generation synchrotron runs. It covers simultaneously the hard and soft X radiations and the early ultraviolet. The uses of the synchrotron radiation are extremely large and use all the photons interaction properties with matter: absorption, fluorescence, elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, photo-emissions...These techniques cover wide scientific domains as atomic physics, photochemistry, surfaces studies, high resolution imagery in the X-rays field or acute chemical analyses. (O.M.)

  14. TXRF analysis of multielements in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: edgar@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). COPPE Technology Center. Nuclear Instrumentation Lab.; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The determination of trace elements levels in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established these levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Sickle cell Anemia is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. SCA occurs when a person inherits two abnormal genes (one from each parent) that cause their red blood cells to change shape. These irregular-shaped blood cells die prematurely, resulting in a chronic shortage of red blood cells. We studied forty-three patients (15 males and 28 females) aged 18 to 50 years, suffering SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers (41 males and 19 females) aged 18 to 60 years. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  15. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  16. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...

  17. Design and construction of the prototype synchrotron radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Baetzner, D; Baumgartner, S; Biland, A; Camps, C; Capell, M; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Fanchiang, Y J; Flügge, G; Fritschi, M; Grimm, O; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Horisberger, Urs; Kan, R; Kaestli, W; Kenney, G P; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Kuipers, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Lewis, R; Lustermann, W; Pauss, Felicitas; Rauber, T; Ren, D; Ren, Z L; Röser, U; Son, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Tiwari, A N; Viertel, Gert M; Gunten, H V; Wicki, S W; Wang, T S; Yang, J; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) is a small-scale experiment designed to measure the rate of low-energy charged particles and photons in near the Earth's orbit. It is a precursor to the Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), a proposed addition to the upgraded version of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). The SRD will use the Earth's magnetic field to identify the charge sign of electrons and positrons with energies above 1 TeV by detecting the synchrotron radiation they emit in this field. The differential energy spectrum of these particles is astrophysically interesting and not well covered by the remaining components of AMS-02. Precise measurements of this spectrum offer the possibility to gain information on the acceleration mechanism and characteristics of all cosmic rays in our galactic neighbourhood. The SRD will discriminate against protons as they radiate only weakly. Both the number and energy of the synchrotron photons that the SRD needs to detect are small. The identificat...

  18. Synchrotron Radiation in eRHIC Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Montag, Christoph; Rondeau, Daniel J; Surrow, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC currently under study at BNL consists of an electron storage ring added to the existing RHIC complex. The interaction region of this facility has to provide the required low-beta focusing while accommodating the synchrotron radiation generated by beam separation close to the interaction point. In the current design, the synchrotron radiation caused by 10GeV electrons bent by low-beta triplet magnets will be guided through the interaction region and dumped 5m downstream. However, it is unavoidable to stop a fraction of the photons at the septum where the electron and ion vacuum system are separated. In order to protect the septum and minimize the backward scattering of the synchrotron radiation, an absorber and collimation system will be employed. In this paper, we first present the overview of the current design of the eRHIC interaction region with special emphasis on the synchrotron radiation. Then the initial design of the absorber and collimation system, including their geometrical and physical p...

  19. Observation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at NewSUBARU

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Satoshi; Shoji, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from a short electron bunch in a storage ring was observed at NewSUBARU. The energy of electron was 1GeV. The ring was operated with quasi-isochronous mode. The linear momentum compaction factor was smaller than 2 X 10

  20. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  1. Optical synchrotron radiation beam imaging with a digital mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fiorito, Ralph [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shkvarunets, Anatoly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tian, Kai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, Alan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mok, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392nC). Each injection pulse contains only 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during User operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by re-imaging visible synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera makes it is possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  2. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  3. Calculations of synchrotron emission from the terrestrial radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to allow for the calculation of the synchrotron emission arising from high energy electrons trapped in the Van Allen belts of a planet with a dipole magnetic field. The model is general enough to allow for the calculation of the intensity of radiation received by an observer at any distance from and any latitude about the planet. The model is used to compute the emission from the earth's Van Allen belts that one should expect at various latitudes at a distance of 1.92 earth radii, the position of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite that was launched in 1968, for the frequencies 1.3 MHz and 2.2 MHz.

  4. BNLs Synchrotron-radiation Research Hub for Characterizing Detection Materials and Devices for the NA-22 Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarda, G. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bolotnikov, A. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cui, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hossain, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roy, U. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Vanier, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McDowell, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosen, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Labrum, Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to obtain and characterize scintillators, emerging- and commercial-compoundsemiconductor radiation- detection materials and devices provided by vendors and research organizations. The focus of our proposed research is to clarify the role of the deleterious defects and impurities responsible for the detectors' non-uniformity in scintillating crystals, commercial semiconductor radiation-detector materials, and in emerging R&D ones. Some benefits of this project addresses the need for fabricating high-performance scintillators and compound-semiconductor radiation-detectors with the proven potential for large-scale manufacturing. The findings help researchers to resolve the problems of non-uniformities in scintillating crystals, commercial semiconductor radiation-detector materials, and in emerging R&D ones.

  5. VUV photochemistry simulation of planetary upper atmosphere using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Giuliani, Alexandre; Correia, Jean Jacques; Cernogora, Guy

    2013-07-01

    The coupling of a gas reactor, named APSIS, with a vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility, for a photochemistry study of gas mixtures, is reported. The reactor may be irradiated windowless with gas pressures up to hundreds of millibar, and thus allows the effect of energetic photons below 100 nm wavelength to be studied on possibly dense media. This set-up is perfectly suited to atmospheric photochemistry investigations, as illustrated by a preliminary report of a simulation of the upper atmospheric photochemistry of Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is mainly composed of molecular nitrogen and methane. Solar VUV irradiation with wavelengths no longer than 100 nm on the top of the atmosphere enables the dissociation and ionization of nitrogen, involving a nitrogen chemistry specific to nitrogen-rich upper atmospheres.

  6. The application of synchrotron radiation to non-invasive angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, E. B.; Zeman, H. D.; Campbell, L. E.; Hofstadter, R.; Meyer-Berkhout, U.; Otis, J. N.; Rolfe, J.; Stone, J. P.; Wilson, S.; Rubenstein, E.; Harrison, D. C.; Kernoff, R. S.; Thompson, A. C.; Brown, G. S.

    1983-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides a new source of X-rays highly-suited to iodine K-edge Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). The use of such beams provides maximum sensitivity to intra-arterial iodine and virtually eliminates image contrast due to non-vascular body structures. The intensity of the beams permits short exposure times and allows images to be recorded, in line-scan fashion, in sharp focus despite arterial motions. The sensitivity of this method offers the prospect of visualizing arteries, and in particular the coronary arteries, by peripheral venous injection. The principles of DSA have been demonstrated using phantoms and excised animal hearts, and in vivo studies in animals have begun. The instrumentation developed for this purpose and the results obtained to date are summarized.

  7. Synchrotron radiation-based experimental determination of the optimal energy for cell radiotoxicity enhancement following photoelectric effect on stable iodinated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corde, S; Joubert, A; Adam, J F; Charvet, A M; Le Bas, J F; Estève, F; Elleaume, H; Balosso, J

    2004-08-02

    This study was designed to experimentally evaluate the optimal X-ray energy for increasing the radiation energy absorbed in tumours loaded with iodinated compounds, using the photoelectric effect. SQ20B human cells were irradiated with synchrotron monochromatic beam tuned at 32.8, 33.5, 50 and 70 keV. Two cell treatments were compared to the control: cells suspended in 10 mg ml(-1) of iodine radiological contrast agent or cells pre-exposed with 10 microM of iodo-desoxyuridine (IUdR) for 48 h. Our radiobiological end point was clonogenic cell survival. Cells irradiated with both iodine compounds exhibited a radiation sensitisation enhancement. Moreover, it was energy dependent, with a maximum at 50 keV. At this energy, the sensitisation calculated at 10% survival was equal to 2.03 for cells suspended in iodinated contrast agent and 2.60 for IUdR. Cells pretreated with IUdR had higher sensitisation factors over the energy range than for those suspended in iodine contrast agent. Also, their survival curves presented no shoulder, suggesting complex lethal damages from Auger electrons. Our results confirm the existence of the 50 keV energy optimum for a binary therapeutic irradiation based on the presence of stable iodine in tumours and an external irradiation. Monochromatic synchrotron radiotherapy concept is hence proposed for increasing the differential effect between healthy and cancerous tissue irradiation.

  8. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation time structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeard, N; Silly, M G; Krizmancic, D; Chauvet, C; Guzzo, M; Ricaud, J P; Izquierdo, M; Stebel, L; Pittana, P; Sergo, R; Cautero, G; Dufour, G; Rochet, F; Sirotti, F

    2011-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation time structure is becoming a common tool for studying dynamic properties of materials. The main limitation is often the wide time domain the user would like to access with pump-probe experiments. In order to perform photoelectron spectroscopy experiments over time scales from milliseconds to picoseconds it is mandatory to measure the time at which each measured photoelectron was created. For this reason the usual CCD camera-based two-dimensional detection of electron energy analyzers has been replaced by a new delay-line detector adapted to the time structure of the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source. The new two-dimensional delay-line detector has a time resolution of 5 ns and was installed on a Scienta SES 2002 electron energy analyzer. The first application has been to characterize the time of flight of the photoemitted electrons as a function of their kinetic energy and the selected pass energy. By repeating the experiment as a function of the available pass energy and of the kinetic energy, a complete characterization of the analyzer behaviour in the time domain has been obtained. Even for kinetic energies as low as 10 eV at 2 eV pass energy, the time spread of the detected electrons is lower than 140 ns. These results and the time structure of the SOLEIL filling modes assure the possibility of performing pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy experiments with the time resolution given by the SOLEIL pulse width, the best performance of the beamline and of the experimental station.

  9. Synchrotron radiation in the interaction region for a Ring-Ring and Linac-Ring LHeC

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, N; Thompson, L; Holzer, B; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F; Klein, M; Kostka, P; Nagorny, B; Schneekloth, U

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) aims at bringing hadron-lepton collisions to CERN with centre of mass energies in the TeV scale. The LHeC will utilise the existing LHC storage ring with the addition of a 60 GeV electron accelerator. The electron beam will be stored and accelerated in either a storage ring in the LHC tunnel (Ring-Ring) or a linac tangent to the LHC tunnel (Linac- Ring). Synchrotron Radiation (SR) in the Interaction Region (IR) of this machine requires an iterative design process in which luminosity is optimised while the SR is minimised. This process also requires attention to be given to the detector as the beam pipe must be designed such that disturbing effects, such as out-gassing and background scattering, are minimised while the tracker remains close to the IP thus maximising the acceptance of the experiment. The machinery of GEANT4 has been used to simulate the SR load in the IR and also to design absorbers/masks to shield SR from backscattering into the detector or propagating...

  10. New Analytical Methods for the Surface/ Interface and the Micro-Structures in Advanced Nanocomposite Materials by Synchrotron Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakamae

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods of surface/interface structure and micro-structure in advanced nanocomposite materials by using the synchrotron radiation are introduced. Recent results obtained by the energy-tunable and highly collimated brilliant X-rays, in-situ wide angle/small angle X-ray diffraction with high accuracy are reviewed. It is shown that small angle X-ray scattering is one of the best methods to characterize nanoparticle dispersibility, filler aggregate/agglomerate structures and in-situ observation of hierarchical structure deformation in filled rubber under cyclic stretch. Grazing Incidence(small and wide angle X-ray Scattering are powerful to analyze the sintering process of metal nanoparticle by in-situ observation as well as the orientation of polymer molecules and crystalline orientation at very thin surface layer (ca 7nm of polymer film. While the interaction and conformation of adsorbed molecule at interface can be investigated by using high energy X-ray XPS with Enough deep position (ca 9 micron m.

  11. Efficient computation of coherent synchrotron radiation in a rectangular chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Warnock

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR in a perfectly conducting vacuum chamber of rectangular cross section, in a formalism allowing an arbitrary sequence of bends and straight sections. We apply the paraxial method in the frequency domain, with a Fourier development in the vertical coordinate but with no other mode expansions. A line charge source is handled numerically by a new method that rids the equations of singularities through a change of dependent variable. The resulting algorithm is fast compared to earlier methods, works for short bunches with complicated structure, and yields all six field components at any space-time point. As an example we compute the tangential magnetic field at the walls. From that one can make a perturbative treatment of the Poynting flux to estimate the energy deposited in resistive walls. The calculation was motivated by a design issue for LCLS-II, the question of how much wall heating from CSR occurs in the last bend of a bunch compressor and the following straight section. Working with a realistic longitudinal bunch form of r.m.s. length 10.4  μm and a charge of 100 pC we conclude that the radiated power is quite small (28 W at a 1 MHz repetition rate, and all radiated energy is absorbed in the walls within 7 m along the straight section.

  12. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  13. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  14. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.m.bouchet@gmail.com [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); El Atifi, Michèle [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec' h, Céline [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean Albert [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Pelletier, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.pelletier@ujf-grenoble.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Le Duc, Géraldine [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  15. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2007-01-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book.

  16. Finite element analysis of the distortion of a crystal monochromator from synchrotron radiation thermal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.R.; Hoyer, E.H.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-10-01

    The first crystal of the Brown-Hower x-ray monochromator of the LBL-EXXON 54 pole wiggler beamline at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is subjected to intense synchrotron radiation. To provide an accurate thermal/structural analysis of the existing monochromator design, a finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. A very high and extremely localized heat flux is incident on the Si (220) crystal. The crystal, which possesses pronouncedly temperature-dependent orthotropic properties, in combination with the localized heat load, make the analysis ideally suited for finite element techniques. Characterization of the incident synchrotron radiation is discussed, followed by a review of the techniques employed in modeling the monochromator and its thermal/structural boundary conditions. The results of the finite element analysis, three-dimensional temperature distributions, surface displacements and slopes, and stresses, in the area of interest, are presented. Lastly, the effects these results have on monochromator output flux and resolution are examined.

  17. Coherent synchrotron radiation by electrons moving on circular orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2017-06-01

    We study coherent synchrotron radiation by electrons in the Frenet-Serret coordinate system with a constant curvature 1 /ρ . Based on the Hamiltonian in the Courant-Synder theory of particle accelerators, we find in general that the transverse force is essentially the Lorentz force but with a substitution of the transverse magnetic field Bx ,y→(1 +x /ρ )Bx ,y , where x and y are the transverse positions. The curvature term provides us a key to derive the point-charge wakefield explicitly in terms of the incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind, resulting in a steady-state theory of the coherent synchrotron radiation in two-dimensional free space.

  18. Coherent synchrotron radiation by electrons moving on circular orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We study coherent synchrotron radiation by electrons in the Frenet-Serret coordinate system with a constant curvature 1/ρ. Based on the Hamiltonian in the Courant-Synder theory of particle accelerators, we find in general that the transverse force is essentially the Lorentz force but with a substitution of the transverse magnetic field B_{x,y}→(1+x/ρB_{x,y}, where x and y are the transverse positions. The curvature term provides us a key to derive the point-charge wakefield explicitly in terms of the incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind, resulting in a steady-state theory of the coherent synchrotron radiation in two-dimensional free space.

  19. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  20. Estimation of presampling modulation transfer function in synchrotron radiation microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The spatial resolution achieved by recent synchrotron radiation microtomographs should be estimated from the modulation transfer function (MTF) on the micrometer scale. Step response functions of a synchrotron radiation microtomograph were determined by the slanted edge method by using high-precision surfaces of diamond crystal and ion-milled aluminum wire. Tilted reconstruction was introduced to enable any edge to be used as the slanted edge by defining the reconstruction pixel matrix in an arbitrary orientation. MTFs were estimated from the step response functions of the slanted edges. The obtained MTFs coincided with MTF values estimated from square-wave patterns milled on the aluminum surface. Although x-ray refraction influences should be taken into account to evaluate MTFs, any flat surfaces with nanometer roughness can be used to determine the spatial resolutions of microtomographs.

  1. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  2. Generation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from JAERI-ERL

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Kikuzawa, N; Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M

    2005-01-01

    An electron beam with high-average current and short bunch length can be accelerated by energy-recovery linac. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from such an electron beam will be a useful light source around millimeter wavelength. We report results from a preliminary measurement of CSR emitted from a bending magnet of JAERI-ERL. Possible enhancement of CSR power by FEL micro-bunching is also discussed.

  3. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, G.; Accardo, A.; Benseny-Cases, N.; Burghammer, M.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Cotte, M.; Dante, S.; De Angelis, F.; Di Cola, E.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Hauser, C.; Riekel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments.

  4. Probing droplets with biological colloidal suspensions on smart surfaces by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-beams

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Droplets with colloidal biological suspensions evaporating on substrates with defined wetting properties generate confined environments for initiating aggregation and self-assembly processes. We describe smart micro- and nanostructured surfaces, optimized for probing single droplets and residues by synchrotron radiation micro- and nanobeam diffraction techniques. Applications are presented for Ac-IVD and β-amyloid (1-42) peptides capable of forming cross-β sheet structures. Complementary synchrotron radiation FTIR microspectroscopy addresses secondary structure formation. The high synchrotron radiation source brilliance enables fast raster-scan experiments. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. First Observation of the LHC Beam Halo Using a Synchrotron Radiation Coronagraph

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Bravin, Enrico; Roncarolo, Federico; Trad, Georges

    2017-01-01

    A test coronagraph for the observation of beam halo has been installed in the Synchrotron radiation monitor line LHCB2 in 2015. This coronagraph is commissioned with LHC operation at 450GeV (injection energy). After some optical testing of the coronagraph with visible Synchrotron radiation in B2, we try to observe artificially-made beam halo. The beam halo of 10⁻³ order of magnitude against the beam core is excited by the kicker of the transverse damper. We have succeeded to observe a diffrac...

  6. Serial crystallography on in vivo grown microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Gati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structure determinations of biological macromolecules are limited by the availability of sufficiently sized crystals and by the fact that crystal quality deteriorates during data collection owing to radiation damage. Exploiting a micrometre-sized X-ray beam, high-precision diffractometry and shutterless data acquisition with a pixel-array detector, a strategy for collecting data from many micrometre-sized crystals presented to an X-ray beam in a vitrified suspension is demonstrated. By combining diffraction data from 80 Trypanosoma brucei procathepsin B crystals with an average volume of 9 µm3, a complete data set to 3.0 Å resolution has been assembled. The data allowed the refinement of a structural model that is consistent with that previously obtained using free-electron laser radiation, providing mutual validation. Further improvements of the serial synchrotron crystallography technique and its combination with serial femtosecond crystallography are discussed that may allow the determination of high-resolution structures of micrometre-sized crystals.

  7. Dosimetric systems developed in Brazil for the radiation processes quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galante, Ana Maria Sisti; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: sgalante@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In order to apply new technologies to the industrial processing of materials aiming economy, efficiency, speed and high quality, ionizing radiation has been used in medicine, archaeology, chemistry, food preservation and other areas. For this reason, the dosimetry area looks for improve current dosimeters and develop new materials for application on quality control of these processes. In Brazil, the research in the dosimetry area occurs with great speed providing many different dosimetric systems. The chemical dosimetry is the most used technique in routine dosimetry, which requires fast and accurate responses. This technique involves determination of absorbed dose by measuring chemical changes radiation induced in the materials. Different dosimetric systems were developed at IPEN for application on radiation process quality and all of them present excellent results; the low cost of these materials allows a more effective dose control, therefore, a larger area or volume can be monitored. (author).

  8. Synchrotron radiation protein data collection system using the newly developed Weissenberg camera and imaging plate for crystal structure analysis (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, N.; Nakagawa, A.; Sasaki, K.; Sakabe, K.; Watanabe, N.; Kondo, H.; Shimomura, M.

    1989-07-01

    It has been an earnest desire of protein crystallographers to collect fast, accurate, high resolution diffraction data from protein crystals, preferably with exposure time as short as possible. In order to meet this challenge, a new type of Weissenberg camera has been developed for the recording of diffraction intensity from protein crystals using synchrotron radiation. The BL6A2 line has a plane-bending mirror designed by Y. Sato. The optical bench with triangular tilt-cut Si crystal monochromator was designed by N. Kamiya and was installed in the BL6A2 hutch. The Weissenberg camera was set on the 2θ arm of the optical bench. This camera can be used with Fuji Imaging Plate (IP) as an x-ray detector, and the reading out of the image from the IP is carried out by using BA100. The characterization of this system was carried out using the native crystal of chicken gizzard G-actin DNase I complex and its Yb3+, PCMB, indium, and FMA derivatives. Since these crystals are very sensitive for x rays, the resolution limit of the diffraction was 5 Å with a 4-circle diffractometer on a rotating anode x-ray generator (N. Sakabe et al., J. Biochem. 95, 887. This complex was crystallized in space group P2,2,2, with a=42.0, b=225.3, and c=77.4 Å. The data were collected with this system with the 430-mm radius cassette when Photon Factory was operated at 2.5 GeV and 270 mA and the wavelength λ=1.004 Å was chosen. In order to avoid overlapping of diffraction spots, oscillation angle range and coupling constant (degree/mm) were settled on the basis of simulation patterns of diffraction spots up to the maximum resolution to be measured considering the direction of the crystal axes, wavelength, radius of the camera, and mosaicness of the crystal. When the oscillation axis was a axis, the oscillation angle range was selected at either 10° (1°/mm) or 5° (0.5°/mm) depending on the density of reciprocal lattice points along the incident beam, and typical exposure time in each IP

  9. White Beam, X-Ray, Energy-Dispersive Diffractometry using Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerward, Leif; Buras, B.; Olsen, J. Staun

    1978-01-01

    The special features of left double quote white right double quote beam X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation are discussed on the basis of experiments performed at the Deutsches Electronen-Synchrotron, DESY.......The special features of left double quote white right double quote beam X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation are discussed on the basis of experiments performed at the Deutsches Electronen-Synchrotron, DESY....

  10. Evidence for Degradation of the Chrome Yellows in Van Gogh's Sunflowers: A Study Using Noninvasive In Situ Methods and Synchrotron-Radiation-Based X-ray Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Hendriks, Ella; Vanmeert, Frederik; Van der Snickt, Geert; Cotte, Marine; Falkenberg, Gerald; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2015-11-16

    This paper presents firm evidence for the chemical alteration of chrome yellow pigments in Van Gogh's Sunflowers (Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam). Noninvasive in situ spectroscopic analysis at several spots on the painting, combined with synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray investigations of two microsamples, revealed the presence of different types of chrome yellow used by Van Gogh, including the lightfast PbCrO4 and the sulfur-rich PbCr1-x Sx O4 (x≈0.5) variety that is known for its high propensity to undergo photoinduced reduction. The products of this degradation process, i.e., Cr(III) compounds, were found at the interface between the paint and the varnish. Selected locations of the painting with the highest risk of color modification by chemical deterioration of chrome yellow are identified, thus calling for careful monitoring in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Analysis of cortical bone porosity using synchrotron radiation microtomography to evaluate the effects of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Salata, C.; Mantuano, A.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    Microporosities play important biologic and mechanical roles on health. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to cortical bone changes. In the present work, the femur diaphysis of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D morphometric parameters using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur diaphysis of rats.

  12. FULL ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION OF COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION VIA THE LORENTZ-BOOSTED FRAME APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, William M; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-21

    Numerical simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. Orders of magnitude speedup has been demonstrated for simulations from first principles of laser-plasma accelerator, free electron laser, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Here we address the application of the Lorentz-boosted frame approach to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can be strongly present in bunch compressor chicanes. CSR is particularly relevant to the next generation of x-ray light sources and is simultaneously difficult to simulate in the lab frame because of the large ratio of scale lengths. It can increase both the incoherent and coherent longitudinal energy spread, effects that often lead to an increase in transverse emittance. We have adapted the WARP code to simulate CSR emission along a simple dipole bend. We present some scaling arguments for the possible computational speed up factor in the boosted frame and initial 3D simulation results.

  13. Confocal depth-resolved fluorescence micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of cultural heritage materials: a new mobile endstation at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Chu, Shengqi; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Zheng, Lirong; An, Pengfei; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Shurong; Du, Yonghua; Zhang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    A confocal fluorescence endstation for depth-resolved micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is described. A polycapillary half-lens defines the incident beam path and a second polycapillary half-lens at 90° defines the probe sample volume. An automatic alignment program based on an evolutionary algorithm is employed to make the alignment procedure efficient. This depth-resolved system was examined on a general X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Sacrificial red glaze (AD 1368-1644) china was studied to show the capability of the instrument. As a mobile endstation to be applied on multiple beamlines, the confocal system can improve the function and flexibility of general XAS beamlines, and extend their capabilities to a wider user community.

  14. Confocal depth-resolved fluorescence micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the study of cultural heritage materials: a new mobile endstation at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guang; Chu, Shengqi; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Zheng, Lirong; An, Pengfei; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Shurong; Du, Yonghua; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-10

    A confocal fluorescence endstation for depth-resolved micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is described. A polycapillary half-lens defines the incident beam path and a second polycapillary half-lens at 90° defines the probe sample volume. An automatic alignment program based on an evolutionary algorithm is employed to make the alignment procedure efficient. This depth-resolved system was examined on a general X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Sacrificial red glaze (AD 1368–1644) china was studied to show the capability of the instrument. As a mobile endstation to be applied on multiple beamlines, the confocal system can improve the function and flexibility of general XAS beamlines, and extend their capabilities to a wider user community.

  15. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray diffraction for nondestructive assessments of local structural properties of faceted InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Atsushi; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawamura, Tomoaki; Araki, Jun; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2018-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray diffraction with a sub-µm spatial resolution is used to nondestructively evaluate the local thickness and alloy composition of three-dimensionally faceted InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs). The (0001) facet QW on a trapezoidal structure composed of (0001), \\{ 11\\bar{2}2\\} , and \\{ 11\\bar{2}0\\} facets is nonuniform, most likely owing to the migration of adatoms between facets. The thickness and composition markedly vary within a short distance for the \\{ 11\\bar{2}2\\} facet QW of another pyramidal structure. The QW parameters acquired by SR microbeam X-ray diffraction reproduce the local emission property assessed by cathodoluminescence, thereby indicating the high reliability of this method.

  16. In situ photoemission spectroscopy for chemical reaction dynamics study of Si (001) oxidation by using high-energy-resolution synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Teraoka, Y

    2002-01-01

    The translation kinetic energy of incident molecules is an important parameter for the study of surface chemical reaction mechanisms. New adsorption reactions, which have been induced by the O sub 2 translational kinetic energy up to 3 eV, have been found in the O sub 2 Si(001) system by applying surface-sensitive photoemission spectroscopy with supersonic molecular beam techniques and high-energy-resolution synchrotron radiation. The termination of dangling bonds of the topmost Si-dimers strongly affected the oxidation of their backbonds. By controlling the translational kinetic energy of incident O sub 2 molecules, the formation of oxide layers at a sub-nanometer scale is possible at room temperature. (author)

  17. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  18. Experimental investigations of synchrotron radiation at the onset of the quantum regime

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Kristoffer K; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Ballestrero, S

    2012-01-01

    The classical description of synchrotron radiation fails at large Lorentz factors, $\\gamma$, for relativistic electrons crossing strong transverse magnetic fields $B$. In the rest frame of the electron this field is comparable to the so-called critical field $B_0 = 4.414\\cdot10^9$ T. For $\\chi = \\gamma B/B_0 \\simeq 1$ quantum corrections are essential for the description of synchrotron radiation to conserve energy. With electrons of energies 10-150 GeV penetrating a germanium single crystal along the $$ axis, we have experimentally investigated the transition from the regime where classical synchrotron radiation is an adequate description, to the regime where the emission drastically changes character; not only in magnitude, but also in spectral shape. The spectrum can only be described by quantum synchrotron radiation formulas. Apart from being a test of strong-field quantum electrodynamics, the experimental results are also relevant for the design of future linear colliders where beamstrahlung - a closely r...

  19. Reflectivity studies on a synchrotron radiation mirror in the hard X-ray regime

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, P; Novikov, D V; Hahn, U; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    The optical performance and roughness parameters of an X-ray mirror that was used for several years in a synchrotron radiation beamline are determined by studying its X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering behavior. These values are compared to the data derived from topographic measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM).

  20. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr [lead editors

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  1. Fatigue Micromechanism Characterization in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers Using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    tests was very similar, at 1.4 µm. Scans were conducted at the Swiss Light Source (SLS), TOMCAT-X02DA Beamline , Paul Scherrer Institut...Also funding from EPSRC, grant EP/H1506X/1. The authors are grateful to the Swiss Light Synchrotron Radiation for access to TOMCAT-X02DA beamline

  2. Characterization of dry globular proteins and protein fibrils by synchrotron radiation vacuum UV circular dichroism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Lise; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Andersen, Christian Beyschau

    2008-01-01

    Circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation (SRCD) can extend the spectral range down to approximately 130 nm for dry proteins, potentially providing new structural information. Using a selection of dried model proteins, including alpha-helical, beta-sheet, and mixed-structure proteins, we obs...

  3. A novel epitaxially grown LSO-based thin-film scintillator for micro-imaging using hard synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douissard, P.A.; Martin, T.; Chevalier, V.; Rack, A. [European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, F-38043 Grenoble, (France); Cecilia, A.; Baumbach, T.; Rack, A. [Karlsruhe Inst Technol ANKA, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Couchaud, M. [CEA LETI, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Dupre, K. [FEE GmbH, D-55743 Idar Oberstein, (Germany); Kuhbacher, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat and Energie, D-14109 Berlin, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of high-resolution pixel detectors for hard X-rays is nowadays one of the major criteria which drives the feasibility of imaging experiments and in general the performance of an experimental station for synchrotron-based microtomography and radiography. Here the luminescent screen used for the indirect detection is focused on in order to increase the detective quantum efficiency a novel scintillator based on doped Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (LSO), epitaxially grown as thin film via the liquid phase epitaxy technique. It is shown that, by using adapted growth and doping parameters as well as a dedicated substrate, the scintillation behaviour of a LSO-based thin crystal together with the high stopping power of the material allows for high-performance indirect X-ray detection. In detail, the conversion efficiency, the radioluminescence spectra, the optical absorption spectra under UV/visible-light and the afterglow are investigated. A set-up to study the effect of the thin-film scintillator's temperature on its conversion efficiency is described as well it delivers knowledge which is important when working with higher photon flux densities and the corresponding high heat load on the material. Additionally, X-ray imaging systems based on different diffraction-limited visible-light optics and CCD cameras using among others LSO-based thin film are compared. Finally, the performance of the LSO thin film is illustrated by imaging a honey bee leg, demonstrating the value of efficient high-resolution computed tomography for life sciences. (authors)

  4. Synchrotron radiation macromolecular crystallography: science and spin-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Helliwell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A current overview of synchrotron radiation (SR in macromolecular crystallography (MX instrumentation, methods and applications is presented. Automation has been and remains a central development in the last decade, as have the rise of remote access and of industrial service provision. Results include a high number of Protein Data Bank depositions, with an increasing emphasis on the successful use of microcrystals. One future emphasis involves pushing the frontiers of using higher and lower photon energies. With the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers, closely linked to SR developments, the use of ever smaller samples such as nanocrystals, nanoclusters and single molecules is anticipated, as well as the opening up of femtosecond time-resolved diffraction structural studies. At SR sources, a very high-throughput assessment for the best crystal samples and the ability to tackle just a few micron and sub-micron crystals will become widespread. With higher speeds and larger detectors, diffraction data volumes are becoming long-term storage and archiving issues; the implications for today and the future are discussed. Together with the rise of the storage ring to its current pre-eminence in MX data provision, the growing tendency of central facility sites to offer other centralized facilities complementary to crystallography, such as cryo-electron microscopy and NMR, is a welcome development.

  5. Synchrotron radiation macromolecular crystallography: science and spin-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, John R; Mitchell, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    A current overview of synchrotron radiation (SR) in macromolecular crystallography (MX) instrumentation, methods and applications is presented. Automation has been and remains a central development in the last decade, as have the rise of remote access and of industrial service provision. Results include a high number of Protein Data Bank depositions, with an increasing emphasis on the successful use of microcrystals. One future emphasis involves pushing the frontiers of using higher and lower photon energies. With the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers, closely linked to SR developments, the use of ever smaller samples such as nanocrystals, nanoclusters and single molecules is anticipated, as well as the opening up of femtosecond time-resolved diffraction structural studies. At SR sources, a very high-throughput assessment for the best crystal samples and the ability to tackle just a few micron and sub-micron crystals will become widespread. With higher speeds and larger detectors, diffraction data volumes are becoming long-term storage and archiving issues; the implications for today and the future are discussed. Together with the rise of the storage ring to its current pre-eminence in MX data provision, the growing tendency of central facility sites to offer other centralized facilities complementary to crystallography, such as cryo-electron microscopy and NMR, is a welcome development.

  6. [Clinical applications of synchrotron radiation X-ray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, C

    1994-09-01

    Synchrotron Radiation X-ray (SR X-ray) is an extremely strong X-ray source with a photon number more than 10(4) compared with that of the current X-ray tube. X-rays obtained by monochromatizing SR X-ray have been applied to new techniques for medical diagnosis. Several studies are now being conducted at the beam site for medical use at the Accumulation Ring of the High Energy Physics Research Institute, Tsukuba. Applications being studied include (1) energy subtraction coronary angiography. (2) microdetection of metas in samples excised from subjects. (3) monochromatic X-ray computed tomography and so on. Energy subtraction coronary angiography might have a safety advantage over the current selective coronary angiography. Microdetection of mandatory metals and poisonous heavy metals in in vivo samples contributes to the development of pathologic knowledge and clinical treatment of cancer and heavy metal toxications. Monochromatic X-ray CT is expected to detect diseases in the early stage due to increased accuracy in CT values.

  7. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    These guidelines are intended for team members and managers of urban labs and, more generally, for civil servants and facilitators in cities working with experimental processes to tackle complex challenges. They aim to support the everyday practice of collaboratively experimenting and learning how...... local conditions. Hence, the following guidelines do not provide a single definitive answer on ways to organize and run an urban lab or its experimental activities, but rather they offer, through frameworks and examples, guidance for ways to act in relation to, and reflect on, key issues. We hope...

  8. Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.-Q.

    2017-09-01

    Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt Yu-Qing Lou* Physics Department, Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua-National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) joint Research Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China We describe the basic phenommenology of quasi-periodic 40 minute (QP-40) polar burst activities of Jupiter and their close correlation with the solar wind speed variations at the Jovian magnetosphere. Physically, relativistic electrons of QP-40 bursts most likely come from the circumpolar regions of the inner radiation belt (IRB) which gives off intense synchroton radio emissions in a wide wavelength range. Such relativistic electron bursts also give rise to beamed low-frequency radio bursts along polar magnetic field lines with distinct polarizations from Jupiter's two polar regions. Jovian aurora activities are expected to be also affected by such QP-40 burst activities. We present evidence of short-term (typical timescales shorter than an hour) variabilities of the IRB at 6cm wavelength and describe recent joint radio telescope observation campaign to monitor Jupiter in coordination with JUNO spacecraft. Except for low-frequency polarization features, we anticipate JUNO to detect QP-40 activities from both polar regions during the arrival of high-speed solar wind with intermittency. References 1. Y.-Q. Lou, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 460 (2001). 2. Y.-Q. Lou, and C. Zheng, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 344, L1 (2003). 3. Y.-Q. Lou, H. G. Song, Y.Y. Liu, and M. Yang, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 421, L62 (2012). 4. Y.-Q. Lou, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 609 (1996). 5. Y.-Q. Lou, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 14747 (1994). 6. G. R. Gladstone, et al., Nature, 415, 1000 (2002).

  9. Report on Synchrotron Radiation Source Indus-2

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Vinod C

    2005-01-01

    The 2.5 GeV electron SRS, Indus-2 being built at CAT, Indore (India) is now at the final installation and integration stage. The storage ring with a circumference of 172.47m, has eight super periods and eight 4.5m long straight sections of which five are meant for insertion devices. Major sub-systems like, magnets, vacuum chambers, SIP/TSP pumps, RF power system, magnet power supplies, beam diagnostics devices etc. have been fabricated indigenously and qualified. Most of the systems are now located in the ring and their final alignment is on. Barring unforeseen problems cropping up, commissioning of the system will start with Transferlin·10-3

  10. Ionic Fragmentation of Methyl Methacrylate Induced by Synchrotron Radiation and Multiphoton Ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintella Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic fragmentation of methylmethacrylate has been observed using synchrotron radiation and laser excitation. A recently developed time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for the ionic identification. In the case of synchrotron radiation, both low energy (12.1 eV and high energy (287.9 eV photons were used. Although a definite increase in fragmentation was observed while moving from 12.1 to 287.9 eV, the fragmentation pattern remained basically the same in both cases. The parent peak stays clearly visible and intense fragments, associated with m/q = 15, 39, 41 and 69 dominate both synchrotron radiation-induced spectra. Multiphoton ionization causes much extensive fragmentation, the parent ion could not be observed, and C+ ion becomes the most intense peak in the spectrum. Ions at m/q = 15, 39, 41 and 69 are observed using laser and synchrotron radiation, which demonstrates their high stability. Doubly or multiply-charged ions have not been observed.

  11. A Monitor of the Focusing Strength of Plasma Lenses Using MeV Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Field, C; Ng, J S T; Field, Clive; Mazaheri, Gholam; Ng, Johnny S.T.

    2002-01-01

    The focusing strength of plasma lenses used with high energy electron or positron beams can give rise to synchrotron radiation with critical energies in the MeV range. A method is described for measuring the characteristic energy of this radiation as a way of monitoring the strength of the focus. The principle has been implemented in a plasma lens experiment with a 28.5 GeV positron beam.

  12. First trial of spatial and temporal fractionations of the delivered dose using synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael [Toulouse Univ. (France). UPS Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition; CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bouchet, Audrey; Brochard, Thierry; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Renaud, Luc [Toulouse Univ. (France). UPS Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition; CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); Laissue, Jean Albert [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pathology

    2009-07-15

    The technical feasibility of temporal and spatial fractionations of the radiation dose has been evaluated using synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for brain tumors in rats. A significant increase in lifespan (216%, p<0.0001) resulted when three fractions of microbeam irradiation were applied to the tumor through three different ports, orthogonal to each other, at 24 h intervals. However, there were no long-term survivors, and immunohistological studies revealed that 9 L tumors were not entirely ablated. (orig.)

  13. Ultra-wide-band accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation in a resonating cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Seo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavity accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation emitted by a train of periodic electron bunches is investigated. Phase-matching conditions for accumulation of radiation emitted by successive bunches are analyzed and numerically confirmed. While the coherent emission of a single bunch is optimal at grazing resonance, the accumulated radiation targeted at the upper resonant frequency of the waveguide mode is found to have much broader bandwidth and higher efficiency as the resonance steps away from the grazing condition. Numerical results confirm that stimulated superradiance is responsible for the accumulated radiation.

  14. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  15. Synchrotron light sources: The search for quantum chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, Fred

    2001-02-01

    A storage ring is a specialized synchrotron in which a stored beam of relativistic electrons produces radiation in the vuv and x-ray regions of the spectrum. High-brightness radiation is used at the ALS to study doubly excited autoionizing states of the helium atom in the search for quantum chaos.

  16. Theory of Microwave Instability and Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Electron Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    Bursting of coherent synchrotron radiation has been observed and in fact used to generate THz radiation in many electron storage rings. In order to understand and control the bursting, we return to the study of the microwave instability. In this paper, we will report on the theoretical understanding, including recent developments, of the microwave instability in electron storage rings. The historical progress of the theories will be surveyed, starting from the dispersion relation of coasting beams, to the work of Sacherer on a bunched beam, and ending with the Oide and Yokoya method of discretization. This theoretical survey will be supplemented with key experimental results over the years. Finally, we will describe the recent theoretical development of utilizing the Laguerre polynomials in the presence of potential-well distortion. This self-consistent method will be applied to study the microwave instability driven the impedances due to the coherent synchrotron radiation. Over the past quarter century, there has been steady progress toward smaller transverse emittances in electron storage rings used for synchrotron light sources, from tens of nm decades ago to the nm range recently. In contrast, there is not much progress made in the longitudinal plane. For an electron bunch in a typical ring, its relative energy spread {sigma}{sub {delta}} remains about 10{sup -3} and its length {sigma}{sub z} is still in between 5 mm to 10 mm. Now the longitudinal emittance ({sigma}{sub {delta}}{sigma}{sub z}) becomes a factor of thousand larger than those in the transverse dimensions. In this paper, we will address questions of: How short a bunch can be? What is the fundamental limit? If there is a limit, is there any mitigation method? Since the synchrotron radiation is so fundamental in electron storage rings, let us start with the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR).

  17. Performance of the undulator based ultraviolet and soft x-ray beamline for catalysis and surface science at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Liangliang [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Du, Xuewei, E-mail: xwdu@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wei, Shen [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Li, Chaoyang [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Pan, Congyuan; Ju, Huanxin [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wang, Qiuping, E-mail: qiuping@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Zhu, Junfa [University of Science and Technology of China, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

    2016-12-01

    The undulator based ultraviolet and soft x-ray beamline BL11U for catalysis and surface science at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) has been under opteration for months and the present performance is described. This beamline utilizes radiation from an in-vacuum undulator, which has 30 magnetic periods with the period length of 40 mm. A varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator is employed tto cover the photon energy region of 20–600 eV by two gratings with nominal groove densities of 400 llmm and 1200 l/mm respectively. The energy resolution power E/ΔE is measured with a gas ionization chamber and the photon flux is measured by a photodiode. Results show that the resolution power is better than 10,000 at a photon energy of 29.2 eV. And the flux is higher than 1×10{sup 10} phs/s under 300 mA ring beam current for most of the covered photon energy.

  18. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A., E-mail: alexandre.giuliani@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jamme, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Rouam, V.; Wien, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laprevote, O. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, ICSN-CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Chimie-Toxicologie Analytique et cellulaire, IFR 71, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Refregiers, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  19. Main functions, recent updates, and applications of Synchrotron Radiation Workshop code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Rakitin, Maksim; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Chu, Yong S.; Fluerasu, Andrei; Hidas, Dean; Wiegart, Lutz

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents an overview of the main functions and new application examples of the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) code. SRW supports high-accuracy calculations of different types of synchrotron radiation, and simulations of propagation of fully-coherent radiation wavefronts, partially-coherent radiation from a finite-emittance electron beam of a storage ring source, and time-/frequency-dependent radiation pulses of a free-electron laser, through X-ray optical elements of a beamline. An extended library of physical-optics "propagators" for different types of reflective, refractive and diffractive X-ray optics with its typical imperfections, implemented in SRW, enable simulation of practically any X-ray beamline in a modern light source facility. The high accuracy of calculation methods used in SRW allows for multiple applications of this code, not only in the area of development of instruments and beamlines for new light source facilities, but also in areas such as electron beam diagnostics, commissioning and performance benchmarking of insertion devices and individual X-ray optical elements of beamlines. Applications of SRW in these areas, facilitating development and advanced commissioning of beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II), are described.

  20. Electronic Structure of Germanium Nanocrystal Films Probed with Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostedt, C

    2002-05-01

    The fundamental structure--property relationship of semiconductor quantum dots has been investigated. For deposited germanium nanocrystals strong quantum confinement effects have been determined with synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption and photoemission techniques. The nanocrystals are condensed out of the gas phase with a narrow size distribution and subsequently deposited in situ onto various substrates. The particles are crystalline in the cubic phase with a structurally disordered surface shell and the resulting film morphology depends strongly on the substrate material and condition. The disordered surface region has an impact on the overall electronic structure of the particles. In a size-dependent study, the conduction and valence band edge of germanium nanocrystals have been measured for the first time and compared to the bulk crystal. The band edges move to higher energies as the particle size is decreased, consistent with quantum confinement theory. To obtain a more accurate analysis of confinement effects in the empty states, a novel analysis method utilizing an effective particle size for the x-ray absorption experiment, which allows a deconvolution of absorption edge broadening effects, has been introduced. Comparison of the present study to earlier studies on silicon reveals that germanium exhibits stronger quantum confinement effects than silicon. Below a critical particle size of 2.3 {+-} 0.7 nm, the band gap of germanium becomes larger than that of silicon--even if it is the opposite for bulk materials. This result agrees phenomenologically with effective mass and tight binding theories but contradicts the findings of recent pseudopotential calculations. The discrepancy between theory and experiments is attributed to the differences in the theoretical models and experimental systems. The experimentally observed structural disorder of the particle surface has to be included in the theoretical models.

  1. PROTON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FROM EXTENDED JETS OF PKS 0637–752 AND 3C 273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Wrijupan; Gupta, Nayantara, E-mail: wriju.phys@gmail.com [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2016-02-01

    Many powerful radio quasars are associated with large-scale jets, exhibiting bright knots as shown by high-resolution images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The radio-optical flux component from these jets can be attributed to synchrotron radiation by accelerated relativistic electrons while the IC/CMB model, by far, has been the most popular explanation for the observed X-ray emission from these jets. Recently, the IC/CMB X-ray mechanism has been strongly disfavored for 3C 273 and PKS 0637–752 since the anomalously hard and steady gamma-ray emission predicted by such models violates the observational results from Fermi-LAT. Here we propose the proton synchrotron origin of the X-ray–gamma-ray flux from the knots of PKS 0637–752 with a reasonable budget in luminosity, by considering synchrotron radiation from an accelerated proton population. Moreover, for the source 3C 273, the optical data points near 10{sup 15} Hz could not be fitted using electron synchrotron. We propose an updated proton synchrotron model, including the optical data from HST, to explain the common origin of optical-X-ray–gamma-ray emission from the knots of quasar 3C 273 as an extension of the work done by Kundu and Gupta. We also show that TeV emission from large-scale quasar jets, in principle, can arise from proton synchrotron, which we discuss in the context of knot wk8.9 of PKS 0637–752.

  2. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation-influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition (France); Bouchet, Audrey; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Sarun, Sukhena; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F38043 Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean A [Institute of Pathology, University of Bern (Switzerland); Spiga, Jenny [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, s.p. Monserrato-Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) 09042 (Italy); Boutonnat, Jean [TIMC lab, UMR CNRS 5525, Univ Joseph Fourier, CHU, Grenoble (France); Siegbahn, Erik Albert [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Esteve, Francois [INSERM U836, Equipe 6, Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: raph.serduc@gmail.com

    2009-11-07

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 {mu}m) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 {mu}m wide microbeams, all spaced 211 {mu}m on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 {mu}m wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of {approx}50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 {mu}m width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 {mu}m or 25 {mu}m widths when used with a 211 {mu}m on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are kept constant in

  3. SU-E-QI-13: Predictable Models for Radio-Sensitizing Agent Kinetics: Application to Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Schmitt, M; Esteve, F; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, RHONE-ALPES (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the time course of iodine in the tumors. A prolonged CT scanning (∼30 min) is required to follow-up iodine kinetics for recruited patients. This protocol could lead to substantial radiation dose to the patient. A novel method is proposed to reduce the acquisition time. Methods: 12 patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent, followed by a steady-state infusion to ensure stable intra-tumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations (IC) were derived from 40 multi-slice dynamic conventional CT images of the brain. The impulse response function (IRF) to the bolus was estimated using the adiabatic approximation of the Johnson and Wilson's model. The arterial input function (AIF) of the steady-state infusion was fitted with several models: Gamma, Gamma with recirculation and hybrid. Estimated IC were calculated by convolving the IRF with the modeled AIF and were compared to the measured data. Results: The gamma variate function was not relevant to model the AIF due to high differences with the measured AIF. The hybrid and the gamma with recirculation models provided differences below 8% during the whole acquisition time. The absolute difference between the measured and the estimated IC was lower than 0.5 mg/ml, which corresponds to 5% of dose enhancement error. Conclusion: The proposed method allows a good estimation of the iodine time course with reduced scanning delays (3 instead of 30 min) and dose to the patient. The results suggest that the dose errors may stay within the radiotherapy standards.

  4. In situ 3D topographic and shape analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography for crystal form identification in polymorphic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xian-Zhen; Xiao, Ti-Qiao; Nangia, Ashwini; Yang, Shuo; Lu, Xiao-Long; Li, Hai-Yan; Shao, Qun; He, You; York, Peter; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Polymorphism denotes the existence of more than one crystal structure of a substance, and great practical and theoretical interest for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In many cases, it is challenging to produce a pure crystal form and establish a sensitive detection method for the identification of crystal form in a mixture of polymorphs. In this study, an accurate and sensitive method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was devised to identify the polymorphs of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP). After 3D reconstruction, crystal particles were extracted and dozens of structural parameters were calculated. Whilst, the particle shapes of the two crystal forms were all irregular, the surface of CLP II was found to be rougher than CLP I. In order to classify the crystal form based on the quantitative morphological property of particles, Volume Bias Percentage based on Surface Smoothing (VBP) was defined and a new method based on VBP was successfully developed, with a total matching rate of 99.91% for 4544 particles and a lowest detectable limit of 1%. More important for the mixtures in solid pharmaceutical formulations, the interference of excipients can be avoided, a feature cannot achieved by other available analytical methods.

  5. Clay pigment structure characterisation as a guide for provenance determination--a comparison between laboratory powder micro-XRD and synchrotron radiation XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Žižak, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Application of X-ray diffraction (XRD)-based techniques in the analysis of painted artworks is not only beneficial for indisputable identification of crystal constituents in colour layers, but it can also bring insight in material crystal structure, which can be affected by their geological formation, manufacturing procedure or secondary changes. This knowledge might be helpful for art historic evaluation of an artwork as well as for its conservation. By way of example of kaolinite, we show that classification of its crystal structure order based on XRD data is useful for estimation of its provenance. We found kaolinite in the preparation layer of a Gothic wall painting in a Czech church situated near Karlovy Vary, where there are important kaolin deposits. Comparing reference kaolin materials from eight various Czech deposits, we found that these can be differentiated just according to the kaolinite crystallinity. Within this study, we compared laboratory powder X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) with synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysing the same real sample. We found that both techniques led to the same results.

  6. Trace elemental analysis of titanium dioxide pigments and automotive white paint fragments for forensic examination using high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Shimoda, Osamu; Saito, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Toshio; Terada, Yasuko; Ninomiya, Toshio; Nakai, Izumi

    2009-05-01

    High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) utilizing 116 keV x-rays was used to characterize titanium dioxide pigments (rutile) and automotive white paint fragments for forensic examination. The technique allowed analysis of K lines of 9 trace elements in 18 titanium dioxide pigments (rutile), and 10 trace elements in finish coat layers of seven automotive white paint fragments. High-field strength elements (HFSE) were found to strongly reflect the origin of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) pigments, and could be used as effective parameters for discrimination and classification of the pigments and paint fragments. A pairwise comparison of the finish coat layers of seven automotive white paint fragments was performed. The trace elements in the finish coat layers detected by the high-energy SR-XRF were especially effective for identification. By introducing the trace element information of primer and electrocoat layers, all the automotive white paint fragments could be discriminated by this technique.

  7. An experimental station for advanced research on condensed matter under extreme conditions at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - BM29 beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipponi, Adriano; Borowski, Michael; Bowron, Daniel T.; Ansell, Stuart; Di Cicco, Andrea; De Panfilis, Simone; Itiè, Jean-Paul

    2000-06-01

    We describe state-of-the-art experimental techniques using the beamline BM29 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). This station exploits the unique characteristics of an ESRF bending magnet source to provide a tunable, collimated, x-ray beam to perform high quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy within the energy range of E=5-75 keV using Si(111), Si(311), and Si(511) crystal pairs. Energy scans can be performed over this wide energy range with excellent reproducibility, stability and resolution, usually better than ΔE/E≃5×10-5. The experimental setup has been exploited to study condensed matter under extreme conditions. We describe here two sample environment devices; the L' Aquila-Camerino oven for high-temperature studies up to 3000 K in high vacuum and the Paris-Edinburgh press suitable for high-pressure high-temperature studies in the range 0.1-7 GPa and temperatures up to 1500 K. These devices can be integrated in an experimental setup which combines various control and detection systems suitable to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray absorption temperature scans, and energy scanning x-ray diffraction (ESXD). The ESXD setup is based on a scintillator detector behind a fixed angle collimator aligned to the sample. The combination of these three measurements, which can be performed in rapid sequence on the sample during the experiment, provides an essential tool for structural investigations and in situ sample characterization.

  8. Synchrotron radiation studies of inorganic-organic semiconductor interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Vearey-Roberts, A R; Bushell, A; Cabailh, G; O'Brien, S; Wells, J W; McGovern, I T; Dhanak, V R; Kampen, T U; Zahn, D R T; Batchelor, D

    2003-01-01

    Organic semiconductors (polymers and small molecules) are widely used in electronic and optoelectronic technologies. Many devices are based on multilayer structures where interfaces play a central role in device performance and where inorganic semiconductor models are inadequate. Synchrotron radiation techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW) provide a powerful means of probing the structural, electronic and chemical properties of these interfaces. The surface-specificity of these techniques allows key properties to be monitored as the heterostructure is fabricated. This methodology has been directed at the growth of hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor interfaces involving copper phthalocyanine as the model organic material and InSb and GaAs as the model inorganic semiconductor substrates. Core level PES has revealed that these interfaces are abrupt and chemically inert due to the weak bonding between t...

  9. Measurement and analysis of coherent synchrotron radiation effects at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutner, B.

    2007-12-15

    The vacuum-ultra-violet Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a linac driven SASE-FEL. High peak currents are produced using magnetic bunch compression chicanes. In these magnetic chicanes, the energy distribution along an electron bunch is changed by eff ects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). Energy changes in dispersive bunch compressor chicanes lead to transverse displacements along the bunch. These CSR induced displacements are studied using a transverse deflecting RF-structure. Experiments and simulations concerning the charge dependence of such transverse displacements are presented and analysed. In these experiments an over-compression scheme is used which reduces the peak current downstream the bunch compressor chicanes. Therefore other self interactions like space charge forces which might complicate the measurements are suppressed. Numerical simulations are used to analyse the beam dynamics under the influence of CSR forces. The results of these numerical simulations are compared with the data obtained in the over-compression experiments at FLASH. (orig.)

  10. In situ visualization of thermal distortions of synchrotron radiation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, P.; Kazimirov, A.; Bazarov, I.

    2007-06-01

    We have developed a new in situ method to measure heating-induced distortions of the surface of the first monochromator crystal exposed to high-power white synchrotron radiation beam. The method is based on recording the image of a stationary grid of dots captured by a CCD camera as reflected from the surface of a crystal with and without a heat load. The three-dimensional surface profile (heat bump) is then reconstructed from the distortions of the original pattern. In experiments performed at the CHESS A2 wiggler beam line we measured the heat bumps with the heights of up to 600 nm produced by a wiggler beam with total power in the range of 15-60 W incident on the (1 1 1) Si crystal at various angles between 3° and 15°.

  11. X-ray magnetic diffraction of ferromagnets with synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2002-01-01

    X-ray magnetic diffraction experiment of ferromagnets that utilizes elliptically polarized synchrotron radiation is presented. First we have reviewed shortly historical backgrounds and theoretical aspects of the experiment. We have presented how the magnetic form factors are measured and are separated into the spin-moment component and the orbital-moment component in this experiment. Peculiar features of the polarization factor of this experiment have been explained. We have introduced two examples of the experiment. One is the measurement of the spin-magnetic form factor of SmAl sub 2 with white X-rays from a bending magnet at the Photon Factory. The other is the measurement of the orbital-magnetic form factor of Holmium Iron Garnets with monochromatic X-rays from an undulator at the SPring-8. Finally we summarize the article and show some future prospects of this experiment. (author)

  12. Coupled Simulations of the Synchrotron Radiation and Induced Desorption Pressure Profiles for the HL-LHC Triplet Area and Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, R; Bregliozzi, G

    2014-01-01

    The HiLumi-LHC machine upgrade has officially started as an approved LHC project (see dedicated presentations at this conference on the subject). One important feature of the upgrade is the installation of very high-gradient triplet magnets for focusing the beams at the collision points of the two high-luminosity detectors ATLAS and CMS. Other important topics are new superconducting D1 and D2 magnets, installation of crab cavities and new tertiary collimators, and re-shuffling of the dispersion suppression area. Based on the current magnetic lattice set-up and beam orbits, a detailed study of the emission of synchrotron radiation (SR) and related photon-induced desorption (PID) has been carried out. A significant amount of SR photons are generated by the two off-axis beams in the common vacuum chamber of the triplet area, about 57 m in length. Ray-tracing Montecarlo codes Synrad+ and Molflow+ have been employed in this study. The related PID pressure profiles are shown, together with simulations using the co...

  13. Lienard-Wiechert potential and synchrotron radiation of a relativistic spinning particle in the pseudoclassical theory

    OpenAIRE

    Arakelyan, S. A.; Grigoryan, G. V.; Grigoryan, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    Lienard-Wiechert potentials of the relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in pseudoclassical theory are constructed. General expressions for the Lienard-Wiechert potentials are used for investigation of some specific cases of the motion of the spinning particle. In particular the spin dependence of the intensity of the synchrotron radiation of the transversely polarized particle performing uniform circular motion is considered. When the movement of the particle in exter...

  14. Coherent synchrotron radiation and bunch stability in a compact storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Venturini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effect of the collective force due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR in an electron storage ring with small bending radius. In a computation based on time-domain integration of the nonlinear Vlasov equation, we find the threshold current for a longitudinal microwave instability induced by CSR alone. The model accounts for suppression of radiation at long wavelengths due to shielding by the vacuum chamber. In a calculation just above threshold, small ripples in the charge distribution build up over a fraction of a synchrotron period, but then die out to yield a relatively smooth but altered distribution with eventual oscillations in bunch length. The instability evolves from small noise on an initial smooth bunch of rms length much greater than the shielding cutoff.

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Sheds Fresh Light on Plant Research: The Use of Powerful Techniques to Probe Structure and Composition of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Permual; Willick, Ian R; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Tanino, Karen K

    2015-07-01

    While synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool in material and biomedical sciences, it is still underutilized in plant research. This mini review attempts to introduce the potential of synchrotron-based spectroscopic and imaging methods and their applications to plant sciences. Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption and fluorescence techniques, and two- and three-dimensional imaging techniques are examined. We also discuss the limitations of synchrotron-based research in plant sciences, specifically the types of plant samples that can be used. Despite limitations, the unique features of synchrotron radiation such as high brightness, polarization and pulse properties offer great advantages over conventional spectroscopic and imaging tools and enable the correlation of the structure and chemical composition of plants with biochemical function. Modern detector technologies and experimental methodologies are thus enabling plant scientists to investigate aspects of plant sciences such as ultrafast kinetics of biochemical reactions, mineral uptake, transport and accumulation, and dynamics of cell wall structure and composition during environmental stress in unprecedented ways using synchrotron beamlines. The potential for the automation of some of these synchrotron technologies and their application to plant phenotyping is also discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  17. High-resolution texture imaging with hard synchrotron radiation in the moving area detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Klein, H; Garbe, U; Schneider, J R

    2003-01-01

    The orientation distribution of crystallites in polycrystalline materials (called texture) is usually measured by polycrystal X-ray diffraction by 'step-scanning' the sample in angular intervals in the order of 1 deg. This technique is not suited to fully exploit the low angular divergence of hard synchrotron radiation in the order of 'milliradian'. Hence, step-scanning was replaced by a continuous 'sweeping' technique using a continuously shifted area detector. In order to avoid overlapping from different reflections (hkl) a Bragg-angle slit was introduced. The 'moving-detector' technique can be applied to obtain images of orientation as well as of location distributions of crystallites in polycrystalline samples. It is suitable for imaging continuous 'orientation density' distribution functions as well as of 'grain-resolved' textures. The excellent features of high-energy synchrotron radiation combined with the moving area detector technique will be illustrated with several examples including very sharp def...

  18. Application of high-temperature superconducting permanent magnets to synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple scheme for field enhancement in synchrotron radiation sources such as undulators and wigglers is proposed, which is based on the fundamental nature of the superconducting loop where the magnetic flux is preserved. A superconductor ring placed to enclose the magnetic pole works as a kind of permanent magnet. The magnetization is performed by electromagnetic induction brought by the opening movement of the magnetic gap. Since neither additional external power supplies nor current leads are necessary, high-temperature bulk superconductors can easily be implemented in this scheme. Calculations to check the effectiveness of the new concept show that the critical current density of the superconductor is crucial to the performance of the synchrotron radiation sources based on this concept. Experiments were performed to verify the principle of the proposed scheme, which gave promising results to strongly support it.

  19. XRD Study of NiTi Endodontic Files Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz Fernandes, Francisco Manuel; Oliveira, J. P.; Machado, A.; Schell, Norbert

    2014-07-01

    Two types of endodontic files (ProFile and Mtwo) were studied in order to analyze the effect of geometry on the stress-induced martensitic (SIM) transformation during bending. The use of a fine beam spot of synchrotron radiation allowed a detailed structural characterization with a fine spatial resolution. Experimental evidence of the effect of the cross-section geometry on the stress localization giving rise to different degrees of SIM transformation is presented for the first time in the published literature.

  20. Study of thin oxide films by electron, ion and synchrotron radiation beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sammelselg, V; Tarre, A; Asari, J; Rauhala, E; Arstila, K; Seppaelae, A; Zakharov, A; Aarik, J; Karlis, J; Martinson, Indrek

    2002-01-01

    Titanium oxide and zirconium oxide thin films deposited on silicon substrates were characterized using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) and scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM). The composition and mass thickness of the films were determined and the results of different methods compared. lt was revealed that the synchrotron radiation used for SPEM studies caused considerable modification of zirconia films grown at low temperatures. (author)

  1. Comparing the effect of low and high emittance on synchrotron radiation and beamline design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gholampour Azhir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have discussed about the role of two emittance values suggested for Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF (3.278 and 0.476 nm.rad on different radiation features of the synchrotron light sources (bending magnet, shaker and oscillator such as spot size, divergence of the beam on light spot, brilliance and important quantities in beamline design such as photon cross-section, optical element sizes and energy resolution  

  2. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  3. Evaluation of osteoporotic bone structure through synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, T.U.; Correa da Costa, V.M. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The abnormal accumulation or deficiency of trace elements may theoretically impair the formation of bone and contribute to osteoporosis. In this context, the knowledge of major and trace elements is very important in order to clarify many issues regarding diseases of the bone, such as osteoporosis, that remain unresolved. Several kinds of imaging techniques can be useful to access morphology and the minerals present in osteoporotic bones. In this work, synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence was used as an X-ray imaging technique to investigate bone structures. Therefore, this research aims to improve the knowledge about some aspects of bone quality. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory Light Laboratory, in Brazil. A white beam with an energy range of 4-23 keV, a 45 deg./45 deg. geometry and a capillary optics were used. It was demonstrated that bone quality can and must be evaluated not only by considering the architecture of bones but also by taking into account the concentration and the distribution of minerals. Our results showed that the elemental distributions in bone zones on a micron scale were very helpful to understand functions in those structures.

  4. Coherent and incoherent components of a synchrotron radiation spot produced by separate capillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabagov, S.B.; Murashova, V.A.; Fedorchuk, R.V.; Yakimenko, M.N. [P.N., Lebedev Physical Institute, Ras, Moscow (Russian Federation); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Marcelli, A; Svyatoslavsky, N.L. [Center for Photochemistry, Ras, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    In this work the focusing properties of soft X-ray synchrotron radiation by separate capillaries are discussed. It is shown that a not negligible fraction of the synchrotron radiation beam transmitted by the capillary has a mode representation. Experimental and theoretical data are discussed to explain the superposition pattern of the X-rays in the focal plane due to the interference phenomena of electromagnetic radiation propagating through separate capillaries.

  5. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin

    2016-04-21

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. All our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computer code.

  6. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  7. Thermodynamic Temperature of High-Temperature Fixed Points Traceable to Blackbody Radiation and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähmer, M.; Anhalt, K.; Hollandt, J.; Klein, R.; Taubert, R. D.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.; Gavrilov, V.; Grigoryeva, I.; Khlevnoy, B.; Sapritsky, V.

    2017-10-01

    Absolute spectral radiometry is currently the only established primary thermometric method for the temperature range above 1300 K. Up to now, the ongoing improvements of high-temperature fixed points and their formal implementation into an improved temperature scale with the mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin, rely solely on single-wavelength absolute radiometry traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. Two alternative primary thermometric methods, yielding comparable or possibly even smaller uncertainties, have been proposed in the literature. They use ratios of irradiances to determine the thermodynamic temperature traceable to blackbody radiation and synchrotron radiation. At PTB, a project has been established in cooperation with VNIIOFI to use, for the first time, all three methods simultaneously for the determination of the phase transition temperatures of high-temperature fixed points. For this, a dedicated four-wavelengths ratio filter radiometer was developed. With all three thermometric methods performed independently and in parallel, we aim to compare the potential and practical limitations of all three methods, disclose possibly undetected systematic effects of each method and thereby confirm or improve the previous measurements traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. This will give further and independent confidence in the thermodynamic temperature determination of the high-temperature fixed point's phase transitions.

  8. Influence of filling pattern structure on synchrotron radiation and beam spectrum at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, Johannes; Brosi, Miriam; Bruendermann, Erik; Caselle, Michele; Blomley, Edmund; Hiller, Nicole; Kehrer, Benjamin; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Schoenfeldt, Patrik; Schuh, Marcel; Schwarz, Markus; Siegel, Michael [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We present the effects of the filling pattern structure in multi-bunch mode on the beam spectrum. This effects can be seen by all detectors whose resolution is better than the RF frequency, ranging from stripline and Schottky measurements to high resolution synchrotron radiation measurements. Our heterodyne measurements of the emitted coherent synchrotron radiation at 270 GHz reveal the discrete frequency harmonics around the 100'000 revolution harmonic of ANKA, the synchrotron radiation facility in Karlsruhe, Germany. Significant effects of bunch spacing, gaps between bunch trains and variations in individual bunch currents on the emitted CSR spectrum are described by theory and supported by observations.

  9. Oscillation photography of radiation-sensitive crystals using a synchrotron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossmann, M.G.; Erickson, J.W. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    A method is described to determine the accurate setting of a crystal placed in an unknown orientation on an oscillation camera. This avoids time-consuming setting operations during which the crystal is subject to continuous radiation damage initiated by the first setting photograph. It also ensures maximal use of synchrotron radiation time as there is no need for any prior setting and developing periods. The method is dependent on measuring the lengths and orientations of the major axes of the ellipses on two, preferably approximately orthogonal, 'still' photographs. The method is applied to five different rhinovirus (common cold) crystals.

  10. Simulation of experiments with partially coherent x-rays using Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Rakitin, Maksim; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Fluerasu, Andrei; Wiegart, Lutz

    2017-08-01

    High-accuracy physical optics calculation methods used in the "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) allow for multiple applications of this code in different areas, covering development, commissioning, diagnostics and operation of X-ray instruments at light source facilities. This presentation focuses on the application of the SRW code for the simulation of experiments at these facilities. The most complete and most detailed simulation of experiments with SRW is possible in the area of elastic coherent scattering, where the interaction of radiation with samples can be described with the same transmission-type "propagators" that are used for the simulation of fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation through X-ray optical elements of beamlines. A complete "source-to-detector" simulation of such an experiment for a lithographic sample is described here together with comparisons of the simulated coherent scattering data with actual measurements results, obtained at the Coherent Hard X-ray (CHX) beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). Particular attention is paid to the analysis of visibility of speckles and intensity levels in the scattered radiation patterns at different degrees of coherence of the radiation entering the sample.

  11. New developments in the application of synchrotron radiation to material science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-04-21

    Recent developments in the application of synchrotrons radiation to materials science are discussed, using techniques which exploit the high brilliance of the newer synchrotrons sources, such as microbeam techniques and correlation spectroscopy. These include studies of environmental systems, residual stress, slow dynamics of condensed matter systems and studies of liquid surfaces and thin magnetic films.

  12. Multielemental analysis in organic products and seed of linum by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this study is to determining the trace and major elements levels in organic seeds samples, like soy, rice, bean and in Brazilian and Canadian linum seed by X-ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The measurements were carried out in the XRF beamline at the Light Synchrotron National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The organic soy presented major concentrations of P, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr than organic bean and rice. Brazilian linum samples presented higher concentrations of S, P, Ca, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zr and Mo than Canadian one, even than organic samples. However potassium, iron and zinc were more pronounced in the Canadian seed of linum (author)

  13. ERLN Technical Support for Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network provides policies and guidance on lab and data requirements, Standardized Analytical Methods, and technical support for water and radiological sampling and analysis

  14. Assessment of the image contrast improvement and dose reduction in mammography with synchrotron radiation compared to standard units

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckli, R; Fiedler, S; Pachoud, M; Hessler, C; Meuli, R; Valley, J F

    2001-01-01

    An objective method was used to evaluate image quality and dose in mammography with synchrotron radiation and to compare them to standard units. It was performed systematically in the energy range of interest for mammography through the evaluation of the contrast and the measurement of the mean glandular dose. Synchrotron radiation measurements were performed at the ESRF and a slit was placed between the test object and the screen-film system in order to reduce scatter. The conventional films were obtained on mammography units with an anti-scatter grid. In a recent paper, it was shown that the use of synchrotron radiation leads to a noticeable improvement of the image quality-dose relationship (Moeckli et al. Phys. Med. Biol. 45(12)3509). The reason of that enhancement is partly due to the monochromaticity of the synchrotron beam and partly due to the use of a slit instead of a grid. The dose reduction with synchrotron radiation can be attributed to a better X-ray total transmission of the slit and the contra...

  15. UV-CD12: synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamline at ANKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürck, Jochen; Roth, Siegmar; Windisch, Dirk; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Moss, David; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a rapidly growing technique for structure analysis of proteins and other chiral biomaterials. UV-CD12 is a high-flux SRCD beamline installed at the ANKA synchrotron, to which it had been transferred after the closure of the SRS Daresbury. The beamline covers an extended vacuum-UV to near-UV spectral range and has been open for users since October 2011. The current end-station allows for temperature-controlled steady-state SRCD spectroscopy, including routine automated thermal scans of microlitre volumes of water-soluble proteins down to 170 nm. It offers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio over the whole accessible spectral range. The technique of oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was recently implemented for determining the membrane alignment of α-helical peptides and proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers as mimics of cellular membranes. It offers improved spectral quality dichroism artifacts.

  16. Study of structural model of biological membranes by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, L P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to study, from the structural point of view, the process of incorporation of various types of hydrophobic compounds into the lamellar phase of liposomes and multilayers of the zwitterionic phospholipid DPPC. X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation, have been used to monitor changes of several bilayer systems. Thermotropic phase transitions as well as the order of the lamellar packing were studied in situ experiments. The behavior of the L beta' and L alpha phases was followed as a function of the water content in dispersions of DPPC multi lamellar vesicles with the addition of the alkaloid Ellipticine in several concentrations. The results showed a decrease in the temperature of the pre-transition as well as that of the main transition (P beta' ->L alpha). The decrease of the lamellar spacing as a function of temperature in the liquid crystalline phase leads to the description of the thermal compression coefficient in the L alpha phase. It wa...

  17. Development and Optimisation of the SPS and LHC beam diagnostics based on Synchrotron Radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081364; Roncarolo, Federico

    Measuring the beam transverse emittance is fundamental in every accelerator, in particular for colliders, where its precise determination is essential to maximize the luminosity and thus the performance of the colliding beams.
 Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is a versatile tool for non-destructive beam diagnostics, since its characteristics are closely related to those of the source beam. At CERN, being the only available diagnostics at high beam intensity and energy, SR monitors are exploited as the proton beam size monitor of the two higher energy machines, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The thesis work documented in this report focused on the design, development, characterization and optimization of these beam size monitors. Such studies were based on a comprehensive set of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments. A powerful simulation tool has been developed combining conventional softwares for SR simulation and optics design, thus allowing t...

  18. Physics fundamentals and biological effects of synchrotron radiation therapy; Fundamentos fisicos y efectos biologicos de la radioterapia con radiacion sincrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prezado, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of radiation therapy is to deposit a curative dose in the tumor without exceeding the tolerances in the nearby healthy tissues. For some radioresistant tumors, like gliomas, requiring high doses for complete sterilization, the major obstacle for curative treatment with ionizing radiation remains the limited tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissue. This limitation is particularly severe for brain tumors and, especially important in children, due to the high risk of complications in the development of the central nervous system. In addition, the treatment of tumors close to an organ at risk, like the spinal cord, is also restricted. One possible solution is the development of new radiation therapy techniques exploiting radically different irradiation modes and modifying, in this way, the biological equivalent doses. This is the case of synchrotron radiation therapy (SR T). In this work the three new radiation therapy techniques under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESR F), in Grenoble (France) will be described, namely: synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (Ssr), microbeam radiation therapy (MR T) and mini beam radiation therapy. The promising results in the treatment of the high grade brain tumors obtained in preclinical studies have paved the way to the clinical trials. The first patients are expected in the fall of 2010. (Author).

  19. Extending the possibilities in phase space analysis of synchrotron radiation x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Claudio; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias; Riekel, Christian; Gatta, Gilles; Daly, Peter

    2008-08-01

    A simple analytical approach to phase space analysis of the performance of x-ray optical setups (beamlines) combining several elements in position-angle-wavelength space is presented. The mathematical description of a large class of optical elements commonly used on synchrotron beamlines has been reviewed and extended with respect to the existing literature and is reported in a revised form. Novel features are introduced, in particular, the possibility to account for imperfections on mirror surfaces and to incorporate nanofocusing devices like refractive lenses in advanced beamline setups using the same analytical framework. Phase space analysis results of the simulation of an undulator beamline with focusing optics at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility compare favorably with results obtained by geometric ray-tracing methods and, more importantly, with experimental measurements. This approach has been implemented into a simple and easy-to-use program toolkit for optical calculations based on the Mathematica software package.

  20. Focusing of white synchrotron radiation using large-acceptance cylindrical refractive lenses made of single – crystal diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polikarpov, M., E-mail: polikarpov.maxim@mail.ru [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14a, 23600 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Snigireva, I. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38043 (France); Snigirev, A. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo 14a, 23600 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2016-07-27

    Large-aperture cylindrical refractive lenses were manufactured by laser cutting of single-crystal diamond. Five linear single lenses with apertures of 1 mm and the depth of the structure of 1.2 mm were fabricated and tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline performing the focusing of white-beam synchrotron radiation. Uniform linear focus was stable during hours of exposure, representing such lenses as pre-focusing and collimating devices suitable for the front-end sections of today synchrotron radiation sources.

  1. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm{sup 3} and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm{sup 3}) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Pb and 0.02 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Zn. (author)

  2. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  3. Multielemental analysis of samples from patients with dermatological pathologies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J. C. A. C. R.; Canellas, C. G. L.; Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Using synchrotron radiation total X-ray fluorescence (SRTXRF) technique, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in four skin lesions: seborrheic keratosis, fibroepithelial polyp, cherry angioma and dermatosis papulosa nigra. The concentrations of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb were evaluated in 62 pairs of lesions and healthy samples, each one having been collected from the same patient. The results revealed significant differences of P, Ca, K, Fe and Cu levels as well as a common trend in their variations between lesion and control samples among the skin diseases. This study revealed a powerful tool that can be useful for skin disorders research. The measurements were conducted at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS).

  4. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvenko, O F; Istratov, A A; Weber, E R; Kittler, M; Seifert, W

    2002-01-01

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  5. The PASERO Project: parallel and serial readout systems for gas proportional synchrotron radiation X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.H.J. E-mail: koch@embl-hamburg.de; Boulin, C.; Briquet-Laugier, F.; Epstein, A.; Sheldon, S.; Beloeuvre, E.; Gabriel, A.; Herve, C.; Kocsis, M.; Koschuch, A.; Laggner, P.; Leingartner, W.; Raad Iseli, C. de; Reimann, T.; Golding, F.; Torki, K

    2001-07-21

    A project aiming at producing more efficient position sensitive gas proportional detectors and readout systems is presented. An area detector with reduced electrode spacing and a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm and two time to digital convertors (TDC) based on ASICs were produced. The first TDC, intended for use with linear detectors, relies on time to space conversion, whereas the second one, for area detectors, uses a ring oscillator with a phase locked loop. A parallel readout system for multi-anode detectors aiming at a maximum count rate extensively uses RISC microcontrollers. An electronic simulator of linear detectors built for test purposes and a mechanical chopper used for attenuation of the X-ray beam are also briefly described.

  6. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  7. Radiation safety aspects of the operation of first three synchrotron beam lines of Indus-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M K; Nair, Haridas G; Bakshi, A K; Sahani, P K; Singh, Sunil; Khan, Saleem; Verma, Dimple; Dev, Vipin; Sahu, T K; Khare, Mukesh; Kumar, Vijay; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R M; Sharma, D N

    2015-04-01

    Five synchrotron radiation beam lines are commissioned and now under regular operation at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2 at Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore, India. Nine beam lines are under trial operation, and six beam lines are in the installation stage. In the early phase of installation of beam lines on Indus-2, three bending magnet beam lines, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS, BL-8), Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD, BL-11) and Angle Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (ADXRD, BL-12), were installed and commissioned, after approval from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These beam lines are pink (BL-8), white (BL-11) and monochromatic (BL-12), which are housed in specially designed shielded hutches. In order to ensure safety of users and other working personnel from ionizing radiations present in these beam lines, several safety systems are incorporated and safety procedures are followed. The paper describes the radiological safety aspects of the three beam lines during its initial commissioning trials and also the measurements on radiation levels carried out in and around the beam line hutches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation on the G.I.L.D.A. beam line at the E.S.R.F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balerna, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Meneghini, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)]|[INFM, Genoa (Italy); Bordoni, S. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Mobilio, S. [Rome Univ. III (Italy). Dip. di Fisica `E. Amaldi`

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this lecture is to make a short introduction on Synchrotron radiation, its history and main properties. The main components of a synchrotron radiation beam line will be described. The Italian beam line, General purpose Italian beam line Line for Diffraction and Absorption (G.I.L.D.A.) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (E.S.R.F.) in Grenoble will be used as an example. The G.I.L.D.A. diffractometer will be described in detail reporting also some experimental results.

  9. Search for X-ray induced decay of the 31-yr isomer of 178Hf using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Bredeweg, T A; Cooper, J R; Gemmell, D S; Kraemer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Palmer, P; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2004-09-13

    Isomeric {sup 178}Hf (t{sub 1/2} = 31 yr, E{sub x} = 2.446 MeV, J{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}) was bombarded by a white beam of x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A search was made for x-ray induced decay of the isomer by detecting prompt and delayed {gamma} rays associated with the decay. No induced decay was observed. Upper limits for such a process for x-ray energies between 7-100 keV were set. The limits between 7 and 30 keV are below {approx} 3 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that bypasses the 4-s isomer and {approx} 5 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that is delayed through this isomer, orders of magnitude below values at which induced decay was reported previously. These limits are consistent with what is known about the properties of atomic nuclei.

  10. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, Jr., Edward John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, (√3 x √3)R30° and (1.5 x 1.5)R18° CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from (√3x√3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/ΔE≈-106 in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  11. Measurements of fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields for 66Dy using synchrotron radiation induced selective photoionization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajnish; Kumar, Anil; Czyzycki, M.; Migliori, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Puri, Sanjiv

    2017-09-01

    The L shell fluorescence (ω1, ω2, ω3) and Coster-Kronig (f12, f13, f23) yields for 66Dy have been deduced from the Li (i = 1-3) sub-shell X-ray intensities measured at different incident photon energies across its Li absorption edge energies. Three sets of photoionization cross sections used for determination of these yields include two sets of theoretical values based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model and the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock model, and the third one is that deduced from independently measured mass attenuation coefficients of 66Dy. The present experimental fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields deduced using the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock model based photoionization cross sections have been found to be in good agreement with the semi-empirical values tabulated by Krause [1] and the Dirac-Hartree-Slater model based values.

  12. SEM and 3D synchrotron radiation micro-tomography in the study of bioceramic scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Peyrin, Françoise; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Cancedda, Ranieri; Martinetti, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Different biomaterials have been proposed as scaffolds for the delivery of cells and/or biological molecules to repair or regenerate damaged or diseased bone tissues. Particular attention is being given to porous bioceramics that mimic trabecular bone chemistry and structure. Chemical composition, density, pore shape, pore size, and pore interconnection are elements that have to be considered to improve the efficiency of these biomaterials. Commonly, two-dimensional (2...

  13. A new, low temperature long-pass cell for mid-infrared to terahertz spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwabia Tchana, Fridolin; Willaert, Fabrice; Landsheere, Xavier; Flaud, Jean-Marie [LISA, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil (UPEC) et Université Paris-Diderot (UPD), 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Lago, Leatitia; Chapuis, Mylène; Herbeaux, Christian; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent [High Vacuum Group and Beamline AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-15

    A new cell has been designed for accurate spectroscopic measurements in the 80–400 K temperature range with variable path lengths from 3 to more than 141 m. The spectral coverage at these temperatures ranges from the visible to less than 10 cm{sup −1}, thanks to the use of diamond windows. The design of the cryostat and vacuum setups allows vibration-free operation. The equipment provides temperature homogeneity and pressure control to better than 2% over the 100–400 K and the 0.1–1000 mbar ranges. Remote-controlled opto-mechanical systems enable in situ adjustments as well as changes of the optical path length within half an hour, in order to optimize measurement time in an open user facility. It allows then to meet the specific requirements of high resolution measurements on the Far-Infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL as well at the LISA facility, in Créteil, in the mid-IR. This new instrument opens up the way for many experiments in the field of high-resolution gas-phase IR spectroscopy, in particular, in quantitative spectroscopy for atmospheric applications: measurements of absorption line parameters (absolute intensities, cross sections, and pressure-induced widths) using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The design and performance of the equipment are briefly presented and illustrated on spectroscopic examples.

  14. Search for X-Ray Induced Acceleration of the Decay of the 31-yr Isomer 178Hf Using Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, I; Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Krämer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2002-01-01

    Releasing the energy stored in an isomeric nuclear state in a controlled way with an atomic or electromagnetic trigger is an attractive speculation: the energy gain may be on the order of the ratio of nuclear/atomic energies - MeV/keV. (Nuclear isomers are loosely defined as excited nuclear states with lifetimes longer than 10 sup - sup 9 s.) Nuclear isomers, therefore, represent an opportunity for a stand-alone energy source if suitable schemes for trigger and control of the energy release can be found. Potential applications include space drive, as well as very bright gamma-ray sources. The nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 Hf has a nuclear isomer with excitation energy E sub x = 2.447 MeV. The 2.447-MeV isomeric state decays slowly (t sub 1 sub / sub 2 = 31 y) to the nearby state at 2.433 MeV. The J suppi = 13 sup - state loses energy in a rapid (t approx 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s) gamma-ray cascade ending at the 8 sup - rotational band head which in turn decays via the ground-state rotational band cascade. The gamma...

  15. NanoESCA, a new nanospectroscopy tool with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, Marten; Wiemann, Carsten; Krug, Ingo; Schneider, Claus Michael [PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Escher, Matthias; Weber, Nils; Merkel, Michael [Focus GmbH, Huenstetten (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology and nanoscience are developing more and more to smaller length scales. We face the need for the characterization of surface electronic and magnetic states in these reduced dimensions with a new energy-filtered photoelectron emission microscope (PEEM), which we have recently installed at the ELETTRA synchrotron facility (Italy). The instrument features a novel electrostatic lens system with 30 kV extraction voltage, enabling spatially resolved photoelectron imaging with a lateral resolution smaller than 100 nm and combines it with a double-hemispherical energy filter, a single-event counting detector unit and a liquid helium cooled sample manipulator with five degrees of freedom. A second operation mode provides the mapping of the angular distribution (k-space microscopy) of the photoelectrons. We discuss the capabilities and the performance of the instrument with respect to its lateral and energy resolution, sensitivity and signal-to-noise-ratio.

  16. Photoionisation of ions with synchrotron radiation: from ions in space to atoms in cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schippers, Stefan; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Phaneuf, Ronald A.; Müller, Alfred

    2015-11-11

    Here, we introduce the photon-ion merged-beams technique for the photoionisation of mass/charge selected ionised atoms, molecules and clusters by x-rays from synchrotron radiation sources. Examples for photoionisation of atomic ions are discussed by going from outer shell ionisation of simple few electron systems to inner shell ionisation of complex many electron ions. Fundamental ionisation mechanisms are elucidated and the importance of the results for applications in astrophysics and plasma physics is pointed out. Finally, the unique capabilities of the photon-ion merged-beams technique for the study of photoabsorption by nanoparticles are demonstrated by the example of endohedral fullerene ions.

  17. Synchrotron radiation-based multi-analytical approach for studying underglaze color: The microstructure of Chinese Qinghua blue decors (Ming dynasty)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. [CEMES, CNRS, Toulouse University, Toulouse (France); Zhu, T.Q., E-mail: zhutq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Sociology and Anthropology of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Feng, Z.Y. [School of Sociology and Anthropology of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Fayard, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS – UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France); Pouyet, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cotte, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Laboratoire d' archéologie moléculaire et structurale (LAMS), 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); De Nolf, W.; Salomé, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Sciau, Ph., E-mail: philippe.sciau@cemes.fr [CEMES, CNRS, Toulouse University, Toulouse (France)

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we develop a methodological approach combining macro-X-ray fluorescence and synchrotron radiation-based techniques (μXRF, full-field XANES and μXRD) to determine the composition and microstructure of underglaze decors of Qinghua porcelains (Ming dynasty). Various transition metal elements (Fe, Mn, Co) are present in the blue decoration of these ceramics and the approach proposed allows for establishing the feature of each. Thus it shows that Fe ions are distributed homogeneously over the whole glaze without any significant difference in blue and white parts. They do not play a significant role in the color. In contrast, Co ions exhibit a heterogeneous distribution with CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles close to the body/glaze interphase. These particles play a key role in the blue color and, the hue variations seem in greater part to link to their density and repartition. Co dispersed in the glassy matrix is also bivalent and mainly in tetragonal coordination, leading also to a blue color. Mn ion distribution is similar to the one of Co but without presenting local high concentrations associated to Mn based particles. Mn affects the darkness of the color and for the sample without CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle; it is the main color contribution. The presence of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals was confirmed by μXRD, which revealed, in addition, a variation of cell parameters certainly linking to a Co partial substitution. - Highlights: • A new methodological approach to describe and determine the underglaze porcelain decors is proposed. • SR-μXRF and FF-XANES allow identifying the speciation of colorant ions and mapping their distribution. • Co in tetragonal coordination is the main cause of blue color of Qinghua porcelains. • The density and the repartition of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles define the density of blue color. • Mn ions have an influence on the color darkness.

  18. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  19. Study of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in fusion tokamak plasmas. Application to the modelling of steady state and fast burn termination scenarios for the international experimental fusion reactor ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment

  20. An x-ray fluorescence study of lake sediments from ancient Turkey using synchrotron radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatas, A.; Alp, E. E.; Friedman, E. S.; Jennings, G.; Johnson, C. E.; Lai, B.; Mini, S. M.; Sato, Y.; Wilkinson, T. J.; Yener, K. A.

    1999-03-10

    Sediments from relic Lake Golbasi were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence with synchrotrons radiation to determine changes in element concentrations over time with selected elements serving as proxies for environmental change. Increases in Ca and Sr suggest soil formation during a dry period, from ca. 4500 BC to ca. 200 AD at which point K, Rb, Zr, Ti, and Y increase, indicating the return of a wet environment. Soil erosion, represented by Cr and Ni, increases ca. 7000 BC, probably as a consequence of environmental change, prior to suggested exploitation of natural resources by the newly urbanized society of the third millennium BC.

  1. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of Taylor bubbles in capillary two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Stephan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, Dresden (Germany); Santos Rolo, Tomy dos; Baumbach, Tilo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (TUD), AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    We report on a study to measure the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillaries using synchrotron radiation in conjunction with ultrafast radiographic imaging. Moving Taylor bubbles in 2-mm round and square capillaries were radiographically scanned with an ultrahigh frame rate of up to 36,000 fps and 5.6-μm pixel separation. Consecutive images were properly processed to yield 2D transmission radiographs of high contrast-to-noise ratio. Application of 3D tomographic image reconstruction disclosed the 3D bubble shape. The results provide a reference data base for development of sophisticated interface resolving CFD computations. (orig.)

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of synchrotron radiation irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene surface

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, Y; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The effect of synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After the SR irradiation, the relative intensity of the F ls peak to the C ls peak decreased markedly. The chemical composition ratio to the F atoms to C atoms was estimated to be 0.29. From the curve fitting analysis of C ls and F ls XPS spectra, the chemical components and their intensity ratio were determined. The reason for the chemical composition change by the SR irradiation was discussed. (author)

  3. The present status of high-pressure research at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Li, Y C

    2002-01-01

    The present status of high-pressure research at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility is reported. A ten-poles wiggler beamline provides a white beam for investigating samples using a diamond anvil cell. In situ energy-dispersive diffraction is used to determine the pressure-induced phase transitions and equations of state. High pressure can be stably applied by a stepper-motorized loading system with a strain sensor. Some megabar experiments have been carried out without damage on diamonds. Improved beam collimation reduces the background and eliminates gasket scatter. Some research and future developments are also presented.

  4. Partial coherence and imperfect optics at a synchrotron radiation source modeled by wavefront propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alcock, Simon G.; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.; Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    A full wave propagation of X-rays from source to sample at a storage ring beamline requires simulation of the electron beam source and optical elements in the beamline. The finite emittance source causes the appearance of partial coherence in the wave field. Consequently, the wavefront cannot be treated exactly with fully coherent wave propagation or fully incoherent ray tracing. We have used the wavefront code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) to perform partially coherent wavefront propagation using a parallel computing cluster at the Diamond Light Source. Measured mirror profiles have been used to correct the wavefront for surface errors.

  5. Comparison of Unmonochromatized Synchrotron Radiation and Conventional X-rays in the Imaging of Mammographic Phantom and Human Breast Specimens: A Preliminary Result

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Haijo; Kim, Hee-Joung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Jin-O; Je, Jung Ho; Hwu, Yeukuang; Tsai, Wen-Li; Magaritondo, Giorgio; Yoo, Hyung-Sik

    2005-01-01

    A simple imaging setup based on the principle of coherence-based contrast X-ray imaging with unmonochromatized synchrotron radiation was used for studying mammographic phantom and human breast specimens. The use of unmonochromatized synchrotron radiation simplifies the instrumentation, decreases the cost and makes the procedure simpler and potentially more suitable for clinical applications. The imaging systems consisted of changeable silicon wafer attenuators, a tungsten slit system, a CdWO4...

  6. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  7. Unexpected methyl migrations of ethanol dimer under synchrotron VUV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Weizhan; Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Weixing; Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lssheng@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China)

    2015-01-14

    While methyl transfer is well known to occur in the enzyme- and metal-catalyzed reactions, the methyl transfer in the metal-free organic molecules induced by the photon ionization has been less concerned. Herein, vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization and dissociation of ethanol dimer are investigated with synchrotron radiation photoionization mass spectroscopy and theoretical methods. Besides the protonated clusters cation (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} (m/z = 47) and the β-carbon-carbon bond cleavage fragment CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} (m/z = 77), the measured mass spectra revealed that a new fragment (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ (CH{sub 3}){sup +} (m/z = 61) appeared at the photon energy of 12.1 and 15.0 eV, where the neutral dimer could be vertically ionized to higher ionic state. Thereafter, the generated carbonium ions are followed by a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement and then dissociate to produce this new fragment, which is considered to generate after surmounting a few barriers including intra- and inter-molecular methyl migrations by the aid of theoretical calculations. The appearance energy of this new fragment is measured as 11.55 ± 0.05 eV by scanning photoionization efficiency curve. While the signal intensity of fragment m/z = 61 starts to increase, the fragments m/z = 47 and 77 tend to slowly incline around 11.55 eV photon energy. This suggests that the additional fragment channels other than (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) ⋅ H{sup +} and CH{sub 2}O ⋅ (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH)H{sup +} have also been opened, which consume some dimer cations. The present report provides a clear description of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the ethanol dimer in the range of the photon energy 12-15 eV.

  8. Methods for lipid nanostructure investigation at neutron and synchrotron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    A lipid membrane is a main component of biological membranes. Contemporary bionanotechnologies use phospholipids and ceramides as basic components of drugs and cosmetic preparations. Phospholipids-based nanoparticles are used as drug carriers. Effective development of bionanotechnologies in Russia calls for creation of physical methods to diagnose the particle nanostructure which would be promising for application in pharmacology. Radiation with wavelengths of 1-10 Å is an adequate instrument for detecting the nanostructure of lipid bi- and monolayers. The review deals with methods that apply neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation for studying nanostructures of lipid membranes, phospholipid nanoparticles, and phospholipid monolayers on a water surface by techniques of diffraction, small-angle scattering, and reflectometry. The importance of the mutually complementary application of neutron and synchrotron radiation for solving urgent problems of membrane biophysics, microbiology, dermapharmacology, and bionanotechnologies is demonstrated by particular examples of studies of phospholipid membranes and ceramide-based membranes. The efficiency of development and application of new methods for solving urgent problems of biophysics is shown. The review is written on the basis of results obtained over the period of 1999-2010 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Laboratory of Neutron Physics in collaboration with the Pharmaceutical Departments of universities of France (Paris-Sud, Chatenay Malabry) and Germany (Martin Luther University, Halle). The experiments were performed at various European and Russian neutron and synchrotron sources.

  9. Raster microdiffraction with synchrotron radiation of hydrated biopolymers with nanometre step-resolution: case study of starch granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekel, C., E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr; Burghammer, M.; Davies, R. J.; Di Cola, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); König, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Bioenergy and Catalysis Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lemke, H.T. [Centre for Molecular Movies, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Putaux, J.-L. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP 53, F 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Schöder, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Radiation damage propagation was examined in starch granules by synchrotron radiation micro- and nano-diffraction techniques from cryo- to room temperatures. Careful dose limitation allowed raster-diffraction experiments with 500 nm step resolution to be performed. X-ray radiation damage propagation is explored for hydrated starch granules in order to reduce the step resolution in raster-microdiffraction experiments to the nanometre range. Radiation damage was induced by synchrotron radiation microbeams of 5, 1 and 0.3 µm size with ∼0.1 nm wavelength in B-type potato, Canna edulis and Phajus grandifolius starch granules. A total loss of crystallinity of granules immersed in water was found at a dose of ∼1.3 photons nm{sup −3}. The temperature dependence of radiation damage suggests that primary radiation damage prevails up to about 120 K while secondary radiation damage becomes effective at higher temperatures. Primary radiation damage remains confined to the beam track at 100 K. Propagation of radiation damage beyond the beam track at room temperature is assumed to be due to reactive species generated principally by water radiolysis induced by photoelectrons. By careful dose selection during data collection, raster scans with 500 nm step-resolution could be performed for granules immersed in water.

  10. Permeability of Brain Tumor Vessels Induced by Uniform or Spatially Microfractionated Synchrotron Radiation Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Audrey; Potez, Marine; Coquery, Nicolas; Rome, Claire; Lemasson, Benjamin; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Rémy, Chantal; Laissue, Jean; Barbier, Emmanuel L; Djonov, Valentin; Serduc, Raphael

    2017-08-01

    To compare the blood-brain barrier permeability changes induced by synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT, which relies on spatial fractionation of the incident x-ray beam into parallel micron-wide beams) with changes induced by a spatially uniform synchrotron x-ray radiation therapy. Male rats bearing malignant intracranial F98 gliomas were randomized into 3 groups: untreated, exposed to MRT (peak and valley dose: 241 and 10.5 Gy, respectively), or exposed to broad beam irradiation (BB) delivered at comparable doses (ie, equivalent to MRT valley dose); both applied by 2 arrays, intersecting orthogonally the tumor region. Vessel permeability was monitored in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging 1 day before (T-1) and 1, 2, 7, and 14 days after treatment start. To determine whether physiologic parameters influence vascular permeability, we evaluated vessel integrity in the tumor area with different values for cerebral blood flow, blood volume, edema, and tissue oxygenation. Microbeam radiation therapy does not modify the vascular permeability of normal brain tissue. Microbeam radiation therapy-induced increase of tumor vascular permeability was detectable from T2 with a maximum at T7 after exposure, whereas BB enhanced vessel permeability only at T7. At this stage MRT was more efficient at increasing tumor vessel permeability (BB vs untreated: +19.1%; P=.0467; MRT vs untreated: +44.8%; Ptumor than BB. Microbeam radiation therapy-induced increased tumor vascular permeability is: (1) significantly greater; (2) earlier and more prolonged than that induced by BB irradiation, especially in highly proliferative tumor areas; and (3) targets all tumor areas discriminated by physiologic characteristics, including those not damaged by homogeneous irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy of proteins and applications in structural and functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Andrew J; Wallace, B A

    2006-01-01

    The technique of Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy and its advantages over conventional circular dichroism spectroscopy are described in this tutorial review, as well as recent applications of the technique in structural and functional genomics. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a well-established method in biological chemistry and structural biology, but its utility can be limited by the low flux of the light source in the far ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet wavelength regions in conventional CD instruments. The development of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD), using the intense light of a synchrotron beam, has greatly expanded the utility of the method, especially as a tool for both structural and functional genomics. These applications take advantage of the enhanced features of SRCD relative to conventional CD: the ability to measure lower wavelength data containing more electronic transitions and hence more structural information, the higher signal-to-noise hence requiring smaller samples, the higher intensity enabling measurements in absorbing buffers and in the presence of lipids and detergents, and the ability to do faster measurements enabling high throughput and time-resolved spectroscopy.This article discusses recent developments in SRCD instrumentation, software, sample preparation and methods of analyses, with particular emphasis on their applications to the study of proteins. These advances have led to new applications in structural genomics (SG), including the potential for fold recognition as a means of target selection and the examination of membrane proteins, a class of proteins usually excluded from SG programmes. Other SG uses include detection of macromolecular interactions as a screen for complex formation, and examination of glycoproteins and sugar components. In functional genomics (FG) new applications include screening for ligand binding as a means of identifying function, and examination of

  12. Synchrotron radiation measurement of multiphase fluid saturations in porous media: Experimental technique and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, David M.; Bierck, Barnes R.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    1998-06-01

    Multiphase flow in porous media is an important research topic. In situ, nondestructive experimental methods for studying multiphase flow are important for improving our understanding and the theory. Rapid changes in fluid saturation, characteristic of immiscible displacement, are difficult to measure accurately using gamma rays due to practical restrictions on source strength. Our objective is to describe a synchrotron radiation technique for rapid, nondestructive saturation measurements of multiple fluids in porous media, and to present a precision and accuracy analysis of the technique. Synchrotron radiation provides a high intensity, inherently collimated photon beam of tunable energy which can yield accurate measurements of fluid saturation in just one second. Measurements were obtained with precision of ±0.01 or better for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in a 2.5 cm thick glass-bead porous medium using a counting time of 1 s. The normal distribution was shown to provide acceptable confidence limits for PCE saturation changes. Sources of error include heat load on the monochromator, periodic movement of the source beam, and errors in stepping-motor positioning system. Hypodermic needles pushed into the medium to inject PCE changed porosity in a region approximately ±1 mm of the injection point. Improved mass balance between the known and measured PCE injection volumes was obtained when appropriate corrections were applied to calibration values near the injection point.

  13. Dazzling new light source opens at Stanford synchrotron radiation laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SPEAR3, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring, was formally opened at a dedication ceremony at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on Jan. 29. It incorporates the latest technology to make it competitive with the best synchrotron sources in the world (1/2 page)

  14. Neutrons and synchrotron radiation in engineering materials science from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schreyer, Andreas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2017-01-01

    Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods. As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure-property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization. The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to probl...

  15. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, John; Martin, Michael C; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Schönlein, Robert W; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max S

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the "femtoslicing" beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. This CSR, whose measured intensity is routinely used as a diagnostics for the tune-up of the femtoslicing experiments, represents a potential source of terahertz radiation with very interesting features. Several measurements have been performed for its characterization and in this paper an updated description of the experimental results and of their interpretation is presented.

  16. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Mekaru, H; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the p...

  17. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  18. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction techniques applied in hydrogen storage materials - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation is an advanced collimated light source with high intensity. It has particular advantages in structural characterization of materials on the atomic or molecular scale. Synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XRPD has been successfully exploited to various areas of hydrogen storage materials. In the paper, we will give a brief introduction on hydrogen storage materials, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, and synchrotron radiation light source. The applications of ex situ and in situ time-resolved SR-XRPD in hydrogen storage materials, are reviewed in detail. Future trends and proposals in the applications of the advanced XRPD techniques in hydrogen storage materials are also discussed.

  19. Development of intense terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at KU-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sei, Norihiro, E-mail: sei.n@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zen, Heishun; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute for Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We produced intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz (THz) region using an S-band linac at the Kyoto University Free Electron Laser (KU-FEL), which is a mid-infrared free-electron laser facility. The CSR beam was emitted from short-pulse electron bunches compressed by a 180° arc, and was transferred to air at a large solid angle of 0.10 rad. The measured CSR energy was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse, and KU-FEL was one of the most powerful CSR sources in normal conducting linear accelerator facilities. The CSR spectra were measured using an uncooled pyroelectric detector and a Michelson-type interferometer designed specifically for the KU-FEL electron beam, and had a maximum at a frequency of 0.11 THz. We found that adjusting the energy slit enhanced the CSR energy and shortened the electron beam bunch length in the CSR spectra measurements. Our results demonstrated that the efficient use of the energy slit can help improve the characteristics of CSR. - Highlights: • We have developed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at KU-FEL. • The elevation angle of the CSR was correctly measured by a new technique. • The CSR power extracted to the air was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse. • It was demonstrated that an energy slit was effective to improve the CSR properties.

  20. MxCuBE: a synchrotron beamline control environment customized for macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadinho, José; Beteva, Antonia; Guijarro, Matias; Rey-Bakaikoa, Vicente; Spruce, Darren; Bowler, Matthew W; Brockhauser, Sandor; Flot, David; Gordon, Elspeth J; Hall, David R; Lavault, Bernard; McCarthy, Andrew A; McCarthy, Joanne; Mitchell, Edward; Monaco, Stéphanie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Nurizzo, Didier; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Thibault, Xavier; Walsh, Martin A; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean M

    2010-09-01

    The design and features of a beamline control software system for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. This system, MxCuBE, allows users to easily and simply interact with beamline hardware components and provides automated routines for common tasks in the operation of a synchrotron beamline dedicated to experiments in MX. Additional functionality is provided through intuitive interfaces that enable the assessment of the diffraction characteristics of samples, experiment planning, automatic data collection and the on-line collection and analysis of X-ray emission spectra. The software can be run in a tandem client-server mode that allows for remote control and relevant experimental parameters and results are automatically logged in a relational database, ISPyB. MxCuBE is modular, flexible and extensible and is currently deployed on eight macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the ESRF. Additionally, the software is installed at MAX-lab beamline I911-3 and at BESSY beamline BL14.1.

  1. Radio galaxies radiation transfer, dynamics, stability and evolution of a synchrotron plasmon

    CERN Document Server

    Pacholczyk, A G

    1977-01-01

    Radio Galaxies: Radiation Transfer, Dynamics, Stability and Evolution of a Synchrotron Plasmon deals with the physics of a region in space containing magnetic field and thermal and relativistic particles (a plasmon). The synchrotron emission and absorption of this region are discussed, along with the properties of its spectrum; its linear and circular polarization; transfer of radiation through such a region; its dynamics and expansion; and interaction with external medium.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume explores the stability, turbulence, and acceleration of particles in a synchrotro

  2. Experimental studies on coherent synchrotron radiation at an emittance exchange beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. T. Thangaraj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate experimentally the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy-chirped beam.

  3. Elemental concentration analysis in brain of young, adult and old wistar rats by X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The mainly goal of this work is to compare the elemental concentrations with different postnatal ages (2, 8, 20, 48 and 72 weeks) at three different regions of the rat brain, namely temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus by X-Ray Total Reflection Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF). The advantages for this analytical multielemental technique are: low background, linear relation in the quantification analysis and low detection limit (ngg{sup -1}). The fluorescence measurements were carried out at XRF beamline at the Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). It was possible to determine the following elements: Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr (at trace level) and P, S, Cl, K and Ca (at major levels) were determined in the brain. In general, Fe levels were more pronounced in entorhinal cortex. There was also observed that the hippocampus of the old female rat presented the highest concentrations for Al, P, S, K, and Zn. In contrast to this, the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex presented the less levels for Al and K in the young animals. On the other hand, Cl levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex of the oldest male animal studied. (author)

  4. Ionizing radiation measurements using low cost instruments for teaching in college or high-school in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Vilela, D. C.; Migoto, V. G.; Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.; Germano, J. S. E.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation one of modern physics experimental teaching in colleges and high school can be easily implemented today due to low coasts of detectors and also electronic circuits and data acquisition interfaces. First it is interesting to show to young’s students what is ionizing radiation and from where they appears near ground level? How it is possible to measure these radiations and how to check intensities variation during day, night, dry and wet periods in the same school? For increasing interest and stimulation in others students how to proceed in making the graphics of the ionizing radiation and presenting him in real time using Web internet facilities? Many others facilities like calibration of the detector using low intensities radioactive ionizing radiation sources, make comparison of the measurements and discussions of the results should be possible between many groups of students from several schools in the region of Brazil. This paper presents the experimental procedures including detectors and associated electronic including data acquisition, graphics elaboration and Web internet procedures to discuss and exchanging data measurements from several schools.

  5. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  6. Evaluation of growth tree rings of Tipuana Tipu as biomonitoring of environmental pollution by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The bioindicators, plants or animals capable to present qualitative and/or quantitative answers, when exposed to pollutant substances. Trees record and incorporate in their log, developed year after year, the impressions of the environment, becoming possible the study of the different environmental changes, including contamination, that have occurred over the life of these trees. The selected species, Tipuana Tipu, of the Leguminosae family, is native of Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant. It is one of the most common trees in the urban landscaping in Sao Paulo city. The present project has as main objective the determination of the content of potentially toxic elements in samples of growth the tree rings of Tipuana Tipu, previously dated, collected in strategically locations of Sao Paulo, using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. Samples were also collected in the Piracicaba (SP), local of little access and small flow traffic. The SR-TXRF analysis was carried out in the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, located in Campinas city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In this paper the highest value for Pb was 123.54 μg.g{sup -1} considered as threshold value was observed for the period 1998 to 2000 for University of Sao Paulo, Butanta site. For the same period excessive level was also observed for samples collected in Piracicaba city. In Sao Paulo city, sample collected in the campus of University of Sao Paulo (Butanta), showed the highest toxicity, with concentration above the tolerable limit for Ti, Cr and Cu. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb exceeding the toxicity limits. (author)

  7. Geodesic synchrotron radiation in the Kerr geometry by the method of asymptotically factorized Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, P. L.; Misner, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    The scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational geodesic-synchrotron-radiation (GSR) spectra are determined for the case of a test particle moving on a highly relativistic circular orbit about a rotating (Kerr) black hole. It is found that the spectral shape depends only weakly on the value of the angular-momentum parameter (a/M) of the black hole, but the total radiated power drops unexpectedly for a value of at least 0.95 and vanishes as the value approaches unity. A spin-dependent factor (involving the inner product of the polarization of a radiated quantum with the source) is isolated to explain the dependence of the spectral shape on the spin of the radiated field. Although the scalar wave equation is solved by separation of variables, this procedure is avoided for the vector and tensor cases by postulating a sum-over-states expansion for the Green's function similar to that found to hold in the scalar case. The terms in this sum, significant for GSR, can then be evaluated in the geometric-optics approximation without requiring the use of vector or tensor spherical harmonics.

  8. Synchrotron Radiation Effects in the IR Solenoid Flux Excluder(LCC-0007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P

    2004-04-22

    We examine the emittance dilution due to synchrotron radiation in the fringing fields at the end of the ''flux excluder'' solenoid which protects the final doublet quadrupoles from the main detector solenoid field, and also the effect of SR in the main solenoid field itself.Because the deflection due to the excluder fringe field is opposite in polarity from that of the main solenoid, the resulting dispersive rays cancel at the IP; as a result the synchrotron radiation from the two magnetic fields produces only a small dilution of the vertical spot size. The contribution to the spot size from the finite opening angle of the synchrotron flux is found to be comparable to the contribution from solenoidal dispersion, and both are acceptable. We conclude that SR considerations do not rule out use of a flux excluder, and that the range of crossing angles and solenoidal fields available is large.

  9. Ultraintense laser absorption and γ-ray synchrotron radiation in near critical density plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H. X.; Qiao, B.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, Z.; Yao, W. P.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.

    2017-04-01

    Ultraintense laser absorption and γ-ray synchrotron radiation in near-critical-density (NCD) plasmas are investigated. Besides the known skin-depth emission and reinjected electron synchrotron emission in NCD plasmas, we find a new γ-ray emission mechanism, where γ-rays are dominantly produced by the Transversely Oscillating Electron synchrotron Emission (TOEE). In this new TOEE mechanism, electrons mainly oscillate in the transverse direction under the balance between the longitudinal laser ponderomotive force and the restoring electrostatic force. A great amount of γ photons are emitted in the transverse direction, where the peak radiation power is enhanced by twice and the photon divergence angle is relatively decreased. The features of γ-rays produced from this new TOEE mechanism have been identified and compared with the other two mechanisms by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  10. New synchrotron powder diffraction facility for long-duration experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Claire A; Potter, Jonathan; Day, Sarah J; Baker, Annabelle R; Thompson, Stephen P; Kelly, Jon; Morris, Christopher G; Yang, Sihai; Tang, Chiu C

    2017-02-01

    A new synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction instrument has been built and commissioned for long-duration experiments on beamline I11 at Diamond Light Source. The concept is unique, with design features to house multiple experiments running in parallel, in particular with specific stages for sample environments to study slow kinetic systems or processes. The instrument benefits from a high-brightness X-ray beam and a large area detector. Diffraction data from the commissioning work have shown that the objectives and criteria are met. Supported by two case studies, the results from months of measurements have demonstrated the viability of this large-scale instrument, which is the world's first dedicated facility for long-term studies (weeks to years) using synchrotron radiation.

  11. Elliptical Undulators HU256 for Synchrotron SOLEIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, A.; Briquez, F.; Chubar, O.; Churkin, I.; Dael, A.; Ilyin, I.; Kolokolnikov, Yu.; Marcouile, O.; Marteau, F.; Roux, G.; Rouvinski, E.; Semenov, E.; Steshov, A.; Valleau, M.; Vobly, P.

    2007-01-01

    Three elliptical undulators HU256 of electromagnetic type were produced, tested and magnetically measured by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russia) for Synchrotron Soleil (France). The undulators have a new design of a Bx & Bz closed structure for insertion vacuum chamber. In the elliptical undulator HU256 with period of the magnetic fields of 256 mm, the vertical magnetic field (Bzmax=0.44 T) formed by 27 Bz laminated dipole magnets is symmetric, and the horizontal magnetic field (Bxmax=0.33 T) formed by 28 Bx laminated dipole magnets is asymmetric. The undulator can work in standard mode as well as in a quasi-periodical mode. The vertical magnetic field may be modulated by switching on the modulation coils placed on the Bz dipoles. Two power supply systems allow us to modulate the horizontal magnetic field, and change the radiation spectrum. The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in "undulator" environment were executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code. The magnetic measurements of the individual dipoles had confirmed the magnetic calculations. On basis of semiempirical dependences from the mechanical characteristics the estimates of the magnetic parameters for all dipoles were calculated. Sorting of dipoles in the undulators have been done, and it has improved the magnetic parameters of the assembled undulators in comparison with the statistical estimations. The magnetic measurements of the undulators HU256 were carried out at Budker INP by Hall probes and at Soleil by Hall probes and Stretched Wire. Now the 1st undulator HU256 is installed at Soleil Storage Ring.

  12. Sample Environment in Experiments using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B

    1984-01-01

    Modern electron (positron) storage rings are able to emit very intense X-ray radiation with a continuous spectrum extending to 0.1 A, from bending magnets and insertion devices (wavelength shifters and multipole wigglers). It can be used directly for white beam experiments and/or for monochromatic...... the design of the special environment, the experimental method used, and the X-ray beam tailored to the experiment with respect to wavelength. intensity, cross-section, divergence and polarization. This is discussed in some detail and illustrated by examples....

  13. Synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet radiation studies of the D 1Πu state of H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Ivanov, T. I.; Roudjane, M.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Tchang-Brillet, W. Ü L; Glass-Maujean, M.; Haas, I.; Ehresmann, A.; Ubachs, W.

    2010-01-01

    The 3pπD 1Πu state of the H2 molecule was reinvestigated with different techniques at two synchrotron installations. The Fourier transform spectrometer in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range of the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron was used for recording absorption spectra of the D Π1u

  14. UV-CD12: synchrotron radiation circular dichroism beamline at ANKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürck, Jochen; Roth, Siegmar; Windisch, Dirk; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Moss, David; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a rapidly growing technique for structure analysis of proteins and other chiral biomaterials. UV-CD12 is a high-flux SRCD beamline installed at the ANKA synchrotron, to which it had been transferred after the closure of the SRS Daresbury. The beamline covers an extended vacuum-UV to near-UV spectral range and has been open for users since October 2011. The current end-station allows for temperature-controlled steady-state SRCD spectroscopy, including routine automated thermal scans of microlitre volumes of water-soluble proteins down to 170 nm. It offers an excellent signal-to-noise ratio over the whole accessible spectral range. The technique of oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was recently implemented for determining the membrane alignment of α-helical peptides and proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers as mimics of cellular membranes. It offers improved spectral quality <200 nm compared with an OCD setup adapted to a bench-top instrument, and accelerated data collection by a factor of ∼3. In addition, it permits investigations of low hydrated protein films down to 130 nm using a rotatable sample cell that avoids linear dichroism artifacts. PMID:25931105

  15. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Calibration of NICER detectors at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigozhin, Gregory; Steiner, James F.; Malonis, Andrew; Doty, John; LaMarr, Beverly; Remillard, Ronald A.; Scholze, Frank; Laubis, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Gendreau, Keith

    2017-08-01

    The focal plane of the NICER instrument includes 56 nearly identical Silicon Drift Detectors.Two Silicon Drift Detectors from the flight candidates lot were selected for calibration at a synchrotron. One of those two calibrated detectors was later installed into the flight instrument focal plane. The calibration was performed at BESSY-II electron storage ring in Berlin and consisted of detector characterization at several beam lines, where each measurement served different purpose. Low energy QE was measured by comparing the detected X-ray flux against calibrated photodiode using SX700 grating monochromator beam line. Detector response function was evaluated at multiple monochromatic energies using Four Crystal Monochromator (FCM) beam line. In addition to that, the detector QE in a wide energy range was measured by illuminating detector by undispersed synchrotron X-ray radiation at extremely low (just a few electrons) ring currents. Here we present the results of the measurements, and discuss some unexpected features of the detector performance discovered in the course of this testing. Overall, BESSY calibration turned out to be an extremely powerful tool for studying detector performance across entire X-ray range of interest for NICER.

  17. Going deep into protein secondary structure with synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Patricia S; Araujo, Ana P U; Lopes, Jose L S

    2017-10-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a fast, powerful, well-established, and widely used analytical technique in the biophysical and structural biology community to study protein secondary structure and to track changes in protein conformation in different environments. The use of the intense light of a synchrotron beam as the light source for collecting CD measurements has emerged as an enhanced method, known as synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy, that has several advantages over the conventional CD method, including a significant spectral range extension for data collection, deeper access to the lower limit (cut-off) of conventional CD spectroscopy, an improved signal-to-noise ratio to increase accuracy in the measurements, and the possibility to collect measurements in highly absorbing solutions. In this review, we discuss different applications of the SRCD technique by researchers from Latin America. In this context, we specifically look at the use of this method for examining the secondary structure and conformational behavior of proteins belonging to the four main classes of the hierarchical protein domain classification CATH (Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology) database, focusing on the advantages and improvements associated with SRCD spectroscopy in terms of characterizing proteins composed of different structural elements.

  18. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene. A synchrotron radiation linear dichroism investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variabl...

  19. Synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) investigation of the electronictransitions of quinizarin, chrysazin, and anthrarufin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2010-01-01

    The electronic transitions of the three , (alpha), (alphaPrime) -dihydroxy derivatives of anthraquinone, 1,4-dihydroxy-, 1,8-dihydroxy-, and 1,5-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (quinizarin, chrysazin, and anthrarufin), were investigated by synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy o...

  20. Determination of tin equilibrium isotope fractionation factors from synchrotron radiation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polyakov, VB; Mineev, SD; Clayton, RN; Hu, G; Mineev, KS

    2005-01-01

    A method of determination of the reduced isotopic partition function ratio (beta-factor) from the partial density of state (PDOS) obtained by inelastic nuclear resonant X-ray scattering (INRXS) in synchrotron radiation experiments has been established. The method has been demonstrated by the example

  1. STM and synchrotron radiation studies of prototypical metal/semiconductor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lay, G. le; Aristov, V.Y.; Seehofer, L.

    1994-01-01

    of the near-field microscopies and the ''tensive use of synchrotron radiation in surface crystallography and in high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. In the last few years, lead, as a replacement inert metal, has nearly gained the pole position in the display of exotic behaviour. This paper gives...

  2. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  3. Towards the exploitation of phase effects in clinical synchrotron radiation radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, A.

    2005-08-01

    The so-called "phase contrast imaging" has been widely investigated by several researchers during the last years. The scientific community is currently convinced that this technique can provide relevant improvements with respect to conventional techniques based on absorption effects, and the first clinical studies are now on the way. Among the three main phase contrast imaging set-ups (interferometry and diffraction-enhanced imaging, both based on the use of crystals, and free space propagation), the last one is probably the simplest and the most straightforward. Hence, the Trieste group has recently upgraded his SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline and will soon be able to perform the first phase contrast mammographic investigations on human patients using this modality, in the framework of the project "Synchrotron X-ray Mammography: Clinical Experimentation". In this context, it is therefore important to focus on the actual exploitation of phase effects, outlining the extent to which clinical mammography can concretely benefit from the beam spatial coherence. First of all, some side effects connected with the use of the different set-ups will be taken into account and compared. Secondly, some basic issues connected with the detection of calcifications and masses will be addressed. Finally, the concepts of "edge" and "area" contrasts will be critically reviewed, showing among other things that in some cases an effective "area" contrast due to phase effects can effectively be achieved for small objects.

  4. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.holmberg@swerea.se [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); University West, 461 86 Trollhättan (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); Haakanen, Merja [Stresstech OY, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40 800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Berglund, Johan [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden)

    2016-06-14

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  5. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fuhua; Cheever, Dan; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Franklin, Wilbur; Graves, William; Ihloff, Ernie; Podobedov, Boris; Sannibale, Fernando; Tschalär, C; Wang, Defa; Wang, Dong; Zwart, Townsend; van der Laan, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) potential of the South Hall Ring (SHR) at MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. The SHR is equipped with a unique single cavity, 2.856 GHz RF system. The high RF frequency is advantageous for producing short bunch length and for having higher bunch current threshold to generate stable CSR. Combining with other techniques such as external pulse stacking cavity, femtosecond laser slicing, the potential for generating ultra-stable, high power, broadband terahertz CSR is very attractive. Beam dynamics issues related to short bunch length operation, and may associated with the high frequency RF system, such as multi-bunch instability are concerned. They could affect bunch length, bunch intensity and beam stability. The SHR is ideal for experimental exploration of these problems. Results of initial test of low momentum compaction lattice and bunch length measurements are presented and compared to expectations.

  6. High resolution Ca/P maps of bone architecture in 3D synchrotron radiation microtomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzaphlidou, M. [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, PO Box 1186, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)]. E-mail: mtzaphli@cc.uoi.gr; Speller, R. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Olivo, A. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Pani, S. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Department of Physics, University of Trieste (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    The Ca/P ratio was measured in cortical bone samples from the femoral neck and tibia of different animal species, using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Use of a monoenergetic X-ray beam, as provided by the synchrotron facility, generates accurate 3D maps of the linear attenuation coefficient within the sample and hence gives the ability to map different chemical components. Also, by comparing normal and abnormal bones, i.e. osteoporotic (induced by inflammation), changes in the Ca/P ratio brought about by bone diseases can be detected. MicroCT data sets were collected at 20 and 28keV for each bone sample and two calibration phantoms. From the 3D data sets, multiple 2D slices were reconstructed with a slice thickness of {approx}30{mu}m. Regions of interest were defined around suitable sites and were converted to Ca/P ratios using the data collected from the test phantoms. A significant difference (p0.001) between osteoporotics and age-matched normals at both energies was detected. Differences between different bone sites from the same animal are not significant (p>0.5) while those between the same bone sites from different animals are highly significant (p0.001). Differences between estimates made at 20 and 28keV are not significant (p>0.5). An important aspect is the ability to map the spatial distribution of the Ca/P ratio.

  7. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  8. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo, E-mail: csuxiaobo123456@163.com [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Guanyun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.

  9. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  10. Effect of synchrotron radiation in the proposed 4 GeV Argonne microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation in the sector magnets of the 4-GeV microtron designed at the Argonne National Laboratory produces a small but noticeable distortion of the closed orbits of the system and a very-significant growth of the horizontal and longitudinal phase-space emittances. Because of the small apertures in the three 25-meter linacs, it is important that the expected growth of the beam be calculated as accurately as possible. For this reason, a computer program has been written which follows the motions of individual electrons in the four dimensional horizontal and longitudinal phase space as they are accelerated in the system. As the electrons go through the sector magnets, they emit quanta at random with randomly chosen energies. The final results show 63% emittance (area ..pi..) values of 0.15 mm mrad and 630 keV degrees for the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, respectively. The 99% values are about 4.6 times larger.

  11. Synchrotron radiation μCT and histology evaluation of bone-to-implant contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Sporring, Jon; Rack, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in two-dimensional (2D) histology compared to high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography (SR micro-CT). High spatial resolution, excellent signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast....... The histological evaluation showed a statistically significant difference between BIC in reconstructed and recipient bone (p .... Comparing histology and SR micro-CT evaluation a bias of 5.2% was found in reconstructed area, and 15.3% in recipient bone. We conclude that for evaluation of BIC with histology and SR micro-CT, SR micro-CT cannot be proven more precise than histology for evaluation of BIC, however, with this SR micro...

  12. Excitation of different chromium centres by synchrotron radiation in MgO:Cr single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shablonin, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila Str. 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Popov, A.I., E-mail: popov@latnet.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Lushchik, A., E-mail: aleksandr.lushchik@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila Str. 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kotlov, A. [Photon Science at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dolgov, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila Str. 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2015-11-15

    The excitation spectra for the emissions of chromium-containing centres have been measured at 10 K using synchrotron radiation of 4–32 eV in MgO single crystals with different content of Cr{sup 3+} (5–850 ppm) and Ca{sup 2+} impurity ions. Both virgin crystals and the samples preliminarily irradiated with x-rays at 295 K have been studied. The role of complex chromium centres containing two Cr{sup 3+} and a cation vacancy (sometimes nearby a Ca{sup 2+} ion) on the luminescence processes and the transformation/creation of structural defects has been analysed. Such anharmonic complex centres could serve as the seeds for the creation of 3D defects that facilitate the cracking and brittle destruction of MgO crystals under their irradiation with ∼GeV heavy ions providing extremely high excitation density within cylindrical ion tracks.

  13. Synchrotron Radiation Maps from Relativistic MHD Jet Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Millas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN often display a non-uniform structure and are, under certain conditions, susceptible to a number of instabilities. An interesting example is the development of non-axisymmetric, Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities in the case of differentially rotating two-component jets, with the toroidal component of the magnetic field playing a key role in the development or suppression of these instabilities. We have shown that higher magnetization leads to stability against these non-axisymmetric instabilities. Using ray-casting on data from relativistic MHD simulations of two-component jets, we now investigate the effect of these instabilities on the synchrotron emission pattern from the jets. We recover many well known trends from actual observations, e.g., regarding the polarization fraction and the distribution of the position angle of the electric field, in addition to a different emitting region, depending on the stability of the jet.

  14. Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation and Deformation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster Nielsen, Søren

    machining. The conical slit has six 25µm thick conically shaped openings matching six of the Debye-Scherrer cones from a fcc powder. By combining the conical slit with a micro-focused incoming beam of hard X-rays an embedded gauge volume is defined. Using a 2D detector, fast and complete information can...... the embedded grains within thick samples in three dimensions. All essential features like the position, volume, orien-tation, stress-state of individual grains can be determined, including the morphology of the grain boundaries. The first results obtained by using the novel tracking technique are presented...... in combination with synchrotron X-ray tomography in order to gain new in-formation on the wetting kinetics of liquid gallium in aluminium grain boundaries. Finally, an electron microscopy investigation was carried out in order to describe the lattice rotations and texture evolution in uniaxially compressed...

  15. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  16. Loop-voltage tomography in tokamaks using transient synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Hunter Coll., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-07-01

    The loop voltage in tokamaks is particularly difficult to measure anywhere but at the plasma periphery. A brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons, however, produces a transient radiation response that is sensitive to this voltage. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose the loop voltage. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Three-dimensional visualization of rat brain microvasculature following permanent focal ischaemia by synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M Q; Sun, D N; Xie, Y Y; Peng, G Y; Xia, J; Long, H Y; Xiao, B

    2014-06-01

    Identifying morphological changes that occur in microvessels under both normal and ischaemic conditions is crucial for understanding and treating stroke. However, conventional imaging techniques are not able to detect microvessels on a micron or sub-micron scale without angiography. In the present study, synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray in-line phase contrast imaging (ILPCI) was used to acquire high-resolution and high-contrast images of rat brain tissues in both normal and ischaemic states. ILPCI was performed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai, China, without the use of contrast agents. CT slices were reformatted and then converted into three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction images to analyse subtle details of the cerebral microvascular network. By using ILPCI, brain vessels up to 11.8 μm in diameter were resolved. The number of cortical and penetrating arteries detected were found to undergo a remarkable decrease within the infarct area. 3 days after permanent ischaemia, vascular masses were also observed in the peripheral region of the infarcts. SR-based ILPCI-CT can serve as a powerful tool to accurately visualize brain microvasculature. The morphological parameters of blood vessels in both CT slices and 3D reconstructions were determined, and this approach has great potential for providing an effective diagnosis and evaluation for rehabilitation therapy for stroke. In the absence of contrast agent, the 3D morphologies of the brain microvasculature in normal and stroke rats were obtained using SR-based ILPCI. SR imaging is a sensitive and promising method which can be used to explore primary brain function.

  18. Nanocrystallization of amorphous alloys using microwaves: In situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicula, R; Stir, M; Ishizaki, K; Vaucher, S [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research - Empa, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Catala-Civera, J M, E-mail: radu.nicula@empa.c [Polytechnical University of Valencia, School of Telecommunication, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-01

    Important energy and time savings can be achieved with the thermal treatment of materials by replacing conventional heating methods with microwave heating. The nanocrystallization of Co-Fe-W-B amorphous alloy powders under microwave irradiation was followed for the first time by in situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation powder diffraction. It is shown that even a very short exposure to the electromagnetic field (single pulse microwave application) typically of the order of a few seconds is sufficient to obtain the bulk nano-crystalline state. A metastable high-temperature Co-W-B orthorhombic phase forms during the microwave heating, which gradually transforms to the tetragonal Co{sub 2}B stable phase.

  19. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzza, Paolo; Hussain, Rohanah; Biondi, Barbara; Calderan, Andrea; Tessari, Isabella; Bubacco, Luigi; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases. PMID:25946077

  20. The Advanced Photon Source: A national synchrotron radiation research facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The vision of the APS sprang from prospective users, whose unflagging support the project has enjoyed throughout the decade it has taken to make this facility a reality. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of synchrotron radiation research, is the extensive and diverse scientific makeup of the user community. From this primordial soup of scientists exchanging ideas and information, come the collaborative and interdisciplinary accomplishments that no individual alone could produce. So, unlike the solitary Roentgen, scientists are engaged in a collective and dynamic enterprise with the potential to see and understand the structures of the most complex materials that nature or man can produce--and which underlie virtually all modern technologies. This booklet provides scientists and laymen alike with a sense of both the extraordinary history of x-rays and the knowledge they have produced, as well as the potential for future discovery contained in the APS--a source a million million times brighter than the Roentgen tube.

  1. Atomic modifications by synchrotron radiation at the calcite-ethanol interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasarín, I. S.; Bovet, Nicolas Emile; Glyvradal, Magni

    2012-01-01

    -mineral interfaces where the polar OH group, as present in ethanol, plays a key role in their molecular structure and bonding. Also, the chemical evolution observed in the interface provides new insight into the behavior of some complex organic molecules involved in biomineralization processes.......This article reports on studies of the chemical alterations induced by synchrotron radiation at the calcite-ethanol interface, a simple model system for interfaces between minerals and more complex organic molecules containing OH groups. A combination of X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron...... spectroscopy of natural calcite, cleaved in distilled ethanol to obtain new clean interfaces, indicated that, during a 5 h period, the two top atomic layers of calcite, CaCO3, transform into calcium oxide, CaO, by releasing CO2. Also, the occupation of the first ordered layer of ethanol attached to calcite...

  2. High-Resolution X-Ray Scattering Topography Using Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaura, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Kii, Hideki

    1994-02-01

    Although spatial resolution is the most essential factor determining the function of X-ray topography, it has not been improved in 30 years in spite of increasing requirements for highly-resolvable topography in materials science. X-ray scattering topography using a microbeam is a method capable of overcoming this resolution problem. Because the maximum resolution of an apparatus using a sealed-off tube is limited to 20 µ m, we designed and constructed scattering topography equipment using a synchrotron radiation microbeam. In the experiment, the slit system forms the microbeam 7 µ m in diameter. We observed a cellulose distribution in bamboo as a testing material. When the scanning step was 2 µ m, we attained spatial resolution less than 5 µ m.

  3. Distribution of lead in the brain tissues from DNTC patients using synchrotron radiation microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari [International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ota, Yukihide [Department of Precision Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honnmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: h51167@sakura.kudpc.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ishihara, Ryoko [Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Mizuno, Yutaka [Obu Dementia Care Research and Training Center, Obu (Japan); Takeuchi, Tohru [Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC) is a form of dementia with certain characteristics. Its pathology is characterized by cerebrum atrophy, calcification on globus pallidus and dentate nucleus and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles without senile plaques. In the present study brain tissues were prepared from patients with patients DNTC, calcified and non-calcified Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The brain tissues were examined non-destructively by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (SR) microbeams for trace metallic elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb. The XRF analysis showed that there were Pb concentrations in the calcified areas in the brain tissues with both DNTC and AD but there was none in those with non-calcified AD.

  4. X-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of the acupoints based on synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenglin, Liu, E-mail: lclyctc@163.com [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xiaohua, Wang; Hua, Xu [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers’ College, Yancheng 224051 (China); Fang, Liu; Ruishan, Dang [Anatomy Department of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Dongming, Zhang; Xinyi, Zhang [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Honglan, Xie; Tiqiao, Xiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, the morphology of the acupuncture point (abbreviated as acupoint hereafter) or tissue where there were no acupoints in the fractional rabbit hind limb was studied by in-line phase contrast CT imaging (PCI-CT) methods based on synchrotron radiation. The density of micro-vessels was calculated for tissues with acupoints or without acupoints. Differences between acupoints area and non-acupoint areas determined by the density of the micro-vessels propose a strong evidence of the existence of acupoints. Our results showed that there were two significantly higher densities of the micro-vessels, where two acupoints were located, respectively. In addition, there were large numbers of involutedly microvascular structure in the acupoint areas. Nevertheless, in non-acupoints area, the microvascular structure was relatively simple and flat.

  5. XAFS beam lines at Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center dedicated to industrial use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2016-05-01

    Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center was designed for industrial use following five years of discussion among academia, industry and local government in the Aichi area. Among the six beam lines constructed, those that facilitated X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis were given first priority. In addition to the hardware, attention was given to the development of operating procedures that were quick and user-friendly. The facility entered public service in March 2013. In the year 2013, 55% of the experiments involved XAFS analysis (hard X-ray, soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet regions) and in 2014 it was 57%. The range of research fields is very broad, emphasizing the importance of the XAFS beam lines.

  6. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  7. Mid infrared throughput with 5 mu m aperture for H sub 2 O determination of an andesitic glass. Comparison of synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8 with conventional light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T; Kagi, H; Handa, T; Yamashita, S; Ikemoto, Y; Moriwaki, T; Kimura, H

    2003-01-01

    Mid infrared throughput using 5 mu m apertures was investigate using micro-FTIR spectrometers with conventional light sources at two laboratories and the synchrotron radiation infrared (SR-IR) light source at SPring-8. With both the light sources micro-FTIR microscopy can analyze the fundamental O-H vibration in andesitic glass with 1 weight % H sub 2 O through 5 mu m apertures. Spectra obtained at SPring-8 show better relative standard deviations due to the brighter and more highly collimated nature of SR-IR compared to conventional light sources. The spectra with 100 and 1000 scans at SPring-8 have similar relative standard deviations to those with 1000 and 10200 scans, respectively, at laboratories. The successful analysis with 5 mu m apertures using both light sources shows the potential for an improvement in the spatial resolution of micro-FTIR analyses. (author)

  8. Spectrum Analyzer Application for the Proton Synchrotron Wall Current Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Limpens, Rik

    The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a key component in CERN's accelerator complex, where it usually accelerates either protons or heavy ions. The new acquisition system for the PS ring wall current monitors has been installed to be able to perform higher frequency measurements of a beam bunch. This is an important improvement, since the oscillating signals are related to losses of a beam bunch. The main goal of this project is to develop a LabVIEW application running on a Real-Time target to perform continuous and triggered spectral acquisition of a PS beam bunch and to provide a data visualization and analysis tool for the operators and users of the machine.

  9. Bone regeneration assessment by optical coherence tomography and MicroCT synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Canjau, Silvana; Manescu, Adrian; Topalá, Florin I.; Hoinoiu, Bogdan; Romînu, Mihai; Márcáuteanu, Corina; Duma, Virgil; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2013-06-01

    Bone grafting is a commonly performed surgical procedure to augment bone regeneration in a variety of orthopaedic and maxillofacial procedures, with autologous bone being considered as the "gold standard" bone-grafting material, as it combines all properties required in a bone-graft material: osteoinduction (bone morphogenetic proteins - BMPs - and other growth factors), osteogenesis (osteoprogenitor cells) and osteoconduction (scaffold). The problematic elements of bone regenerative materials are represented by their quality control methods, the adjustment of the initial bone regenerative material, the monitoring (noninvasive, if possible) during their osteoconduction and osteointegration period and biomedical evaluation of the new regenerated bone. One of the research directions was the interface investigation of the regenerative bone materials and their behavior at different time periods on the normal femoral rat bone. 12 rat femurs were used for this investigation. In each ones a 1 mm diameter hole were drilled and a bone grafting material was inserted in the artificial defect. The femurs were removed after one, three and six months. The defects repaired by bone grafting material were evaluated by optical coherence tomography working in Time Domain Mode at 1300 nm. Three dimensional reconstructions of the interfaces were generated. The validations of the results were evaluated by microCT. Synchrotron Radiation allows achieving high spatial resolution images to be generated with high signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, Synchrotron Radiation allows acquisition of volumes at different energies and volume subtraction to enhance contrast. Evaluation of the bone grafting material/bone interface with noninvasive methods such as optical coherence tomography could act as a valuable procedure that can be use in the future in the usual clinical techniques. The results were confirmed by microCT. Optical coherence tomography can be performed in vivo and can provide a

  10. Development of compact synchrotron light source LUNA for x-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A compact synchrotron light source LUNA has been developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), especially for x-ray lithography. It consists of a 45-MeV linac as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. The peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 Å. The installation of LUNA was completed in April 1989 at the Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. The synchrotron radiation was first observed in December 1989. A stored beam current of 50 mA at 800 MeV and a lifetime over 1 h have been achieved. At present, experiments are still continuing to increase the stored current and the lifetime. X-ray lithography testing is scheduled to begin in a clean room in this facility. This paper describes the outline of LUNA and the present status.

  11. Demonstration of the synchrotron-type spectrum of laser-produced Betatron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fourmaux, S; Phuoc, K Ta; Leguay, P M; Payeur, S; Lassonde, P; Gnedyuk, S; Lebrun, G; Fourment, C; Malka, V; Sebban, S; Rousse, A; Kieffer, J C

    2011-01-01

    Betatron X-ray radiation in laser-plasma accelerators is produced when electrons are accelerated and wiggled in the laser-wakefield cavity. This femtosecond source, producing intense X-ray beams in the multi kiloelectronvolt range has been observed at different interaction regime using high power laser from 10 to 100 TW. However, none of the spectral measurement performed were at sufficient resolution, bandwidth and signal to noise ratio to precisely determine the shape of spectra with a single laser shot in order to avoid shot to shot fluctuations. In this letter, the Betatron radiation produced using a 80 TW laser is characterized by using a single photon counting method. We measure in single shot spectra from 8 to 21 keV with a resolution better than 350 eV. The results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and demonstrate the synchrotron type nature of this radiation mechanism. The critical energy is found to be Ec = 5.6 \\pm 1 keV for our experimental conditions. In addition, th...

  12. Facilities for small-molecule crystallography at synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Sarah A; Nowell, Harriott; Warren, Mark R; Wilcox, Andrian; Allan, David R

    2016-01-01

    Although macromolecular crystallography is a widely supported technique at synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world, there are, in comparison, only very few beamlines dedicated to small-molecule crystallography. This limited provision is despite the increasing demand for beamtime from the chemical crystallography community and the ever greater overlap between systems that can be classed as either small macromolecules or large small molecules. In this article, a very brief overview of beamlines that support small-molecule single-crystal diffraction techniques will be given along with a more detailed description of beamline I19, a dedicated facility for small-molecule crystallography at Diamond Light Source.

  13. Experimental determination of physical processes in space, leading to deviations of radio synchrotron radiation spectra from the power law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men', A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We present universal formulas for spectral characteristics of cosmic radio sources of synchrotron radiation upon the presence of spectral density maxima at certain frequencies (spectra with negative curvature) taking into account most typical physical processes observed in space. On the basis of long-term observations of angular radiation structure of cosmic radio sources in the decameter wavelength range by the URAN radio interferometer system, we determine most probable physical processes resulting in spectra with extremum values for several quasars, radio galaxies, and their separate components. On the basis of these data, we estimate some parameters of cosmic medium, magnetic field, and angular sizes of compact radio sources and their components.

  14. Synchrotron Radiation Pair Distribution Function Analysis of Gels in Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cuesta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of atomic ordering in a nanocrystalline phase with small particle sizes, below 5 nm, is intrinsically complicated because of the lack of long-range order. Furthermore, the presence of additional crystalline phase(s may exacerbate the problem, as is the case in cement pastes. Here, we use the synchrotron pair distribution function (PDF chiefly to characterize the local atomic order of the nanocrystalline phases, gels, in cement pastes. We have used a multi r-range analysis approach, where the ~4–7 nm r-range allows determining the crystalline phase contents; the ~1–2.5 nm r-range is used to characterize the atomic ordering in the nanocrystalline component; and the ~0.2–1.0 nm r-range gives insights about additional amorphous components. Specifically, we have prepared four alite pastes with variable water contents, and the analyses showed that a defective tobermorite, Ca11Si9O28(OH2.8.5H2O, gave the best fit. Furthermore, the PDF analyses suggest that the calcium silicate hydrate gel is composed of this tobermorite and amorphous calcium hydroxide. Finally, this approach has been used to study alternative cements. The hydration of monocalcium aluminate and ye’elimite pastes yield aluminum hydroxide gels. PDF analyses show that these gels are constituted of nanocrystalline gibbsite, and the particle size can be as small as 2.5 nm.

  15. Beam Diagnostics for the J-PARC Main Ring Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Toyama, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Naoki; Kishiro, Junichi; Lee, Seishu; Miura, Takako; Muto, Suguru; Toyokawa, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Beam diagnostics: beam intensity monitors (DCCT, SCT, FCT, WCM), beam position monitors (ESM), beam loss monitors (proportional chamber, air ion chamber), beam profile monitors (secondary electron emission, gas-sheet) have been designed, tested, and will be installed for the Main Ring synchrotron of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). This paper describes the basic design principle and specification of each monitor, with a stress on how to cope with high power beam (average circulation current of ~12 A) and low beam loss operation (less than 1 W/m except a collimator region). Some results of preliminary performance test using present beams and a radiation source will be reported.

  16. Application of gamma radiation for recovery of papers infected by fungi: case study about Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auada, Fernanda Mokdessi; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: fmokdessi@usp.br, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usf.edu.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade São Francisco (USF), Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The material studied in this work was flooded in the city of Sao Luiz do Paraitinga, SP, Brazil on January 2010 during a record flood suffered by the river that pass through the region. The documentary collection belonging to the City Hall underwent emergency drying and recovery treatments including irradiation with gamma rays to the destruction of various cellulosic fungi. Seven record books with many pages in blank and presenting severe fungal and mold infestation were provided by the Public Archive of the State of Sao Paulo, in charge of the damaged official documents, as samples for the present investigation on the effects of gamma radiation in the recovery and preservation of paper supported collections that are victims of biological contamination. This study represents a very rare possibility of working with a real object of actual use, which suffered a real disaster, and not with material prepared in laboratory and subjected to a forged flood situation. (author)

  17. Elemental distribution in brain of wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: renata@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Oliveira, Luis F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Carmo, Maria da Graca T. do [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Nutricao]. E-mail: tcarmo@editema.com.br; Rocha, Monica S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia]. E-mail: mrocha@farmaco.ufrj.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Correa Junior, Jose D.; Martinez, Ana Maria B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Histologia]. E-mail: martinez@histo.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the changes in the elemental distribution in brain rats, due the knowledge of the spatial distribution and the local concentration of trace elements in tissues have great importance since trace elements are involved in many biological functions of living organisms. For perform this research, Wistar rats with different ages (3, 48 and 72 weeks) were used. The microfluorescence measurements were carried out in a standard geometry of 45 deg/45 deg, exciting with a white beam and using a conventional system collimation (orthogonal slits) in the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The following elements were studied: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn. Among these elements, Fe and Zn are related with Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, respectively. By the elemental maps, we can observe that the distribution of zinc was more pronounced in the hippocampus area, the distribution of iron was more conspicuous in the cortical region and bellows the thalamus and, moreover potassium and chlorine distributions were more present in the cortical area. Although, the small statistic, we can view that almost all measured elements are present in lower intensity in brains of rats with 3 weeks, and are usually the same for the other ages studied. (author)

  18. Elemental mapping by synchrotron radiation X-Ray microfluorescence in cellular spheroid of prostate tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R.G.; Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Santos, C.A.N. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Palumbo Junior, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Nasciutti, L.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Pereira, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos, Corrosao e Soldagem

    2013-08-15

    Prostate cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer and the third most common in males in Western industrialized countries. Cellular spheroid serves as excellent physiologic tumor models as they mimic avascular tumors and micrometastases. Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. They are capable of affecting human health by competing with essential elements for available binding sites and by the activation or inhibition of reactions between metabolic enzymes. It is well known that zinc levels in the peripheral zone of dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate are almost 10 times higher than in other soft tissues. Prostate tumor cells were isolated of the prostate tissue samples that were collected from patients submitted to surgery. The measurements were performed in XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. The results showed that all elements were heterogeneously distributed in different areas of the spheroids analyzed. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed while K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution. In all spheroids analyzed, Zn presented more intense distributions in the central region of the spheroid. The relationship between the function of Zn in the secretory epithelial cells and the carcinogenic process suggests that more studies on elemental mapping in spheroids are necessary. (author)

  19. Multi-Anvil Techniques in Conjunction With Synchrotron Radiation - MAX80 and MAX200x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, H. J.; Schilling, F. R.; Lathe, C.

    2005-12-01

    During the early 80's of the last century geoscientists worldwide realized synchrotron radiation as a highly valuable tool for in situ experiments, i.e. experiments under simulated Earth's mantle conditions. MAX80 at HASYLAB, Hamburg, a single-stage multi-anvil DIA-system at a synchrotron beamline was among the high-pressure pioneer apparatus designed in Japan. Meantime it is equipped for all kinds of ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron radiation measurements, i.e. XRD and X-radiography. The maximum conditions are about 10 GPa / 2000 K. To make transition zone conditions accessible and to achieve bigger specimen volumes the sister apparatus MAX200x, a double-stage DIA-system, was installed at the HASYLAB HARWI-II beamline recently. The newly designed high-flux hard wiggler is an optimum X-ray source for this kind of experiments. MAX2000x is designed to reach 25 GPa and 2400 K, simultaneously. MAX200x is driven by a hydraulic ram with a maximum load of 1750 tons. This press is mounted on a y-z-table to adjust the sample to the synchrotron beam. Furthermore, the press can be rotated to enhance statistics during the diffraction experiments. The whole system weights about 30 tons. Derived from the successful equipment of MAX80 and adapted to the new task MAX200x is equipped for XRD with a Ge-solid-state detector, for transient ultrasonic interferometry, as well as with a radiography system to measure the change of volume and shape of the sample under in situ conditions. A stepper motor driven slits system allows to optimize X-ray beam size and shape for the experiments. The whole system is remote controlled. The goniometer will be mounted on a moveable table. Both, experiments with monochromatic and white X-rays will be available. Besides Ge-solid state detector new designed goniometers will be used to enhance the precision of the experiments. Parallel to the installation of MAX200x some innovative experiments were carried out to improve the

  20. Survival Analysis of F98 Glioma Rat Cells Following Minibeam or Broad-Beam Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prezado Yolanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the quest of a curative radiotherapy treatment for gliomas new delivery modes are being explored. At the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, a new spatially-fractionated technique, called Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT is under development. The aim of this work is to compare the effectiveness of MBRT and broad-beam (BB synchrotron radiation to treat F98 glioma rat cells. A dose escalation study was performed in order to delimit the range of doses where a therapeutic effect could be expected. These results will help in the design and optimization of the forthcoming in vivo studies at the ESRF. Methods Two hundred thousand F98 cells were seeded per well in 24-well plates, and incubated for 48 hours before being irradiated with spatially fractionated and seamless synchrotron x-rays at several doses. The percentage of each cell population (alive, early apoptotic and dead cells, where either late apoptotic as necrotic cells are included was assessed by flow cytometry 48 hours after irradiation, whereas the metabolic activity of surviving cells was analyzed on days 3, 4, and 9 post-irradiation by using QBlue test. Results The endpoint (or threshold dose from which an important enhancement in the effectiveness of both radiation treatments is achieved obtained by flow cytometry could be established just before 12 Gy in the two irradiation schemes, whilst the endpoints assessed by the QBlue reagent, taking into account the cell recovery, were set around 18 Gy in both cases. In addition, flow cytometric analysis pointed at a larger effectiveness for minibeams, due to the higher proportion of early apoptotic cells. Conclusions When the valley doses in MBRT equal the dose deposited in the BB scheme, similar cell survival ratio and cell recovery were observed. However, a significant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells were found 48 hours after the minibeam radiation in comparison with

  1. Photoelectron and photodissociation studies of free atoms and molecules, using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhurst, L.J.

    1991-11-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation and Zero-Kinetic-Energy Photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study two-electron transitions in atomic systems at their ionization thresholds. Using this same technique the core-ionized mainline and satellite states of N{sub 2} and CO were studied with vibrational resolution. Vibrationally resolved synchrotron radiation was used to study the dissociation of N{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and CH{sub 3}Cl near the N 1s and C 1s thresholds. The photoelectron satellites of the argon 3s, krypton 4s and xenon 4d subshells were studied with zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy at their ionization thresholds. In all of these cases, satellites with lower binding energies are enhanced at their thresholds while those closer to the double ionization threshold are suppressed relative to their intensities at high incident light energies.

  2. Photoelectron and photodissociation studies of free atoms and molecules, using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medhurst, Laura Jane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    High resolution synchrotron radiation and Zero-Kinetic-Energy Photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study two-electron transitions in atomic systems at their ionization thresholds. Using this same technique the core-ionized mainline and satellite states of N2 and CO were studied with vibrational resolution. Vibrationally resolved synchrotron radiation was used to study the dissociation of N2, C2H4, and CH3Cl near the N 1s and C 1s thresholds. The photoelectron satellites of the argon 3s, krypton 4s and xenon 4d subshells were studied with zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy at their ionization thresholds. In all of these cases, satellites with lower binding energies are enhanced at their thresholds while those closer to the double ionization threshold are suppressed relative to their intensities at high incident light energies.

  3. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo, L.; De Luca, M.; Biasotto, M.; Longo, R.; Olivo, A.; Pani, S.; Di Lenarda, R.

    2005-08-01

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5 μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32 KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 ( n=4) and G2 ( n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 ( n=3) and G4 ( n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32 KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5×5 μm 2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180° range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces.

  4. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: olivo@ts.infn.it; De Luca, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Biasotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Olivo, A. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Pani, S. [Dipartment of Physics of the University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Di Lenarda, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Chirurgiche Specialistiche, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2005-08-11

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5{mu}m. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5{mu}m{sup 2} was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180{sup o} range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces.

  5. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  6. Characterisation of Conformational and Ligand Binding Properties of Membrane Proteins Using Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano

    Membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to crystallise for use in X-ray crystallographic structural determination, or too complex for NMR structural studies. Circular dichroism (CD) is a fast and relatively easy spectroscopic technique to study protein conformational behaviour in solution. The advantage of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) measured with synchrotron beamlines compared to the CD from benchtop instruments is the extended spectral far-UV region that increases the accuracy of secondary structure estimations, in particular under high ionic strength conditions. Membrane proteins are often available in small quantities, and for this SRCD measured at the Diamond B23 beamline has successfully facilitated molecular recognition studies. This was done by probing the local tertiary structure of aromatic amino acid residues upon addition of chiral or non-chiral ligands using long pathlength cells (1-5 cm) of small volume capacity (70 μl-350 μl). In this chapter we describe the use of SRCD to qualitatively and quantitatively screen ligand binding interactions (exemplified by Sbma, Ace1 and FsrC proteins); to distinguish between functionally similar drugs that exhibit different mechanisms of action towards membrane proteins (exemplified by FsrC); and to identify suitable detergent conditions to observe membrane protein-ligand interactions using stabilised proteins (exemplified by inositol transporters) as well as the stability of membrane proteins (exemplified by GalP, Ace1). The importance of the in solution characterisation of the conformational behaviour and ligand binding properties of proteins in both far- andnear-UV regions and the use of high-throughput CD (HT-CD) using 96- and 384-well multiplates to study the folding effects in various protein crystallisation buffers are also discussed.

  7. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography of crystallographic defects in GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Sintonen, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the crystal structures of bulk, homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial GaN were characterized by synchrotron radiation x-ray topography (SR-XRT), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and defect selective etching (DSE). The SR-XRT image contrast of threading screw dislocations and threading mixed dislocations in GaN were determined. The images caused by the strain fields of threading screw dislocations and threading screw dislocation clusters were simulated, and the simulated and experimental...

  8. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi [Fudan University, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China); Dang, Ruishan [The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  9. Serial millisecond crystallography of membrane and soluble protein microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Martin-Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structure determination of biological macromolecules using the novel technique of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX is severely limited by the scarcity of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources. However, recent and future upgrades render microfocus beamlines at synchrotron-radiation sources suitable for room-temperature serial crystallography data collection also. Owing to the longer exposure times that are needed at synchrotrons, serial data collection is termed serial millisecond crystallography (SMX. As a result, the number of SMX experiments is growing rapidly, with a dozen experiments reported so far. Here, the first high-viscosity injector-based SMX experiments carried out at a US synchrotron source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS, are reported. Microcrystals (5–20 µm of a wide variety of proteins, including lysozyme, thaumatin, phycocyanin, the human A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR, the soluble fragment of the membrane lipoprotein Flpp3 and proteinase K, were screened. Crystals suspended in lipidic cubic phase (LCP or a high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide (PEO; molecular weight 8 000 000 were delivered to the beam using a high-viscosity injector. In-house data-reduction (hit-finding software developed at APS as well as the SFX data-reduction and analysis software suites Cheetah and CrystFEL enabled efficient on-site SMX data monitoring, reduction and processing. Complete data sets were collected for A2AAR, phycocyanin, Flpp3, proteinase K and lysozyme, and the structures of A2AAR, phycocyanin, proteinase K and lysozyme were determined at 3.2, 3.1, 2.65 and 2.05 Å resolution, respectively. The data demonstrate the feasibility of serial millisecond crystallography from 5–20 µm crystals using a high-viscosity injector at APS. The resolution of the crystal structures obtained in this study was dictated by the current flux density and crystal size, but upcoming developments in beamline optics and the

  10. Peculiarities of electronic structure of silicon-on-insulator structures and their interaction with synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Terekhov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SOI (silicon-on-insulator structures with strained and unstrained silicon layers were studied by ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy with the use of synchrotron radiation techniques. Analysis of X-ray data has shown a noticeable transformation of the electron energy spectrum and local partial density of states distribution in valence and conduction bands in the strained silicon layer of the SOI structure. USXES Si L2,3 spectra analysis revealed a decrease of the distance between the L2v′ и L1v points in the valence band of the strained silicon layer as well as a shift of the first two maxima of the XANES first derivation spectra to the higher energies with respect to conduction band bottom Ec. At the same time the X-ray standing waves of synchrotron radiation (λ~12–20 nm are formed in the silicon-on-insulator structure with and without strains of the silicon layer. Moreover changing the synchrotron radiation grazing angle θ by 2° leads to a change of the electromagnetic field phase to the opposite.

  11. Characterization and quantification of cerebral edema induced by synchrotron x-ray microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serduc, Raphaël; van de Looij, Yohan; Francony, Gilles; Verdonck, Olivier; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Bravin, Alberto; Prezado, Yolanda; Segebarth, Christoph; Rémy, Chantal; Lahrech, Hana

    2008-03-01

    Cerebral edema is one of the main acute complications arising after irradiation of brain tumors. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique using spatially fractionated synchrotron x-rays, has been shown to spare radiosensitive tissues such as mammal brains. The aim of this study was to determine if cerebral edema occurs after MRT using diffusion-weighted MRI and microgravimetry. Prone Swiss nude mice's heads were positioned horizontally in the synchrotron x-ray beam and the upper part of the left hemisphere was irradiated in the antero-posterior direction by an array of 18 planar microbeams (25 mm wide, on-center spacing 211 mm, height 4 mm, entrance dose 312 Gy or 1000 Gy). An apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured at 7 T 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. Eventually, the cerebral water content (CWC) was determined by microgravimetry. The ADC and CWC in the irradiated (312 Gy or 1000 Gy) and in the contralateral non-irradiated hemispheres were not significantly different at all measurement times, with two exceptions: (1) a 9% ADC decrease (p < 0.05) was observed in the irradiated cortex 1 day after exposure to 312 Gy, (2) a 0.7% increase (p < 0.05) in the CWC was measured in the irradiated hemispheres 1 day after exposure to 1000 Gy. The results demonstrate the presence of a minor and transient cellular edema (ADC decrease) at 1 day after a 312 Gy exposure, without a significant CWC increase. One day after a 1000 Gy exposure, the CWC increased, while the ADC remained unchanged and may reflect the simultaneous presence of cellular and vasogenic edema. Both types of edema disappear within a week after microbeam exposure which may confirm the normal tissue sparing effect of MRT. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org

  12. Molecular beam mass spectrometry with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid

    2012-01-01

    Tunable soft ionization coupled to mass spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate isolated molecules, complexes and clusters and their spectroscopy and dynamics.[1-4] Fundamental studies of photoionization processes of biomolecules provide information about electronic structure of these systems. Furthermore determinations of ionization energies and other properties of biomolecules in the gas phase are not trivial, and these experiments provide a platform to generate these data. We have developed a thermal vaporization technique coupled with supersonic molecular beams that provides a gentle way to transport these species into the gas phase. Judicious combination of source gas and temperature allows for formation of dimers and higher clusters of the DNA bases. The focus of this particular work is on the effects of non-covalent interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, stacking, and electrostatic interactions, on the ionization energies and proton transfer of individual biomolecules, their complexes and upon micro-hydration by water.[1, 5-9] We have performed experimental and theoretical characterization of the photoionization dynamics of gas-phase uracil and 1,3-methyluracil dimers using molecular beams coupled with synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline[10] located at the Advanced Light Source and the experimental details are visualized here. This allowed us to observe the proton transfer in 1,3-dimethyluracil dimers, a system with pi stacking geometry and with no hydrogen bonds[1]. Molecular beams provide a very convenient and efficient way to isolate the sample of interest from environmental perturbations which in return allows accurate comparison with electronic structure calculations[11, 12]. By tuning the photon energy from the synchrotron, a photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve can be plotted which informs us about the cationic electronic states. These values can then be compared to theoretical models and calculations and in turn, explain

  13. Remote Lab for Robotics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Jiménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a remote lab environment used to test and training sessions for robotics tasks. This environment is made up of the components and devices based on two robotic arms, a network link, Arduino card and Arduino shield for Ethernet, as well as an IP camera. The remote laboratory is implemented to perform remote control of the robotic arms with visual feedback by camera, of the robots actions, where, with a group of test users, it was possible to obtain performance ranges in tasks of telecontrol of up to 92%.

  14. Measuring circular dichroism in a capillary cell using the b23 synchrotron radiation CD beamline at diamond light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jávorfi, Tamás; Hussain, Rohanah; Myatt, Daniel; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well-established method in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline dedicated to circular dichroism at Diamond Light Source, a third generation synchrotron facility in South Oxfordshire, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein we present an important application of SRCD: the CD measurement of protein solutions in fused silica rectangular capillary cells. This was achieved without the use of any lens between the photoelastic modulator and the photomultiplier tube detectors by exploiting the high photon flux of the collimated beam that can be as little as half a millimeter squared. Measures to minimize or eliminate vacuum-UV protein denaturation effects are discussed. The CD spectra measured in capillaries is a proof of principle to address CD measurements in microdevice systems using the new B23 SRCD beamline. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Investigating α-particle radiation damage in phyllosilicates using synchrotron microfocus-XRD/XAS: implications for geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W. R.; Pearce, C. I.; Pimblott, S. M.; Haigh, S. J.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Pattrick, R. A. D.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mineral phases to the radiation fields that will be experienced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for nuclear waste is poorly understood. Phyllosilicates are critical phases in a GDF with bentonite clay as the backfill of choice surrounding high level wastes in the engineered barrier, and clays and micas forming the most important reactive component of potential host rocks. It is essential that we understand changes in mineral properties and behaviour as a result of damage from both α and γ radiation over long timescales. Radiation damage has been demonstrated to affect the physical integrity and oxidation state1 of minerals which will also influence their ability to react with radionuclides. Using the University of Manchester's newly commissioned particle accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility, UK, model phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. biotite, chlorite) were irradiated with high energy (5MeV) alpha particles at controlled dose rates. This has been compared alongside radiation damage found in naturally formed 'radiohalos' - spherical areas of discolouration in minerals surrounding radioactive inclusions, resulting from alpha particle penetration, providing a natural analogue to study lattice damage under long term bombardment1,2. Both natural and artificially irradiated samples have been analysed using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction mapping on Beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source; samples were probed for redox changes and long/short range disorder. This was combined with lattice scale imaging of damage using HR-TEM (TitanTM Transmission Electron Microscope). The results show aberrations in lattice parameters as a result of irradiation, with multiple damage-induced 'domains' surrounded by amorphous regions. In the naturally damaged samples, neo-formed phyllosilicate phases are shown to be breakdown products of highly damaged regions. A clear reduction of the Fe(III) component has been

  16. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  17. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy, part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P J; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A T; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity of the beam ...

  18. Development of compact synchrotron light source for x-ray lithography (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1989-07-01

    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., (IHI) has developed a prototype compact synchrotron light source for x-ray lithography of semiconductors. It consists of 45-MeV linear accelerator as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. Peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 Å. The basic parameter of the synchrotron is as follows: (1) Beam current: more than 50 mA; (2) Beam life: more than 1 hr; (3) Circumference: 23.5 m; (4) Bending magnet: 1.33 T, 90° sector laminated core; (5) rf system: 178.5 MHz tetrode power supply. Our synchrotron is a so-called low-energy injection accelerator and various difficult problems such as ion trapping, vacuum, Touscheck effect will occur. So, we provide ion cleaning electrodes inside the vacuum chamber to avoid ion trapping. Also, we have adopted a trapezoidal magnet excitation method as an injection scheme to stimulate gas desorption of the vacuum chamber. The beamline extracted from the bending magnet will be used for various research subjects which include x-ray lithography, photoelectron spectroscopy, EXAFS, fluorescence analysis, and so on. This machine will be completed by the end of 1988 and is scheduled to use synchrotron radiation in the spring of 1989.

  19. Synchrotron radiation and absence of linear polarization in the colliding wind binary WR 146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, C. A.; Benaglia, P.; del Palacio, S.; Romero, G. E.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Several massive early-type binaries exhibit non-thermal emission which has been attributed to synchrotron radiation from particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in the wind-collision region (WCR). If the magnetic field in the strong shocks is ordered, its component parallel to the shock front should be enhanced, and the resultant synchrotron radiation would be polarized. However, such polarization has never been measured. Aims: We aim to determine the percentage of linearly polarized emission from the well-known non-thermal radio emitter WR 146, a WC6+O8 system. Methods: We performed spatially-unresolved radio continuum observations of WR 146 at 5 cm and 20 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We constructed a numerical model to investigate a scenario where particles are accelerated by turbulent magnetic reconnection (MR), and we performed a quantitative analysis of possible depolarization effects. Results: No linearly polarized radio emission was detected. The data constrain the fractional linear polarization to less than 0.6% between 1 to 8 GHz. This is compatible with a high level of turbulence and a dominant random component in the magnetic field. In this case the relativistic particles could be produced by turbulent magnetic reconnection. In order for this scenario to satisfy the required non-thermal energy budget, the strength of the magnetic field in the WCR must be as high as 150 mG. However, if the magnetic field is ordered and DSA is ongoing, then a combination of internal and external Faraday rotation could equally account for the depolarization of the emission. Conclusions: The absence of polarization could be caused by a highly turbulent magnetic field, other depolarization mechanisms such as Faraday rotation in the stellar wind, or a combination of these processes. It is not clear whether it is possible to develop the high level of turbulence and strong magnetic fields required for efficient MR in a long

  20. Raster microdiffraction with synchrotron radiation of hydrated biopolymers with nanometre step-resolution: case study of starch granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekel, C.; Burghammer, M.; Davies, R. J.; Di Cola, E.; König, C.; Lemke, H.T.; Putaux, J.-L.; Schöder, S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray radiation damage propagation is explored for hydrated starch granules in order to reduce the step resolution in raster-microdiffraction experiments to the nanometre range. Radiation damage was induced by synchrotron radiation microbeams of 5, 1 and 0.3 µm size with ∼0.1 nm wavelength in B-type potato, Canna edulis and Phajus grandifolius starch granules. A total loss of crystallinity of granules immersed in water was found at a dose of ∼1.3 photons nm−3. The temperature dependence of radiation damage suggests that primary radiation damage prevails up to about 120 K while secondary radiation damage becomes effective at higher temperatures. Primary radiation damage remains confined to the beam track at 100 K. Propagation of radiation damage beyond the beam track at room temperature is assumed to be due to reactive species generated principally by water radiolysis induced by photoelectrons. By careful dose selection during data collection, raster scans with 500 nm step-resolution could be performed for granules immersed in water. PMID:20975219

  1. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Donner Lab Administrator Baird G. Whaley, August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Baird G. Whaley, Donner Lab Administrator, was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). The purpose of the interview was to capture the remembrances of Mr. Whaley concerning what he could relate on activities at the Donner Lab that pertain to the OHRE responsibilities. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Whaley relates his experiences in administration at the LAB including funding activities, staffing concerns, intralaboraory politics, and remembrances of John Lawrence, John Gofman, Cornelius Tobias, Jim Born, Alex Margolis, B.V.A. Low- Beer, and Ed Alpen. Further patient care procedures for Donner Clinic Research Programs were discussed.

  2. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  3. Determination of surface morphology of TiO2 nanostructure using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gangadhar; Kumar, Manoj; Biswas, A. K.; Khooha, Ajay; Mondal, Puspen; Tiwari, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructures of Titanium oxide (TiO2) are being studied for many promising applications, e.g., solar photovoltaics, solar water splitting for H2 fuel generation etc., due to their excellent photo-catalytic properties. We have synthesized low-dimensional TiO2 nanoparticles by gas phase CW CO2 laser pyrolysis. The laser synthesis process has been optimized for the deposition of highly pure, nearly mono-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles on silicon substrates. Hard x-ray standing wave-field (XSW) measurements in total reflection geometry were carried out on the BL-16 beamline of Indus-2 synchrotron radiation facility in combination with x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence measurements for the determination of surface morphology of the deposited TiO2 nanostructures. The average particle size of TiO2 nanostructure estimated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to closely agree with the XSW and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) results.

  4. Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

  5. Observation of Synchrotron Radiation Using Low Noise Block (LNB) at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Judin, V; Hofmann, A; Huttel, E; Kehrer, B; Klein, M; Marsching, S; Muller, A-S; Smale, N; Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    Generally Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) is emitted for wavelengths longer than or equal the bunch length, so for CSR in the THz-range short bunches are required. There are two types of detectors in this range of the spectrum: slow detectors like a golay cell or pyrometric detectors (used for e.g. imaging, spectroscopy) and fast detectors like superconducting bolometer detector systems and Schottky Barrier diodes (used for e.g. the investigation of dynamic processes in accelerator physics). The hot electron bolometer (HEB) detector system is a member of second group. It is very fast and has broad spectral characteristics, but unfortunately very expensive and have to be cooled using liquid helium. If the broad spectral response is not important, it will be suitably to use a Schottky Barrier diode instead. These detectors are massively cheaper but also slower. As an alternative to a Schottky diode a LNB (Low Noise Block) can be also used. It is usually used in standard TV-SAT-receivers. Due to mass produc...

  6. Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, R C; Xiao, T Q [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Longo, R; Arfelli, F; Castelli, E [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Rigon, L; Dreossi, D; Menk, R-H; Vallazza, E [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Zanconati, F; De Pellegrin, A, E-mail: rongchang.chen@gmail.co [Department of Pathologic Anatomy, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2010-09-07

    The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

  7. Scale hierarchy in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity: strong constraint from synchrotron radiation in the Crab Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-10-12

    Hořava-Lifshitz gravity models contain higher-order operators suppressed by a characteristic scale, which is required to be parametrically smaller than the Planck scale. We show that recomputed synchrotron radiation constraints from the Crab Nebula suffice to exclude the possibility that this scale is of the same order of magnitude as the Lorentz breaking scale in the matter sector. This highlights the need for a mechanism that suppresses the percolation of Lorentz violation in the matter sector and is effective for higher-order operators as well.

  8. Photoionization of atoms and small molecules using synchrotron radiation. [SF/sub 6/, SiF/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrett, T.A.

    1986-11-01

    The combination of synchrotron radiation and time-of-flight electron spectroscopy has been used to study the photoionization dynamics of atoms (Li) and small molecules (SF/sub 6/, SiF/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/). Partial cross sections and angular distribution asymmetry parameters have been measured for Auger electrons and photoelectrons as functions of photon energy. Emphasis is on the basic understanding of electron correlation and resonant effects as manifested in the photoemission spectra for these systems. 254 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil; Programa de seguridad radiologica para las oficinas de salud en Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G. [Secretaria de Saude do Estado do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Nanoscale spatial analysis of clay minerals containing cesium by synchrotron radiation photoemission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toru; Shimoyama, Iwao; Matsumura, Daiju; Tsuji, Takuya; Nishihata, Yasuo; Kogure, Toshihiro; Ohkochi, Takuo; Yasui, Akira; Yaita, Tsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation photoemission electron microscope (SR-PEEM) was applied to demonstrate the pinpoint analysis of micrometer-sized weathered biotite clay particles with artificially adsorbed cesium (Cs) atoms. Despite the insulating properties of the clay, we observed the spatial distributions of constituent elements (Si, Al, Cs, Mg, and Fe) without charging issues and clarified reciprocal site-correlations among these elements with nanometer resolution. We found that Cs atoms were likely to be adsorbed evenly over the entire particle; however, we identified an occupational conflict between Cs and Mg atoms, implying that Cs sorption involves ion exchange processes. Spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of the Cs4,5 M-edge region showed Cs to be present in a monocation state (Cs+) as typically observed for Cs compounds. Further pinpoint XAS measurements were also performed at the Fe L2,3-edge to determine the chemical valence of the Fe atoms. The shapes of the spectra were similar to those for Fe2O3, indicating that Fe in the clay was in a 3+ oxidation state. From these observations, we infer that charge compensation facilitates Cs adsorption in the vicinity of a substitution site where Si4+ ions are replaced by Fe3+ ions in SiO4 tetrahedral sheets. Our results demonstrate the utility of SR-PEEM as a tool for spatially resolved chemical analyses of various environmental substances, which is not limited by the poor conductivity of samples.

  11. Synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectra of 174Yb measured with internal conversion electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mitsui, Takaya; Iga, Fumitoshi; Seto, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5 keV level of 174Yb was observed without 174Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.

  12. Advantages of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to study intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Patricia S; DeMarco, Ricardo; Lopes, Jose L S

    2017-03-03

    The unordered secondary structural content of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) is susceptible to conformational changes induced by many different external factors, such as the presence of organic solvents, removal of water, changes in temperature, binding to partner molecules, and interaction with lipids and/or other ligands. In order to characterize the high-flexibility nature of an IDP, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a particularly useful method due to its capability of monitoring both subtle and remarkable changes in different environments, relative ease in obtaining measurements, the small amount of sample required, and the capability for sample recovery (sample not damaged) and others. Using synchrotron radiation as the light source for CD spectroscopy represents the state-of-the-art version of this technique with feasibility of accessing the lower wavelength UV region, and therefore presenting a series of advantages over conventional circular dichroism (cCD) to monitor a protein conformational behavior, check protein stability, detect ligand binding, and many others. In this paper, we have performed a comparative study using cCD and SRCD methods for investigating the secondary structure and the conformational behavior of natively unfolded proteins: MEG-14 and soybean trypsin inhibitor. We show that the SRCD technique greatly improves the analysis and accuracy of the studies on the conformations of IDPs.

  13. Quantitative measurement of regional lung gas volume by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfraix, Sylvie [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Bayat, Sam [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Porra, Liisa [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Berruyer, Gilles [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Nemoz, Christian [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Thomlinson, William [Canadian Light Source, 101 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Sovijaervi, Anssi R A [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-01-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a novel respiration-gated spiral synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) technique for direct quantification of absolute regional lung volumes, using stable xenon (Xe) gas as an inhaled indicator. Spiral SRCT with K-edge subtraction using two monochromatic x-ray beams was used to visualize and directly quantify inhaled Xe concentrations and airspace volumes in three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed lung images. Volume measurements were validated using a hollow Xe-filled phantom. Spiral images spanning 49 mm in lung height were acquired following 60 breaths of an 80% Xe-20% O{sub 2} gas mixture, in two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits at baseline and after histamine aerosol inhalation. Volumetric images of 20 mm lung sections were obtained at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at end-inspiration. 3D images showed large patchy filling defects in peripheral airways and alveoli following histamine provocation. Local specific lung compliance was calculated based on FRC/end-inspiration images in normal lung. This study demonstrates spiral SRCT as a new technique for direct determination of regional lung volume, offering possibilities for non-invasive investigation of regional lung function and mechanics, with a uniquely high spatial resolution. An example of non-uniform volume distribution in rabbit lung following histamine inhalation is presented.

  14. Three dimensional distribution of surfactant in microspheres revealed by synchrotron radiation X-ray microcomputed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the formulation mechanism of microspheres via internal surfactant distribution. Eudragit L100 based microspheres loaded with bovine serum albumin were prepared by solid in oil in oil emulsion solvent evaporation method using acetone and liquid paraffin system containing sucrose stearate as a surfactant. The fabricated microspheres were evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, particle size, production yield, and in vitro release characteristics. The internal structures of microspheres were characterized using synchrotron radiation X-ray microcomputed tomography (SR-µCT. The enhanced contrast made the sucrose stearate distinguished from Eudragit to have its three dimensional (3D distribution. Results indicated that the content and concentration determined the state of sucrose stearate and had significant influences on the release kinetics of protein. The dispersity of sucrose stearate was the primary factor that controlled the structure of the microspheres and further affected the encapsulation efficiency, effective drug loading, as well as in vitro release behavior. In conclusion, the 3D internal distribution of surfactant in microspheres and its effects on protein release behaviors have been revealed for the first time. The highly resolved 3D architecture provides new evidence for the deep understanding of the microsphere formation mechanism.

  15. Quantitative measurement of regional lung gas volume by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfraix, Sylvie; Bayat, Sam; Porra, Liisa; Berruyer, Gilles; Nemoz, Christian; Thomlinson, William; Suortti, Pekka; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a novel respiration-gated spiral synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) technique for direct quantification of absolute regional lung volumes, using stable xenon (Xe) gas as an inhaled indicator. Spiral SRCT with K-edge subtraction using two monochromatic x-ray beams was used to visualize and directly quantify inhaled Xe concentrations and airspace volumes in three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed lung images. Volume measurements were validated using a hollow Xe-filled phantom. Spiral images spanning 49 mm in lung height were acquired following 60 breaths of an 80% Xe-20% O2 gas mixture, in two anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits at baseline and after histamine aerosol inhalation. Volumetric images of 20 mm lung sections were obtained at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at end-inspiration. 3D images showed large patchy filling defects in peripheral airways and alveoli following histamine provocation. Local specific lung compliance was calculated based on FRC/end-inspiration images in normal lung. This study demonstrates spiral SRCT as a new technique for direct determination of regional lung volume, offering possibilities for non-invasive investigation of regional lung function and mechanics, with a uniquely high spatial resolution. An example of non-uniform volume distribution in rabbit lung following histamine inhalation is presented.

  16. Molecular beam studies of unimolecular and bimolecular chemical reaction dynamics using VUV synchrotron radiation as a product probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, David Andrew [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This dissertation describes the use of a new molecular beam apparatus designed to use tunable VUV synchrotron radiation for photoionization of the products from scattering experiments. The apparatus was built at the recently constructed Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a third generation 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source. The new apparatus is applied to investigations of the dynamics of unimolecular reactions, photodissociation experiments, and bimolecular reactions, crossed molecular beam experiments. The first chapter describes the new apparatus and the VUV radiation used for photoionization. This is followed by a number of examples of the many advantages provided by using VUV photoionization in comparison with the traditional technique of electron bombardment ionization. At the end of the chapter there is a discussion of the data analysis employed in these scattering experiments. The remaining four chapters are complete investigations of the dynamics of four chemical systems using the new apparatus and provide numerous additional examples of the advantages provided by VUV photoionizaiton of the products. Chapters 2-4 are photofragment translational spectroscopy studies of the photodissociation dynamics of dimethyl sulfoxide, acrylonitrile, and vinyl chloride following absorption at 193 mn. All of these systems have multiple dissociation channels and provide good examples of the ability of the new apparatus to unravel the complex UV photodissociation dynamics that can arise in small polyatomic molecules.

  17. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  18. Beamlines at synchrotron radiation facilities: The link between the user and the machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D.; Hulbert, S.L.; Berman, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    At this point in time the literature is full of excellent review articles which describe the operating principles of optical systems for utilizing the unique radiation provided by synchrotron storage rings. In general, the perspective provided by this body of work is that of the end user-experimenter cum optics designer. Nominal design specifications of the accelerator are usually assumed, and the impact of operation in a performance envelope which may represent either degraded or enhanced machine performance is seldom considered. In this article, we have attempted to remove ourselves from this (our own usual) perspective and look instead at the beamline as a transfer function to map from the machine to the users experiment. We open first with an introduction to the perspective of the experimentalist, and some general considerations for the interaction of beamline hardware with the machine. We then discuss phase space representations of some common components of beamlines, and then treat some important classes of crystal and geometric optics in monochromators. We then close with a discussion of some of the common features of these optical systems, and the impact of the machine on user experiments.

  19. Detection of microvasculature alterations by synchrotron radiation in murine with delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Huo, Hua; Wang, Tao; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Yuanlin; Xiao, Liang; Ren, Yuqi; Zhang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Using the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata, we have previously established a delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) model, which is meaningful for clinical interventions against jellyfish stings. However, the mechanism of DJES still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore its potential mechanism by detecting TE-induced microvasculature alterations in vivo and ex vivo. Using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, we, for the first time, directly observed the blood vessel alterations induced by jellyfish venom in vivo and ex vivo. Firstly, microvasculature imaging of whole-body mouse in vivo indicated that the small blood vessel branches in the liver and kidney in the TE-treated group, seemed much thinner than those in the control group. Secondly, 3D imaging of kidney ex vivo showed that the kidneys in the TE-treated group had incomplete vascular trees where distal vessel branches were partly missing and disorderly disturbed. Finally, histopathological analysis found that obvious morphological changes, especially hemorrhagic effects, were also present in the TE-treated kidney. Thus, TE-induced microvasculature changes might be one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ dysfunctions in DJES. In addition, the methods we employed here will probably facilitate further studies on developing effective intervention strategies against DJES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current studies and future perspectives of synchrotron radiation imaging trials in human patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Renata, E-mail: renata.longo@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2 3410 Trieste (Italy); INFN- sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2 3410 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    The coherent and monochromatic x-ray beams available at the synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories are ideal tools for the development and the initial application of new imaging techniques. In the present paper the history of the clinical studies in k-edge subtraction imaging with SR is summarized, including coronary angiography and bronchography. The results of the recent trial in phase-contrast mammography at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) are discussed, in order to assess the clinical impact of the new imaging modality and the potential interest in its translation to clinical practice. The direct measurement of linear attenuation coefficient obtained during the SR mammography trial is also discussed. The new program of phase-contrast breast CT under development at Elettra is presented. Recently, 3D breast imaging (tomosynthesis and cone beam breast CT) has been introduced in clinical practice with significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this research is to study the contribution of the phase-contrast to the image quality of breast CT. Increasing the image quality of the x-ray medical images at the level of the results obtained at the SR laboratories is highly desirable, hence the promising techniques for the translation of the phase-contrast imaging to the hospitals are briefly discussed.

  1. Current studies and future perspectives of synchrotron radiation imaging trials in human patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Renata

    2016-02-01

    The coherent and monochromatic x-ray beams available at the synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories are ideal tools for the development and the initial application of new imaging techniques. In the present paper the history of the clinical studies in k-edge subtraction imaging with SR is summarized, including coronary angiography and bronchography. The results of the recent trial in phase-contrast mammography at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) are discussed, in order to assess the clinical impact of the new imaging modality and the potential interest in its translation to clinical practice. The direct measurement of linear attenuation coefficient obtained during the SR mammography trial is also discussed. The new program of phase-contrast breast CT under development at Elettra is presented. Recently, 3D breast imaging (tomosynthesis and cone beam breast CT) has been introduced in clinical practice with significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this research is to study the contribution of the phase-contrast to the image quality of breast CT. Increasing the image quality of the x-ray medical images at the level of the results obtained at the SR laboratories is highly desirable, hence the promising techniques for the translation of the phase-contrast imaging to the hospitals are briefly discussed.

  2. High resolution 3D imaging of bump-bonds by means of synchrotron radiation computed laminography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilia, A.; Hamann, E.; Koenig, T.; Xu, F.; Cheng, Y.; Helfen, L.; Ruat, M.; Scheel, M.; Zuber, M.; Baumbach, T.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.

    2013-12-01

    During the flip-chip bonding process of a semiconductor sensor onto readout electronics, a formation of defects may take place, like solder joint displacements, voids, cracks, pores and bridges. This may result in blind spots on the detector, which are insensitive to photons and thus reduce the detector performance. In this work, the flip-chip interconnections of selected CdTe and GaAs Medipix detectors were investigated by synchrotron radiation computed laminography at a micrometer scale. The analysis of the volume rendering proved the presence of voids in the CdTe sensor flip-chip interconnections, with sizes between 3 μm and 9 μm. These voids can be harmful for the long term use of the device, because their presence weakens the adhesive strength between a contact and the readout electronics. Consequently, their formation needs to be avoided. The GaAs Medipix detectors investigated include two sensors that were produced with different flip-chip methods. The comparison of the 3D renderings of the bump-bond interconnections in the two GaAs sensors demonstrated the presence of a misalignment in the range of 5-12 μm between pixel passivation and bump-bonds in the detector produced with an older technique. In contrast to this, no misalignment was observed for the most recently produced detector. The only remarkable observation is the presence of ``satellites'' of solder that do not compromise the detector operation.

  3. Imaging of lung function using synchrotron radiation computed tomography: What's new?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, Sam [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Departement de Physiologie, DMAG EA 3901, 3 Rue des Louvels, 80036 Amiens Cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Bayat.Sam@chu-amiens.fr; Porra, Liisa [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: porra@esrf.fr; Suhonen, Heikki [Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: heikki.suhonen@helsinki.fi; Janosi, Tibor [Geneva Children' s Hospital, University Hospitals of Geneva and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: janosit@dmi.u-szeged.hu; Strengell, Satu [Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: skstreng@mappi.helsinki.fi; Habre, Walid [Geneva Children' s Hospital, University Hospitals of Geneva and University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Walid.Habre@hcuge.ch; Petak, Ferenc [Department of Department of Medical Informatics and Engineering, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Koranyi fasor 9 (Hungary)], E-mail: petak@dmi.szote.u-szeged.hu; Hantos, Zoltan [Department of Department of Medical Informatics and Engineering, University of Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Koranyi fasor 9 (Hungary)], E-mail: hantos@dmi.u-szeged.hu; Suortti, Pekka [Department of Physics, POB 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: Pekka.Suortti@helsinki.fi; Sovijaervi, Anssi [Departments of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: anssi.sovijarvi@hus.fi

    2008-12-15

    There is a growing interest in imaging techniques as non-invasive means of quantitatively measuring regional lung structure and function. Abnormalities in lung ventilation due to alterations in airway function such as those observed in asthma and COPD are highly heterogeneous, and experimental methods to study this heterogeneity are crucial for better understanding of disease mechanisms and drug targeting strategies. In severe obstructive diseases requiring mechanical ventilation, the optimal ventilatory strategy to achieve recruitment of poorly ventilated lung zones remains a matter of considerable debate. We have used synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SRCT) for the in vivo study of regional lung ventilation and airway function. This imaging technique allows direct quantification of stable Xenon (Xe) gas used as an inhaled contrast agent using K-edge subtraction imaging. Dynamics of Xe wash-in can be used to calculate quantitative maps of regional specific lung ventilation. More recently, the development of Spiral-CT has allowed the acquisition of 3D images of the pulmonary bronchial tree and airspaces. This technique gives access to quantitative measurements of regional lung volume, ventilation, and mechanical properties. Examples of application in an experimental model of allergic asthma and in imaging lung recruitment as a function of mechanical ventilation parameters will be presented. The future orientations of this tecnique will be discussed.

  4. Analysis of the hydration water around bovine serum albumin using terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Jordan W; Meliga, Stefano; Ferachou, Denis; Cinque, Gianfelice; Zeitler, J Axel; Falconer, Robert J

    2014-01-09

    Terahertz spectroscopy was used to study the absorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water. The Diamond Light Source operating in a low alpha mode generated coherent synchrotron radiation that covered a useable spectral bandwidth of 0.3-3.3 THz (10-110 cm(-1)). As the BSA concentration was raised, there was a nonlinear change in absorption inconsistent with Beer's law. At low BSA concentrations (0-1 mM), the absorption remained constant or rose slightly. Above a concentration of 1 mM BSA, a steady decrease in absorption was observed, which was followed by a plateau that started at 2.5 mM. Using a overlapping hydration layer model, the hydration layer was estimated to extend 15 Å from the protein. Calculation of the corrected absorption coefficient (αcorr) for the water around BSA by subtracting the excluded volume of the protein provides an alternative approach to studying the hydration layer that provides evidence for complexity in the population of water around BSA.

  5. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Walko, D. A.; Jung, I. W.; Schwartz, C. P.; Wang, Jin; López, D.; Shenoy, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Photonic microsystems played an essential role in the development of integrated photonic devices, thanks to their unique spatiotemporal control and spectral shaping capabilities. Similar capabilities to markedly control and manipulate X-ray radiation are highly desirable but practically impossible due to the massive size of the silicon single-crystal optics currently used. Here we show that micromechanical systems can be used as X-ray optics to create and preserve the spatial, temporal and spectral correlation of the X-rays. We demonstrate that, as X-ray reflective optics they can maintain the wavefront properties with nearly 100% reflectivity, and as a dynamic diffractive optics they can generate nanosecond time windows with over 100-kHz repetition rates. Since X-ray photonic microsystems can be easily incorporated into lab-based and next-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, they bring unprecedented design flexibility for future dynamic and miniature X-ray optics for focusing, wavefront manipulation, multicolour dispersion, and pulse slicing. PMID:25940542

  6. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and defect selective etching analysis of threading dislocations in GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Sintonen, Sakari; Rudzinski, Mariusz; Suihkonen, Sami; Jussila, Henri; Knetzger, Michael; Meissner, Elke; Danilewsky, Andreas; Tuomi, Turkka O.; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    The crystal quality of bulk GaN crystals is continuously improving due to advances in GaN growth techniques. Defect characterization of the GaN substrates by conventional methods is impeded by the very low dislocation density and a large scale defect analysis method is needed. White beam synchrotron radiation x-ray topography (SR-XRT) is a rapid and non-destructive technique for dislocation analysis on a large scale. In this study, the defect structure of an ammonothermal c-plane GaN substrat...

  7. Emittance Measurements of the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser using optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Charged particle accelerators, such as the ones that power Free Electron Lasers (FEL), require high quality (low emittance) beams for efficient operation. Accurate and reliable beam diagnostics are essential to monitoring beam parameters in order to maintain a high quality beam. Optical Transition Radiation Interferometry (OTRI) has shown potential to be a quality diagnostic that is especially useful for high brightness electron beams such as Jefferson Labs FEL energy recovery linac. The purpose of this project is to further develop OTRI beam diagnostic techniques. An optical system was designed to make beam size and divergence measurements as well as to prepare for experiments in optical phase space mapping. Beam size and beam divergence measurements were taken to calculate the emittance of the Jefferson Lab FEL. OTRI is also used to separate core and halo beam divergences in order to estimate core and halo emittance separately.

  8. Crystallographic investigation of Au nanoparticles embedded in a SrTiO{sub 3} thin film for plasmonics applications by means of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincini, Davide, E-mail: davide.pincini@mail.polimi.it [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 71, avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mazzoli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bernhardt, Hendrik; Katzer, Christian; Schmidl, Frank [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Uschmann, Ingo [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Detlefs, Carsten [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 71, avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-03-14

    Self-organized monocrystalline Au nanoparticles with potential applications in plasmonics are grown in a SrTiO{sub 3} matrix by a novel two-step deposition process. The crystalline preferred orientation of these Au nanoparticles is investigated by synchrotron hard x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles preferentially align with the (111) direction along the substrate normal (001), whereas two in-plane orientations are found with [110]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au} and [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au}. Additionally, a smaller diffraction signal from nanoparticles with the (001) direction parallel to the substrate normal (001) is observed; once again, two in-plane orientations are found, with [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[100]{sub Au} and [100]{sub SrTiO{sub 3}}∥[110]{sub Au}. The populations of the two in-plane orientations are found to depend on the thickness of the gold film deposited in the first step of the growth.

  9. Physics research opportunities with synchrotron x-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncton, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    New x-ray sources of substantially increased brilliance would be available from undulator magnets operating on a new-generation 6 GeV storage ring. To understand what research opportunities would be provided by such improved sources, a number of existing x-ray scattering techniques are briefly described with a qualitative analysis of their requirements for source brilliance. In addition to improvements of existing techniques which will permit application to a generally broader range of problems, new opportunities for magnetic and inelastic x-ray scattering are discussed. 25 references, 15 figures.

  10. Visible-light beam size monitors using synchrotron radiation at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rubin, D.L.; Conway, J.; Palmer, M.; Hartill, D. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A beam profile monitor utilizing visible synchrotron radiation (SR) from a bending magnet has been designed and installed in Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The monitor employs a double-slit interferometer to measure both the horizontal and vertical beam sizes over a wide range of beam currents. By varying the separation of the slits, beam sizes ranging from 50 to 500 μm can be measured with a resolution of approximately 5 μm. To measure larger beam size (>500 μm), direct imaging can be employed by rotating the double slits away from SR beam path. By imaging the π-polarized component of SR, a small vertical beam size (∼70 μm) was measured during an undulator test run in CESR, which was consistent with the interferometer measurement. To measure the bunch length, a beam splitter is inserted to direct a fraction of light into a streak camera setup. This beam size monitor measures the transverse and longitudinal beam sizes simultaneously, which is successfully used for intrabeam scattering studies. Detailed error analysis is discussed.

  11. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.

    2013-05-22

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three dimensions revealing volumetric details. Scanning transmission X-ray microscope combines high spatial resolution imaging with high spectral resolution of the incident beam to reveal X-ray absorption near edge structure variations in the material nanostructure. Microdiffraction scans the surface of a sample to map its high order reflection or crystallographic variations with a micron-sized incident beam. High pressure X-ray diffraction measures compressibility of pure phase materials. Unique results of studies using the above tools are discussed-a study of pores, connectivity, and morphology of a 2,000 year old concrete using nanotomography; detection of localized and varying silicate chain depolymerization in Al-substituted tobermorite, and quantification of monosulfate distribution in tricalcium aluminate hydration using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy; detection and mapping of hydration products in high volume fly ash paste using microdiffraction; and determination of mechanical properties of various AFm phases using high pressure X-ray diffraction. © 2013 The Author(s).

  12. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India); Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B.B.; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section (BDS), Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics and Diagnostics Division (IOBDD), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, M.P. (India)

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  13. Digital mammography with synchrotron radiation: characterization of a novel computed radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellato, S.; Vandenbroucke, D.; Arfelli, F.; Bessem, M.; Fedon, C.; Longo, R.; Tromba, G.; Taibi, A.

    2015-08-01

    Breast X-ray imaging is a continuous research field to define dedicated equipment, with specialized X-ray sources and efficient detectors to improve image quality with an equal or even lower patient dose. The Needle Imaging Plate HM5.0, produced by Agfa, has been characterized using synchrotron radiation to assess the performance of this novel imaging chain in comparison to conventional mammographic equipment. The detection performance has been initially assessed in terms of Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and its computation showed that DQE curves are very close to the typical results for digital radiography systems. Image threshold contrast has been then evaluated using the CDMAM phantom. The analysis has been completed with a scoring of visible details in the radiographs of the TORMAM phantom. The characterization thus confirms that monochromaticity leads to an equal image quality with a lower glandular dose and phase-contrast effects lead to an increase in anatomical structure detectability. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of clinical images showed a clear improvement in image quality thanks to phase-contrast contribution and to detector performance.

  14. Quantum-mechanical treatment of an electron undergoing synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of an electron moving perpendicular to an intense magnetic field is approached from the framework of quantum mechanics. A numerical solution to the related rate equations describing the probabilities of occupation of the electron's energy states is put forth along with the expected errors involved. The quantum-mechanical approach is found to predict a significant amount of energy broadening with time for an initially monoenergetic electron beam entering a region of an intense magnetic field as long as the product of initial energy and magnetic field is of order 50 MG BeV or larger.

  15. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accardo, Angelo [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); BIONEM Lab at University Magna Graecia, Campus Salvatore Venuta, Viale Europa 88100, Germaneto-Catanzaro (Italy); Limongi, Tania [KAUST (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology), Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Marinaro, Giovanni [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, Genova 16163 (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian, E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2014-06-10

    A comprehensive review about the use of micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces as a tool for in situ X-ray scattering investigations of soft matter and biological materials. Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data.

  16. Another Nobel Prize linked to synchrotron radiation work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnain, S.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien 'for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP'. This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry rewards the initial discovery of GFP and a series of important developments which have led to its use as a tagging tool in bioscience. By using DNA technology, researchers can now connect GFP to other interesting, but otherwise invisible, proteins. This glowing marker allows the movements, positions and interactions of the tagged proteins to be monitored. Osamu Shimomura was the first to isolate GFP from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, found off the west coast of North America, and discovered the protein's green glow [Shimomura et al. (1962). J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59, 223-240]. Martin Chalfie demonstrated the value of GFP as a luminous genetic tag. In one of his first experiments he coloured six individual cells in the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with the aid of GFP. He had obtained the GFP gene (gfp) clone from Prasher [Prasher et al. (1992). Gene, 111, 229-233] and expressed it in E. coli. The GFP protein displayed a bright green fluorescence in this heterologous organism, suggesting that it could indeed serve as a versatile genetic marker in virtually all organisms. Chalfie transformed C. elegans with gfp under the control of a promoter regulating the expression of {beta}-tubulin, abundant in six touch receptor neurons in C. elegans. The organism subsequently expressed GFP from distinct positions in its body and at distinct times in its development [Chalfie et al. (1994). Science, 263, 802-805]. Roger Tsien contributed to the general understanding of how GFP glows by determining the formation of the GFP chromophore, a chemical group that absorbs and emits light. Tsien is best known for extending the colour palette of GFP beyond green, allowing researchers to follow several different biological processes at the same time

  17. Probing droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces by synchrotron radiation scattering techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2014-06-10

    Droplets on artificially structured superhydrophobic surfaces represent quasi contact-free sample environments which can be probed by X-ray microbeams and nanobeams in the absence of obstructing walls. This review will discuss basic surface wettability concepts and introduce the technology of structuring surfaces. Quasi contact-free droplets are compared with contact-free droplets; processes related to deposition and evaporation on solid surfaces are discussed. Droplet coalescence based on the electrowetting effect allows the probing of short-time mixing and reaction processes. The review will show for several materials of biological interest that structural processes related to conformational changes, nucleation and assembly during droplet evaporation can be spatially and temporally resolved by raster-scan diffraction techniques. Orientational ordering of anisotropic materials deposited during solidification at pinning sites facilitates the interpretation of structural data. 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

  18. Structural Investigations of Complex Oxides using Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans-Conrad zur Loye

    2007-03-24

    The work is a collaborative effort between Prof. Hanno zur Loye at the University of South Carolina and Dr. Tom Vogt at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The collaborative research focuses on the synthesis and the structural characterization of perovskites and perovskite related oxides and will target new oxide systems where we have demonstrated expertise in synthesis, yet lack the experimental capabilities to answer important structural issues. Synthetically, we will focus on two subgroups of perovskite structures, the double and triple perovskites, and the 2H-perovskite related oxides belonging to the A3n+3mA’nB3m+nO9m+6n family. In the first part of the proposal, our goal of synthesizing and structurally characterizing new ruthenium, iridium, rhodium and ruthenium containing double and triple perovskites, with the emphasis on exercising control over the oxidation state(s) of the metals, is described. These oxides will be of interest for their electronic and magnetic properties that will be investigated as well.

  19. Spatial distribution of elements in the spheroids by prostate tumor cells using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear; Santos, Carlos Antonio N. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia - Bioengenharia; Palumbo Junior, Antonio; Souza, Pedro A.V.R.; Nasciutti, Luiz E., E-mail: nasciutt@ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Interacoes Celulares

    2011-07-01

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated the trace elemental distribution (mapping) in spheroids derived from tissue prostate cancer (PCa). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 deg incidence, exciting with a white beam and using an optical capillary with 20 {mu}m diameter collimation in the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results showed that most elements analyzed presented non-uniform distribution. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed. K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution for the spheroids analyzed. Zinc presented more intense distributions in the spheroid central region for all spheroids analyzed. (author)

  20. Spatial distribution of elements in the spheroids by prostate tumor cells using synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Roberta G.; Santos, Carlos Antônio N.; Junior, Antônio Palumbo; Souza, Pedro A. V. R.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Nasciutti, Luiz E.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2012-05-01

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated the trace elemental distribution (mapping) in spheroids derived from tissue prostate cancer (PCa). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45° incidence, exciting with a white beam and using an optical capillary with 20 μm diameter collimation in the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results showed that most elements analyzed presented non-uniform distribution. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed. K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution for the spheroids analyzed. Zinc presented more intense distributions in the spheroid central region for all spheroids analyzed.

  1. Spatial distribution of elements in the spheroids by prostate tumor cells using synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Santos, Carlos Antonio N.; Junior, Antonio Palumbo; Souza, Pedro A. V. R.; Canellas, Catarine G. L.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Nasciutti, Luiz E.; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, PEN/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Biotecnologia - Bioengenharia - DIPRO, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, Xerem. 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Interacoes Celulares, ICB-CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21941- 590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, PEN/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Interacoes Celulares, ICB-CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21941- 590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, PEN/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-05-17

    The formation of three-dimensional cell microspheres such as spheroids has attracted attention as a useful culture technique. In this study, we investigated the trace elemental distribution (mapping) in spheroids derived from tissue prostate cancer (PCa). The measurements were performed in standard geometry of 45 deg. incidence, exciting with a white beam and using an optical capillary with 20 {mu}m diameter collimation in the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results showed that most elements analyzed presented non-uniform distribution. P, S and Cl showed similar elemental distribution in all the samples analyzed. K, Ca, Fe, and Cu showed different elemental distribution for the spheroids analyzed. Zinc presented more intense distributions in the spheroid central region for all spheroids analyzed.

  2. Marginally fast cooling synchrotron models for prompt GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Duran, Rodolfo Barniol; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have considered synchrotron as the emission mechanism for prompt Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). These works have shown that the electrons must cool on a timescale comparable to the dynamic time at the source in order to satisfy spectral constraints while maintaining high radiative efficiency. We focus on conditions where synchrotron cooling is balanced by a continuous source of heating, and in which these constraints are naturally satisfied. Assuming that a majority of the electrons in the emitting region are contributing to the observed peak, we find that the energy per electron has to be E ≳ 20 GeV and that the Lorentz factor of the emitting material has to be very large 103 ≲ Γem ≲ 104, well in excess of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet inferred from GRB afterglows. A number of independent constraints then indicate that the emitters must be moving relativistically, with Γ΄ ≈ 10, relative to the bulk frame of the jet and that the jet must be highly magnetized upstream of the emission region, σup ≳ 30. The emission radius is also strongly constrained in this model to R ≳ 1016cm. These values are consistent with magnetic jet models where the dissipation is driven by magnetic reconnection that takes place far away from the base of the jet.

  3. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p melatonin were less than those without melatonin treatment (p melatonin could mitigate CV after experimental SAH.

  4. Surface Chemistry of Alkyl-Passivated Silicon Nanoparticles Studied by Synchrotron-Radiation Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akinori; Takashima, Naoya; Imamura, Masaki; Kitagawa, Takanobu; Murase, Yoshiaki; Yasuda, Hidehiro

    2008-09-01

    We have carried out the synchrotron-radiation photoemission studies of n-butyl-passivated Si nanoparticles synthesized by solution routes. After exposure to ambient air, the oxygen contaminants on the present nanoparticle surfaces have been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and valence-band photoemission spectra, and we have observed an additional feature near the Fermi level in the valence-band photoemission spectrum. This result gives a direct evidence of oxygen-contaminants-induced states in the vicinity of Fermi level that recent theoretical works has predicted. From these results, the detailed surface chemistry of surface-passivated Si nanoparticles is discussed.

  5. Luminescence and excitation spectra of YAG:Nd{sup 3+} excited by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Lixin [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tanner, Peter A. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: bhtan@cityu.edu.hk; Harutunyan, Vachagan V.; Aleksanyan, Eduard [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Str., 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Makhov, Vladimir N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kirm, Marco [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2007-12-15

    The low-temperature 4f{sup 2}5d{yields}4f{sup 3} fast emission of Nd{sup 3+} from YAG:Nd{sup 3+} has been studied under excitation by synchrotron radiation. Additionally, 4f{sup 3}{yields}4f{sup 3} luminescence of Nd{sup 3+} has been observed and assigned to transitions from the {sup 2}F(2){sub 5/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} multiplet terms. The observed experimental spectra of Nd{sup 3+} d-f emission and f-d excitation are well simulated by crystal-field calculations.

  6. An attempt of in vivo X-ray diffraction analysis of kidney stones with the use of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancharov, A.I. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, Kutateladze str.18, Novosibirsk 630218 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ancharov@mail.ru; Nizovskii, A.I. [Boreskov institute of catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Gridnev, S.A. [Central city hospital, Berdsk (Russian Federation); Feofilov, I.V. [State regional clinical hospital, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vichkanov, A.N. [State regional clinical hospital, Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    Estimation of opportunities of the direct analysis of phase structure kidney stones directly in an organism of the patient with the use of synchrotron radiations (SR). Carrying out of experiments on special modelled object 'phantom'. Estimation of the radiation dose.

  7. Molecular Environmental Science: An Assessment of Research Accomplishments, Available Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, and Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G

    2004-02-05

    Synchrotron-based techniques are fundamental to research in ''Molecular Environmental Science'' (MES), an emerging field that involves molecular-level studies of chemical and biological processes affecting the speciation, properties, and behavior of contaminants, pollutants, and nutrients in the ecosphere. These techniques enable the study of aqueous solute complexes, poorly crystalline materials, solid-liquid interfaces, mineral-aqueous solution interactions, microbial biofilm-heavy metal interactions, heavy metal-plant interactions, complex material microstructures, and nanomaterials, all of which are important components or processes in the environment. Basic understanding of environmental materials and processes at the molecular scale is essential for risk assessment and management, and reduction of environmental pollutants at field, landscape, and global scales. One of the main purposes of this report is to illustrate the role of synchrotron radiation (SR)-based studies in environmental science and related fields and their impact on environmental problems of importance to society. A major driving force for MES research is the need to characterize, treat, and/or dispose of vast quantities of contaminated materials, including groundwater, sediments, and soils, and to process wastes, at an estimated cost exceeding 150 billion dollars through 2070. A major component of this problem derives from high-level nuclear waste. Other significant components come from mining and industrial wastes, atmospheric pollutants derived from fossil fuel consumption, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and the pollution problems associated with animal waste run-off, all of which have major impacts on human health and welfare. Addressing these problems requires the development of new characterization and processing technologies--efforts that require information on the chemical speciation of heavy metals, radionuclides, and xenobiotic organic compounds and

  8. Quantifying morphological parameters of the terminal branching units in a mouse lung by phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Hwang

    Full Text Available An effective technique of phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography was established for the quantitative analysis of the microstructures in the respiratory zone of a mouse lung. Heitzman's method was adopted for the whole-lung sample preparation, and Canny's edge detector was used for locating the air-tissue boundaries. This technique revealed detailed morphology of the respiratory zone components, including terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, with sufficiently high resolution of 1.74 µm isotropic voxel size. The technique enabled visual inspection of the respiratory zone components and comprehension of their relative positions in three dimensions. To check the method's feasibility for quantitative imaging, morphological parameters such as diameter, surface area and volume were measured and analyzed for sixteen randomly selected terminal branching units, each consisting of a terminal bronchiole and a pair of succeeding alveolar sacs. The four types of asymmetry ratios concerning alveolar sac mouth diameter, alveolar sac surface area, and alveolar sac volume are measured. This is the first ever finding of the asymmetry ratio for the terminal bronchioles and alveolar sacs, and it is noteworthy that an appreciable degree of branching asymmetry was observed among the alveolar sacs at the terminal end of the airway tree, despite the number of samples was small yet. The series of efficient techniques developed and confirmed in this study, from sample preparation to quantification, is expected to contribute to a wider and exacter application of phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography to a variety of studies.

  9. Design of the SRF Driver ERL for the Jefferson Lab UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R; Benson, Stephen; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, Michael; Kortze, James; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher; Walker, Richard; Wilson, Frederick; Zhang, Shukui

    2011-03-01

    We describe the design of the SRF Energy-Recovering Linac (ERL) providing the CW electron drive beam at the Jefferson Lab UV FEL. Based on the same 135 MeV linear accelerator as and sharing portions of the recirculator with the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL, the UV driver ERL uses a novel bypass geometry to provide transverse phase space control, bunch length compression, and nonlinear aberration compensation (including correction of RF curvature effects) without the use of magnetic chicanes or harmonic RF. Stringent phase space requirements at the wiggler, low beam energy, high beam current, and use of a pre-existing facility and legacy hardware subject the design to numerous constraints. These are imposed not only by the need for both transverse and longitudinal phase space management, but also by the potential impact of collective phenomena (space charge, wakefields, beam break-up (BBU), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR)), and by interactions between the FEL and the accelerator RF system. This report addresses these issues and presents the accelerator design solution that is now in operation.

  10. Scanning X-ray fluorescent elemental microanalysis with synchrotron radiation in geochemical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Zolotarev, K.

    2009-04-01

    The traditional XRF analysis with high limits of detection is limited in application for geochemical researches. Use of synchrotron radiation considerably expands its opportunities [1]. Since 1985 in BINP analytical works with syncrotron radiation from storage ring VEPP-3 are carried out. A plenty of methodical and research works with geochemical samples has been executed. The range of energy excitation 15 - 50 keV is now accessible, that allows to determine the following elements in geological samples weight from 1 mg: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti (LD=50 ppm, St.dev.=5 ppm); V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (LD=5 ppm, St.dev.=0.5 ppm); Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se (LD=0.5 ppm, St.dev.=0.05 ppm); Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo (LD=0.1 ppm, St.dev.=0.03 ppm); Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag (LD=0.05 ppm, St.dev.=0.01 ppm); Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I (LD=0.1 ppm, St.dev.=0.03 ppm); Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm (LD=1.0 ppm, St.dev.=0.15 ppm); Pb, Bi, Th, U (LD=1 ppm, St.dev.=0.1 ppm). The analysis is carried out in some stages with use various energy of excitation (usually - 15-18, 22 - 25 and 40-45 keV). The first instrument of scanning X-ray fluorescent elemental microanalysis with synchrotron radiation from storage ring VEPP-3 (scan.XRFA-SR) was founded in BINP SB RAS in the 1988 and applied to study the spatial distribution of elements in geological samples [2]. Scan.XRFA-SR was used in paleoclimate reconstructions based on high-resolution sediments and tree-rings analysis [3, 4, 5]. Unique opportunities of XRF SR allow to carry out scanning microanalysis with spatial resolution ~ 10 micron. The set of analyzed elements and range of concentration are determined by selection of energy of excitation and time of measurement in a point. In recent years, has been studied many different geological samples: diamonds, xenolith, ferromanganese nodules, bottom sediments. Studies have demonstrated the unique ability of scanning XRFA-SR: a simultaneous analysis of more than 30 chemical elements with a spatial resolution of 10-50 microns

  11. Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCAR-B) AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCAR_B_AERONET data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data for aerosol characterization.Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and...

  12. Portable AI Lab for Teaching Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Michael; Baj, Fabio.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Portable AI Lab, a computing environment containing artificial intelligence (AI) tools, examples, and documentation for use with university AI courses. Two modules of the lab are highlighted: the automated theorem proving module and the natural language processing module, which includes augmented transition networks. (23 references)…

  13. Synchrotron radiation-based quasi-elastic scattering using time-domain interferometry with multi-line gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Makina; Masuda, Ryo; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto

    2017-10-02

    We developed a multi-line time-domain interferometry (TDI) system using 14.4 keV Mössbauer gamma rays with natural energy widths of 4.66 neV from 57Fe nuclei excited using synchrotron radiation. Electron density fluctuations can be detected at unique lengths ranging from 0.1 nm to a few nm on time scales from several nanoseconds to the sub-microsecond order by quasi-elastic gamma-ray scattering (QGS) experiments using multi-line TDI. In this report, we generalize the established expression for a time spectrum measured using an identical single-line gamma-ray emitter pair to the case of a nonidentical pair of multi-line gamma-ray emitters by considering the finite energy width of the incident synchrotron radiation. The expression obtained illustrates the unique characteristics of multi-line TDI systems, where the finite incident energy width and use of a nonidentical emitter pair produces further information on faster sub-picosecond-scale dynamics in addition to the nanosecond dynamics; this was demonstrated experimentally. A normalized intermediate scattering function was extracted from the spectrum and its relaxation form was determined for a relaxation time of the order of 1 μs, even for relatively large momentum transfer of ~31 nm-1. The multi-line TDI method produces a microscopic relaxation picture more rapidly and accurately than conventional single-line TDI.

  14. Photochemistry of solid interstellar molecular samples exposed to vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Jen-Iu; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Peng, Yu-Chain; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming, E-mail: bmcheng@nsrrc.org.tw

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • By means of an end station attached to synchrotron, we investigate the VUV photolysis of gaseous samples condensed at 3 K. • The end station is applicable to explore the VUV photochemistry of interstellar solid molecules. • We upgraded the end station with detection of absorption of IR light and of emission of UV–vis light. • As a demonstration, we recorded simultaneously absorption spectra of photoproduct N{sub 3} and emission from VUV excited N{sub 2}. • The end station is applicable to investigate cometary mixed-ice analogs excited with VUV light from the synchrotron. - Abstract: At the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) beamline of the Taiwan synchrotron, an end station for photochemistry coupled to instruments to record infrared absorption spectra and ultraviolet and visible emission spectra is used to investigate the photolysis of samples of gases condensed at 3 K. This end station is applicable to explore the VUV photochemistry of interstellar molecules in solid samples. For demonstration, we discuss the response of solid dinitrogen to VUV irradiation. In the future, the upgraded photochemistry end station is applicable to investigate the cometary mixed-ice analogs excited with VUV light from the synchrotron.

  15. Metal-binding proteins scanning and determination by combining gel electrophoresis, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence and atomic spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbi, F M; Arruda, S C C; Rodriguez, A P M; Pérez, C A; Arruda, M A Z

    2005-02-28

    In the present work, protein bands from in vitro embriogenic callus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) were investigated using micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (muSR-XRF) after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation. Metal-binding protein quantification was done after microwave oven decomposition of gel by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES). According to the analysis of the protein bands, it is possible to observe that both 81 and ca. 14 kDa proteins present different Fe signal intensity at different positions. The analysis of 53 kDa protein, showed even more interesting results. Besides Fe, the muSR-XRF experiments indicate the presence of Ca, Cu, K and Zn. Chemical elements such as Cu, K, Fe and Zn were determined by SR-TXRF, Mg by FAAS and Na by FAES. Ca was determined by SR-TXRF and FAAS only for accuracy check. In the mineralised protein bands of 81 and around 14 kDa band, only Fe was determined (105 and 21.8 microg g(-1)). For those protein bands (86-ca. 14 kDa) were determined, Ca, K, Cu and Zn in a wide concentration range (42.4-283, 2.47-96.8, 0.91-15.9 and 3.39-29.7 microg g(-1), respectively).

  16. Preparation of clean GaAs(100) studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Machuca, Francisco; Pianetta, Piero; Spicer, William E.; Pease, R. F. W.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical cleaning of the GaAs(100) surface has been studied with high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (in the range of 30-1300 eV) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The high surface sensitivity of the technique has allowed us to identify the chemical state of the surface species after both the chemical cleaning and final vacuum processing steps. In order to eliminate contamination from the surroundings, all chemical cleaning steps were performed in an Ar purged glovebox attached to the load lock allowing samples to be transferred into the system without being exposed to air. Samples were etched in H2SO4:H2O2:H2O solution and then heat cleaned in vacuum at 500 °C. After chemical etching in the solution, elemental As (~2 ML), arsenic oxides (<0.2 ML), gallium oxides (<0.2 ML), and C (0.5~1 ML) are found on the surface. Subsequent annealing at <500 °C in ultrahigh vacuum produces a stoichiometric, oxide-free surface as determined by valence-band and core-level photoemission. In addition, C has been reduced to less than 0.1 ML. We believe that the C can be removed by heating because the elemental As from the earlier cleaning step tends to protect the GaAs surface. The chemical reactions and species at different cleaning stages are discussed.

  17. Local Feedback System To Correct Synchrotron Radiation Beam Position At Siberia-2 Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Valentinov, A; Krylov, I; Rezvov, V; Yupinov, I

    2004-01-01

    After beginning of long experimental runs at SIBERIA-2 storage ring users of synchrotron radiation (SR) found that SR beam position in experimental stations slowly changed. To correct this, local orbit correction feedback system was organized. The system is based on SR beam position monitor forming TV image of SR beam at experimental station entry (15 meters far from radiation point). PC calculates position of beam center and sends it to storage ring control system one time in a few seconds. Control system forms local orbit bump to correct SR beam position. Achieved accuracy of stabilization is 10 microns. Now two such systems operate at SIBERIA-2 and we plan to extend this number. Reasons of SR beam movement, monitor design, data transmission system are described in the report. Features of storage ring correction system and optic are discussed.

  18. Measurements of internal stresses in bond coating using high energy x-rays from synchrotron radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, K; Akiniwa, Y; Nishio, K; Kawamura, M; Okado, H

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) techniques enable high temperature combustion of turbines made of Ni-base alloy. TBC is made of zirconia top coating on NiCoCrAlY bond coating. The internal stresses in the bond coating play essential role in the delamination or fracture of TBC in service. With the X-rays from laboratory equipments, it is impossible to measure nondestructively the internal stress in the bond coating under the top coating. synchrotron radiations with a high energy and high brightness have a large penetration depth as compared with laboratory X-rays. Using the high energy X-rays from the synchrotron radiation, it is possible to measure the internal stress in the bond coating through the top coating. In this study, the furnace, which can heat a specimen to 1473 K, was developed for the stress measurement of the thermal barrier coatings. The internal stresses in the bond coating were measured at the room temperature, 773 K, 1073 K and 1373 K by using the 311 diffraction from Ni sub 3 Al with about 73...

  19. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Emma L; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Rodger, Alison

    2011-10-01

    The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) throughout the irradiation period. The dependenc